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THE

Archivesof Dentist
SnCCESSOK

"The

Missouri
THE

Dental

"New

Montllly

TO

Journal,"

England

Recorcl

Journal

Published

ST.

LOUIS,

H.

MO.,
FOR

Science

Art.

ItissS.

CHAMBERS

DENTAL

and

Monthly by

CHICAGO,
THE

with

Dentistry."

of

of Dental

V^OLUME

J.

Consolidated

also

JOURNAL

"

ILL.,

CO.,
ATLANTA.

ASSOCIATION.

GA.,

CONTENTS

Case.

OF

12

-------------

of

Acknowledgment
of

Adaptation
Address

at

Alveolar

teeth

Dental

American

Dental

of

Amputation
Catarrh,

College,
Roots.

404

IW

121

125

------

Notice,

1H1,238

-----

of

Report

413,

New

Chloroform,
of

American

Process

of

Association,

Dental

382

S4

477

-----------

National

Anointing

to

Apostate's

Dental

Infantile

in

Wall

Surgical

Society,

Poisoning,

Work.

Medical

Boracic

Engine

125

138

14

Pressure

Brush,

375

-----------

Atmospheric

Bridge

1-10

Poisoning,

American

Acid

----------

Paper

of

-----------184

Disk,

Association

Disorders,

Arsenic,
Creed,

Arsenical

521
15

----------

Announcement,

by

48

-----

Process,

Dental

Association,

Meeting

College,

Alveolar

Association

by

Antidote

the

Chicago

Tooth.

Impacted

Another

to

simulating

American

Anaesthesia

Dental

of
treated

Abscess

Annual

Missouri

Opening

Abscess

Aveolar

An

I.

VOLUME

in

Editors,

Relation

its

Artificial

to

Ul

Dentures,

H4

91

---------

442

....--

878

-----------

BlBLIOGKAPHIC.
Dental

Education,

Dental

Medicine,

Gorgas,

in

Fermentation
of

Formations

the

from

Letters

Masticating

Human

on

Temperament

State

Transactions

of

Teeth

to

Transactions

State
Dental

State

M.

Mother,

Relation

in

473.

526
139

Quinby.

Illinois

333

-----

-------

Practice,

Transactions

Miller,

----------

to

Sectorial

Dental

Mouth,

Black.

Mother

236
333

---------

Poisons,

and

191,

--------

of Trephining,

History

473

--------

Williams.

Embrj'ology,

Xotes

Winder,

Medical

Society

J..

Combination

of

Cones,Shaw.

191

473

190

-------

Teeth,

Dental

W.

139

-------

Society,
of

Society

New
of

381

-----

York.

Louisiana,

473
476

iv

Contents.

Vulcanite
Yeo's

and

Celluloid,

Physiology,

380

-----------

Calculus

Salivary, Its Removal

Cancrum

Oris, Leading

Caries, Production
Carbonic

Tooth,
of

Irregularity,

of

Spasm

Cast

Metal

Cases

43

188

.-..-._.

at

Fifty Years,

11

------

-'-'-

446

'

of Muscles

Plates,

of Face

and

Roots

of Teeth.

Due

Changes

After

Extraction

of Natural

Chicago

Dental

Infirmary,

Commencement

Chicago

Dental

Society.

Children's

Dental

Teeth,

Chloroform;
Chloral

of

To

of

Make

and

Causes

Whom

56
238

-----

Animal.

of Anaesthetized

84
."iS

--------

186
481

------

233

---------

Notes,

14,5,193

-----

---.-..---181

Credit

Cystic Abscess

-----------184

is Due,

in

Fillings,

Instruments,

Child,

438

--------

of Gold

Tempering

on

Exercises

of Crystal Gold,

of Discoloration

Cushing

80

-----

----------

Dentures,
Apostate's

Teeth.

Mouth,

Air-Tight,

to

225

-------

of in Blood

Miscellaneous

Creed,

225

344

------

i
-

Merits

Credit

.........

Deformity,

Consideration

Crowded

Wounds

Congenital

Critical

Irritation.

Proportion

in

373

of

Cataract

to

Cataract,

-----------

of Absorption

Corks,

Jaw

241

Blood,

Eruption

Case

of Lower

----------

the

Case

97

--------

to Necrosis

of

in

Acid

Canine

")4

-.----.-.

517

------

122

------

441

---------

CORKESPONDENCE.
State

Examiniug

Letter

Reply

of B.
to

Above

Damage

to

Death,

Proof

Deciduous

Boards,

II.

(^atchiug,

Heart

from

of

Important
Structure

Dental

Legislation,
Tlierapeutics,

in Nasal

Diagnosis,

Dental

Caries,

Germ

Benevolent

of Nitrous

Oxide

Gas,

39, 41

376

448
335

of Teeth,

Dental

Organ,

Inhalation

-...-----.

Formation

Dental

382

-------

------------

Dental

Dental

334

-----------

Teeth,

Defective

47

--------

---------

by J. Richardson,

Decision,

Dentists'

J. P.,

170

--------

Cavity,

1H7

.--.------142
385

----------

391

-----------

Theory

of

Association,

Ilistogeny and

------

;t^0, 397
455

-------

Histology

of

508

Contents.

Dental

National

Faculties,

Device,

Peculiar

Diagnosis,

of Tobacco

Engine

Brush,

Parts,

o\7

49

---------187

Boys,

378

-----------

Explanatory,
Extraction

of

Associate

and

Membrane

on

of Canine

Eruption

189
H91

Fillings, Causes

of Gold

Effect

239

-----

-----------

of Peridental

Diseases

Region,

am

----------

Dental

Discoloration

of

Association

Spirit Lake

of

Sketch

Descriptive

of Age,

Fifty Years

at

Tooth

11

47

-----------

of Teeth,

Exercise,

Object

Explosion

of

of

89

-------

18-5

----------

Tooth,

After

Changes

46

----------

Editokial.

Explanatory.

47

------------

-18

Listerine,

------------

Vick's

Guide.

Floral

Pathological

Missouri
An

of

Editorial

Root

Fining
Fountain

Georgia
Give
Glue,
Great

Credit

383
38;^

-----

432
of

Dentistry,

Organ,

Dental

Filling

477
47!)

528

221
--------251

Causing

Necrosis,

Society,
Caries,
Credit

Splint in,

Odontological

142.211.280,287
397

--------

438

-------

--

Society

of

------

18H
317

15

-----------

Teeth.

374
44

-----

is Due.

-.-

------

Britain,

for

Made,

Whom

Gold-Platinum.
Gold

of the

382

89

of Dental

Liquid

-------

Journal

Plaster-of-Paris

Dental

to

--------.--

Home

Jaw,

Theory

-----

Canals,

State

335

-----------

of Tooth

Fragment

Faculties,

England

Histology

Pen.
of

Fracture

------

Notes,

Editorial

Meeting
.-.--

Dental

''Editorial,''

Notes,
and

Annual

---

of New

Histogeny

of

Word

the

Announcement

287

-------

-'-

Association,

Association

287

Society,

Association.

Protective

288

-------

---------

Dental

Dental

National

Germ

Association.

Decision,

Important

Origin

143

-----------

State

American

142

Dentist,

Extracting

95

---------

----------

Dental

State

Minnesota
An

Decay.

Department.

48

---------

Legislation.

Dental
New

Specimen,

of Dental

Etiology

48

----------

---------

504

vi

Contents.

Gold

Fillings,

Haemostatic,

Permanganate

of Potassa

Histogeny

and

to

Human

Can

of the

Dental

Told

that

from

Society, Notice

Dental

Society Proceedings.

Tooth.

Inebriety
Infantile

Disorders,

372

of Annual

Meeting,

136

42:^
2i)9,3.""4,

202, 258,

Life

in

in

Dental

Society, Notice

Dental

Society

375

of Annual

State

Proceedings

433

-----

Meeting

94.142

84.s

------

44u

----------

of the

Organization

JOUKNALISTIC,

------

Treatment

State

Case

Caries,

234

Their

Iowa

of

241

--------

Anointing
and

Production

the

Insurance,

Incisors, Loose

189

--------

Iowa

Profession

Dental

Dental

Complete?

19(i

]2(),178, 229, 282, 327, 3(55,430, 463

:!o. 85,

Salivary Calculus, Removed

257

-------

142

----------

-82

---"----------

Life

Insurance

List

of

and

Loose

Mechanical

Method,

Louis,

Value

Scientific

93, 142

------

337
1

--------

Suggestions,

Dental

Association,

State

Dental

Association,

Proceedings

Missouri

Dental

College. CommencementDental

Mississippi Valley Dental

35

Association,
Association

142

-----

Proceedings,

305, 4;"5
no

-----

Notice

237,

288

107, 151
14

------------

Man,

-.

252

287

State

in

Society, Notice

Missouri

Mycosis

373

Missouri

Root

-----------

Notice

Mississippi State

in Dentistry,

Dental

State

433

-----

of--------

Manipulation,

Plates, Cast

Model,

22

------

Treatment,

Society, Notice

Dentistry,

Minnesota

Tlieir

and

Incisors

Plugging,
and

Materials

in St.

48

Dental

River
in

234

--------

------------

Inferior

Mallet

Inebriety.
Dentists

Registered

Listerine,

Metal

Dog,

335

Health,

of Micro-organisms

Mad

2OO
-

----------

on

and

Light,

254

15

Decision,
of Temper

Legislation.

508

-----------

Influence

Large

233

Dental

Irregularity.

of----------

State

Is the

149

------

of

State

Inferior

----_-

Organs,

Illinois

Important

Organ,

Illinois

Influence

189

Fitting Plate,

It Be

Peroxide

Impacted

on--------

Dental

Good

Blood,

Hydrogen,

as

379

Perfect

Secure

517

-----------

Histology

Make

to

of Temper

Oath,

Hippocratic

How

of--------

Influence

Health,

How

Discoloration

-----------

183

vii

Contents.

Naplitlialin
Narcosis

as

Antiseptic,

an

by Chloroform,

Xasal
Xational

Dental

National

Association

Nebraska

of

Necrosis

of Jaw

due

New

Process

New

Department,

New

Liquid

New

Steel,

Notes,

Obscuring

23!J, 383

Maxilla.
of

Tooth,

116

44

-----

by Chloroform,

34

-----

143
186
336

Miscellaneous.

and

Quekies,

879

Oral

Pathology,

Oral

and

I80

----------

281

-----------

Odonto-Chirurgical
Surgery,

170

----------

of

Society

Oral

144^ 192

-----------

Glass,

Odontological

14,5^193

------

--------

Exercise,

of

------------

Oath, Hippocratic
Object

-----------

Eemedies.

on

140

-----------

Glue.

and

Notes

187

142

Left

of Anaesthesia

Critical

Notes

4o

---------

Fragment

to

-------

Examiners,

Lower

and

Oxide

-------

of Dental

Society,

Upper

in

Another

Society,

Dental

Necrosis

by Xitrous

and

Formation

Dental

Cavity,

44

--------

by Ether

Britain.

Great

Society

69,317

-----

of Scotland,

72

------

23

------------

"

of. In

Surgery, Section

Dental

American

"

Medical

233

ciation,
Asso469

------------

Organization
Pamphxets,

Oral

Pathology,

of

Peroxide

and

as

Haemostatic,

to Make

How

by Boracic

254
238

-----

15

Acid.

9J

---------

of Artificial
blood

in

of Chloroform

Substitutes,

of Anaesthetized

Animal.

-188

80

Association.

Registered

Dentists,

84
376

-----------

Notice,

Report

49

273

Fluid,

Publishers'

of

-----------

of Death,

Protective

of

-------

Society. Notice

Propriety of Early Introduction


Proof

Diseases

-----------

Platinum-Gold,

Proportion

149

-----

Parts,

Associated

Dental

State

Plates".
Cast-metal

Preservative

196

----------233

Hydrogen,

Fitting Plate,

Poisoning

233

of Potassa

Pennsylvania

95, 139, 192, 237, 380, -177

-----------189

Membrane

Peridental

Complete

-----------

Device,

Peculiar

Permanganate

Perfect

Is it

Profession,

of Dental

--------

List

Cystic Abscess,

333

239, 288

.---...-.

of in

St. Louis,

---------441

-----

22

viii

Contents.

Boot

Model,

Root

Canals,

Rubber

Filling

Saint

Mode

of

Louis

Calculus,

Salivary

Calculus,

of

-17

257

--------

35

--..--.

Practice,

Dental

289

--------

Surgery

of

American

Medical

tion,
Associa4(59

...-..--....

Septic

Theory

Solution

of

Southern
Soft

Dental

of

of

Still

Children's

should

be

Thick

Rubber

Crowded

in

Extra"'ted

igi

to

Natural

Match

Ones,

14

16
9

Gushing,

Tobacco,
To

Corks

Air

of

Floral

Association,

Dam,

from

235

---------

122

'

Dental

of

University

123
(;

Teetli,

Effect

Translation

225
188

----------

Instruments"

State

as

-----------

and

Texas

Water

Teeth

------

------

Temperament

Vick's

Irritation,

Dental

-------

Tempering

358

54

Cold.

Make

to

Blood,

-----------

Suggestions,

Teeth,

276, 313,

216,

----.--...-

Disk.

Taking

due

the

in

Teeth

Another,

Surgical

Face

Artificial

Staining

378

which

Showing

55

---,..

----------

Acid

Dentures,

Mouth,

Proceedings

Association,

Muscle

320

-------

of

Wounds

Flux,

Carbonic

Statistics

Caries,

in

Chloral

and

of

Spasm
State

of

Dental

Solder

439

97

Dentistry.

in

of--------

Removed,

and

Society

in

Oral

Removal

Methods

Section

55

Vulcanizing

Method

Scientific

221

---------

----------

Dental

Salivary

Scientific

of

Thick,

Dam,

Rubber,

14

------------

55

----------

Boys,

on

the

Guide,
Prophylactic

Tight,

German,

and

228

Department,

233

------

--------

Dental

Maryland.

187

--------

Water

and

142

Remedy,

j)^

4s

i;"

*-*^'3^^

A.

Denrine

B.

Epithelium.

Tissue, ist stage.

ng

^.

C.

Enamel

D.

Forming

Section

and

Organ, 2d stage.
Bone
of Jaw.

Photograph

by R. R,

A.

Epithelium.

B.

Groove.

%'-

D.

Stratum

E.

Enamel

Malpighi.
Organ, 1st

stage.

pms^:^

-C

r.

^-%

'^ '"'

'^S^:
A.

Epithelium.

B.

Enamel

C.

Tongue.

D.

Developing

Organ,

Jaw

2d

stage.

'"^^SS**?*^-^

Fig4:

*The
pressure

of

Enamel
the knife

A.

Dentine

B.

Neck

C.

Enamel

D.

Epithelium.

Dentine
and
Organ
cutting the section.

in

Germ

Papilla.
of

Enamel

Organ.

Organ.

should

be

in

contact.

The

separation

is

caused

by

the

F,q

5.

A.

Dentine

Genn.

B.

Enamel

Organ.

C.

Epithelium.

D.

Forming

Bone

of

Jaw,

''S 8.

A.

Odonlobiasts

B.

Formed

Dentine.

C.

Dentine

Pulp,

or

Dentine

forming

Section

and

Cells,

Photograph

by

R.

R.

Andrews.

-';v^*wi
^^^^lUfffti~T^'"f?^^^^1^ly?fiTnltflH^fffm"T"TfT*

.%"'i"i.-:;"LLi""H^^|aeF;^

-F

I
\

m.
f^

"^

A.

Enamei.

B.

Dentine.

C.

Dentine

D.

Developing

E.

Enamel

F.

Gum

Pulp.
Bone

Organ.
Tissue.

of

Jaw.

THE

Archives of Dentistry
J
A

Vol.

Monthly

Record

II., No.

Dental

of

JANUAEY,

1.]

Of

all the

THE

[Read

R.

the

before

in which

chief

the

R.

D.

ANDREWS,

Annual

accepted

of

Meeting-

Committee

how

D.

the

New

of

Providence
a

paper
the

to

scientific
book

"Dentition,"

on

the

and
of

to

elucidation

and

sent

of

writings
meet

of

this

contradict

great

so

be

out

by
his

to

this
the

Dental

the

the

error

of

show

in his

Boston,

having

the

of

the

there

to

upon
from

embodied
otherwise

duty

from

strong

in
ble
valua-

it my

it does
a

our

read

System

called

I deem

has

vou

at

worthless

as

teeth,

some

been

with

prpfession,it

of

who

seldom

utterly

Coming

Executive

"Philosophic

are

profession

statement.

ability

at

delivered

gentleman

so-called

so

the

to

address

special surgical authority,


his

Society

development
to

We

systen

the

able

Teeth."

of

MASS.

chairman

in

was

giving
the

And

standpoint.

form

the
on

last year

meeting

CAMBRIDGE,
England

of

to

there

error

Development

listen

ought

TEETH.

2,1884.]

invitation

THE

S.,

demonstration

thought

much

of

give

to

because

the

excel,
writing well."

is

OF

Oct.

I have

wise

masterpiece

DEVELOPMENT

BT

Series.

[New

ARTICLES.
arts

Nature's

Art.

and

1885.

ORIGINAL
'

Science

to

tleman
gen-

tendency

misguide.
There

regard

is
to

perfect harmony

the

formation

of

among
the

dental

working

histologists to-day

follicle; up

to

this

period

in
in

The

Archives

Dentistry.

of

development everything is as clear as light. The points in dispute


them
the
are
beyond the way in which the enamel
among
organ,
dentine

germ,

and

there

the

sacculus

formed.

are

When

calcification

diversityof opinion: Here is a chance to


theorize;here is debatable
ground;
nothing as yet is certainly
in regard to methods.
We
can
only hypothesize. Many
proven
talented
minds
If the gentleman who
are
strugglinghere.
spoke
to us last year
had used his masterly powers
of
description in unof these tangled mysteries of nature
should
have
one
'"avelling
we
his ideas of the unknown.
7'espected
commences

There
with
we

the
were
as

were

comes

those

of

us

that

at

meeting

subject he chose than


justlyindignant that he
some

one

has

said,

the

was

should

who

were

put

and

gentleman himself;
come

among

premium
important matter."

"to

familiar

more

to

you

lack of

upon

lead;
mis-

We
at
saw
knowledge concerning this most
how
the
dealt with
once
imperfectlyhe understood
subject. He
misinterpretedfacts showing an entire lack of any proper histological
from
his illustrations that he
seem
investigation. It would
had imj^erfectly
studied
the writings of Goodsir, whose
theory of
Let me
many
years ago is not up to the lightof the present day.
call your attention
illustrations of which
the professor
to the
now
made

use

in his article.

S:
DIAGRAM

WITH

SUB-FIGUEES.

membrane
"Sub-tig1 shows two lines;A represents mucous
lying
overB, a plane of cartilage.
B
membrane;
C, basement
"Sub-fig.2 shows A, mucous
cartilage;
exhibits the mucous
membrane
it begins to be
raised as
as
an
velope
entunica propria for the tooth-germ seen
below
it.
"Sub-fig.3 is diagramatic of the mucous
envelope tunica propria
it invests the germ,
reference
as
no
being made in the drawing
walls.
to the developing alveolar
"

"

"

"

The

Archives

Dentistry.

of

sections
photo-micrographs from
prepared by
which
of
in
the
from
are
pigs,
nearly
embryos
myself
processes
identical with the human
embryo; and, as I said at Providence, to
introduce
development, avoiding, so
you to the A, B, C, of tooth

by

nature,

far

as

If
been

of

means

terms.
possible,the use of technical
inches
take an embryonic pig about
two
long,
we
and
make
for
microscopical observation,
prepared

shall
jaw, we
the embiyonic

through its lower


epithelium covering

section
of

of dental

J, branch
artery supplying
text

beneath.

jaw;

in lower

vertical

of

layer
(See Fig. 1
a

propria; D, enamel;

C, tunica

H, dental
of

K, branch

periodonteum;

artery;
dental

propria.

article

contains

to the

reference

no

epithelium is composed
of

this the

main

layer,is

named

us,

tunica

tissue

consist

has

illustration.

above

for information,only.]

to

G, canal

supplying

artery

of this

It is inserted

C.) The
important

E, dentine;

F, Cementum;

E, periodonteum;

[The

its artery;

pulp and

A, dental

find it to

which

because

is

which
of

mass

the stratum
from

development. Over
portion of the jaw

it
the

we

inner

the

of

layers,
layer (Fig. 1. D.)
two

epithelialcells; the lower, or


is the most
Malpighii, and
we

get

whole

find the

the
of

first
what

to

epithelialtissue

be

and

the

heaped

most
over

columnar

important
of

appearance
is

the

tooth

alveolar
up

in the

Original

of

form

which
of

just under

ridge,while

is called

Articles.

the

stratum

(Fig. 1, AandB.)

groove

portion of the epithelium


in the form
Malpighii, dips down
This
is the dental ridge and groove
this, that

no
as
histologists;of their significanceI have
yet formed
decided
opinion, as they vary in different portions of the mouth,
without
localities
either ridge or
some
appearing to be almost
(Fig. 2, A). From the lingual side of this groove, at a point
groove
is to form, we
find a portion of the stratum
where
a tooth
hii
Malpig-

of

this

still further

down

dipping

first indication

is the

into

of

the

the

formation

of

beneath:

tissue

embryonic
the

enamel

organ,

ingrowth,which
growth.
down
1.
a
gland (Fig. E), pushes its way
shaped
into the embryonic tissue, and by a multiplicationof cells at the
part farthest from the epithelium proper, increases in that part and
which

is the

is

beginning

like

This

little

tubular

form

the

assumes

of tooth

of

flask

this time

At

(Fig. 2, B).

notice

we

change taking place in the embryonic tissue just under this enamel
denser
or
by a multiplicationof
organ, the part becoming darker
of a papilla
This
the form
cells (Fig. 3, A).
assumes
part soon
(Fig. 4, A) pushing up against the base of the flask-shaped organ
above, and is the first stage in the development of the dentine
tooth
of the
future
crown
(Fig 5
growing into the form
germ,
and

6,
or

cap

The

hood

(Fig. 5

base; and
outside

and

the enamel

enamel

The

three

the dentine

covers

thrown

which

up

are

like

germ

it

B), entirely enclosing

are

organ,

the

is

organ

distinct

A) everywhere

against

amelo

not

except

layers of embryonic

afterwards

become

to

to

be

or

enamel

the

enamel

(Fig. 7, C)

with

cells

the

dental

the

blasts

next, the

at

the

tissue

the

sac-

tissue.

dentine

the

just

Those

at

composed
cells (Fig. 7,

coming
be(Fig. 7, B), afterward
tends
forming cells (thislayer exbut that portion which
organ,
dentine
has no known
ficance);
signigerm

within

these, considered

nourishing layer, called

consists

germ

is

germ

of

few

layers of

nearly their primitive form; and last,a mass


of the
shaped cells,forming the inner mass
reticulum
(Fig. 7, D).
The

and

perfected state,

foi'ms; a layer of columnar

in contact

come

in its

now

cellular

entirely around
does

6,

this base

from

then

organ

(Fig. 6, C).

culus

of

enamel

A.)

this

cells which

time
are

consists

in contact

the

by

of

of
with

still retain

stellate

organ,

mass

the

called

of

vestigat
in-

dium,
interme-

stratum

cells which

most

or

star-

the

late
stel-

embryonic

enamel

organ

The

change

their

Archives

Dentistey.

of

form, becoming somewhat

cells,but

larger,and

like the ameloblasts

become

the

or

dentine

amel
en-

cells

forming
odontoblasts
(Fig. 8, A). These by calcification are changed
into dentine
earlier
(Fig. 9, B), and this process begins somewhat
than the calcification
of the enamel
(Fig. 9, A). Just at this time
notice a breaking up
which
we
of the neck
of the
enamel
organ,
it with the Malpighian layer (Fig. 4, B), into
connects
epithelial
which
The
walls of tlie
wander
and are
absorbed.
clusters,
away
are

called

sacculus

then

unite

sacculus, with

the

over

the organ

and

enamel

organ

at

this

point, and

dentine

germ,

is

then

called

the

dental

follicle.
As

I have
are

that

and

many

I shall have

in

diverse; but the length


defer

to

I will say,

meeting.

theories

previously stated, the

discussion

the

however, that

of

my

inner

the

surface

of

the

formation

cells of which

form
the

around

cluster
in

cementum,

similar

manner

or

tooth,

(Fig. 6, D) growing downward


follicle. Occasionally I have
that

the

enamel

is formed

cementum

layer of the

sacculus,

dentine

and

of bone

from

the

organ

is

bud

to

seen

under

and

nearly
specimens

seen

of the

the

which

it

temporary

led

anterior

permanent

from

grow

to

me

tooth

lieve
be-

came

Malpighian layer; this is always the case with


the
is from
sixth year molar; the originof the twelfth year molar
of the sixth; the
of the organs
origin of the eighteenth year

directly from
the
neck
molar

the

is from

Let

been

last

our

shown

the
refer

now

us

at

is

published

neck
to

of the organ
of the

some

meeting

it in

statement

vein

of the

with

sarcasm

the

put forth

statements

in Providence.
of

twelfth.

