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Uploaded by Jan Rafael Eusebio

Title:
ECE192P IEEE Paper #2 (Exercise 8-9)
The second IEEE paper requirement for the course ECE192P, or the Power Electronics Track, for the course BS Electronics Engineering in Mapua Institute of Technology under Engr. J.M. Martinez. This paper consists of ASTEC DPE Exercise #8 and #9, an analysis on Buck Converters

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School of Electrical, Electronics, and Computer Engineering, Mapa Institute of Technology

Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila 1002 Philippines

1

lyxis.estanislao@gmail.com

janrafael.eusebio@hotmail.com

circuit by determining the steady state waveform and looking at how

variations in different properties and components affect steady-state

conditions. The effects of the input voltage, duty cycle, connected load,

and inductance were among those analysed in order to get a better

understanding at how buck converters function.

BC107

Q1

47

requirement between the switching circuit and the output of a

SMPS, but when the input is from a rectified AC source, isolation

may be provided via an isolating transformer. Basically, the buck

converter is a type of DC-DC converter able to take an input

directly from a DC source, or a derived DC voltage from an AC

mains line using a capacitor circuit.

II. BUCK CONVERTER OPERATION

This section focuses on the basic operation of buck converters

and how each component contributes in stepping down the input

voltage to the desired value. The operation of buck converters is

first explained in theory, and then demonstrated using SIMetrix via

circuit analysis.

100u

12

V1

Vo

L1

50m

R3

R1

V2

mbr6045wt

D1

load, inductance

I. INTRODUCTION

Often used in switch-mode power supplies (SMPS), a buck

converter is a circuit that steps down or reduces the voltage,

while stepping up, or increasing the current. Usually, the simplest

way to reduce the voltage is to use a linear regulator (such as the

78XX IC series), however, linear regulators tend to waste too much

energy as they dissipate excess power as heat, yielding to very low

efficiency (less than 50%). On the other hand, buck converters can

be highly efficient, especially those in integrated circuits, which

may reach an efficiency of 95% or higher a significant

improvement over linear regulators. This tends to make them the

choice for tasks where the DC output voltage needs to be lower

than the DC input voltage, such as the conversion of the main

voltage of a computer (12-24V) to the voltage needed by internal

components such as the processor (approx. 1V).

VD

C1

200u

6

RL

A Theory

As shown in Fig. 1, the buck converter circuit consists of a

switching transistor (Q1), and a flywheel circuit (comprised of the

diode D1, the inductor L1, and the capacitor C1). Resistors R1 and

R3 are to limit the current, as to not overload the components.

Transistor Q1 has two states: on, and off. While the transistor is on,

current is flowing through the load via inductor L1. Therefore, the

load is being supplied with current. Initially, current flow is

restricted as energy is also being stored in the inductor, and the

charge on C1 builds up gradually during the on period. Because

of this, there will be a large positive voltage on D1s cathode, thus

reverse-biasing the diode and essentially leaving it open-circuited.

When the transistor switches off, the energy stored in L1 is

released back into the circuit. The voltage across the inductor is

then reversed, causing the current to flow around the circuit

through the load and the now forward-biased diode. When the

energy in L1 starts to deplete and the voltage begins to fall, the

charge in C1 becomes the main source of current, keeping the

current flowing through the entire period until the transistor is

turned on once again.

Overall, it has an effect of creating only a ripple waveform, such

as a small amplitude, high frequency triangular wave with a DC

level equal to the input voltage multiplied by the duty cycle,

instead of a large square waveform.

B Software Analysis

program. V2 is a PWM pulse generator having an amplitude of

15V, with an offset of 7.5V. The switching frequency is 50 kHz and

the duty cycle is 50%. A transient-type analysis is run on the given

circuit in order to simulate steady-state conditions. Fig. 2 below

shows the transistor, diode, inductor, capacitor, and load resistor

voltages, while Fig. 3 illustrates the current waveforms.

the collector and emitter terminals are shorted, VQ is at its

minimum while Iq is maximum. During the transistors on state,

the inductor begins charging, thus having a maximum voltage (VL)

and an increasing current (IL). In addition, the diode is reversebiased, as implied in its maximum (open) voltage VD, with a

minimum current ID. Furthermore, the capacitor begins charging as

well, with a current increasing the same way as the inductor.

On the other hand, during the next half (50% duty cycle) of the

period, the transistor turns off, or becomes open, thus having a

maximum voltage of around 12V, while having minimum current.

In this case, the inductors magnetic field collapses and the voltage

is reversed. The inductor current starts to decrease as it begins to

supply energy to the circuit, flowing to the diode and the load. The

diode then becomes forward-biased, or shorted, and its voltage

becomes zero, while achieving maximum current of around 1.3mA.

In addition, the capacitor also begins to supply current the same

way as the inductor, thus having almost identical-looking graphs,

albeit with different values.

This process is repeated for each time period at steady state,

and produces the waveforms shown in the previous two figures,

with an output voltage rippling from about 5.42V to 5.45V, and a

current ranging from 903mA to 907mA, changing values at a rapid

rate, due to the high switching frequency.

Fig. 2. Voltages across the Load, Inductor, Diode, Capacitor, and Transistor

This section analyses the steady state response of the given buck

converter circuit, and determine the effects of the variations in

different properties and components in the circuit, such as the input

voltage, duty cycle, load, and inductance.

A. Input Voltage Variation

First analysed was the effect of changing the input voltage

of the circuit, and determining the corresponding duty cycle

when the output is maintained at 6V. The results in Table 1

show that when the input voltage is increased, the

corresponding duty cycle needed to maintain the output at 6V

decreases, and approaches 50%. The opposite occurs vice versa.