In
that

know

how

practicaldemonstration."

the
the

by

the

light of what

tleman
genhas

professorprefaces

remark?

rationallyto treat diseases


understand
what
such organism is; how
It is proposed this
they are nourished.

"To

how

the

by

bone

of the temporary

organ

is to

to

of the

culus
forming cells. This inner layer of the sachas been
called by some
the cemental
investigators,
organ.
of the perword
in regard to the origin of the enamel
manent
organ
teeth. Just before
the breaking up of the neck of the enamel

osteoblasts

his

the

the

future

outward

worked

and

to

me

calcification

the

is

warns

point

nearly completed, the tooth


growth of cells immediately beneath;
from
the embryonic elements
of the
crown

tion
calcifica-

to

paper

of that

when

is

regard

of the dental
the

teeth

afternoon

organism

are

to

formed,
oft'er

Original

You

have

surely is
"It is
of the

big

groove;

of

and

the

and

big

he

Again
"A

is

trusted

between

in its

has

but

it

dip down,

not

demonstration

the

tweedle-dum

developed

will

dips

up;
is

show,

tweedle-dee."

and

is

state

twentieth

of its

truthfulness

of the
dental

does

says:

tooth
that

one

have
membrane

it

that

than

greater

groove

Mucous

difference, as

septibe cut away,there is found


implies gradual enlargement of one
little that no
been
so
microscope

inter-dental

must

it.

see

this

following

subject evolve for itself demonstration


primitive dental groove,seeing that if an adult

sometime

at

could

The

was.

let the

pi'oposedto

taken,

which

demonstration

that

sarcastic:

existence

be

jaw

what

seen

Articles.

of

lai'gewhen

growth,

deduction

of

fact

that

with

compared
difference

clusive
con-

there

primarily

is

germ."

Does

the

entire

professor

to

mean

His

tooth?

primitive

this dental

that

assert

sti'ation

demon

aims

is the

germ

to

that

prove

point.
Another

is

peculiar statem^ent

"Dentine,

and

cementum

this secretion

and

enamel

and

pulp as propounded
microscopist."

But

have

we

showing
the

drawings

Let

to-day
the
of

organ

distorted

again

us

enamel

turn

dental

it is

of

thought

in its various

stages;

vivid

cretion,
se-

is

There

be

to

of

or

common

pixlp.

photographs

vision

the

to

the

as

the

seen

resultant

are

lies with

enamel
the

follows:

as

no

shown

by

tions
microscopical sec-

these

not

are

imagination.

professor,for

of

some

his

profound

theorizing.
"The

formation

enamel
with

the

forms
into
to

begins;

be

through

the

as

the
as

thus

the

it has

the

the

modified

papilla.
been

the

it

and

membrane,

mucous

The

termed

sac

"

of

mucous

continues

to

of

through
the

by
the

exists

tunica

the
first

we

membrane
exist

finds

with

between

"

which

its way
this

sac,

epithelial
propria;
Between

membrane.

which

it

pulp

same

portion

mucous

dentine

the

the

it passes

face

of

degree, coincident

is modified

outer
a

covering
a

some

As

sac.

understood, being
formed

by

secretion,

primary

the

deposit is,to
Secreted

same

constitutes

it is

enamel

simply

this

against the second,

surface, which
this sac,

completed,

formation.

dentine,

moulded

dentine

rather

or

dentinal

the
and

of

primary
saw

tunica
these

as

sac;

lying
over-

propria,
two

hard

The

bodies, and
the

Archives

receives

and

modifies, for the

liquor sanguinis found


This

structure.

from

this that

by

It is from

Connecticut,
evening
dental
and

in the

suoh

received

the

of

convention

Dr.

"It has

listen

to

who

addressed

you

the

Again

professor says:
here

as

has

understood

that

inside

This

led

upon

it calcifies

from

gentleman

the

enamel

that

the

outside

inward, and

the

camel's

back; and

velopment
de-

tooth

of

process

histologists. It

the

"

of 'Dentition.'

understood

by

lot in any

ray

by

subject
the

"Accepting

the

on

say,

misapprehension

of

detailed
the

to

been

recital

was

propounded

as

posed
ex-

Haven,

New

of

him

before

exhibited, it becomes

specialpulp

no

the

this afternoon

it becomes

when

Williams,

never

pseudo-philosophic vagaries as

It is

membrane.

pain

which

such

to

intertubular

enamel."

J. L.

impressions
day:

same

of

continuity of
that

enamel

enamel,

the

and

tubules

the

impressions

this

as

is

of

support

dentinal

propria

receive

break

in the

tunica

we

Dentistry.

of

is also
from

not

outward."

is the
alone

that

straw

would

breaks

be sufficient

show

to

entire

the

this

absurdity

ment
state-

the

of

speaker's position.
Allow

in

me

comments

closing

the

on

by

same

'Corresponding with

"

As

envelope.

refer

to

Dr.

Williams:

the

such

be

to

and

plate of

recognized

carries

around

unwarrantable

This

is all

examination
a

first

nor

and

nicapropria

This

cells

about

txmica

imagination

of Prof.

single specimen,
shows

membrane,

teeth

with

tunic

illustrated

all of the

reflexa

can

is

it is not

in

shape
in

enveloped
shown

be

rily
necessa-

relation; a

it stands

under'

of

it

the

by

even

microscope.

membrane

mucous

in connection

{tuwith

the

described, except in the poetic

manner

Garretson.

and

as

existed

reflexa)ever

challenge

tissues

anything resembling
as

until

mucous

lies, it is

germ

dental

the

specimens
or

the

germ,

tooth; this germ

coat

in the

the

becomes

purely imaginary,

second

the

tunic; tunica

or

now

of actual
a

of the

development

coat,

representative of

sac'

cursory

Neither

which

second

call it.

to

size the

double
a

it

this increases

as

nature,be-

existingbetween

which

among

its alveolar

of

that

is of sub-mucous

originallymicroscopic, has enlarged

germ
and

that

of cells

papilla is

envelope

an

jaw

of

growth

ingan organization arising out


membrane

with

professor'stunicas,

the

to

this

described

in

their

him

him.

of the

There

produce
position,

proper

'foldingup'
bv

to

mucous

is neither

Original

'foldingdown'

'foldingup' nor
of the
I also

of

Williams

Dr.

Garretson's

when

allusion

croscopists,concerning the

seen

of

the

to

correct

In

the

by

Dr.

The

Teeth."

then

of

impression

an

mould

front

in the
tooth

same

seen

cemented

was

hard

in

for the
as

ground

In
a

receive

before

the
year.

the

the
with

year

better

are

1880,

from

Society for
This

He

these

to

than

then

bring
the

be
a

the

to

the

ficial
artiThis

cement

filled

were

porcelainwas

matter

of which

me

before
I have

and

enamel

porcelain
simple enough

found
on

this

Science, June
the

affair with

the

one

paper

Oral

sent

made

piece of

holes

everyday

dentists; I read

was

decay and
he

When

complete,

of

the

cavity in shape.

cement.

an

is

ling
large fil-

which

guide.

it would

Advancement

paper

from

having brought

hoped

was

removed

the

I shall venture

so

point where

been

there

Facings for Carious


lack of appreciation

there

into it and

operation was
gold.

has
fillings

methods

attention

Weston's

Practitioner

patience in the operator,


opinion it should be.

where

resemble

to

drilled

were

last six years,

spoken.
to
filling

with

place

my

case

incisor.

central

enamel

I think

of

plaster of Paris,
material, using this as

gold, so, when


entirelysurrounded
of

the

to

in his

as

describe

little holes

use

owing

in

with

The

"Porcelain

the want

Oct., 1884.]

Improvement,

Independent

on

common

then

was

was

as

to

on

goes

in the
took

not

the

that

states

Dental

for

Moore

writer

operation is

He

E.

of

part of the patient or

the

that

is

what

ROLLINS.

HERBERT

Society

number

August

article

Boston

the

before

[Read

to

mi-

among

FILLINGS.

"WILLIAM

BY

you

says:

alleged confusion
interpretationof

tooth."

ENAMEL

the

he

the

that

on

tion
forma-

microscope, in no way deti'acts from the force of the fact


no
histologistof recognized abilityof the present day has ever
ment
anything remotely resembling his description of the develop-

under

an

in the

membrane

mucous

tooth-germ."

endorse

"Prof.

Articles.

Boston

subject
21,

of

Medical

returned.
the
It was
then sent
to
Surgical Journal, but was
Lancet
and
accepted, but never
appeared. No further attempts
before
the
made
matter
to bring the
were
profession. In 1883,
and

10

The

however,

the

at

Archives

solicitation

Dentistry.

of

of

friend, I made

This was
originalpaper.
published in the
I refer to
Surgical Journal, AY"ri\ 2, 1883.
I do

wish

not

will be

found

Not

be

accused

to

be

Dr.

long ago
in

began

to

1873, and
the

method

In

an

with
than
the
burs
the

do

not

excavating for

be

as

flat

has

foi-ms

upon

When

the

and

of

To

make

made

with

this

resurrect

thin

experiment

be

have

be

one.

of
make

about

with

cut

devised
in

pendicular
percare

more

are

burs

the

in

cut

admirable

several

ferent
dif-

this purpose.

for

be made

perfectlydry

fat such

as

vaseline.

cavity requirescare.

After

mineral

some

of

for

figure 1.

cavity should

film of

forms

new

patterns

my

the

the

should

I.

ends, which

done

walls

is shown

these

jjerfectimpression

considerable

headstone

end,

after

the

cutting is

covered

lished
pub-

of
gold filling.The bottom
possible. As the ordinary flat ended

as

the

on

One

Hodge

articles

in the autumn
filling
experiments to

should

They

FIG.

Mr.

for

the

in

cutting ends.

to

me

many

for enamel

bottom.

well

cut

I believe

one.

the

employed
cavity should

made

because

matters

even

the
and

Medical

dental

without

decided

have

these

that

me

artificial teeth

cavity

is

of

to

Boston

myself what
teeth.
filling

to

buried

This

time

that

said

them.

easy

preparing

method

journal were
to

since

keeping

valuable

pieces of

use

of

Chandler

medical

call attention

to

to

of

abstract

an

been

followingpreparationhas

devised

for this purpose.


Gum

The

Mastic

50

parts

Plumbago

50

parts.

ingredientsare
is not

should

then

by

be

to

be

inch
of
heat

and

be

melted

stirred

and

sticks

then

To
is

when
an

take

the

pressed into

fluid.

are

gums

of

to

the

together,except

till the

quarter

long.

these

to

added

well

about

sticks

one

parts

Parafiine

which

one

100

it has
inch

impression

be

softened

the

cavity. The

The

cooled
in

little
cold

plumbago,
mixture
into

made

diameter
end

the
on

and

the

of

surface

part of the stick

Archives

The

12

cooled

the

by placing

mould

Dentistry.

or

piece of

on

cold

metal.

After

the

with
the mould, push it out
ground even
of the
through the hole in the back
by insertingan instrument
The
mould.
regia,when
gold can easilybe dissolved off in aqua
is ready to be used as a filling.
the enamel
surface

of

cavity in

The

piece

of

the

walls

the

The

the

with

coated

then

is

the enamel

is to

tooth

be

thin

mixture

of

imbedding

mixture

is to be

smeared

with

instruments

gum

it.

for

by

temperature

dry with absolute alcohol,


A small
copal and ether:
placed in the cavity and

made

of

means

is

heat
having a constant
be properly imbedded,

the

imbedding
minute

enamel

kept

are

flames.

gas

essential,as otherwise

at

stant
con-

instrument

An

will not

enamel

the

by the changes in temdevised


several
complicated instruments, but
peratui'e. I have
is
these
two
are
imbedding mixture
simple and efficient. The
of pure
made
ored
light-colby kneading together on a tile a mixture
oxide
of
in
the
with
zinc,
proportion
gutta-percha
pure light
of

will be

or

part of gutta percha

one

coloring matter
for

enough

most

oxyphosphate

should

be

used.

teeth.

Do

not

but

durable,

cements

It

they are
important, for

yet

is

color

unlike

look

the

of

not

the

the

dark

with

any
these

of

as

the

ding
imbed-

an

shade.

the

indeed, the

centre;

well

None

answer

proper

if it is too

does

make

to

done.

will

little

enamel

possible

been

zinc.

uranium

of

be

may

not

of

cement

to

try

has

because

cement

will

Oxide

materials
gutta percha filling

commercial

of

this

oxide

of

three

to

oxychloride.

or

cracked

This

edges

of

ling
fil-

the

will

operation

ter
mat-

be

failure.
When

is to be

out

then
at

the

distance

of

instead

of

somewhat
can

be

of

the

water

If

the

If

being

with

properly

packed

cavity
color
to

avoid

the

is

executed

is to

course

and

into

large

should

has

operation

fillingwill

the

pressed

been

the

chloroform, and

it is decided

need

porcelain material
and

which

cement

is

invisible

be

feet.

enamel

thinner

much

place the

away

few

different

proper

When

dissolved

complete.

If

is in

enamel

be

the
a

be
not

ground
mould;

porcelain is

that

The

followed.
be

covered
is

fine
then

with
to

when

used

be

to

copper
A

gold.
moistened

be
it is

mould
little
with

dry push it

out.

piece of previously baked porcelain of the


pressed into the soft porcelain,the object

shrinkage.
porcelain paste

In
is

most

cases

perfectlydry

this

is

it should

not

be

necessary.
baked

in

Original

muflie-furnace

gas

as

was

coating of more
When
the filling
is composed of
be partly hardened
biscuited
or
with

Sometimes

previously mentioned.
translucent
porcelainimproves

such

thin

13

Articles.

the

layer should

layers, the under

two

the

and

made

surface

filling.

and

true

even

should
be put on
coating,which
with a brush.
When
the porcelain is baked
the subsequent operations
the
like
those already mentioned, except that,as
are
porcelain
is stronger than enamel, no
is needed
avoid
fracture
to
specialcare
in

file to

r"3ceive the

upper

imbedding.
For

temperature
control

of

excess

of

quality

unburned

have

is also

this matter

to

true

wish

coming

to

use

enamel

as

if the
the

the

is

in which

the

operator

can

only

certain

to

little

veiy

be

reduced,

enamel.
in

extent

this

on

paper

the

porcelain.

Boston

the

Medical

is interested

who

one

any

of

case

subject in

refer

would

the

to

the

enamel

enamels

for the

foi'mulse

unless
fillings

of

body

is almost

the

less

and

required

in which

and

pieces of artificial teeth

that

say

lead

of

is

in

this article.

to

Before

the

color

published a short
Surgical Journcd

and

furnace

flame, for, if there

the

gas, the

entirelyspoilingthe
This

base

nicely regulated

be

can

the

enamel

the

making

is used

tooth

of

such

the

are

the

not

be

porcelains I
be ground to

small, because

very

will
filling

is taken

tooth

should

cavities

the

and

too

while

opaque,
shows

cement

if

through

edges.
FOEMULA

As

formation

the

of

suitable

practiceI would
suggest
little experience has been
Red

is

enamels
the

formulae

gamed.

Enamel

that

oxide

brown

or

ENAMELS.

DENTAL

FOE

of

lead

given

of

potash

white

To

mixed

parts.

100

parts.

500

parts.

of
of

be

in

and

base,for gray-blueplatinum,foryellow silver,

silver,oxideof uranium, silver and gold,oxideof cerium,

cerium

with

Base."

the enamel

color

chloride
oxide

parts.

400

finely divided, intimately mixed, melted


crucible, poured into cold water, dried, ground fine
should

"Enamel

marked

until

30

Cryolite
These

tried

be

base.

Silica
Carbonate

requiring some

matter

and

gold.

gold, glass
P'or

blue, cobalt

of

antimony
or

oxide

either
of

alone

silver.

or

Other

The

14

colors

have

Archives

tried

been

but

Dentistry.

of

give good enough results.


The
of coloring must
amount
be
found
by experiment, as the
commercial
oxides
the following are
vary in strength; therefore
approximate only:
enamel
ligrammes.
base, 100 grammes;
Grey -blue enamel
platinum, 50 milthe

above

"

Yellow

enamel

enamel

"

base,

100

oxide,

uranium

grammes;

40

milligrammes.
No.

enamel

Yellow

milligrammes;

500

These
fritted

enamel

"

gold

materials

base,

100

oxide,

cerium

grammes;

variable

should

quantity,kaolin 1 gramme.
finelydivided, intimately mixed

be

and

Colored
made
enamel
be
platinum in a muffle.
may
less translucent
or
by cooling slowly,by increasingthe cryolite,
by
Substance.
tage
to advanadding an opaque
Cryolite can be increased
only with those pigments which yield the required colors in
on

metallic

the

state.
DENTAL

No.

PORCELAINS.

1-Silica

Felspar
Clay
Oxide

on

No.

100

grammes.

color
.

previously made

mgrs.

400

tine and

grind

mgrs
for

utes
min-

two

quartz slal^.

2.-Silica

50

Clay

grammes.

'
-

Oxide

Felspar

100

titanium

of

50

F'elspar

Clay
color

grammes.

be

quantity to

found

gramme.

ipo grammes.

-.-...

"

grammes.
grammes.

No.3.-Silica

Gold

grammes.
200

titanium

of

materials

the

grammes.

--....

Platinum

Mix

50

grammes.

by experiment.

INSTRUMENTS.

Figure
rod

which

extends

surrounded
P. Attached
the

consists

with
to

positionof

tube,

connects

of

copper

through
asbestos

and

the "handle
which
the

gas

is

the

bowl
hard

B,
rubber

terminates
is the

arm

with

end

handle
in

the

screw

main

of

A.

E.

This

socket

carrying the

regulated by the

burner

the

on

copper
rod is

for the
gas
A

supply.

point

burner

D;

flexible

gas

15

Articles.

Original

blade of
pair of pincers,one
rubber
to fit the
lingual side of the tooth;
piece of hard rubber 1 1, through which passes

Figure

end

is

which

of

holds

the

tool

T,

FIG

the

is the

instrument

point

gas

the

brought

together.

The

jaw

J is

in contact

point T

warmed

to

placed at

with

other
copper

bell A.

piece

of

contains

R,

rod
Below

a
one

this

u.

similar

D,

burner

the

the

has

III.

FIG.

bell A

other

the

which

the

by

the

the back

enamel

the

one

gas

in

figure2.

To

of

the

and

tooth

use

the

by bringingthe handles
and pressingagainst
at D

16

the

porcelain or
of

Archives

enamel

imbeds

around

exuding
Each

The

In

has

where

to

hard

instrument

the

was

the

improvement
do

to

before

the

ot

the

of

the

this

of

is

there
At

of

use

world
of

They

Bolivia

to

OF

COCAINE.

million

dollars

to

in

coca

alkaloid

and

of

leaves

and

of

Goslar
gave

Pure

cocaine.
a

be

an

it,but

lected
neg-

MASS,

in

time, and

to

and

size,shape

tion
atten-

which

gave

it the
the

is in

was
name

first

alkaloid

the

the

the

in

of

that

resemble

existence

and
be

nearly ten
duced.
pro-

tea;

isolate

now

its

to

of

bitter

and

tannic

acid

the

erythroxyline.
thorough investigation

704

of

Peru

Dr.

it

parts

sake

annually

of

of

name

leaves

those

becomes

first to

the

in various

are

to

I quote

continued

colorless,transparent

taste, soluble

from

natives

pounds,
odor

regard

origin,properties

for the

have

in decoction

which

wild

It is affirmed

time.

Gardeke

cocaine

bitterish

and

forty million

or

its

to

prepared

the

among

in

limited, and

cultivated

Conquest

1855

the

1884.]

over

known

grows

demonstrated

made

Nov.

attracting the

very

is

which

largely

the present

Wackenroder
In

cocaine

shrub

the

worth,

leaves.

Nieman

been

general use

they,have a peculiartaste,
astringent.
1853

is

much

very

has

is also

of

leaves

The

In

there

would

Springrfleld, Mass.,

at

present

is not

alkaloid

in

time

employed

much

larger

taken

draw

S.,H0LY0KE,

Society

the

at

there

and

were

the

at

enthusiasm, is "Hydrochlorate of Cocaine."

"The

America

leaves.

be

was

such

as

States Dispensatory in regard

uses.

South

with

it should

directed

D.

Dental

Valley

erythroxlinecoca,

of the

D,

in medicine

United

and

different

AR

photograph

important subjects that

most

its

as

the

from

Connecticut

present time

the

cocaine,

MAXFIELD,

A.

GEO.

great deal

AR

kind, but

was

engraver

medical

the

connects

points for

so.

BY

One

which

it surrounds

HYDROCHLORATE

[Read

of

arm

which

link

series

rubber.

from

connecting

no

the

figure3

properly drawn,
allow for a piece of

pound
gutta-percha com-

extra

edges.

is not

In

this, the

instruments

the

cavities.

shaped

the

Dentistry.

of

talline
crysAlbert
of

the

usually bears

of

ous,
prisms, inodor-

parts of cold

water,

more

Original

in alcohol

soluble

reaction
on

the

at

208"

and
and

animals

much

elevates

arterial

and

cardiac

the

and

without

food

liable

instances
The

by

respiratory centres.
by an action upon

In

As

the

Peru

are

the

lower

killed

by

has

been

Bolivia.

the

supply

not

like the

acts

affirms

from

its

that

have

this

been

country

stances
sub-

whole

days

nevertheless
unused

persons

abuse, and

place of
two

he

has

hallucinations,apparently resulting from


in

it

centres

coca

chewing it pass
working, but they

travelling or
evenings. Weddle

both

it

doses

proper

while

unpleasant effects

observers

which

mass

vaso-motor

and

food, but does

coca

melts

fect,
produces a gently excitant efsleep,in these respects resembling
able
support the strength for a consider-

Indians

of

kaline
al-

an

alkaloid

stimulant

this respect also

The

sustainingpowers

various

has

it

that

of

the

nerve

of

when

to

of

absence

natives

states

to.

freely in the
are

dogs

system.

probably

referred

The

and

indispositionto

in the

nutriment

solution

of cold.

Rabbits

also that it will


coflfee,

time

it

pressure

Weddle

an

The

leaving a peculiar numbness

sensation

theine.

motor

Dr.

1853

and

eat

taste,

the

immemorially
with

tea

bitterish

by

does

as

through paralysisof

In

in ether.

17

cooling congeals into a transparent


crystalline. This alkaloid acts upon

on

gradually becomes

used

freelyso

tongue, followed
F. and

Articles.

to

known

this

cause.

strongly confirmed
and in Europe, and

b}"
it is

probable that it acts similar to tea and coffee, but much


more
powerfully. In large quantitiesit is said to produce general excitation
of the
creased
circulatory and nervous
imparting insystems,
vigor to the muscles, as well as to the intellect,with
an
indescribable
of
to
satisfaction, amounting sometimes
feeling
a
speciesof delirium, and what is most
singular,if true, this state of
exaltation
or

is asserted

depression."
is very

leaves

according

The

any

to the

by
to

two

for

great

number

be

followed
of

amount

qualtity.
alkaloid

extent, but
ot

From

its

observers.

by

the

alkaloid

1-100

the

cocaine

made

that

its

the

first

action

feelingsof languor

any

contained

Medical
has not

man

the

was

experiments

not

upon

been

dose

has

with

the
cent,

ber
Novem-

medicinally
been

from

its action
could

in
per

of

used

runs

cumulative.
man

one

Record

physiological action
For

of

4-100

to

is slightand
grains. Its lethal power
Yon
found
that the cocaine
Anrep
long time without producing any notable

concluded
1862

to

small, ranging from

8, I quote: "The
to

not

be

studied
one-sixth

is

not

taken

ulative.
cum-

daily

disturbance,and

he

Schaaff, who

in

cocaine, found

that

18

The

in

large doses
of

cocaine

grains
hours,

then

suffered

hours.

from

The

is

not

notice

the

to

brought

letter from

beer.

took

about

twenty-two

He

showed

twenty-four
his mind

and

that

to

and

men,

caine
co-

in

that

is immediate."

cocaine

as

local

medical

the

for

instructive,as showing

poisonous drug

action
of

aneuria

disturbance,

no

is

case

veiy

of

and

anaesthetic

profession

the

at

first

was

Opthalmo-

Heidelberg, Germany, last September, and was


of the
the notice
profession in this country by a
tober
Record
of OcNoyes which appeared in the Medical

to

Dr.

at

Various

11.

of

action

hydrochlorate

in the

observers

j^asthad

propertiesthat wpuld

contained

cocaine

thought.

druggistwho

glass

its narcotic

logicalCongress
first

case

This

probably

brought

of

of

vertigo,feebleness

heart's

large doses
The

co-ordination

of

disordered.

not

was

ances
disturb-

slept quietly for some


awoke
with powerful abdominal
gripings,burning and
He
vomited
the mouth, and thirst.
liquid drank.
any

of

dryness

in

Dentistry.

of

vertigo,lasbitude,slight deafness,

and

reports the

of

He

it caused

memory

"Ploss

Archives

the

local

produce

that

fact

aniesthesia,

generally overlooked.
notable
feature
Dr. Noyes' letter I quote the following: "A
From
of this society is that only new
things or new
phases of old topics
notable
was
presented
thing which
are
presented,and the most
of
the
the
the exhibition
to
one
patients of
was
Congress upon
this

until

but

Clinic

Heidelberg Eye

the

which

of

drops
evident
then

experiment,
drops

there

longer

the

upon

and

bulbi
in various
that

he

was

the

muriate

cocaine

of

interval

an

absence

until

its
of

of

has

was

waiting

was

normal;

ten

minutes

was
was

bulbi

and

of

to

it

the

it

introduced

was

patient at

minutes

below

the
Two

eye.

the

ten

was

power

upon

indented,

conjunctiva

speculum

the

a probe
sensibility,

surface
the

of

after

instilled,and

entire

cornea

pressed
rubbed
the

separate

junctiva
con-

the

The

conjunctiva
seized by the fixation
globe moved
forceps
was
In
all this handling the patient declared
directions.
the
that
felt no
speculum
except
unpleasant sensation

they

stretched
at

anaesthetic

extraordinary

of

after

were

more

the surface
lightlyover
palpebrarum, a
lids and

the

sensitiveness of the surface

the

that

two

of

been

it is dro^jped into
conjunctiva when
solution
were
dropped into the eye of

the

first

fact

solution

cent

per

and

cornea

the

two

this

time,

had

noted

outer

stretched

were

to

apart

the

uttermost.

and

the

lids

so

canthus.

widely
Before

give
experiment his

asunder
his

as

to

the

litle

eye

was

discomfort
shown

to

The

20

be

may

Archives

There

used.

is

where
this

had

he

to

successful
the

remove

he used

pain attending the application."

no

8, he reports its

Dentistry.

of

in

use

whole

five

ball it

eye

and

cases

not

was

in

one

In

success.

drops,thinking that by a freer use


anaesthetic
effect might go deeper. There
was
some
benumbing
sufiicient
the
warrant
not
to
to
operation,so had
yet
case

old-fashioned

it in the

Surgeon,

New

York

"Should

says:

I have

unsurpassed by
and

medicine
In

ogy."

members

parts of the
he

pain

soft

or

palate,held
long

as

powdered
the

on

he

results.
the

I could

pass

and

ports
re-

of

some
use

the
nine

on

applied it to different
In its applicationto the

former

numb.

later

numb.

the

observations
and

sprayed

that

brushed

instruments

it

over

the
my

out
with-

other

half

the

of

same

the

way

tongue

it

salt and

common

placed

on

Then

insensible

the

on

the

repeated the

ipulation,
man-

ponding
right side of tongue and corresnot
touching was
perceived, but

the

side.

minutes

seven

Gentle

other

I put in the
of

it. In

endure

minutes

sugar

quinia was

of

subject and

its successful

himself

the

branches

I brushed

neighborhood

when

himself

on

reports

on

same

in

as

this

on

paper

drug

also

minutes

I could

when

case

the

important

the

ophthalmology-

in other

use

and

opthalmolH. Knapp,
25, Dr. W.
Department,University of the

able

very

in

era

move
re-

Assistant
cases

with

fluence,
in-

October

Medical

confirm

can

Its

two

meet

an

as

of

palate become

lipsfelt

to

Minor,

the

four
a
phenomena, retching,etc.
per
the right half of my
over
tongue from the tip to the
the tongue
depressed with my
finger and immovable

five

quite well

others

reflex

solution

cent

as

"I

palate; in ten

soft

almost

Record

experimenting
body and noted

says:

and

tongue

Medical

York, had

In

patients.

of

times.

be

may

experiments with
of his family and

his

mouth

in modern

L.

Infirmary,reports

hands

Ophthalmology,

New

of

City

in the

surgery

of

Professor

Ear

James

attained, it will mark

any

the

Dr.

way.

and

Eye

cocaine

that

success

twenty

some

vember
No-

I put

with

fine

brush

some

successively from the tip


not
palate. It was
perceived, whereas
the
on
corresponding places of the
at

was
a

parts

once

one

tongue.

per

tasted; the
solution

cent

In half

same

an

of
all

hour

was

the

sulphate of
normal

was

cocaine
temporarily and locally destroys not
again. Conclusion:
of the tongue and pharynx, but also the faculty
only the sensibility
of taste."
In the

Medical

experiments

with

Record
this

oi

drug

November
in

1, Dr.

gynecology,

W.

and

M.
one

Polk
of

reports
his

cases

to

of

laceration

doiable

was

tissue
He
four

from

each

says:

"The

parts

solution

the

adjacent vaginal

repeated twice,

was

intervals

at

about

twenty

washed

two

continued

was

This

and

last

patient three

blood.

This

operation performed

under

from

them

preferredjthatwith
this

ether

ether,

and

years

without,

plication
ap-

lapse

the

ation
oper-

further

cut

surf

ago

had

pain.

freeing
aces,first
had

which

asked

was

this last

or

minutes

without

the

directlyto

the

require another

to

as

three

In

of

felt till the

was

acute

so

completed

soon

made

applicationwas

was

pain

This

minutes, making

minutes

three

and

canal

brush.

three

to

cicatricial

in the

camel's-hair

cocaine.

of

cervix

the

over

of

it

minutes,then

the solution

applicationof

the

same

method

she

promptly replied,

she

last."
E. S. Peck

Dr.

drug,
this

operation of its kind.


and
carefully dried, a

with

walls

operation

elaborate

applicationsof the drug. Within


the operation was
begun. No

three

of

was

in the

of extensive

an

painted

cent

sides

both

on

removal

well

-were

per

over

it

angle,making

consumed

time

vaginaljunction and the


It required the
forty minutes.

cervical

was

extending

uteri

cervix

the

21

Articles.

Original

of

York

New

time,

while

received

wound

of

of

this

mention

at

uses

properties.

er
laborthe

lid, cutting through

lower

the

three
deserves

one

its anaesthetic

all corroborate

clean

the

clinical,only

physiological,two

one

"Of

says:

junctiva
integument. A stitch in the conconjunctiva,tarsal margin and
taken
six
after
and two
in the integument of the lid were
utes.
instillations
of a four per cent
solution, covering twenty-fivemin-

experienced

Patient

needles,
been

and

that

sensation

the

pressed against the parts

Better

than

results

the

Assistant

Bradford,
Ear

stated

He

also

by using

experiments
a

stronger

the

conjunctiva
neaj

rfot

He

made

of

the

becoming

globe

almost

that

the

offered

something

rapid.

Eye

or

had

eyes.

time.

He

end

of

the

of

the

found
than
fourth

only

result,and

reports:

he

one

thus

W.
and

tions,
opera-

found

He

greater resistance

as

Henry

various

of

cases,

instillations

He

Dr.

eight per cent,

an

till the

anjcsthesia
was

forceps

Charitable

own

short

very

between

immediate

absorption

his

upon

if

as

Massachusetts

anaesthetic

intervals

with

in

the

reported by

are

solution, namely

anaesthesia

was

reports eleven

made

from

involved."

above

Surgeon,

Infirmary, Boston.

either

pain

no

could
that
the

that
complish
ac-

the
cor-

minute.

minute,
showed

22

The

One

of

case

Aechives

Dentistry.

of

Minute.

"

Iridectomy,operation performed during

the

6th.

5th and

6th.

4th, 5th and

6th.

Strabismus,
Cataract,

Foreign body removed,


From
the foregoing it will
these

perform

is

cocaine
it

The

"Uj)

says:

been

made, and
has

possible to

hours.

be

reported,and

it is

from

possibleto

the

time

the

terferen
requiring long operative inpracticalapplication,from the fact that he

no

cases

continued

Medical

this time

to

that

says,
minutes

seven

in

maintain

Boston

he

seen,

operations within

first installation

found

2d.

and

backs

used

in

the

to

for

Jotirncd

Surgical

draw

it has been

anaesthesia
of

of

use

several

November

cocaine

have

variety of operations with


results so uniform
to justifythe
that it is an
statement
as
fied
unqualiform
producing local antesthesia so complete that no
success,
of contact
is perceived, the mind
and
muscular
being left
power
that in all cases
remember
we
unimpaired. When
reported up to
this time
this result has been
attained
without
rimental
unpleasant or detafter effects,and with no element
of danger, we
can
fully
of those members
of the profession who
appreciatethe euthusiam
have
occasion
of this valuable
to make
use
discovery.
It would
merit
trial
of the dental
to
at the hands
seem
a thorough
profession,for example in the way of application during excavation,
for there
in this
A
to

is pvery

direction,especiallywith

and

learn

to

What

draw

secure

be

cannot

that

success

exposed

be

may

tained
at-

nerves.

limitation
good is quite sure to have some
with powerful remedial
are
obliged to
agents we
the
the
toxic
effects.
therapeutic, and avoid

thing powerful

its use,

believe

to

reason

back

for

the

to

foreseen, that

use

of

cocaine
should

none

the
be

will

future

found

develop

is too

much

to

expect."
Dr.

W.

Moore

O.

principles

says:

contained

"It is
in

interestingto

coffee,

tea

and

that

-note

chocolate

identical
in chemical
generally in use, are almost
and similar in physiologicalaction
to
cocaine, and
us

to

anaesthetic

find

those

the
of

either

properties

if so, it would
From

in

Dr.

be

much

theine, caffeine,

similar

to

cheaper
experiments already
Knapp in the mouth

and

and

this

fact

or

of

the

may
local

coca

plant;

readily obtained."

more

made

beverages

theobromine

alkaloid

the

tral
neu-

composition

so

lead

the

with
of

this
Dr.

drug, especially

Polk

in

gynecolo-

Original

gy,

have

we

remedy
to

j-eport any

obtain

tind any

to

in dental

practice.

trials of

the

word

but

some,

in this

country,

dentine

active

an

circulation

solution

strong

might

find the

What

has

placed

on

an

removal

to

be

As

its

use

the

to

alveolus

sensitiveness

most

accomplished

arsenic

from

exposed pulp it should so


a painless operation.
in extractingteeth, I doubt

benumb

and

can

exert

influence

an

painless)yet

It will doubtless
alveolar
It will also
rubber

on

of

we

overcome.

leads

to

us

lieve
be-

practice,for

our

it

to

as

allow

its

ability to penetrate
the pericementum
ing
(rendergreatly mitigate the pain of

it may

prove

of

its

treatingpyorrhea

in

use

sensible
in-

gum

olaris,
are-

absce^^s,etc.
be

useful

apply

to

dam.

Probably
generally will have
with

hours,

few

part of the' operation by rendering the

severe

is not

drops

few

cocaine

with

for

there

as

to

in

obtunder

somewhat

dentine

the

usefulness

pain

for

cavity

able

ceived
regrain was
made
having

its

be

to

impossible

Not

Possibly, if

in

banish

cents

uable
val-

I tried

was

doubtful,

is

teeth.

of

be

to

above

up

it

determine

to

not

October

made.

wei'e

prove

the

sealed

were

the extraction
the

in

already been
by its use we

that
if

it will

much

that

me

eighty

that

will prove

of

last

to

unable

are

suggested

as

The

sales that

experiments with it we
our
practice. Whether

cocaine

I regret very

returned
and

23

that

drug.

was

for the last few

sensitive

believe

to

reason

every

Articles.

before

before

gums

meeting

drug, and

this

tested

the

next

our

certaintywhat

more

to

its value

we

and

the

placing the
dental profession

will be able

utility are

to

in

port
reour

practice.

AN
BY

DR.

A.

M.

[Delivered

Gentlemen
an

that

are

to

and

some

as

chair

this
generalities,"

the

have

will

address

the

gentlemen
pretty
must

be

CHICOPEE,
Society,

Oct.

MASS.

13, 1884.]

as
Society:Inasmuch
regular proceedings of this
the topics
properly embrace

Valley

considered

extent

inasmuch

this honorable

address

that

as

Dental

Valley

is part of the

address

and

PRESIDENT,

Connecticut

Connecticut

of the

historical

meeting,

the

before

RETIRING

THE

ROSS,

ADDRESS-

well

Dental

material
who

have

canvassed

short.

for

the

annual

dress,
ad-

in
preceded me
the
"glittering

24

The

If my

few

remarks

If
the

at

pair

of these

onfc

is not

to

that

me,

it is

quite instructive

short

individual

of bai-s.

focus

time

the

and

in

to

the

less active
We

be

history,a
members

bring

has

be

mind

to

in the

that

work,

society since
view

that

if

its

it, and

made

to-day,some,
down

as

In

casting

twenty-one

they
the

in

are

man

on

1. Reference

delivered

period

of

of

our

one

who

had

arisen

plain

the

with

meeting
its

to

of the

it upon
this

to

never

proper
one

us

or

is

mind

more

ety
bit of soci-

choice

birth, which
which

and

will

number,

so

been

honored

an

We

capable

selected

to

doubt

no

sion
profes-

our

years.

older

the

to

advancement

twenty-one

be

to

are

of and

ted
interes-

member

of

this

prepare

and

sent
pre-

all

of

the

his

the

auditors

to

organize

professional
would

me

of

status

have

set

him

to

sider
con-

Verne.
as

years

shady

society,the thought occurs


in
the meeting called
to

his hearers

to

of them

to the
at

has

of this

age

retrospect
the

this

at

of Jules

up

that

us;

advancement

of

comparative faculty of

land-marks

perhaps

sort

to

address.^

prophet

had

using

eye,

To

state

as

you,

the

upon

organization, was

of the

may

reaching back

one

this historical
In

[the mind's
require,is useful

valuable
particularly

in

congratulated

to

occurs

us.

many

made

often

glance with

the

treated

review

will

doubt

Meditation

little.

progressive man.

because

in all of

to

are

meditate

no

conditions; either

present

difficultybrings
rest
to
myself

profession itself, is
if our
the
at
us
indulgence is made
to reveal
to
right spirit. For it is sure

dropping behind,
or

It

of my

out

indulge in
relation
our
professionalexperiences,

to

selves,our

benefit

of two

ety.
soci-

this

history of

finally conclude

occasion

as

profession of dentistry,
or
without

backward

long

or

I take

the future.

the

our

modern

or

stopping places and

alw^ays upon

it does

direction

every

against a

up

ancient

to

am

fact,almost

me

the

follow
speak upon
professional subjects I must
established
by precedence and treat them untechnically.

rule

In

to
veral
seuninteresting it will be owing
infringe upon the privelege of another, I

of either

treat

Dentistry.

of

prove

I cannot

causes:

cannot

Archives

they

enough
but

side

historical

banquet.

of

few,

roll

along

for most

we

are

purposes

least,if

they seem
thirty,they probably

address

at

by

Dr.

L. D.

apt
in

prospect;
but

seem

Shepard,

few

to

fewer

of

ton,
Bos-

the

to

of

one

sixty

pleased to-day if
truthful
the

next

There

end

and

of

foremost

that

are

the

that

important
be

been

from

we

who

could

make

will

make

during

us

as

harnessed

to

that

The

desired.

its translucent

thoroughness

the

ready
aleven

and*

within

yond;
be-

view, truths

from

shall

of

has

admit

to

lie

that

which

limit

the

bright light

yet hidden

are

cal
histologi-

and

give greater

calling.
in
fully appreciate what the years
profession, let us glance at the most
that
is closing. Lightening
the year

another
an

in

as

seems

in

reached

which

rewards

it

our

of
to

had

we

the

to

further

much

ready
right

who,

brethren

almost

and

more

may

achievements

be

be

sufficientlyopen

swung

revealed

now

if

as

after the

do for

illuminated
to

yet

significanceto

aggregate

has

be

to

yet

order

not

livingtruths

the

still greater
In

advance

to

gate through

searcher

after

all

dentistry

researches

our

the

has

us

professional

our

pathologicalresearch;

come

with

one

advancement

hardly possible

possibility. But
the

some

would

we

many,

means
inadequateness of our
prosthetic dentistry, to whom

the

minuteness

or

years.

operative and

were

and

was

of

many
admit

to

in

if it

twenty-one
are

enough

of the

forecast

Few

years.

there

25

Articles.

Original

extent

that

opaque

root

neighbor

tha

to

use

with

the

aid

little

but

leaves
can

The

dentist.

be

mouth
in

can

that

spect
re-

easily distinguished

of the

incandescent

arc

of

platinum.
An
of tillingteeth with
gold has been
improvement in methods
gin.
oriis not of recent
introduced
during the year, though the method
This method
mation
promises equally good if not superiorapproxiof

gold

required of the
by other methods.
A

the

comparatively

profession,

new

that

one

the

operations upon
first

cavity walls, and less time and less strain are


than is required
operator in performing the work

to

has

been

throat.

of the

knowledge

anesthetic

local

used

It is the

is

now

in Vienna

for

hydrochlorate

applicationof

medical

interestingthe

cocaine

about

year

of cocaine.
in

the

eye

in

The
was

covery
made
the diswho
by Dr. Roller of Vienna
of Albany
about September 1, of this year. Dr. C. S. Merrill
In a clinic rethe eye.
cently
has successfullyused it in operations upon
College he
given before the students at the Albany Medical
operated upon an eye for closure of the ear passage. Eight drops of a
of the hydrochlorate were
two
dropped into the eye,
per cent.solution

obtained

from

paper

26

The

minutes

ten

and

Aechives

after the organ

Dentistry.

of

found

was

be

to

anesthetized

thoroughly

without

grasped by the forceps and anything but tenderly handled


abolished
in ten
was
producing any pain. Where
sensibility

minutes

it was

was

this

is

drug

rare

leaves

found

bi-ingit

to

estimated
I would
that

by

time

some

into

as

absolute

attention

reduction

demonstratod

value

interest

some

Dr.

to

Miller

results

caries.

He

shown

danger

direet

given

The

few

direction
in

the

It

been
plies,
im-

name

fact is of greater

The
of

has

their

of that

importance

the

teeth

of

cannot

subjects

are

of

the

the

mouth

of

the
such

has

as

proper

for the

faith

pride

in

in

not

It

that

is,he

in

is in

imparting

a.

him.

the

of

results
or

from

human

year,

and

it proves

persistent effort

of

palm
German

the

proves

should

among

perly
by impro-

fluid

yield the

possess

one

has

lesson.

own

to

the

in

older

opinion

fingerability.
operations,

mere

his surgical and

this

is

germs

culture

He

And

terrible

rewards

need

we

dentists

pride

The

their

the

as

research.