TABLE I

INPUT VOLTAGE VS DUTY CYCLE MEASUREMENTS OF FIG. 1 AT 6V OUTPUT

Input Voltage

12

10

15

18

20

24

Fig. 3. Current through the Load, Inductor, Diode, Capacitor, and Transistor

56%

67%

52%

51%

51%

51%

was determined in terms of the average voltage and the

ripple voltage. This was done by varying the duty cycle from

10% to 80% in steps of 10% while measuring the average

and ripple voltages across the output. Table 3 shows that as

the duty cycle is increased, the average voltage steadily

increases, from a minimum of 974mV to 8.3V.

Fig. 4.

Current

and

Voltage

through

the 20

load

duty cycle of 10%, peaking at 50%, and then beginning to

decrease as the duty cycle is further increased. Ideally, the

values of the average voltage should be equal to the input

voltage (12V) multiplied by the duty cycle. Therefore, ideal

values would have been 1.2, 2.4,

Resistance

Average

3.6, 4.8, 6, 7.2, 8.4, 9.6V for duty

Value

Voltage

cycles of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70,

and 80%, respectively.

6

6.0761397V

TABLE 2

VARYING DUTY CYCLES VS AVERAGE AND

RIPPLE VOLTAGES

Duty Cycle

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Average Voltage

974.64888mV

2.1113284V

3.2422111V

4.3479052V

5.4281116V

6.45751413V

7.4459507V

8.3033884V

7

6.2415318V

8

6.3687152V

9

6.4600929V

Ripple

10 Voltage

6.531479V

11.1896mV

11

6.592812V

19.165mV

12

6.6447847V

24.76211mV

13

6.68643V

27.7644mV

14

6.7212608V

28.42814mV

15

6.7517397V

26.8527mV

16

6.7799717V

23.0876mV

17

6.8065963V

16.6677mV

18

6.8325153V

19

6.8692027V

20

6.946169V

C. Load Variation

To further analyse the circuit in Fig. 1, the effect of various

loading resistances were looked at. This was done by using a

load resistance of 6 and increasing it in steps of 1 until the

current reaches boundary conduction. Table 3 shows the results

of this analysis.

As seen in the table, both the average and ripple voltages

continue to increase as the resistance value increases going

from 6.08V to 6.95V for the average voltage and 31.51mV to

35.89mV for the ripple voltage. On the other hand, the average

current steadily goes down, from 1.01A to 347.88mA. At 20,

the current waveforms minimum point begins to touch the 0A

level, where it can then be considered to be in boundary

conduction mode (BCM), as shown in Fig. 4; any lower and it

slides down to discontinuous conduction mode (DCM).

TABLE

3

EFFECT

OF

Ripple

Voltage

31.51003mV

32.42020mV

33.17325mV

33.29709mV

33.82761mV

34.09746mV

34.30722mV

34.33075mV

34.54493mV

34.81372mV

34.94540mV

35.06130mV

35.26460mV

35.41190mV

35.89030mV

Average L

Current

1.0126689A

891.70821mA

796.3947mA

717.85326mA

653.21461mA

599.41377mA

553.79923mA

514.40989mA

480.18242mA

450.18504mA

423.81732mA

400.45804mA

379.75719mA

361.60788mA

347,87702mA

D. Inductance Variation

of

varying

the

inductor

in

the

flywheel circuit is

analysed. The value

was changed until,

like the previous

section, the current

reaches

boundary

conduction.

The

results are shown in

Table

4.

The

inductance

was

reduced from an

initial

value

of

100uH,

and

its

effects on the average and ripple voltages, and the average

inductor current was determined. Data show that the average

voltage decreases slightly with the inductance value, from

6.08V to 5.96V, while the ripple voltage drastically increases in

comparison, from 31.51mV, and more than tripling to 96.33mV.

The average inductor current also slightly decreases, ranging

from 1.01A to 993.46mA.

At about 33uH, the current (green) begins to dip to 0A at its

lowest point, thereby constituting to the boundary conduction mode

of operation for the circuit, as shown in Fig. 5.

Fig.

5.

34uH

33uH

5.9503291V

5.9569435V

93.12047mV

96.32944mV

991.90108mA

993.45572mA

TABLE 4

VARYING INDUCTANCE AGAINST CIRCUIT VOLTAGE AND CURRENT

Inductance

Value

Average

Voltage

Ripple Voltage

Average L

Current

100uH

90uH

80uH

70uH

60uH

50uH

40uH

39uH

38uH

37uH

36uH

35uH

6.0761397V

6.0724585

6.0658438

6.0569557

6.0464353V

6.0206711V

5.9810266V

5.9768166V

5.971203V

5.9638049V

5.9594824V

5.9543005

31.51003mV

34.49953mV

39.60040mV

45.27097mV

52.43284mV

63.41661mV

79.5550mV

81.22147mV

83.33817mV

85.60111mV

86.68126mV

90.01082mV

1.0126689A

1.0121379A

1.0110303A

1.0095791A

1.0079528A

1.0035724A

997.82275mA

996.2963mA

995.36678mA

994.13604mA

993.42493mA

992.55715mA

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We wish to acknowledge Engr. J.M. Martinez and

other contributors for useful discussions on the

successful analysis of the circuits involved. We also

would like to thank the reviewers of our paper for

their time and valuable feedback.

REFERENCES

[1] Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buck_converter

[2] Learn About Electronics:

http://www.learnabout-electronics.org/PSU/psu31.php

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