American

disease

accomplishments

that

"

of

the

carry

cultures.

animals.

dental

of

fungi

experiments

instruments.
with

the

pure

lower

profession

the

given

upon

producing

wpon

animals

scientific

sufficient

year,one

theory*the

fact.

than

year

these

"

but, right and

these

things

dentist

reason

of

of

that

erroneous

take

of

more

experiments
in

operating

other

countries

during

has

succeeded

from

are

among

of

j^erverted
physiology

taught us by
patientsof inocculation

our

of the

now

more

lessons

to

These

the

basis

are

And

is

something accomplished

as

on

as

this time

at

pound.

so

plants that

complete apprehension of this


information
the physiology of the
upon
a

valuable

inocculation

saliva

any

and

some

cleansed
the

that

effects

few

fuller

other

us.

has

the

of Berlin
of

is

demonstration

odontoblasts

overestimated; for, with

not

pride

in

builders,and the determination

subject,will come
developed tooth,

the alkaloid

great achievement

It is the

theory

S6,T20

the

to

cocoa

materiallyreduced

so

or

of

expense

quantity of

that its cost

say

ounce,

the

take

be

profession than is yet realized.


knowledge concerning the development

exact

the

an

to

of that

that the

dentine

The

immense

can

I may

$420

members.

our

the

its cost

use.

society can

of

one

be

rateof

call your

we

before

general

the

at

hour.

an
ha^lf

a small
yield even
quantity of
the yields of the alkaloids
of

disproportionateto
it will be

in

restored

considerable, and

to

necessary

be

to

mechanical
have
I

information

often
to

greater pride in
ask

myself

if I

my

patientsre-

28

The

Archives

zation; that the work


a

smaller

its

per

behalf

when

and

the

they

interest

smaller.

society was

mentioned

are

in and

performed by the members


the membership than that

of

cent

Dentistry.

of

with
the

on

purpose

the

to-day falls
which

These

facts

that

hope

upon

labored

they

part of the younger

in

cant,
signifi-

are

arouse

may
members

to

out.

come

We

believe
of

the

truth, and

the
with

"that

advancement

that

the

of

insures

knowledge

extension

of

object of all rational beings." We


a broader
acquirement of knowledge comes

life and

One

whom
for

consequent

believe

we

as

in

purpose

brother, and

us

and

some

years,

all its derivatives

has

been

as

father

the

apostle of
and

sustenance

maintenance

that
will

years

tissues,with

the

and

involution

of

bodies

all the

characteristics,

human

of

inance
sub-dom-

and

predominence

revelation

destruction

that

and

evolution,

depend

for their

food."

upon

Whether
one

in

never

mineral, vegetable,animal

of
will be

has

who

move
spared the lash or knife to redevelopments of a perverted physiology wherever
found, has
said:
"He
who
of the
adequately presents us with the statement
breath
becomes
the cognizableblood
by which the unseen
processes

to

who

that

ability.

greater

all love

umph
tri-

tion,
is,by its defini-

reason

necessary

the

the

apostle lives

or

shall

live,perhaps the

next

twenty-

decide.

Distressing

"How

is your

"Bad!

This

Malady.

It

"

was

doesn't

Cass-avenue

asked

newreology?"
weather

one

improve

it

car.

any,"

was

another.

of

passenger

the

ent
despond-

answer.

"Talking

of

next

him," I

It's

as

"I

good

tell by

can
as

had

never

another

newraology."
mine

man

when

the

in the

is

weather

going

to

one

change.

but

and

once,

then

nearly died,"

said

pasenger.

that

word?"

Yes; and

how

many

remarked
I have

even

different
a

lady

heard

to

there

ways
her

are

say.

We

get

out

here."

it called

"

Detroit

of

cing
pronoun-

friend.

neuralgia," said

friend.
dare

the

to

corner

barometer."

neuralgy

Isn't it strange

"

said

Free

JPress.

the

SOCIETIES.

DENTAL

THE

at

not

The

Society,with

inner

man

Dr.

A.

satisfied

was

following toasts:
Koch, Chicago;

from

down

sat

guests,

bountiful

the

W.

Atkinson, New

H.

Norman

by

response
Hunter

Came

from
"The

City, Iowa;

Spalding,

West,"

the

by

response

Mr.

Chicago;

Bingham,

S. R.

spread, the

dent,
Presi-

m.

order

and

gave

by
by

Dr.

C.

to

W.

Dr.

of

N.

Geo.

L. Field

York; W.
and

McKellops, A. H.
Hunt, Iowa
City; H.

J.

St.

abroad

from

and

Fuller

Paul, Minn.;

Barrett

"The

V.

G.

Mighty

G.

W.
and

A.

Black,

of

Dentist

G.

Bowman,

the

ry
"Dentist111.

Atkinson

H.

C.

St.

Minneapolis, Minn.;

Reid,

by

Hunt, Iowa

O.

Detroit; C. W.

C. Moore,

E.

M.

Drs.

were

C.

by
Dr.

ry,"
Dentist-

Future," response
by Dr. J. A. Robinson, Jackson, Mich;
in Illinois,"response
by Dr. G. V. Black, Jacksonville

Among the guests


W.
Kingsley, New

E.

C. Barrett,,

American

A.

R.

response

Louis; "And
Dr.

the

Association," response
by Dr.
Outside
of the
Profession,"

Friends

Crouse, Chicago; "Our

J. N.

St.

by

response

Dental

American

after

p.

Profession,"

York; "Pioneers

C. W.

Dr.

dinner

Ladies," response

"The

York;

Kingsley, New

W.

to

Literature," response

"Dental

last

and

at

Guests," responded

''Our

the

towards

previously given.

those

Buffalo, N. Y,; "Dentistry a Liberal


Dr.

and

members,

Hai-lan, called the meeting

W.

great deal

Hotel, Tuesday evening, December

than

invited

done

years

its

of

Leland

the

less successful

was

the

side

social

bi'ingingout the
which
was
given
9,

in the past few

Society has

CHICAGO

THE

SOCIETY.

DENTAL
This

OF

DINNER

ANNUAL

FIFTH

29

Societies.

Dental.

and

falo*
Daboll, Buf-

Spalding, H.
Louis; A. O.
C.

H.

Jacksonville, 111.,and

rich,
GoodJ.

A.

Robinson, Jackson, Michigan.


The

visitingmembers

the dinner

members,
and

beef

committee, the
and

in company

packing

taken
profession were
officers of the Society and

of

the

visited

establishments

the

apd

Union
other

Stock

in

several

Yards

places

charge by

of

and

of

the

pork

interest

in

The

30

and

around

made

the

addresses
much
Club

by

one

on
one

Archives

Several

city.

Dentistry.

of

of

class of

the

visitors

clinics

gave

and

gery,
SurChicago College of Dental
met
to their delight. They were
again feted at the CaluWednesday
evening by Dr. J. N. Crouse, after which
their
and
tents
they quietly "folded
silently stole
the

to

the

away."
It
the

was

occasion

an

Society was

notables

long

gratified at

should

forsake

remembered

be

to

and

the

thought that such


and come
daily avocations

their

distant

points to honor their board


Chicago, December
13, 1884.
^'

by

an

of

array

such

from

presence.
X.

"

their

of

member

every

"

MISCELLANY.

THE

CHEMISTRY

OF

BREAD.

condensed,are from
following extractSjSlightly

The

Mattieu
by W.
Knowledge. Speaking of

Williams,

British

the

to

article

an

tributed
con-

periodical,
he

particularly alum,

adulterants,

says:

according

"bakers'

bread; but
There
the

is the

sack

of flour.

exceeded, it

always be boiled

shall

not

tub," then

with

mixed

two

quantityof patent yeast,


have
a

is left to

mixture

The

seive,

water,
The
common

to

etc.

stuff

the

separate
The
or

salt.

baker

rocky
The

three

consists

the
in

four

or

twelve

of

buy

with

improving

one

this

complex.

the

part of alum
at

2d.

per

bears

peck

one

three

regarded

per
as

assist

to

mentation.
fer-

peck

of potatoes

the

"seasoningthe

water,

same

of

flour.

hours, when

it will

pounds

After

skins, it is mixed
it for

made
home-

which

is used

or

ferment.

uses

bakers

or

of

(about

be

not

can

quarts of

three

for six

is called

what

become

so

skins, mashed

and

stand

small

prescribe that

in their

added

more

another

potato flour

The

milk

fruit is potatoes,

The

if

instructions

The

and

propoi'tion is

adulteration.

fraudulent

"fruit"

as

or

ingredients

commonly

This

by weight) that,

cent,

the

is

"rocky".

or

little sugar

are

bread"

known

material

of "stuff"

name

the

to

"|-ndcustom,

taste

to

yeast, with

and

salt

Flour, water,

straining through
the

sack

of

flour,

bread.
to

three

pound,

parts of

and

they

Miscellany.

31

They buy it for immediate


use,
the premises.
on
being subject to a heavy tine if they keep alum
The
to each
ordinarilyused is eight ounces
quantity of the mixture
sack of flour is (vrith
sack of flour weighing 280
pounds. As one
into eighty loaves
weighing four pounds each, the
water) made
believe

it to be

quantity of
of

an

in

alum

is

of

pound

one

rationale

The

ounce.

alum.

ground

chemical

bread

of

action

the

That

puzzle.

amounts

it has

quantity
appreciable effect
is unquestionable,

alum

in

bread
of the
improving the appearance
it may
actuallyimprove the quality of bread

and

part

of this small

of

60th

1-1

to

an

made

ferior
in-

from

flour.
It appears
bread.

the

there

In

that

were

digestibleas

the

this

subject(itstill
science)is that a
be

made

over-dressed

than
whole

meal

white

bread,

In

of

and

think,

by

inner

the

to

in

middle

dressed

moderately

undressed

or

seconds

Such
consumers

are

make

we

flour

does

unwise

in

our

bread,

own

flour,the

baker's

at

made

in

of wheaten

they

darker
a

is

in color

own

that

in

bakers

than

call

than

kitchen.

the

"home

made"

or

When

it

their

is

two

or

but
has

is
the

customers

I may
it

great

"farm

bought

identical

or

say,

lacks

however,

are,

doing

now

unsifted

occasionally,

flavor,

There

that

but

loaf

in

ordinary bread,
I find

i. e.,

home-made,

inferior

are

flour rather

coiTcsponding

sweetness.

higher price,and
my

with

whiter

correspondingly

what

supplying
It is

bread

certain

tionably
unques-

and

fairly produce
demanding whiteness.

that,

find

this,as

tators,
agi-

not

to

would

"thirds"

baker.

characteristics

action.
re-

meal

"seconds";

or

the

colorless, and

whole

the

that it is not,

show

ordinary supply, a

from

extreme

an

flour, they

exceeds

the

plies
sup-

by its whiteness
judging
much
the
mischief, against which

demand

when

who

produce
undigested particles may
intestinal
canal.
the
My
opinion on
in the region of opinion rather
than
is the right one, viz., that bread
course

remains

household

my

vender

of the

"firsts"

flour.

impossible

of bread

is easy

passage

irritation

mischievous

should

it

adulteration,

demands
or

is demanded

which

right,but

manufacturer

whitens

alum

of

cases

who

buyer

meal', is,

"whole

husk,

as

cases

The
led to

has

agitationfor

some

the

the

demand.

If the

of

and

other

many
"

foolish

be

so

guilty parties

mistake

recent

in

as

quantity of

this small

fact that

appearances,

the
a

this,

two

are

unnatural

is

be

to

the

tions
excep-

business

house"
sold

in

bread.
less
neverthe-

flavor
become

of bread
more

32

The

Archives

all the bakers


will
intelligent,
of buying bleaching material.
article

The
bread:

The

enough,

but

closes

with

difference
the

doubtless

the

of

incur

to

cease

the

following suggestions

between

nature

Dentistry.

of

and

new

stale

difference

the

is

about

means

no

stale

is familiar

bread

by

expense

so

monly
com-

It is

generally supposed to bt- a simple result


of mere
easily
drying. That this is not a true explanation maybe
who
proved by repeating the experiments of Boussingault,
placed
for
stale loaf (sixdays old) in an
an
hour,
oven
a very
during
understood.

which

it was,

time
it

of course,

out

came

as

loaf.

new

becoming
days, while
weight by drying, and

that

half

per

it lost

and

three

moist.

more

he

repeated
piece

same

one

By using

in

cent,

experiment

of

bread, making

found

only

the

during

that

one

times

it

in

the

of

ently
appar-

an

succession

alternately stale

oven

and

new,

instead

in

the

of its

cent,

per

becoming

theless,
never-

during

hour

one

air-tightcase

an

several

the

He

it lost

stale,

six

dried; but,

further

being

oven,

the

on

and

each

new

time.
For
130"

and

frequently

neglected and

crust, in

the

This

necessary

piece

of

of

that

limbs

right leg

of

hot

moderately heated;
rolls for

the

with

rolls
it

long
improved

are

into

whole

stale

been

have

crusts

breakfast,

treating

Bousingault, by

experimenting

was

longer than

Surgeons

the

loaf

oven.

or

thick

which

is claimed

knowing
than
in

of the

the left.

that

instances;

their^surroundings,
with

the

circle, as

skeletons

shorter

people

referred

one,

do
to

left

will,

this

make
and
when

the

examined,

he

were

It

Nature,

in

states

equal in length in only seven


longer in twenty-fivecases, and the

without

In most

of

skeletons

authenticated

longer with one limb


to
produce traveling
woods.

but

Bousingault hot
before
putting

Royal College

well

instances.

walking

la

When

water

in

of the

seventy

lower

eight

be

stale bread.

Member

the

not

fond

am

manner.

thin, the

are

by dipping
is

them

have

in this

bread-crusts

should

oven

sufficient.

is

150"

to

the

experiment

this

thirty-

in
in

persons

their

step

thereby
lost

right

the

arm

tend

in the
was

Journalistic.

33

JOURNALISTIC.
'Seadingmaketh

Hydeochlorate

Clinical

Record

G. W.

in dental

best method

little dilute

of

brush

small

Repeat

this

will be

found

the
on

alcohol

once

that

the

fresh

Cocaine

chloridi

Spiritusmenthae

with

experiences

from

alveolaris
then
a

is

York, is of the
the

of

the

apply by

ten

of

roots

in

the

marked

numbness
the

the

five

and

to

the

teeth

hair

cocaine.

minutes

diminution

sides

of

in

with

camel's

of

of

course

in

the gums

solution

cent,

per

the

of

means

opinion

cocaine

is to first "wash

sensibilityof the gum corresponding


which
made.
the applicationwas
following formula

657, under

page

hydrochlorate

tartar

of

there

The

1884,

13,

several

twice, Avhen

or

man;

Dentistry.

December

using

and

quantity

ready

surgery.

operation of scaling the


(Riggs' disease)pyorrhea
a

man."

D., D. D. S., of New

M.

Weld,

the

that

of

conference,
exact

an

in

contains

Department,

anaesthetic

new

writing,

Cocaine

of

Medical

The

full man;

and

it
in

the

teeth

is recommended:

(Merck)
piperitse

"An

exposed n6rve-pulp was treated


partiallyextirpated,without
causing

with

5 i.

the

above

pain

any

gr, vi.

to

solution,and

the

patient. In
tilling,
Aglycer-

extremely sensitive tooth for


ite,ninety per cent in stre'ngth(made by dissolvingMerck's
crystals
in glycerine)was
allowed
in the cavity for a period of
to remain
On
thirty minutes.
renewing the operation the patient stated
that the pain was
The
same
materially deadened.
expei'iment was
tried with
the borate of cocaine
similar
(Foucar's crystals) and
results apparently obtained, but the paste was
permitted to remain
the

preparation of

in the
Dr.

cavity
C. H.
of

tooth.

The

of

an

the

Shears

tooth
says:

teeth, and

for twenty -four


iised

"I have

in each

preparation used

the

case
was

two

hours."

cocaine

twice

operation
per

cent,

was

in
for

solution.

the
a

traction
ex-

single
In

the

34

The

first

the

case

and

Archines

tooth

exquisitelytender

was

closelyadherent

so

Dentistry.

or

the

to

tooth

that

and

it

the

was

inflamed,

gum

incise

to

necessary

it.
"After

into

dipped
brushed

the

across

few

minutes, making

later

the

tooth

was

without

first and
additional
few

of

After

tooth

extracted

was

second
in

the

instilled

were

few

pain

at

No

minutes

Dr.

W.

better

P.

The

from

it,and

his

who

and

been

of

the

sensitive

without

the

Howe,

than

in

vital

obtained
of

were

of

New

York,

this

for whom

Perry

"Second,
as

in which

three

professional
Payne, of New

T.

four

and

ten

sensitive

upon

results

per
tine
den-

are

in which

almost

marized
sum-

complete

while

was

obtained

remarkable
learn

instances
with

wet

when

on

and

me

in which
the

by drying
a

variations
about

called

told

two

than
The

in

me

loss

effect

written.

has

ever

of

was

done

was

in several

strong hope that

to

cle
arti-

an

produced, and the removal


livingpulps without pain by Dr. Perry is 'no less remarkable
have
been
performed on the eye.
any of the operations that
Dr.

utes
min-

few

contains

The

pulps.

instances

many

in dentine

sensitiveness

what

four

follows:

"First, there

lady

pain."

cocaine

of

orate

tooth,

Cosmos

Dental

Morgan

hydrochl
extirpationof

for the
as

much

blood

incision,

pain

has

experiences and that of


Perry, C. F. Ives, and E.
testingthe effects of two,

own

of

"after

cavity of
dental
engine

Dr. J.

of

have

solutions

cent,

the

S. G.

friends,Drs.

the

two

repeated

the

seemingly
insertinga few drops

the

number

pen

relates

York,

into

used

the

that

says

December

from
he

He

solution

later he

jr.,of Cleveland, O.,

Horton,

results.

cent,

per

tive

the

to

with

incision

attended

have

first case."

the

of

The

all.

manner,

into

tooth

of about

similar

pain
considerably less

with

the

was

it could

was

same

the

of

than

case

brush

intervals

no

pain

cleansing

minutes.

three

after about
the

The

solution

the

almost

little less

applied

was

applications.

drops

once,

and

solution

the

with

with

hair

side

was

anaesthetic.

the

either

on

gum

used

was

extracted

then

camel's

repeated at
applicationsin all.

three

lancet

gum

the
This

times.

small

gum,

solution, and

three

been

the

carefullydrying

reliable

dentine

solution, almost
the

seemed

as

complete
I

cavity thoroughly.

stronger solution

in results

this wonderful

the

will

drug.

can

disappear;
One

be
but

sen-

thesia
anaes-

have

obtained
we

phenomenon

have
has

The

36

Archives

fi'om 66 to 54, twenty

given above

after

Dentistry.
the

injection."The tracing
which
half a grain of hydroa case
given bypodermically;the upper line is the

taken

was

chlorate had

minutes

of

been

in

in

before the injection,


the lower fifteen minutes
pulse-trace
Ohio

Nervous
to

from
written

Exhaustion

The

"

and

November

Fatigue.

the dental

exhaust

to

Journal.

State

by

(Coca)both

number

"

We

gives us

commend

of

after."
the following:

the following

times

as
us
are
profession,
compelled
many
and
article
The
is senervous
lected
physical
strength.
the 3Iississi2'jpi
Valley Medical Monthly, and was

at

both

He says, "I have used it


Hicks, M. D., Boston.
and
in
practice,and find it of great
personally
my

H. D.

followingconditions:
prevent and relieve fatigue.
of backache
those
cases
accompanied by highly-coloi'ed

service in the
To
In

urine with

excessive

amounts

of urates

and

uric acid.

In short

of the
breathingdependent upon weakness
respiration.
of the heart, without valvular lesion,due
Palpitation
or

to the weakness

It relieves mental

muscles

of

tion
dilata-

to

of the heart muscje.

exhaustion, rendering the

flow

of

thought
vigorous.
reasoningpower more
*
*
It desIt dissipates
'the blues,'leavingthe mind calm.
troys
in
small
is
useful
in
for
sick
the craving
doses,
alcohol,and,
exertion.
f
rom
Its habitual
and headache
headache
over
resulting
clearness and acto mental
tivity,
as a part of the dailydiet conduces
use
from
and sound sleep."
freedom
fatigue,
occasion in the following
He relates his personaluse of it on one
leaves and determined
of the coca
to
language: "I procuredsome
give it a thoroughtrial.
more

easy and

the

One

fine autumn

afternoon

I started out

miles distant,
and, without

and

walked

to

the

town

ward
home-

resting',
began
eightor ten
I became
one-third
the
distance
of
which
about
at
as
journey,
in my life.
to have been
thoroughlyexhausted as I ever remember
I was
unable to go further,my back, loins and the muscles
Literally
I
with
about
of my legsbeing lame and painful, had
me
oneI
which
of coca
of an ounce
half or three-quarters
leaves,
ed
proceedall fatigue
In less than twenty minutes
and swallow.
to chew
and
back
was
legs had fled,and I started
gone; the pain in my
arrived
there as fresh as when
I
homeward
at
a
swinging gait,

37

Journalistic.

started.

Ordinarily

days, but

next

such

morning

walk

saw

would

laid

have

perfectlywell

me

me

and

for two

up

ready

for

other
an-

not

coming
be-

tramp.

long tramps, with


the longest."
fatigued during even

I have

it since

used

fluid extract

the

is the dose

ToNGALiNE.

"We

recentlywhich
which

Messrs.

had

we
we

occasion

doses

many

had

testimonials

from

strengthen such
and

hope

we

the

is the

also. So

nutrive

things

the

we

often

not

see

fact is

that
rice

The

Nev^

contains

with

times

of

cost

Medical

Anaesthetic."

since

1855, and

used

in

rice

"The

fervor
is the

has

Germany

these,

food

with
many

In this
be

to

is far less than

for

that two-thirds

fact

well-known

for

accounts

try
coun-

had,

while
curately
ac-

or

cent.

beef; therefore,

Surgical

been
first

"Cocaine

Record
and

cases,

who,

Cocaine

contains

18

after

the

themselves
been

known

the

erythroxgenerally

American'

plant,now
hydro-chlorateis

The

ing
experiment-

trying,express

has
praise. Cocaine
of the leaves
of
pi'inciple

South

November

for

Hydro-Chlorate;

of October

Minor,
most

Journal

in its

active

ylon coca, the well-ki.own


prescribed as a stimulant.
origin,and the anaesthetic
surfaces

and

power,

as

and

Agnew, Moore
drug in several

enthusiastic

trial.

list of articles of food

nutritious

most

foll\)wing
regarding

this

remedy
bodily

to

neuralgia

encounter

little else besides.

only

reports of Drs.
with

of

tend

Galifornian.

"

Orleans

the

Local

New

The

for rice."

lieve
be-

neuralgia, and

good for body building,


give eighty-fiveand beef tjventy-tiveper

is three

nutriment.

hurrah

is the

beef

study

It is

rice with

on

stated, rice
of

remembered.

live

think

each.

for

want

we

new

We

surgeons

often

this

little while

every

and

j)ahad

have

we

results.

for

remedy

Dentists

give

may

thing

one

quality of

of mankind
we

of them

the

then

good

physicians

prediction."

some

"Nutriment
mental

Since

with

times,

noted

ralgia
neu-

ment,
ordinary treatTongaline for us,

some

taken.

be

of

case

admirably, relieving the

It acted
been

this

to

the

under

Co., order

to

of

5^8

readers

our

Having

improve

prescribe it several
Tongaline is destined to

the

of

rheumatism.

"

Bush

that

adult.

an

not

patient.

our

gave

tient before

did

thinks

He

call the attention

to

neuralgia and

for

remedy

new

wish

for

of

effect

the

on

so

of

more

recent

with
cous
muproduced by its contact
it having been
known
only about a year,
of
by laryngologiststo produce anaesthesia
effect

38

The

the

vocal

The

cords

Archives

Dentistry.

of

and

surrounding parts to facilitate manipulation.


eflFect of the topicalapplicationof the
drug has

ansesthetic

been

brought into greatest prominence by an experiment related


witnessed
the
New
York
by Dr. Noyes, the eminent
oculist,who
production of complete anaesthesia

by

the

instillation

Merck's

cocaine

and

examined

of

of

drops

two

conjunctiva, and

of the
two

solution

cent,

per

cornea

of

hydro-chlorate (repeated in five minutes) into the


Dr. C. R. Agnew,
who
has
patient'seye.
extensively followed
Noyes' directions in his large ophthalmic clinics, has performed
successfullyperfectlypainless operations for squint and cataract,
has

injured and

otherwise

ease

drug,

of

or

in those

unattainable

inflamed

eyes

without

systemic ana?sthestic.

numerous

in which

cases

the

use

with

remarkable

this

of

It is

and

freedom

quite certain

that

is necessary

for

local anaesthesia

minor

operations in surgery, gynecology, laryngology, otology,


*
This
and
even
dentistry,this anaesthetic will be tested." *
of
cocaine
is a discovery by a very
application of the muriate
physician,or he is perhaps not yet a physician, but is pursuing
young
*

his studies
Koller."

Drs.

satisfaction.

drug,

but

in

Alt
We

and
have

also

Pollak, of St Louis,
been

druggist

our

he

Vienna, where

unable,

has

are

His

using

supply

and

are

we

the

by

of this

looking forward

great
of

the

time

the

any

journal a})pears, we hope to be able


effect
on
experiments. If it has the same
report of our
and pulp tissues that it has on
the conjunctiva and
cornea
a great
dentistry
blessiag to humanity. Painless
prove
number

next

is

name

it with

far, to procure

so

ordered

lives.

give a

to

dentine
it will
is

what
H.

to.

BIBLIOGRAPHIC.

The

kiston, Son
This
which

Visiting

Physicians'

is the
fact

"

Co.

is

evidence

much
Visiting List has become
of medicine, it
to practitioners

of the
of
more

is

its

Stationery "

publication of
acknowledged

than

P.

Philadelphia:

1885.

St. Louis

(St.Louis:

thirty-fourthyear

alone

for

List

convenient

necessityby

reason

Book
this

Bla-

Co.)
annual,

value.
account

of the

The
book
use-

39

Bibliographic.

have

to

for the

important

physician

hand.

at

The

it is

it contains, which

fill information

contains, besides

volume

table,

visits, dose

list of

the

vised
re-

Pharmacopoeia, list
for
producing
of poisons and their antidotes, Sylvester's method
in
artificial respiration,Hall's
asphyxia, general
ready method
to

with

agree

memoranda,
for it
Index

by

James

is

sale.

ready

ing
Manufactur-

Dental

S., the S. S. White

34, inclusive,

1883.

is essential

book, and

valuable

very

vols. 1 to

Cosmos,

Dental

D.

Co., Philadelphia;
This

the

to

Dexter, M.

E.

and

sures
in-

List

Blakiston's

of

Cosmos.

Index

Complete

S.

excellencies

many

cii'culation

wide

a,

Dextal

to

The

etc.

U.

of the

last issue

the

to

who

one

every

objectkept in view in tha


compilation has been the presentationof every subject or matter
of interest to the searcher's
readilycognizable
eye in a plain and
owns

set

form."

of

the

It is

index

an

period

this book

is

of

this time

changes, and
The

who

wishes

them

Cosmos

Dental

to

almost

been

have

fully than
recording these

more

office of

the

methods

our

Charcoal.

burnt

experience
in the

far

chronic

and

charcoal

to

superiorto

dialgiaof adults, and

it be
then
any

known

that

other

and

that

in all ways

any

try
dentisof

this

work.

plump
an

of charcoal.

form

and

the

affords

powdered,

of infants

diarrhea

events,

olutionized.
rev-

dental

other

the

Let

"

any

wholly

history of the professionof


necessarilyconsult the volumes

consult

during these years must


will greatly facilitate
index
journal. The new

Wheat

in

journal of which
in the history of
have undergone

the

eventful

most

of

many
of

some

journal has performed


one

articles, and

the

index, is clearlythe

an

of

than

oi'dinaryindices.
thirty-fouryears covered by

dentistry. Within
essential

subjects rather

of

this respect differ from


The

"The

Cosmos.

Dental

wheat,

fully
care-

article in
We

use

adults, in pyrosis and


is known

charcoal

our

it
car-

be

to

useful.
In chronic

gastritiswe

finelypowdered,
or

without

is worth

bismuth

looking

know

and

subnit.
after.

given

of

nothing

in doses

Wheat

so

good

of five

charcoal

or

for

as

ten

wheat

coal
char-

grains,with

diarrheal

infants

The

40

Archives

Dentistry.

of

EDITORIAL.

MASSACHUSETTS

THE
The

Twentieth

Society
misfortune

Annual

No,

19

to

be

unable

hall

per

cent

sensitive

Boston

Dec.
the

at

day was
proceedings escaped

Library
It

12, 1884.

was

sociation
Asour

place of meeting until the


"under
well
quently
way," conseattention.

our

relative

in progress

was

Medical

and

11

Dental

Massachusetts

the

first

discussion

As

tered
en-

of

merits

the

to

we

new
or
drug
practice. This
anaesthetic
discovered
properties of the drug
cussion
for the society,and the disto possess
a fascinatinginterest
One
was
speaker had used a 4
general and quite extended.
in obtunding
for the purpose
of testingits efficacy
solution
at first greatly elated
by the result; his
dentine, and was

in

cocaine

hydrochlorate of
rather the newly
seemed

arrive

to

of the

the earlier
the

of the

rooms

Boylston Place,

session

afternoon

of

Meeting

in the

held

was

SOCIETY.

DENTAL

dental

"

"

elation,however,,

banished

soon

was

by

"

of what

the appearance

ap"

condition
the part
on
peared to be a good degree of an anaesthetized
of the drug,
of his patient,she, doubtless, having swallowed
some
constitutional
disturbance
The
the rubber-dam
not
being used.
soon

The

passed away,
speaker stated
and

dose

two-drop

of the

matter
4

same

volunteered
but

to

surface,

become

the

speech, and

it

"a

very
One

stomach."
was

or

science"

to

dryness

of

uncomfortable
of

these

suggested by

the

and

took

cent

ution
sol-

sensation

member

to

in

not

dose

as

it

tend
ex-

each,

gether
pharynx tothe
region

made

afterwards

that,

duce
pro-

gentlemen
a

and

tongue

gentlemen

did

Two

membrane.

mucous

"martyrs

reported simply
with

of

the

for

power

"

"

beyond

over

was

produced upon his


ansesthetic
propertiesand
and that its
it possessed simply stimulatingqualities,
condition
when
the antesthetic
applied locally
that

to

per

resulted.

quite marked, and similar


patient. He believed the drug possessed
advised
experimentation. Others thought
effect

The

results.

noted

ill effects

no

that, after thinking the

further
took

awhile, he himself

relief,and

doctor's

the

to

was

the

best

Editorial.

he

speech

was

other
It
M.

had

been

it must

be

that

the

drug

duced
pro-

of R. J.

Hall,

reported.
here

interesting quote
York, as given in

the

experience

New

the

afternoon, having occasion

tooth

filled,and

I induced

try the

effects

mucous

membrane
infra-orbital

the

minxites
the

there

York

Med.

of

Jour.,

also of

the

the

anterior

the

median

with

finding that

of

left side

the

the

caused

Nash

tooth, which

had

fill it,without
was

the

same

both

the

left first

cisor
in-

upper

lower

of the

when

to

the

upper

the

of

of

the

angle

the

surfaces;

mucous

septum

gums,

half

determine

not

and

tooth.

able

then

I could

of the

of

left

beyond

border

border

was

the

cutaneous

pain except

was

of

chair,

membrane

nasi

and

of

from

extending

Forcing the teeth apart


the wedge impinged on
posteriorsurface of the
cavity in

the

out

scrape

the

previously been so exquisitivelysensitive,and to


The
esthesia
anexperiencing any sensation whatever.
my
alter the injection,
complete until twenty-six minutes

sensibility was
longer. Piercing the
pain like the prick of
the

dentist's

first molar

no

and

it struck

the

dentine

somewhat

lower

mucous

Dr.

cheek

the

and

line to

unaffected

gums.

of

surface

wedge

the

anesthesia

complete

was

in the
(as I was
limits),involving

exact

have

to

sitive,
extremely senDr. Nash, of No.
31 West
Thirty-firstStreet, to
of cocaine.
The
needle
was
passed through the
of the mouth
to a
point as close as possibleto
were
foramen, and eight mimins
injected. In two

lip and

upper

mouth

In

make

6:

"This

the

to

to

of New

D.,

Dec.

effiects than
be

may

heard

ever

41

bone
way,

diminished

much

and

or

fifteen

the

minutes
caused

needle

pin, but its subsequent introduction


solution
the injectionof the
not
were
introduction

the

ten

with

membrane

mucous
a

for

of

the

needle

into

the

until
felt.
ulnar

the little
to
tingling down
quite severe
pain, with
In
finger,but the injectionof the fluid gu,ve rise to no sensation.
that the incisor tooth
the teeth, it surprised me
the experiment on
should
be rendered
insensitive, as the anterior-superiordental
infra-oi'bital
canal.
I can
is given off in the
nerve
only suppose
distance
effect
extends
the
that the
nerve
some
along
centrally,or
caused

nerve

that the

fluid traveled

along

the

sheath

December
some

stead

1.

additional
gave

Mr.

Since

the

which

medical

of the

in the

nerve

canal.

foregoing

experiments
Locke,

was

written

seem

student,

of
an

we

interest.

have

made

Dr.

Hal-

Injection of

nine

The

42

where

nerve

minutes

there

where

instrument.

There

teeth

palate and

the

uvula,

of
In
same

from

way,

seemed
In

anaesthesia
taste

the

the

extended

earlier

was

gums

evening
the

minims,
the

left

Dr.

needle

from

there

the

border

the
the

thrust

pin

the

the

anaesthetic
a

of the

the

left half

gums;

the

the

and

mouth

of

the

small

and

line;
no

than

hard

the

the

median

area

of
of

the

tongue,

border

lip caused
teeth

the

upon

on

the

not

more

with

surface

anterior
line to

teeth

left

the

first

about
than

of

an

ever.
what-

face
posteriorsurside, exactly

the

back

the

gums

bicuspid.
the

and

angle
the jaw.

of

the

thesia
anaes-

the

sensation

no

of

three

of the left

cutaneous

line to

median

inferior

complete anaesthesia,
the

the

anaesthesia

lower

blows

the

the

to

The

from

from

also

complete

was

both

skin, extending

line,and

lip,on

of

causing
In

teeth

the

there

seventeen

surface

nerve,

lower

tinglingof

lower

sensation.

only

left border

of

dental

the

six minutes

completely through
also
was
complete
gums

inferior
of

internal

the

along

the median

to

In

injectionof

an

me

line

downward

and

median
caused

knife

whole

the

tongue.

mouth

the

of

middle
inch

in

of

was

There
third
eter.
diam-

after
of sensation
began twenty -five minutes
slightreturn
later no
five minutes
mained
complete anaesthesia reinjection,and
that fifteen to twenty minims
anywhere. I should mention
A

the

tal.
den-

anaesthetized

completely

the

surfaces, extending

mucous

There

was

than

inferior

of
and the sense
epiglottis,
side; and the posteriorsurface

gave

it touched

numbness

was

angle of

of
of

to

the

than

the

as

introduced

being

until

ramus

minutes

auriculo-temporalnerve.

sooner

more

Ilalsted

sharp twinge along

of

tion
diminu-

some

anterior.

This

the

and

soft

sensitiv
quite in-

and

was

and

The

blows.

there

the

line,

anaemic

lingual

affected

the

of

in the
made
injectionwas
minims
being used, the fluid

affected

far back

line,
pointed

median
to

side

the

the

was

as
on

of the

twenty

nearer

abolished

was

to

tongue

that

where

cases

come

all,the

also

with

six

to

the

on

anaesthesia

the

to

four

median

the

to

reached

be

side, were

same

domain

the

fifteen

have

to

tongue,

insensitive

were

the

on

five other

or

of

-could

as

thought

in
sensibility

four

far

posteriorly,

Locke

Mr.

In from

the

inferior

the

canal.

further, complete

side

that

on

dental

needle

the

given, extending

as

was,

anteriorly ^nd

all the

of

base

the

to

of

point

anesthesia

was

backward

gums,

the

complete
injectionhad been

the

and

the

it enters

Dentistry.

of

with

reach

miDims, trying to
dental

Archives

44

The

Archives

Boston, subject:"The
the

Oral
the

at

The

This

Cavity."

first

of

paintings,were
The

oflUcers

follows:

before

E.

Dr.

G.

Leach,
the

length.
ful
beauti-

several

hall.
were

year

First

as

Vice

ident,
PresE.

Dr.

President,

B.

E.

Page, Boston; Treasurer,


bridge;
CamPage, Boston; Librarian, Dr. R. R. Andrews,
Executive
Dr.
G.
F.
S.
K.
Comtaittee,
Eames,
Knight, E.

Dr.

Edward

J. G.

Leach,

address

of

Boylston
It

and

W.

the

F. A.

the

Cook,
Committee,

accept the invitation

to

hold

the

to

union

Executive

of

meeting

therefor,

arrangements

referred

and
of

Boston.

all of
Dr.

Eames,

the

on

Committee,

the

Connecticut

Worcester,

at

of

part

with

this

Valley

METHODS

NEW

Boston,
very
We

late

the

meeting

some

Society,

members

phosphate

cement

sufficient

which
to

burnished

related
and
it is

where

cases

adopted by
after

the Massachusetts

naturally,under the head of


will give, in substance, a few

to

to

New
of

Methods

hold

is to first prepare

that

out

and

come,

Suggestions

the

secure

material

the

before

used.

amalgam
"

it becomes

much

The

in the

rather
when

same,

anchorage,

proper

usual

thin
the

method

"

way,

and

plied
ap-

amalgam

hardened,

is

thus

The
amalgam.
phosphate cements
itself with surprising tenacityto the walls of the cavity, and, besides,
holds securely the amalgam
that
is placed upon
it,giving
the fillinga hard
and
durable
also protects the
surface, which

completing

the

cement

in

them:

is mixed

the

S.

Society,held

brought

were

phosphate cement
cavity, nearly fillingthe

on

T.

of
experience with a combination
in tilling
"saucer-shaped" cavities,

the

the

Dental

amalgam
nearlyimpossible to

undercut

several

their

was

full power.

SUGGESTIONS.

practical points

very

Several

those

of

AND

June,

next

C.

At

The
is 138

street.

Society to

all

Werner

Chairman

voted

was

Dental

or

the

on

paper

ensuing

Vice

W.

by

Worcester;

Second

Secretary,Dr.

and

on

readers

our

considerable

at

for the

Adams,

Compounds

lay before

illustrated

installed

J. F.

theii-

shall

reached

we

Stevens, Lynn;

Hitchcock, Boston;

C.

Dr.

and

and

discussed

was

Inflammation,"

elected

S. G.

Sugar

also,we

by

read

President,

Dr.

It

Address,

Nature

of

paper,

opportunity.

Annual

"Intimate

Effects

Dentistry.

of

fillingwith

Some
rub
phosphate from waste
by the action of the oral fluids.
into the powder of phosphate cement
little prepared amalgam
a
before
gam,
adding the fiuid,and, after applying this,finish with amalburnished

on

as

before

described.

It

was,

however,

gener-

Editouial.

ally believed
qualityof the
far

as

this

that

valuable

J. G. W.

the

to

the

walls
in

method,

Werner.

In

deciduous

and

unnecessary,

is somewhat

cement

its retention

Another

was

45

the

that

adhesive

the

impaired thereby, at least in so


of the cavity is concerned.
certain cases, was
presented by Dr.
of

treatment

children's

teeth

cially
espe-

"

the

faces
proximal surof the bicuspidsand molars are so largelydecayed in both teeth
that taken together,they from a "cup-shaped" cavity. Now, in such
often very friable, and it is extremely difficult
cases, the walls are
in each tooth.
to secure
a filling
retaining points so as to secure
Even
if this could be done, say, with
amalgam, thermal influence
would
often create
each cavityis filled with gutta
a disturbance,oi',if
is rapidly
percha in the usual manner
separately the material
wasted
by the process of mastication, there being a space
away
between
each filling.Dr. Werner
fills such
cavities with
gutta
percha,as he would an ordinary small cup-shaped cavity,bridging
if not too great
the space
between
the
over
teeth, making one
solid plug for the two
cavities and space between.
The
doctor
marked
re-

often

we

"

meet

"

"

"

"

finds that

that he

this class of cavities,filled

extremely comfortable, ^nd

are

the

between
the

method.

other

any

teeth

in the

It

teeth

much

the

to

the

injury of
better
the

be

can

case

Comfort

ordinary way.

much

are

prevents

longer and

than

material; or

where

cases

of

delicate

gum,

than

by

when

the

and

the

food

preserves

of

result

other

any

material

the

by

substances

and

use

same

utilityis

this way,

lasting than

more

wedging

the

in

is

to

used

prising
sur-

extent.

Dr.
to

H.

serve

as

the

to

Baker,
a

side

one

matrix

A.

or

c^

band

Baker

the

market.

illuminator,
is coated

is

proposes

and

cut

matrix

not

to

with
when

tin.
the

From
tinned

and
copper

side is

designed
sheet

per,
cop-

material

placed next

it, thus

bining
com-

illuminator.
at

least in sheets

easilyobtained,
put

this

illuminate

effectuallyto

very

this tinned

for this purpose,


Dr.

serves

aid of

believe

be

unique device
It^issimply thin

Boston, presentedan

and

which
may

cavity it
the

We

matrix

of

matrices

but

made

from

we

thin
sufficiently
understand

this material

that
upon

race
again visited the office of Dr. D. M. Clapp, 62 Trinity Terthe retiringpresidentof the society and witnessed
the successful
ity
working of his dental engine motor
by the use of electricof the Electi'ic Light Company
taken from
the wires
which
his house.
It is surprisingwith what
and
conveniease
pass over
We

"

"

The

46

lamp and

electric

an

demands

suit the

regulated to

of

the

method

the

He

moment.

illuminate

to

ing
attach-

is about
mouth.

the

of

instantly

be almost

engine may

the

reflector

ought not to overlook


specimens adopted

We

Dentistry.

of

rapidityof

and

the power

ience

Archives

logical
histo-

photographing

explained by Prof. Andrews, of


fit
Cambridge, but we trust he will hims^^lf give our readers the beneWhen
an
of an explanation at an early date.
exceedingly busy
the

learn

the

know

we

as

man,

and

professorto be,

takes

the

photographer'sart

for

time

necessary

to

obtaining
demonstrating
of

sole purpose
of
the purpose

for the

sults,
re-

sults,
remay
perhaps
say,
obtained
of
be
that
cannot
field
in his special
investigation
and
otherwise, the professionare placed under special obligations,
lection
The
work
later.
his
or
sooner
large colwill not fail to appreciate
this
he exhibited
and explained on
of photographs which
exhibit
in
be
work
to
to
his
occasion
we
hope
permitted
own
will
which
The
foretaste
we
columns
give this month
soon.
our
we

or

"

"

surelv

anticipation of

the

sharpen

to

serve

readers

our

for

more.

C. T.

DENTAL

ON

RIGGS

J. M.

DR.

S.

CARIES-

the
published proceedings of the Connecticut
looking over
to note,thatas long
a little surprised
Valley Dental Society we were
of the
of dental
causes
1875, Dr. Riggs, in a discussion
ago as
of
almost
would
a prophecy
to what
seem
caries,gave utterance
the
prominent theories of to-day; not only regarding the now
In

of
micro-organtheory, but the processes
in his valuable
set forth recently by Dr. Black
action
as well, as
Formation
of Poisons
"The
work
by Micro-organisms."
on
this subject Dr. Riggs is
with other remarks
connection
on

generallyaccepted germ
isnal

In

recorded

and
which
a

attribute

act

that

it derives

the

on

it would

discharges carbonic acid and dissolves


its path, takes
up the potash and other
super-structureand
soil.

In his

greater

or

from

thus

opinionthe

less extent, is
the

not

yeast,

silica

its root, which


alumina

and

it needs

materials

passage

or

for itself

push

its

grasp
course

the

enamel

into the

of

dentine

for

through

in
its
the

teeth, to

brown

can

If

fungi,
fungi is

its nourishment.

derive

through
the

two

contact
to

or

on
coating found
fungus growth which derives

rust

If it

tooth.

penetrate that, why

excavates

of

one

livingsubject.

nourishment

its

to

cause

ferments, like

until it

easilyperceivehow

can

the

fluids,produced by the

the

of

will not

contend

some

know

condition

of food

detention

plant he

We

acid

the

sources,

"Must

follows:

as

ment
its nourisha

tooth
in

and

all di-

Editorial.

rections
a

until it

destroysthe tooth? One


the microscope. Have

great field for

beyond

us

carry

When
then

the dollars

recall the

we

beside

set

and

crude

that, the

acid

remark

ty.

The

that

the

to

the

of

source

Dr.R.,

of

fungi

"will

generallyconceded

is

its

by

the

Dr.

latter,it may

one

the

be

results

remoleculization
is not
If Dr.
Dr.

by

would
the

Riggs'
to

seem

or

of

be

the

Black's

to

void

theories

contending

as

either

what

that

plant,could

be

alluded

ened
strengthThe

to.

it would

That
upon.
this process
of

to

"inflammatory"

an

or

of

acted

consequent

is termed

perfect
importance chieflyin

fungi.

plant"

alkalinity,simply a

or

substance

of

detention"

reduced

remove

it,might

before

acidity
the

manifestations

matter

of

it gains

work,

to

it,being

garding
re-

oral cavi.

"plant" discharges is, evidently,


'"'digestive
fluid,''''
although,according to

of

be

served

it

pioneer in,

of

until

R's

least strange.
theory is true, and

and

"contact

from what

remoleculizes

the

Black,

hoio

Dr.

should

in the

condition"

in the

alludes

perception of

Dr.

to

and

ago,

food

being

fluids found

has

Black's

fluid,which
digestive
of

of

revolution

years

and

which

with

identical

of

perusal

^'"carbonic aciiV

years

that the "acid

with

doctor

Ten

His

nourishment,

ten

detention

him
in

of

the

on

now.

interrogationpoint.
derive

the

act

here

enough

livingsubject," is now
insignificant
minority. That "fungi is
not

and

small

very

and

destructive

"some," also,that

have

sure,we

enthusiasm

we

theories

produced "by the contact


credit
must
we
ferments like yeast,''''
at least,the logic that has
resulted
the

thing is

cents?"

be

must

47

tion,
ac-

to

be

as

it facilitates

supported
non-perfect formation,
seem

so

far

fermentable substances,

or

the

surer

Prof.

that "bacteria
Mayr's remark
may
sound
enamel"
Dr. Riggs less
would,
probably
frighten
penetrate
than it did certain other
in the profession some
prominent men
Since this utterance
by Dr. Riggs, this "field for the
years since.
in
has
been
taken
hand, mainly by the enthusiastic
microscope

harboring

"

men"
he referred at the time, and
it has
to whom
shown
young
does
that intelligent
forecast
the
not
facts
as
logic
always
wildly as
"

of

"

would
have
believe.
One
of
us
carping "observers
is that logic pointsthe way
the "facts
for investigation,
and quite
often prophesy results with a good degree of accuracy.
some

our

"

C.
THE
The

round

table

TOMES

of old

King

Arthur's

days
gentlemen

of fourteen
antly to the
Saturday evening, Dec. 27.
The
object of this gathering of New
to

entertain

at

dinner

S.

DINNER.

recollection

was

T.

and

York

spend

an

was

at

and

brought pleas,
the

Hotel

wick,
Bruns-

Brooklyn
evening in social

tists
dencon-

The

48

with

verse

"Our

C. S., of

F. R.

Tomes

Mr.

Honored

London,
has

departments
to

done

S.

M.

Esq^,

Tomes,

A.,

England.
too

much

for both

science

and

generally to

men

direction

the

Dentistry.

of

Guest," Charles

of dental

educated

and

Archives

in which

the

theoretical

is too

well-known

need

his talents

any
have

reference
been

of

and

tical
prac-

by

dents
stu-

ting
rela-

here
service

to

pleasure to acknowledge the great debt science


researches
him for his very complete and
accurate
ing
concernowes
the development of the teeth of fishes and reptiles.
of the
and
As the appointed hour drew
near
passed, with one
of them
number, "the noblest?Roman
all,"still absent, all thought
better
the
of the dangers attending a "thirteen"
dinner, and were
able to give themselves
pleasure of doing honor to their
up to the
secured.
at length a quorum
was
guest, when
shaded
with
decorated
The
table, a pleasure to look upon,
was
and
in gold candlesticks,strata
candles
of smilax
weaving around
the
which
the
about
to
center
numerous
bouquets,
compared
one,
but pigmies
bank
of roses
others were
a circular
arranged with a
idea
the
of
of
colors
sent
was
during the evening,
harmony
proper
wife of a much
loved
of the
member
to the
together
company,
side.
with the autographs of all present upon its reverse
with a menu
would
the
burden
of
One
versation
connaturallyexpect "shop" to bear
has
at a dinner
given by dentists to a gentlemen who
in
himself
the
but
same
such, happily was
profession,
distinguished
"The
flow of soul" was
in other
the case.
not
directions, being
spiced with wit and happy hits and interspersedwith recitations by
in the art of delivery,while all combined
in expressions
a master
of sympathy for colleagueswho
were
ill, one
by
only of whom,
able
be
and
he
found
to
plenty* of good
specialeffort, was
present
mankind,

but

it is

"

medicine

for his ailments.

ner
brought out in the after dinAmong the pleasant reminiscences
the fact that Mr. Tomes,
of his
speeches,was
uj)on the occasion
twelve
last previous visit to this country, some
was
tertained
enyears ago,
of gentleman many
of whom
at dinner
were
by a company
visits
abroad
and
of
accounts
interesting
long ago
present then,
of
their
were
given by two speakers,who credited much
pleasure
the worthy
Tomes
and social recognitionin England to Mr. John
who
steps
is so ably following in his professionalfootfather of the son
and thereby furnishing a notable
exception to the rule that a
in
has
made
which
father
who
follows
the
art
a
son
professionor
rises to equal distinction.
himself
great, never
With
expressionsof regard for Mr. Tomes, and the hope
many
iting
would
he
allow twelve
that
not
years to elapse again before visAmerica, the company
separated, having pleased the inner
"

man

and

done

honor

where

honor

was

29

Dec.

29,

1884.

S. E.

due.
East

Twentieth

D.

Street,N. Y.

TECE

Archives of DentistnI
J
A

Vol.

Monthly

Record

n., No.

FEJ3RUARY,

2.]

Of

all the

THE

EFFECT

ON

BY

Read

In

this

but

all

have
candies

and

are

admit

we

saps

produces
It has

and

readily,
piece

of

the

M.

COMPOUNDS

attention

been

asked

M.

Society,

I do

you,

D.

D.,

Dental

your

it not

to

I).

Dec.

few

12, 1884.

simply

they

are

plants

stated

and

that

acids
and
sugar

trifle

for

points

tertainment,
en-

your

which

may

find

which

that

form
over

from
the

patients

our

to

seem

effects

are

think

remarkable

in

placed
This
the

are

the
it

of
that

awai'e

all

sugar
dies
can-

very

well;

the

juices

light

the

of

organ

taste

organism

is

capable

of

the

in

various

quantities.

by

an

liver

of

arrangement

variety
of

with

in

is sugai*.

molecular
a

substance

contact

human

it is secreted

disturb

the

better.

sensation.

sweet

been

they

sugars

We

sugar?

of

but

concei'ning

of

Many

teeth.

injurious,

sugar,
Heat

HITCHCOCK,

before

probably

on

is

What
and

THEIR

TEETH.

Massachusetts

call

well."

writing

AND
THE

paper

to

is

investigation.

to

We

B.

the

before

bringing

lead

E.

excel,

wise

masterpiece

SUGARS

OF

Series.

[New

1885.

the

in which

arts

chief

Nature's

Art.

and

ARTICLES.

ORIGINAL
"

Science

Dental

of

of

alcohol

new

sugar

substances.

lamp,

and

ing
produc-

most

Place
it

begins

to

Archives

The

50

fuse, bubble, emit


all action

like

that

heat.It

the

by

kind

One

of

this is the

abounds

sugar

second

is

and

glucose.
fourth

fruit, fructose.

and

largelymade

succose.

acid

with

is

derived

not

was

up
in

sugar-cane,

the

is

found

in

Whence

the

air,nor

supplied

the

agency

carbon.

from

third

wood.

developed by

of black

of

from

was

results

of charcoal, in

crisp mass

combustion

the

finallywhen

and

gases,

black

in the sugar

existed

Sugar

of heat.

from

It

this charcoal?

comes

combustible

remains

subsides, there

respect

every

and

smoke

Dentistry.

of

and

beets
action

the

sweet

starch

of

of all kinds

matter

certain

parsnips;

of

fifth

fungi.

in

manna.

is

and

meadow

Our

probably

upland

is manufactured

Glucose

covmtries; it is

other
is sold

at

in
clear

food

as

immense

refined

of

from

potato

action

the

by

with
of

oil

cheaper

It

it.
of

and

is made

vitriol

or

S O4.

Ho

acid

added, and

then

removed

thick

by

chemical

Jf

heavy syrup.

change

and

H2 O

form
measure

and

moisture

the

C prevents.

but

the

molasses

the

is

porcelain vessel, dilute

the
the

hours.

solution
starch

used.

starch

find that

we

The

The
O

sensation

with

which

and

the

damp dark
purchased at

sugar

to

acid
H

Consumers

of

to

of grape

undergoes

tend

to

unite

depends

crystals dissolve
than

fined.
unre-

much

commerce,

and
high pi-ice,

is

certain

mass

sweeter

of

acid

evaporated

of sweetness

is considered

sugar

The

syrup

days solidifyinto

rapidity

refined

hence

purchasing

In

few

In sugar

upon

mouth;

in the

than

whatever.

and

evaporate

in

in

for several

means

we

will

placed

boiled

mixture

the

point of density,it
weighing more
sugar
no

is

gelatinous starch

Thick,

in

starch

corn

or

The

purposes.

adulterated

often

are

sugars

for cattle.

quantities in France and


resembling glycerine and

distillers;but scarcelyat all for domestic


kinds

which

substance

sweet

heavy.syrup
is used by confectioners, brewers

It

price.

low

its value

hence

cane-sugar;

contain

grasses

although

dark

sweeter
coarse
they are not.
they seem
sugar
contains
that besides
other impurities,it
large
are
perhaps not aware
saccharii.
This
of a most
numbers
disgusting insect, the acariis
relative bi
the acarus
insect is a near
scahiei, which
])roducesthe

The

itch.
grocers

insect

often

produces
pustulouseruption resembling
sugar

burrow

itching.

under
The

the
number

skin
of

and

upon
psora

the
or

hands
scabies.

or

arms

These

deposit eggs, creating an

acari

in

raw

sugar

is great,

of
sects
in-

ble
intoleraand

in

The

52

Archives

condition

the

cavity of

action

the

sugar

of

the
the

on

Dentistry.

of

mouth

perfectlyfulfills.

dental

tissues, carries

and

still further

changes the butyric acid


These
tations, proprionic and valeric acids.
action directlydestructive
to the teeth.
In

of

absence

the

contain

jviiceAvhich
azotized

at

what

usuallygives the

the

whitish

"The

buccal

cavityand

of

many

who

in children
of

the

child

the

at

sugar

or

teeth

are

of

time

and

is

have

with

be

service

but

of 'age,

of

of

the

one-half

of

oilr

food

teeth.

of the teeth
suitable

and

teeth

almost

constant

importance

first

teeth,

power,

and

the

as

if

to

these

be

generally traced to
These
place of milk.

can

months

seven

we

see

of

amount

and

temporary

and

the

some

this is

the

still greater

from

often

of

responsible for

the

of

in the

or

how

awar^

hardly

held

less resistant

either
of

be

of

eruption

gastric

need

the

interstices

immoderate

fact

the

with

covers

caries

prematurely by caries,it

years

is

One

of

the

This

honey used
supposed to

twelve

to

should

sugars

energetic

place of a ferment;
the gingival membrane

sometimes

frequent cases

softer

then

are

attacked

are

of

allowed

but

its deriva-

most

ought to be regarded as
alimentary fermentation."

gums,

that

are

the

particularlythe

more

this substance.

use

teeth

the

have

to

which

of the

maintains

Magitot

acid, we

reaction

breeding places

permanent

very

acid

of

some

have

altering

fermentation

the

vomitings loaded

takes

once

collection

borders

free

and

lactic

pure

which

matter

in

as

sugar,

into

The

it otherwise.
taken

sugar

consists

birth

after

into

the

tem.
sys-

of

starchymaterials and
Nearly
these are
changed into sugar in the process of digestion. Even the
these
saliva itself will very quickly convert
starchy materials into
mouths
are
only a few minutes
required to
glucose,and in most
eifect this

In' the

change.

observed, only

Mayr,

Prof.

the

entire

In

diabetes
exists
How
contain

the

causes
as

do
sugar

is

in

teeth

the

some

of

curately
ac-

bread, five of

temperature
acid

enough

differ
form

of sugar

presence
be

to

produced by

candies

normal

than

was

to

of

the

decalcify

molar."

simply

persons

such

saliva,one

the

time

the

required. According to
and hydrated phosphate

was

of

grams

syrup,

of

crown

some

68

child, where

carbonated

kept at
hours, generated more

for 48

body

of

five

and

meat,

of

mixture

half minute

will dissolve

sugar

lime.

of

of

case

set

on

edge

in tlie saliva,as
and

real

even

in

pain

acids.

from

sugar?

coml"ined

with

We

find

other

that

all

materials

candies
or

sub-

Original

it from

free

it with

the

the

which

hands,
to

serve

In

hide

the

is added.

taffy vinegar
is

sugar

mixed

moulded

into

In the
with
called

with

shape and

and

other
We

extracts.

In

white

the

confectioner's

glucose

develop the colorless


dark impurities.

to

as

so

cooling the

after

then

water,

by

made

is

candy

molasses

Simple

stances.

of

of

candy we have
impurities and

find

that

of

these

artificial

fortunately only small

Apple

added

the

more

bichromate

sugar

flavored

flavoringsare
quantitiesare

side.
out-

less mixed

rarely

very
much

they are
injuriousand

so

cheaper;
ous;
poison-

even

used.

oil

sulphuric acid

with

and

of potassa.

Quince, nitric acid and

oil of

with

alcohol

acid.

Prussic

or

and

rue.

Jargonelle pear, one part fusil oil,two


sulphuric acid, purified from
Acetate

the

different

as

apple by distillingbutyrate of potassa


sulphuric acid.
consists of dilute hydrocyanic
Oil of almonds

alkaline

or

are

Pine

an

stiff and

on

with

fruit extracts

pure

creams

until

chocolate

fusil
by distilling

oil is made

chocolate

beaten

egg,

an

solution

to
boiling molasses
pulling
mass,
waxy
saccharine
crystals

made

home

used, artificial flavoringsbeing substituted


most

53

Articles.

acetate

acid

free

potassa,

centrated
con-

one

with

by washing

solution.
of

amylic

ether

with

butyric

acid

flav-

banana

forms

voring.
currant, mulberry and
strawberry, raspberry,apricot,black
mixtures
of ethyl and amylic ethers, modified
essences
arp

The
other

by

the

addition

of

pure

nitrous

ether, orris

vanilla, volatile

root,

oils,etc.
I will cite

Concerning the direct action of sugar,


Magitot found that a solution of
three
The

of water

liquid was

mould; reaction
its thick

and

gave

at

reddish

the

end

in color

of two
and

clearlyacid, having
syrupy

character.

one

years

part
the

ments,
experi-

sugar

following

with

faint

odor, and

placed

few

cane

covered

Teeth

in

and

result.

thick

layer of
still I'etaining
this

solution

black in color, the


and
roots
having a
completely softened
and
friable
when
as
as
chalk,
gelatinous consistency;the enamej was
it to have
the dentine
beneath
detached
at several
points, showed
undergone the same
degree of alteration as the roots.
Teeth
protected by a coating of sealing wax, leaving an exposed

were

54

The

point,

showed

at this

ceeding, and
all the

when

friable
the

produced

in the

which
and

solution

in

kept

removal,

and
have

when

unless

take

effect, but

change.

caries.

the

The

the

on

in contact
of

is

in amount
the

the

of
of

the

while

teeth

in

teeth, the

In

different

uncomfortable
the

to

There
the

acts

far

by
in

comes

reference

of

extent

several

decided

this

the

not

may

have

will

theory, they

at

jority
ma-

with
ing
vary-

caries, condition

the

What

etc.

few

been
least

the

as

ence
presthe

tation,
fermenmade

extensive
a

the

from

tests

give

of

is

moisture

of

cite

for

contact

theories, such

will

ment
fer-

ing
com-

feeling produced,

rapid absorption

to

when

by sugar
In

as

favorable

is very

sensitiveness,

are

times; although these

to establish

substance

candy

or

invariably there

almost

mouth.

that

ous
deleteri-

undergoing rapid decomposition through

sugars

etc.

the

teeth

direct

no

to

used

conclude

may

have

albuminoid

sugar

decidedly

that

rity,
perfect integ-

The

We

the

foreign body,

sealed

dried, proved

and

change which
effects produced

producing

pain'?

such

are

of any

according

of

state

they

sugars

saliva, civilization,relative

cause

in

perfectlysound.

were

teeth, if

raised

water

hermetically

was

appreciable alteration.

or

examine

carious

there

changes

no

placed therein,

teeth

washed

being

conditions

with

sound
care,

found

after

presence

us

of

greatest

wei-e

place in

sugars,

Let

addition

the

and

are

years.

teeth

loss

no

experiments

changes

On

distilled

in

sugar

group

the

weighed,

undergone

in these

them

the

cane

flask for two

pre-

enamel

the

black.

the

cavity,having

prevented,

was

with

of

edges

soft and

sugar

of

with

weighed

were

After

the

boiling point, having

is

of

produced

The

bottom

identical

teeth.

three

to

one

caries.

the

action

alteration

an

localized, has

of

and

of creasote

to

thus

Dentistry.

of

exposure

characteristics

soft and

Archives

at

enough
for

chance

speculation.
Caries

slightlyacid, parotid

added,

no

aching

which

effect,little

tested

same

for

ache;
found

bicarbonate
with

moisture,

Another,

saliva

sodium
no

chloride

slightlyaci-d,powdered
and

Na.
Na.

in

C02

two

did

CI. which

minutes
not

has

decided
the

Then

stop.
a

sugar

decided

ity
affin-

pain.
saliva

added

and

increased

added
soda

parotid

saliva

saliva

acidity.

slightlyacid, caries
in

two

minutes

acid,

sugar

cavity tested

dry,

again

no

and

parotid

saliva

decided

acid

parotid

saliva

Another,
ache; but

Another,
added,

sugar

Another,
half

acid, caries
reaction

added,

acid, dry sugar

no

cavity.

slightlyacid, cavity slightlyacid,

very

reaction.

acid

in

and

one

the

added,

C02

soda, Na

ache, bicarbonate

and

saliva

with

added

cavity acid, sugar

minutes

in

ache, but increased

no

55

Articles.

Original

ache

stopped.
Another,
added,

no

Anothei-,
bicarbonate
Na

CI
In

deciduous

soda, Na

added,

the

in the
of

I have

those

the

mentioned

simply
seemed

effect

in

pain

private practice. In
questioning, that badly carious
the

to

as

absorption, the
of

pi'esence

sodium

there
this

was

But

ask

but

small

the

The

the

former

tion
proporthan

less
found

ache

not

tested,

cases

decidedly

all

at

on

when

wholly

exclude

nook

candy

and

odor

be

in the

removed

and

saliva

we

all

removed;

of

breath
find

an

This
a

holds

it is safe

brush.

who

not

degree
existed
and

it
to

has

if

Simply
allowed
one

in

solution
that

often
been

it

ing
eat-

to

main
re-

whose

possible thing

say,

how

and

sugar
race

in

harm

is it

and

is not

once.

by

which

human
starve.

material

any

and

reaction

of

use

then, if

hard; but

cranny

it

at

do

not

the

soon

and

now

less

in

tested.

was

for the

profession would

The

cases

sugars

better

acid

the

of

amount

you

of

alcohol

caries

moist

the

this and

do

Absolute

when

cases

in the

will

the

were

without

and

once

effect,thoughto

that

our

caries,however,
the

these

if it

that

me

pain.

no

same

certainlybe

this?

rare

sweetish

likelyto

chloride,

was

example

saliva, as

perfectly sound

extremely

on

same.

at

the

ferment, will

are

for

the

of

would

amount

every

act

the

to

seems

produced

have

by

I fear

all of

In

of

did

produced

be

change

It would

remove

of

teeth

Spunk

most

caused

you

CI

In

not

and

the

Na

decided

so;

teeth

would

saliva.

candies?

the

latter.
was

were

pain

chloride

in the

few

about

many

pain, it

of

cause

too,where the sugar

cases,

Sodium

eaten.

was

Now

infirmaries

the

at

cases

be

to

in

candy

added, pain,

sugar

added, pain stopped.

Coo

sugar

pain.

no

above

others

slightly acid,

tooth

dried

decayed,

cavity badly

acid

slightly
pain.

to

meates
per-

except in
we

detect

eating candy.
acid already present
and ready to
be
not
being in a cavity, would
one

56

The

Archives

Dentistry.

of

EXPERIMENTS.
BY

Head

I have

called

for

of

most

practice have
before
others
the

use

only

to

might
in

out

failure.

that

events

interest

result

is

failure

the

of

the

survival

on

the

failure

of

the

unfit.

the

marked

the

pointed

one

the

to

way

others

enabling

from

correctingthe

error

earlier
of

be

these

the

over

the

why

enabled

experiments

road

in two

achieve

all

be

to

the

of

ways,

to

experiment
to

and

probable

direction.

road

same

have

observed

the

great

footsteps that

experiments, made

useful

of

only

road

same

The

were

in that

of

will be

on

will be

the

in

results

fittest lives

The

failures

lion

it performs

either

useless

was

with

to

sonable
rea-

vent
pre-

result, or

failure,and
indeed,

success;

already proved

by

some

in the

success

others.

of
At

successful

the

see

the

account

going
to

fittest.

achieve

to

illustration

another

travelingover
disappointment.

advance

to

success,

them

an

do,

to

only, while

only

history of

of

failure

efforts which

of
It is

the

warning

if

of

cave

thus

way,

hope

One

tried

have

individual

the

of

of

goal

same

they continued
Hence,' I consider an

hands

otliers from

preventing

arrivingat

reply that

knowledge.

of

my

thing

aggregate

dictum

in

to

great

the

of

One

others?

of

result

outside

my

general progress

use

ures,
perhajjshave called it Failof
of the ordinary routine

well

as

efforts

my

its part in
the

practiceof dentistry.

in the

practice
experiments to a result in my own
heralding them as great improvements, and leaving it to
is
their value.
to determine
Perhaps it will be asked. What
the
of writing a history of failures
when
are
successes

desired

resulted

is,work

11, 1884.

Dec.

Boston,

at

the
enhance
labors, and
lighten our
to that suffering portion of humanity rightly
called
the
although I have
subject of this

work

our

Society

thirtyyears

over

MASS.

S., LAWRENCE,

D.

Dental

efforts

patients,and
Experiments,

paper

that

of

many

of

D.

KIDDEE,

Massaehusetss

period

made

benefits

H.

the

before

During

"

J.

expert

labor,

fii'st attempts

my
that

time

method
at

hand-made

improvements
carved

of

the

idea

of

work

but

up

in the

the

block

around

with

was

yet
the

desiring to
and

unfused

dent.
stumost

I became

teeth.

taking plate
then
right position and
them

while

was

block

constructing artificial
carving and mounting teeth;

I conceived

settingthem
and body of

at

quite
lessen

pivot teeth

and

forming the gum


tooth-body, and

fusing the

whole

of

success

that

it, but

would

The

work

has

mounted

been

work.

nearly
At

so-called

that

One

work
beautiful
platinum plates. This
of existence
out
by the cheap vulcanite
the common
was
practiceto set teeth by the

it

time

invention

and

experiments

my

the

to

great discovery.

had
practice,

commencing

after

soon

heralded

been

since

has

an

reputation for honesty.


making my artificial platesof 18 or 20 carat gold, and in
skill could
that
wishing
command,
thorough manner
my
I prohands
cured
looking as beautiful as possible,
go from
my
and

After
most

let it

to

driven

recent

as

continuous

beautiful

in the

upon

which

of

amusing
the

fusing.

in

bridge-work method,

profession

making^a

in

perfected

been

partial
tooth-body

made

blocks.

the

succeeded
much

too

since

has

form

to

never

shrink

not

idea

gum

together

57

Articles.

Original

disastrous

result

to

my

solder and the


the
battery and a gold bath and covered
gold plate with a covering of perfectly pure gold. It looked very
the thin
But
fine
and for a time gave
soon
perfect satisfaction.
off,and the difference in color
coating of pure gold began to wear
between
the outside
and
the' alloyed gold plate underneath
began
for
I had
been
to excite suspicion that
palming off a base metal
To clear myself from
the unsuspecting innocents.
pure gold upon
a

this

patientsin
good many
fence,
a
campaign in self-de-

a
obliged to educate
suspicionI was
mysteries of metallurgy and to make

the

before
that

dentistrytbere

in

even

the

of

out

was

scrape.

is such

thing

being

as

conclusion

the

to

came

than

nice

more

wise.
Another

who

is

some

one

were

circulated

drinking
that

have

of

to

What
had

to

drinking
makes

got my

Several

that

had
me

annoy

years

got

into

much

at

benefit

of

be

may

the story for the

day, however,

had

filled,who

been

sent

for

teeth

of

purpose

stranger

came

to

him,

me

habit

first,as

fighting the rumsellers, and

started

to

by

of

I had

supposed
heading
my

with

some

stories

ago,
the

to

ofiice

personal
gold

and

amalgam.

returned

is

in

it

as

myself.

not

I filled several

mine.

with
He

One

teeth

some

friend
some

had

them

influence.

off my

as

It did

much.

of

some

relate,

patients

among

too

will

careless

as

particularlyactive

been

to

experience

you
teeth

my

and

friend

man."
think

ready

My
so."
to

said

friend
Said

went
fill,

my

to

him, "The

man

you

sent

me

replied, "I do not believe it.


patient,"The doctor,after he
into

back

room

and

when

he

58

The

returned

his breath

Aechives

smelt

Dentistry.

of

strong of liquor,there

very

was

taking
mis-

no

it.
As

I knew
of

have

set

make

so

in the

me

such

in his belief.

been

ness
absolutelyunfounded, the directcould
to thinking what
possibly
assertion,as he was
undoubiedly

suspicionswere

accusation

led him

honest
had

the

his

an

After

habit

time

some

flashed

it

that

me

upon

mixing amalgam in my hand, by rubbing


the mercury
and
silver
then
turning about a teatogether, and
spoonful of alcohol upon it and washing out the oxides in that way.
Of
I returned
when
course
to my
patient my hands would be well
The
natural
inference
of
the
perfumed with alcohol.
patient
would

be

that

when

of

doctor

the

smelling strongly of alcohol


of taking a "nipper."
purpose
of washing my
amalgam in
If

of

any

alcohol

make

you
the

upon
nose

good practitioners
soda-bicarbonate
It

was

that
I

he

back

had

the

alcohol.

it,

though

even

do

you

not

under
the
handling the amalgam
unjust suspicions. I should advise

to

least

at

make

to

of

use

saturated

I did

amalgam.

it in the

tin with

the

silver

alone.

could

be

rubbed

amalgam
It

wish

the
be

and

stronger

was

practicallywhat was
though the proportion of
of

into
could

than

was

If

would

afterward
tin

was

with

called
not

have

you

made

amalgams

and

in the
Take
that

several

oxyphosphates
following manner:

equal parts
used

of

for

oxide

making

in

of

to

coin-

You

Townsend's

it

see

Amalgam,

definite.

very

combine

the

into

This

zinc, mercury

and

Rub

five-dollar

tear

and

off

fill exposed

of the

be

can

any

the
manner

together

piece

advantages

compound.

amalgam.
and mercury
together in precisely the same
and
gristrubs mercury
precipitatedchalk
are

dense

and

less.

to

attempts

piece

more

mercury

discolor

and

mei'cury

paste, making
done

change a cheap amalgam


that the gold is there, you can
amalgam, and know
of gold foil and rub
it into a pelletof amalgam
situations
to great advantage.
any

of

inal
orig-

following manner:

better

all

After

of

tient's
pa-

solution

that

and

the

turn

mixing the silver filingsfrom the standard


coin, with
getting it ready to l?eplaced in the cavity, I found
foil

tice
prac-

in

silver coin

tin

the

for

abandoned

immediately

ed
return-

there

gone

cleansingamalgams.
to combine
early practicewith me

an

and

room

hand, yet
lead

may

of

use

into

went

of

oxide
as

to

plished
accom-

the
of

the
make

loys
alzinc

drugthe

The

60

effect

require to
molar

In

with

common

imitate

the

in
frequently used
seen
injurious effect
any

never

not

quire
re-

large

its

from

use

find

to

the

tooth,

that

so

that would

fillingmaterial

durable

some

would

work

our

made

I have

professionalbrethren

not

often

so

cloth
into
an
putting new
of the repair is nearly as unin which
the appearance
sightly
Notwithstanding, I have frequently
originaldefect.
old

garment,
the

as

of my

many

of

color

illustrate the

had

usually will
building up

It

air spaces.

manner.

desperate attempts

old

Dentistry.

of

the

of

have

you
I have

crown.

in this

closure

than

more

Auchives

Scriptureproverb

considered

patientswho

the

of

of

appearance

in

gold

teeth

the

much
lamented
and
the fact that I.took
so
highly ornamental
of
regarded it as a choice
pains to keep it out of sight, I have
figurement
disevils,not so disagreeable as the sight of decay, but still a bad
as

of
Soon

commenced

dentures, I
of

translucency
made

of

the

tooth.

natural

result

material

for the

bly
possi-

obtained

soon

an

solution

etherial

the

was
can

opaque

in

used

be

secured

be

quality to

artificial

for

could

it that

fillingmaterial, for nothing

imitate

to

base

similar

of

essential

An

as

with

modification

decay.

the

of

celluloid

of

experimenting

securing some

fillingcavities
be

organs.

introduction

the

after

purpose

natural

the

parently
ap-

of

by making
splendid
gun
the
and
then
and
ether,
evaporating
copal
cotton, camphor
gum
which
and
almost
compound
transparent
leaving a hard, tough
It is a substance
of heat.
amount
could be softened
by a moderate
stand
had
similar to celluloid,which
already proved its ability to withaction

solvent

the

an

of

fluids of

the

the

badly decayed front teeth with this compound


of the fillings
surfaces
were
exposed to view. It
imitation
could

detect

not

was

almost

test

of

she

glancing at
making
the
from

waited
the

close

directions

teeth

I noticed

I found

examination
loose.

cavities,and

Very
much

to

the material

little force
my

sanguine

was

to

and
every

smile.

but

the

lift them

that

her
The

on

and

shrunken

required to
dismiss

On

appearance.

had

you

and

in three

return

(Usappointmentand

obliged to refill with gold


patient,I was
glitteringdeformity announcing itself at

fect
per-

wait

to

discolored,

not

were

large

most

feet distant

concluded

but

patient
making her

they

the

was

very

for the

six before

about

felt

al
sever-

which

in

few

saw;

ever

Eureka,

exclaim.

I gave

were
fillings

the

to

teeth

disfigurement.I

any

ready

time.

months;

of the

natural

I filled

mouth,

of

with

my
the

material

the

had

fatal defect

same

the

first celluloid

not

shrunken

plate
its

from

been

has

several

worn

It is the

shi'ink

In

are

and

which

sheets

of you

has

durable

material

that

I have

the

as

knowledge.

any

bined
requisitetranslucency,com-

the

and

exhibited;

it will

be

if its tendency

valuable

sand

as

be

may

of

line I succeeded

addition

to

I have

not

is

more

them

I think

neither

of

introduced

them;

but

opinion. If

different

It

strips.

some

dion
collo-

will find the

vou

so,

used

be

stripsto

celluloid

lodion
col-

the

obtaining

narrow

celluloid,but
so

in

into

cut

the

as

the

paper,
a

be

can

same

than

better

good

as

with

which

yet been

has

overcome,

the
polishing fillings

flexible

has

in that

experiments

my

in thin
in

be

can

see

materials.
filling

list of

our

which

that
dvirability,

with

of

substance

any

substance

only

to

of

to

that

years

efforts to obtain

notwithstanding I failed in my first


I regard experiments
translucent
filling,
promising

yet

form.

orginal

But

most

I have

itself has.

celluloid

that

that

61

Articles.

Original

convenient.

very

ABNORMALITIES.
"MRS.

BY

under

had

I have

the

girl,both born with


of good texture, and
as

they

of the
The
months

boy

their

died

at

fine

old, a

the

full

of

age

time

some

twin

j^ast a

children
incisors

central

been

which

notches

saw-teeth

inferior

having

attained

had

for

"congenital teeth";

of

case

observation

my

J."

W.

M.

ind

boy

"

well

terestin
in-

very

developed,

erupted evidently for sometime,

and
length of crown,
mark
recently erupted

three

months,

healthy child, and

but

the

devoid

wei-e

incisors.

girl is

six

now

apparently nearly ready

to

erupt the superior incisors.


I shall continue

eruption of
child

under

to

the

watch

the

i-emaining

my

observation

case,

inferior
at

the

and

will

report

teeth.
time

hope

of

the

I may

shedding

successive
have
the

the

uous
decid-

teeth.
The

parents

the

ant
lower, ignorant, unobserv-

the

whether

accidental.

unfortunately of

grand-parents dead, so that


be classed
the peculiaritycan

class,and
learn

are

regard

the

case,

however,

as

I have
as
one

not

been

able

to

hereditary,ormerely
of

especialinterest

The

62

fact

the

from

There
had

child

one

still

quite

by

presenting the

children

other

in the

children, and

abnormality.

same

father

family, the
and

previoixs marriage,

young

Dentistry.

of

of the twins

of both
three

are

Archives

living

mother

the

with

the

having
all

two;
widowed

now

mother.
Their
lack

teeth

of

present
and

care

lower

of

years

lacking

molar, and

is

There

teeth

left lateral

either

on

which

prominence
is about

makes

the

put in

to

case

sixth

central

molars,

year

inferior

there

jaw

indicate

the

of the

exception

in

presence
twelfth

year

ajjpearance.
is

the

that

perfect,with

unusually regular and

were

bicuspids in all, and

incisor,cuspid,bicuspid,

remarkable

more

of germs

side.

the
an

fifteen

girl,now

young

in the

would

missing teeth,with

molar, which
What

instance

extraordinary lack

right bicuspid;

bicuspid

no

the

of

jaw

the

superior jaw

missing

is also

the

the

among

unusual

an

teeth, having erupted only four

in the

second

the

ciistomary

common

time

of

case

apparently, an

shows,

age, who

this

at

dentition," in the

permanent

and

uncleanliness

extreme

observation

under

also

"retarded

of

the

the

classes.

I have
of

peculiarities,
showing only

no

incisors,and

temporary

normal
three

eruption

of

the

of

second

molars.

subject has

The

nervous

very

loosened, and

the

of

case

The
all of

the

permanent

its

right

deciduous

erupted, the

tooth

equalize the

of

absence
teeth

the

the

sides; the

two

life,although
lateral

lateral

other

being

same

was

done

in

cuspids.

the
on

sepsitive. When

to

illness in her

serious

any

and

extracted,

also

had

never

to

of
in

on

the

side

of

the
the

vacancy,

has

jaw

effort

to

follow

lateral

the

caused

right central

arch; the cuspid turning half way

the

the

left

the

towards

move

centre

axis

own

teeth

the

and

cupying
oc-

around
central

incisors.
teeth

The
and

the

bearing

are

arch

surface; and

growth
If
be

the

needed

of

with

expanded,

missing teeth,

the

also

the

and

being regulated

now

with

latent

the
germs

not

germs

are

to

supply

the

to

hope

the

intention

drawn
of

back

into

place,

insertinga

plate

furnish

the

that the

antagonism will/induce

necesary

masticating
the

if present.

developed,

the

deficiency.

plate will

of

course

always

Selections.

63

SELECTIONS.

ON

BY

EDMUND

OAVEN,

LANCING

F.

C.

R.

GREAT

There

two

are

venturing
evening.' The
my

with

first

is,that

sooner

regard

to

these

for any
draw

oneself

puts

one

discussion

conclusions, or

Not

many

years

then

seemed

be

to

used

infancy and

of

for

good,

before

will

may

considered

this

you

better.
throw

prefer to
rather

ensue,

the

have, the

to

the

course

proper

With

out

than

tions
sugges-

attempt

theory of my own.
practitioner carried
every

to

any

almost
he

now

3, 1884.]

slightpractical acquaintance

formerly

that

advance

ago,

lancet-case,where

but

objects,I

two

SICK

is,that if the question have

was

the

November

communication

second

in

FOR

myself, at least, seeta

to

I have

the

HOSPITAL

STREET.

London,

of

this short

bring

to

THE

ORMOND

which,

reasons

TO

Society

subject; the
it
importance which

real

due

Medical

the

before

GUMS.

SURGEON

S.,

CHILDREN,
[Read

THE

would

for

carry

thermometer.
clinical

severing every

which

early childhood,

he

silver

The
knot

in the

adies
mal-

able

not

was

lancet

to

untie.

Steadily
Its

has

place has

been

whether

used

opening
sigh over

of

in

Has

an

countless

for

as

the

same

to

why

years

the

lancing

sepulchre of

improved

instrument

filled,I regret

abscesses, are

the

question

thin-bladed

the

of

say,

by

for

gums,

various

less suited

for the

the

lancet

the

leech

is

not

the

and

tomb),
gums

of

gum

sacrification?

are

been
Has

into
blades

venesection,

far

dark

condition

to

fallen

now

the

which,
for

or

(forthey
to

as

the
of

process

to

lie together
the

answer

rarely

so

the

But

purpose.

evolved

disuse

lanced.

result

of

dentition

in clinical work
This
changed, or have our capabilities
improved?
last speculation is,I think, worthy of attention; but I am
loth to
admit
it in its entirety,
should
lest one
seem
thereby to depreciate
the

scientific

acumen

of

those

many

clear-headed

and

outspoken

have

practitionerswho
it is often

"snatches
He

him."

for the

being,

side

most

generally
of a tough

dentition

Was

come

know

relief I

willing
put

possessedof
in the

there
To

day,

theory

was

on

help

public mind

the

or

"My
expression as this:
all this usually to be found

an

the

must

surgeon

clumsiness

of

amount

compare

the

ciates
asso-

cruelty.
head?"

quite fair.
molar

the

lancet; and
are

that

supposed

of

emergence

slightloss of
that case
give

saddle

the

much

how

infant's

gum

that

of

with

remarked

child

is

which
of

wisdom-tooth

the

of the

truth

membrane

mucous

been

often

must

public become

the

and

It has

teeth

in

even

have

roll of

or

do

to

that

me

demand

not

the

help

sharp edged teeth, the incisors,are


of help. This
in need
stand
most

the
to

suggestive.

is

Dr.

think
How

horse.

band

fibrous

that

which

those

but

theory?
the practice of lancing the

adult, is not, I think

from

might

gums

questionable pathology;

the

preventingthe complete

it is strange

the

wrong

That

in the gums.

admit;

to

the

on

cutting through

Billard

abberration
extended

of

the

diseases

possess

in

to
at

of

process

he

says,

"most

teething.
this

this

dentition

absurdities

of

chapter

attributed
of

that, if all that authors

remarked

quoting Guersant,
been

the

which

as

this

tooth

the

ago;

present

than

of

scarification

am

been

have

we

such

canal

alimentary

from

blood

fact

the

certain

hear

one

through

at

Probably

one.

time

short

dentition

of

process

in the
explanation of
troubles often
The
obscure
of the child being improperly fed?
I
what
and, from
on
just as the infant is being weaned;
clined
be inthis period, I should
of dieting at about
the matter
on
of irritation is much
more
that the source
likelyto
to think

in the

be

Even

the

regard

real

the

not

fact

that,in the
Infancy, remarks
are
painful,and marked
very

mechanical

gum,

with

does

often

How

part,

his lancet.

it with

gums

to

appears

held

rather

wrong

of

dwell.

profitto

in their writings,

whom,

or

eruption,and

their

was

the

pleasure and
Management

with

He
continues, that the infant
bright red elevation.
at
everything, and retains nothing. Nothing pleases
the shape of the teeth as influencing
then speculates on

pale

before, and

gone
a

Dentistry.

or

dentition, the

stage of

second
with

both
in

Combe,

Dr.

is

Archives

The

64

The

early age,

department

of

should

and

be

the

diseases

of

the

little

be
the

would

of
diflSculty

written

had

an

of

the

on

recorded,
result.

infancy

accurate

an

And
have

tion
observa-

positiveknowledge

pathology,

have

contributed

65

Selections.

greatly
of

establishment

the

to

Infants, 1839,

this

of

opinion."

201.)

p.

is apt to be
specialtrouble which
dentition, though not dependant upon it, and which
be overlooked
by the practitioner who is inclined
There

is

of

teeth

the

morbid

as

paralysis. I would
foretell the on-coming of

to

attend

would

venture

oneself
due

child

young

the

teething.
regard to

with
deformed

or

if not

limbs

I would
the

growing,

and

tough;

also from

I find
in

them?

no

need

to

l)loyedat

say

when

end

is much

be

scarified

should

though

not

ills

careful

evils

When

which

to

in the

tender

is

is evident

infant

delights

the

find it

often

one

carried

have

for it uj^on

the

red

Is

or

local
with

constitutional

lancet, and

expectation of

the

tooth

medical
much

gums
is it "a

to

tendants
atem-

good

suffer
the

are

lances

edy
rem-

little

as

increasing
advises

disturbance,

allowed

case,

there

family

Combe

from

card

Who

the

or

swollen

in my

lancing the

"Teething,"

fibrous

sight
having it

in

them?
the

tooth

the

Doubtless

sees

have

be
to

and

lancet

gums.

Who

scarification.

do

needs

one

which

expanding, the

must

gum

for

condition

reallyinflamed

fact that

be

is the exact

flesh

accompany

kept
paralysis.

essential

"

advancing, the

years

wasted

illness of

that

look-out

the alveolus

powder?
the chapter on

there

the

sulted
con-

ly,
reproachful-

that

risinggeneration
general disregard as they do from

of

been

peat
reteething. I would
simple physiologicalprocess.

many

itself;what

Does

fashion;"

its rather

the

her

present day; is it little employed;

neglect of James'
At

the

physicians? What
the subject?
upon

the

the

of

out

of

remark

are

effect of the

these

it is not

work

I have
"

content

symptoms

mother

assured

to

Avhat

not

all the

disease

invariably a

gum

For

but

should

when

be

summoned

teething, though naturallythey


of

the

should

one

that

of

the

caution, that

rubbed.

Do

from

the

that, of

that

but

inflammation?

gums

but

enamel

the

pressed and
but

doctor

regards the

as

scarification

it is

the

insidious

demands

as

heard

from

offer

most

Then,

and

I have

is almost

arise

heir, few

of

later stages

submit

I would

it.

the

was

ago

dentition

that

is

"

several

the

early stage

symptoms;

occasions

On

bitterly,that

months

many

feverish

obscure

that

to

apt

regard

to

when
paralysis,

the

with

is very

is, the

pretend

not

strongly to urge is,that one


the
suggestion that probably

with

to

with

that

process;

infantile

able

associated

one

eruption of

(Diseases

bleed

that,

the

gum

freely,

immediately following;

The

66

and

that

in the

Archives

second

Dentistry.

or

stage, when

the

about

is

tooth

for putting an end to


lancing may be demanded
ask, in conclusion, if this
averting danger. I would

and

Last

of

might

the
the

like

teeth

gums.

the

TWENTY-FOURTH

for tlie Archives

MEETING

to

development

the

ing
lanc-

from

the

of

Prof.

by
503, Vol.

page

report

SARATOGA.

AT

Dentistry

of

(Concluded

Section

Chas.

Mayr.

1.)

VII, Physiology and

in order.

declared

Etiology, was

as

surgeon

ASSOCIATION.

ANNUAL

of

averted.

so

Science.

of Dental

DENTAL

consideration

dental

the

with

met

SOCIETIES.

AMERICAN

The

be

to

are

stitutional
con-

widely spread practiceof

once

Journal

that

effect upon

the

DENTAL

Reported

from

hear
been

of

Sritish

"

"dangers"

to

have

probably

permanent

the

are

all,I would

of

what

what

local and

dentition, is often

disturbance, resulting from

appear,

sufferingand

the

now-a-days;

to

ries
development of the various theoregarding dental caries,and especiallythe experiments of Dr.
He
does not think that Dr. Barrett
Miller.
comprehends the position
from
that Dr. Miller occupies. He
proceeded to read extracts
Pierce.

Dr.

the

of

papers

and

origin.
and
existed

He

hidden

of

these

thought

that

the

latter, in which

the

existence

the

watched

Has

"

Miller

Dr.

first, and

that

he

aside

causes
causes

bacteria

is the

inaply that the


bacteria, finding here a

find then

Z"r. Barrett.
Dr.

first step; the

Miller,

or

his views.

the
No

"

proper

one
own

my
No

one

diseased

outside

those

would

growth, multiplied,not as the


impaired function and nutrition.

forces

from

of

antecedent

were

their
of

speaks

cause,

but

diseased
field
as

bacterian

absolute

to

condition

prepared

the

cay,
de-

for

consequence

impairment of the vital


condition
being established,

environments

An

for

their

growth.

of
myself regrets the absence
inabilityto properly and intelligentlypresent
series
who
has not himself
a
through
gone
more

than

sufficient
originalobservations
experiments
thoroughly comprehend the matter, is competent
of

and

of

influences,

to
to

enable

speak

him

to

know-

Archives

The

68

union

is

health

these
F.

Dr.
teeth
the

Clarke.

work

mesh

there

are

in

in
and

there

is inflamed, feed

tissue

the
I do
of

that

of

Tyndall says
directlyupon the living

live

any

and

"

not

his

ler
Mil-

Dr.

how

see

experiments.

desultory discussion, the subject was

considerable

After

ill

cells.

of

sets

inflammation;

life-cells

are

death-cells

when

condition

or

there

bacteria

the

the

that

of

cases

produce caries
liAdng substance

bacteria

suppose

organisms,

produced

has

the

same

certain

in

bioplasson

classes

products of

the

the

the two
fightbetween
of organisms which

tissue,and
upon

the

of

call

may

we

"

that

teeth.

the

of

continuous

I think

"

and

it down.

absorption

the

by

vital forces

by

break

forces

Y.

death-cells
is

about

brought

Dentistry.

of

finally

passed.
and

Dentistry, Chemistry
The

Section.
unable

Allen.

John

Dr.

it

follow

to

Metallurgy, presented
very comprehensive, but

to present
sufficiently

Read

"

of

construction

the

was

paper

Section

of

Chairman

Tnieman,

H.

William

Dr.

paper

artificial

One, Artificial
the
the

faithful

was

In

Dentistry.

said

he

dentures

reporter

abstract.

Prosthetic

upon

report of the

should

we

fully
care-

requirements of different patients,for no


which
to
nature,
reproduce organs
two
alike; we wish
are
cases
with all her
skill,has made; the height of art will be to conceal
should
be the great
art-.
This, together with their practicalutility,
point to attain, and this requires skill and the perception of artistic
study

various

the

professionmechanical

our

According

to

product

of whose

skillful dentist

impropriety
dentistry.

mechanic

lexicographers,a
trade, according to

skill reaches

the

tific
scien-

branch

is

in all
he

sameness;

and

who

one

has

his

him

to

see

what

is necessary

branch

in his operations.
exigenciesinvolved
To accomplish perfect results he must
erties

of

the

various

together with

Especially is
work.

Many

metals

the

art

this

of

the

dentists

and

minerals

converting
if he

case

do

not

them
does

possess

know
used
into

the
in

nature

dental

ception
per-

various

and

proj)-

practice,

artificial dentures.

continuous
these

of

the

meet

to

gum

two

never

procedure, consequently this


require the same
power
duty pertains to the artist whose
professional
enables

the
But

cases.

which

cases

of

rules,and

definite

result

same

this mechanical

avoids

training

calling this

of

best

the

mechanical

pursues

of

the

Hence

research.

mental

thorough

manipulation, together with

or

block

qualifications.

We

Societies.

Dental

much

come

work,
Dr.

the

nearer

than

the

by

Rohinson.

of

use

This

"

of

acme

section

take

the words

Pojje for

of

"Be

not

Xor

For

the

wide

very

law

of

of

the several

the

last to throw

does
in the

duties

constitute

not

of

appearance

articulation.

of

the

survive.

to

is tried,

new

profession. It is
requisitefor the performance
Simple mechanical
ficiency
proin

the

constitute

art

adaptation and
philosophy of the

in

science

and

is poetry

there

good dentist;

work, and

''

old aside.

the

dentist.

combined

These

is par-

and

range,

evolution,

forty-eightyears I have labored


to inquire what
are
qualifications

proper

gum-

bases.

motto:

my

first by whom

yet the

various

the

of

has

the

fitted,according to
ticularl}'

in continuous

ambition

our

other

any

69

the

the

dentist.
Natural

teeth

shape;
they

are

never

give

to

conform

must

to

to

oblong
artificial

natural

or

round.

All

dentures

forms.

The

have

teeth

natural

culiar
pe-

appearance,

artist

true

finds

ennial
per-

imagination,for labor is only the


fills the
visible form
of it never
of imagination; anything short
The
whole
real artist is never
mind, but only a superficial
part.
satisfied with
what
does
he
occasionally from good impulses.
Without
the guide of scientific principlesall labor bestowed
upon
for
artificial teeth
is only elaborate
never
satisfy
they
nonseue,
glory in

the

his

labor

and

users.

physiognomy teeth which do not agree


obstructed.
has been
the face,but that is only when
nature
be
seldom
that good and
plain,can
prefect teeth, however
better without
destroying the character of the face.
We

find in natural

It is the

One

dentist.
able

to

combination

make

instruments

of

the

one's
in the

get along without

of

artist and

essential
own

mechanic

of
qualifications

instruments.

market, they
able

being

are

Even
so

to

that
a

dentist

with

easilybroken
do

our

own

makes

the

with
It is
made

good

is to

be

variety of

that

we

not
can-

repairing,and

thorough mechanic.
and
with professions lies in individual
with men
A great charm
moral
rectitude.
The
prevalence of this higher qualityis growing
iu the professionas the
profession is growing in the community
hence

It is

the

dentist

should

be

longer necessary to extract the teeth of a child if


be induced
to bring the child early,for with
a disk
parents can
the first decay.
can
easilypolish away
now

no

the
we

70

The

Most
of

of

the

caustic

pain

in

tubuli, and
The

The

both

carbolic

carbolic

acid

be
are

acid

substances

theory must
antiseptictreatment

be

now

equal parts
fore
cavity be-

the

harmless

considered

the

the

to

as

sue.
tis-

accepted

an

putrefactiveprocess

the

presupposes

in

albumen

the

antisepticsand

are

if

prevented
applied to

coagulales

bacterian
the

Dentistry.

of

excavating can

potash and

cutting.

fact,and

Archives

in disease.
When

the chlorine

with

tin,it is
thus

Tin
that

of

material; when

Amalgam

For

combined
combined

forms
the

into

pack

to

in the

and

becomes

line fibers.

harder; when

free

set

tin

is difficult

contained

buccal

fluids

chloride

of

best

cavity,and the
delicate
margins it
with platinum, it
with

little

for

form

is the
is

tiseptic;
an-

preservation.

for
best

tact
con-

is

tin, which

material

in

comes

possible

best

ductile

more

and
still.

harder

gold, it becomes

it is

cavityis below the margin of


the gums,for amalgams are
neither antisepticnor
escharotic.
There
is something as much
cal
chemiand
beyond microscopic research
experiment, as being is beyond existence, and as spiritis beyond
The

matter.

in

are
fillings

why

of

many

The

artist is

true

restoringand

best

our

The

closed

with
of

lectures

the

selfish;he is serving his

what

is

operators

passed and

Chairman,

Dr.

are

C.

N.

Dental

Pierce, read

at

reason

Education,

report, which

the

providing
least two

was

that

full

all students
of

courses

preliminary examination
should
be demanded,
and
that
a
graduating examination
proper
should
be required. The
cent
report expressed gratificationat the reresults obtained
tal
by the meeting of the faculties of the denand
students
colleges. Of the three hundred
sixty-five
ated
graduin the
last five months
from
the
twelve
principal schools,
five per cent, or eighteen,will, by the end
of the first year, have
dropped out from the profession. At the end of the second year
will have
than
as
more
sought other occupations; not more
many
in the
fiftywill be actually interested
professionat the end of
the

years;

that

Two,

attend

calling

is the

that

(Cheers.)

poor,

resolutions

collegesshould

in different

lost,and

Section

presentationof

dental

the

never

recovering

subject was

called.

failures when

'a

proper

fifth year.

S2ocdding. Is gratifiedwith the result


objectsto that clause in the agreement of the
Dr.

men

of

"

holding medical
degrees to
dentistry by attendance
upon

become
but

one

obtained.
schools

that

authorized
course

in

He

only
admits

practitioners
a

dental

col-

lege.

fitted, not
the

as

is

who

man

is

who

man

become

in

skillful dentist

and

chemist

good

is not

medicine

in

graduate

to

competent

as

skilled

well

as

course,

one

We

mechanic.

profession.
that so long a step has
Hunt.
Expressed gratification
action by the colleges.
harmonious
toward
Friedrichs.
Disagrees with the view that graduates of

catered

have
Dr.

much

too

medical

the

to

been

"

made
Dr.

icine
med-

"

a
man
granted specialprivileges. When
the right by that authority to practice,
M. D., he has
is wise.
of the college faculties
feels like it,and the action
for thorough education.
well to offer inducements

ought
graduates an
if he
It is
Dr.

not

long been

for the

should

the

degree

specialty of

medical

for all

D.

is it

take
profession;

for the

involved

in

cially
especine.
medi-

it and

from

to

mand
de-

sake

of

the

it

that

like

He

it.

profession, for
profession.
Only

medical

the

would

dentists,not

education

for the

He

medicine.

dentistry called

have

to

M.

of

any

general

on

degree itself,but
like

of

founded

be

more

tioner
theory with him that a practibe
a
specialistin medicine, and
of the body his knowledge
organ

should

treatment

report,

favorite

surgery

the

for

referring to practitionersin

particularpart

that

in dental
that

section

the

Thanked

"

It has

be

to

Allport.
for

only

71

Societies.

Dental

does
is

far

as

not

properly
is

it

as

merely

it becomes

mechanical.
Dr.
and

Spalding.

they

choose

much

the

for

themselves

adorn

to

first educate

us

foundation

scientific

lay a

Dr.

Let

"

We

"

have

text-books

no

the

what

sciences,and

the
in

questions treated

No

man

the

more

have
Dr.

can
we

grown
Rhein.
are

Dr.

get any
ask

General

thing.

same

of

too

is the

same

physiology

if
so

young

case

men,

the

must

go

for

said, that all


foundation

is the

general physiology.

with

medical, but scientific.

not

are

of

foundation

been

has

anatomy

education;

much

We

God!)

"

about

for the

even

Thank
profession. (Dr. Atkinson:
the medical
them
to
profession.
it plain,from
Thinks
Dr. Abbott.

The

dentistry,

practicaldentistry,and then,
medical
the
with
degree,

our

of both

in

better.

Allport.

mean

students

our

so

better

the

more

for

them

we

demand,

when

they

up.
"

not

Atkinson

If

the

works

medical, what
"

on

anatomy,

then

Every example

are

of

physiology,

medical
a

and

istry
chem-

works?

medically

educated

man

72

The

who

claims

was

educated

considered

make

fit to be

men

the

old

and

man

had

subterfuge and
to

healer,

cut

and

Look

would

medical

xnedicine, which

at

Some

that
of

the

have

man

education, then

before

most

I say

the greatest

assuming

such

be

fools

well

and

in

versed

the

are

ignoramus

false

lectures
time

high
no

most

who

".

it before
all who

is ahead

has

of

are

does

not

and

ify
glor-

medicine

dilutions

and

Through

paths.

education, then

college. But
in the use
of his fingers.
respected in society,and
a

the least educated.

are

have

men

matriculation

with

First,classical

go?

to

he must

is exclusive, it is the
these

of

falsity.

from

fool away

not

us

loose
thus

matter

mere

Let

healers.

dilutions, allopaths,homoeopaths,

what

of

is

embryonic position. Surgery

everywhere.
low

medical

dentist

better

Dentistry.

of

myself fit to be a
in hospitals, A

educated

not

be

to

Archives

dental

If there

thinks

he

knows

of

degrees,ornaments

is

who

man

Many

all.
I

sin.

want

no

ornament.

The

subjectwas passed,and the societyadjourned.


Upon the opening of the evening session of Thursday,

Three

called

was

Literature

Dental

"

(which was
incomplete,but
officialproceedings) was
read
by
reviewed

the

and
Sui'gery,

third
raised

of

will
the

Prof.

be

The

presented in

Chairman,

Dr.

Garretson's

warning against

Nomenclature.

the

full in the

J. Taft.

system

severe

port
re-

of

strictures

He
Oral
of

critics.

amateur

-Prof.Mayr.
He

edition

and

Section

asserted

"

Presented

that Austria

with

few
its

facts

about

forty millions

foreign journals.
of

inhabitants

has

dental

journal. Li Spain a journal is issued with the "approval


of the bishop." The
French
dental
not
journals are
up to
the standing of the nation
in other respects.
Section
Four
called
was
Operative Dentistry. The report was
read by Dr. E. T. Darby, Chairman, who
presented four subjects
no

"

for discussion:
The
the

Herbst

electric

method
incandescent

of

packing gold by revolving instruments;


bination
light,its uses in dental practice;the com-

baser metal; the


danger of excessive
gold and some
dryness during long operations while employing the rubber dam,
thereby causing shrinkage of the tooth substance, and subsequent
to leak.
expansion,thus causing the filling
of packing
discussion
The
was
mainly u])oii the Herbst method
which
and Daboll
gold, Drs. Abbott, Hunt
gave their experiences,
limited, and mostly from reports.
were
of

Dr.

Wutkina.

Had

"

filled

tooth

73

Societies.

Dental

his

in

made

method, the operator using agate buraishers


of Dr. Wheeler, of Albany.
Dr.
been

the

at

tion
sugges-

had

"

Barrett.

Had

"

limited

rab

gold, which is very soft.


only smooth, and the gold
Keeps a piece of block tin on
his

instruments, and

The
is

described

He

experience.

instruments
used

form

the

operating table

his

thus

in

are

the

not

Wol-

not

polished,

of

cylinders.
which

upon

he

adhering

from

free

them

keeps

that

by

McKellop". Had procui-eda set of instruments, but


results.
able to produce satisfactory

Dr.

rubs

mouth

own

gold.
Dr.

Hunt.

Williams'

inserted

cylinderswith

Rhein.

was

Dr.

Daholl.

heat

could

be

The

that

the

heat

the

to

cylinders

soft

friction,which

suppose

cavity without

in the

produced

by

degree of
be
interrupted
the

of

produced

tinuously
con-

heat

should

coherence

absurd

it Was

the

pressure

be

burnishers

uncomfortable

gold, an

using

rotary process,

that

nealed
an-

ing
anneal-

an

torturingthe

tient
pa-

forbearance.

beyond
Dr.

Said

"

If

success.

that

Thought
brought about by
the gold.
"

the

fillingsby

fair

pressed upon the


by the friction.

is evolved
Dr.

Had

"

Barrett.

Said

"

in

that

some

unexplained

yet

as

manner,

mallet

ceedingly
ex-

could

impact of the
be worked
into
coherent
not
a
by the rotary process,
was,
mass,
or
made
solid and
so
homogenous that it could readilybe beaten
ily
rolled out
into plate. The
preparations of gold that could be readunfit for fillingsinserted
used in the usual
by
manner
were
gold, that

soft

the

Herbst

method

the

of
The

morning
of

After
The

foil seemed
session

oflicers and
number

of

election

Presidtnt.

of
Dr.

"

There
of

manner

the

something radicallydifferent in
ufacture
consolidation, and a specialprocess of man-

method.

and

under

of

was

to

necessary

Friday

success.

mainly occupied by

was

Second

of

officers resulted
J. K

as

follows:

Crouse.

Vice-President.

Dr.

"

Vice-President.
"

Dr.

Cori'espondinySecretary.
"

Treasurer.

"

Dr.

Geo.

W.

W.

Foster.

C. T.

Rich.

M.

Dr.

"

Secretary.

Recording

tion
elec-

place for the next meeting.


ballots,Minneapolis was
finallychosen.
selection

the

First

the

Geo.
Dr.

H.
A.

Keely.

Cushing.
W.

Harlan.

74

The

Menihers

of Executive

and

ard,

C. N.

Section
Dr.

Archives

Five

M.

L.

Dentistry.

of

Committee.

Drs.

"

A.

O.

Hunt, L. D.

Shep-

Pierce.

Anatomy,

"

Rhein, the

and

Histology

Microscopy

called.

was

"

presented a verbal report in


which
he complimented the paper
read by Dr.
J. L. Williams, on
discussed
Wednesday
evening. Some
points in the paper A^ere
by
Drs. Abijott, Pierce
and
journed
the
Society adSpalding, after which
in Minneapolis, the first Tuesday in August. 1885.
to meet
Chairman,

CHICAGO
Stated

Meeting,

Dr.

E.

Mr.

President
with

committee

that

from

Just

me.

fallacious

of

liberal
the

and

can

of straw
that

the

other

contrasted
made

and

above
have

which
to

be

for

though

medical

the

and

ancient

simibus"

subject "contraria

contrarius"

dogmas

support of

nevertheless,

comprehend;
confronts

all

the

unworthy

mummy

to

define

in

me

is

very
which

one

gerly
gin-

very

build

to

position by denying

my

say

in the
or

or

is as worthy our
decrepit,it
other
dogmatic belief
any
doctrine
school

Sixteenth

applied

as

of

which

Century.

to

Fernelius

It

this

is

topic,

consideration
entertained

medicine

Johannes

of

law

dentistry.
on

plied
im-

the

so-called

something

and

Parisian

in the

to

me

upon

This

sects.

leader

with

essay

necessary

taught by the

expected
a dogma

immediately preceding mine, they have


fore
an
me
injustice. It thereunwittingly done

the

less incumbent

"similia

be

discuss

common

impeachment and disclaiming all faith


"Contrarius"
as
applied to either medicine
the

programme

If the
committee
them.
have
only to demolish
ing
in assigning me
this subject,they are
simply allowside of the question an
opportunity to be heard as

mistake

none

the

to

chair.

surprise not

would

chosen
in

I cannot

ancient

from

the

Contrarius

with

was

subject

been

in

medical
opinions in a
by one of my
especiallyas there is little to do save

more

with

becomes

the

The

handled

be

assumed

I should

enlightened minds,

fashion,
men

the

on

It

notice

character, I believe

form.

only

I received

Harlan,

"Contraria

on

Members

it is ancient, and

fact remains

material

that

paj^er

why

as

medical

following
Dentistry."
Fellow

and

W.

A.

the

to

dismay

SOCIETY.

2, President,

read

Applied

as

unmixed

as

December

S. Talbot

Curanter'

DENTAL

was

his

by
first

Fernelius
in

as

was

famous

76

The

of straw.

Modern

sort, and

any
the

law

him.

There

fresh

are

Hippocrates

Galen,

whose

virtues

of the

disease.

after
creed

may

but

that

In

all,for

of time

allow

ancient

recommended

the

certain

short, they believed


are

Ave

not

at

the

in

will

innumerable

classified

remedies

in

as

cause

it not

principle
ical
very illog-

or
so

what

that

true

our

ical
med-

the

2,500 diseases

have

we

held

remedies

day (no matter

present

until

dawn

never

contrary

by

not
specifics

be) seai'chingfor specifics?Is

millennium

curable

simple

to

art,

subsequently

the

to

abuse

medical

of remedies

use

of

old fellow

of the

were

antagonism

and

the poor

views

diseases

advocate

mummy

masters

the mistaken

not

for the

venerable
to

of

peculiardogma

upon

waste

the

the

in direct

were

based

enough

when

disease, they implied

by Fernelius,

our

victims

Even

and

is not

exhume

to

Dentistry.

of

surely a great

similars

in peace.

repose

to

medicine

it is

of

Archives

formula

as

and
castor

oil and

I
constipation,peroxide of hydrogen and alveolar abscess?
wonder
if my
realize the fact that when
ever
homeopathic brethren
they are searching for specificsthey are
bowing the knee to the
mighty Hippocrates, and that law of contraries which was but one
of the

liberal
in his most
principlesinvolved
propositions;viz.,that diseases are sometimes
sometimes
which

similars,and

by

is neither

conti'ary

This

manner.

sometimes

all

cured

therapeutical
by contraries;
the

by remedies,

similar, but operate

nor

doctrine

wise

same

of

will

in

apply

action

ble
inexplica-

an

to

of

our

dental

It is in fact
the
general medicine.
basis of
medical
and
dental
be
therapeutics. Nothing could
liberal or
more
comprehensive. Verily, Hippocrates has not been
tain
for naught, and he is likelyto mainstyled the Father of Medicine
in spite of
comma-bacilli
his supremacy
for ages to come
and
the bacterial
ceives
generations. Humanity redevelopment of future

specialtyquite as aptly as

one

of its greatest

of medicine
is
limits

into

glory enough

to

in the

boons

specialties.To
for

man;

one

break-up of the general practice


with
cess
sucpractice a specialty

and

of

success

inquiry and investigation are


practice. It is this also which has done
different

schools

school

forgotten, and

is

contraries

and

of medicine.
the

similars,or

In the

is -assured

where

the

circumscribed

by specific
much
in reconciling the
investigation of disease the

physician

wanders

into theories

which

into
are

the

neither

realm

of

of these;

different
from
specialty, but
schools, consult frequently.Fortunately, for our specialty,no other
law is acknowledged save
that laid down
by the great Hippocrates.

hence, those

practicing the

same

the

According to
regardlessof
of the

either

in anatomy,

and

start.

(jnabled
are
by expechemistry, we
rience
and practice to classifydisease
observation

physiology
clinical

in both

practitionerappliesremedies
definite
a
or
effect,without
knowledge
of the
With
the foundation
present day

and

It is necessary

simplify remedies.
to be familiar
dentistrj'
to

operated

the

functions

the

It is said

themselves.

present

ascertained
itself.

the

This

the nature

of

cause

ing
successfully practic-

of the

and

remedies

therapeuticeffect

of disease.

health;

we

wherever

they may
having
naturally suggests

of medicine

remedy
and
practicability

that

discoveries

new

in

In the
constantlybeing made.
of their
a thorough knowledge
properties
will aid greatly in the successful
treatment
are

for

practitionerin this city (Chicago)has applied


of the mouth
simple remedy to mtiny pathologicalconditions
He
of the disease
he
was
ignoi'antof the causes
twenty years.

has

been

one

An

be

to

parts
in

when

parts

by teachers

of disease

cause

the

of

anatomy

disease, the

theory gains in

applicationof
and

with

in

appreciate the pathologicalconditions

then

can

and

upon,

the

of contraries
cause

the

at

cases

law

77

Societies.

Dentai.

old

treating,and

of the

the

drug to be harmless
injuriouseffects. That
If

the

by

accept

and
he

conclusions

freed

so

has

application of

the

effects of

of

previous convictions, lor,

law

before

surprising.
dentistry,we

to

do

should

hinted,

possibilityof

is not

success,

contraries

Fernelius,
as

the

knew

against

so

not

am

all

advocate

an

dogmas, and least of all,"contraria contrarius curanter


look upon
the applicationof contraries
applied to dentistry." If we
understood
as
by Hippocrates and Galen when specificstood
then
gently
intelliapply this treatment
place of contraries,we
may
ster,
in the practiceof dentistry. A specific,
according to Webaction
in the prevention
"is a remedy which
exerts
a specific

as

in

and

of

cure

This

disease."

definition

theory in the treatment


Dentistry has the advantage
diagnose
Xext
teeth.

times.

cleanse

the

first
to

Faces
the

lesions

most

The

of

of

of

He

scientific

of

to

used.

drug

his mind

been

not

the

the

of

hands

effort to

Patients

insist that
very

agree

in
specialties

and

apply

deserves

cleansed

are

greatest
mouth

mouth

this

godliness comes

and

other

over

specificwhich

not

with

nelius'
Fer-

disease.

of

the

would

clean

the

specificwhen
often

the

they take
frequently;

in

teeth
the
but

the

ability

remedies

attention

our

the

is

essary.
nec-

ness.
cleanli-

applied to the
quires
day, but it re-

one-half

greatest
appearances

that
care

number

of, and
indicate

78

The

either
this

that

duty
and

the

to

is not

properly

makes

them

exaggerate

the

of

care

dismiss

the
fillings;

strong alkaline
teeth

by

two

should

of

or

when

only

clean

the

himself

dentist

cannot

we

this

say

he

rules
is

that

or

is

oughly
thor-

pathology.
vite
in-

to

down

lays

that

plain

proper

coudition

the

of

programme

in

in

Dentists
with

patients, but

his teeth

have

and

they brush

first specificin dental

the

old

condition

that

fact remains.

the

for

around

vitiated

that

us

as

ready

they are
or
decay

them

assure

of

illustrate
the
inspection, and
patients. In treating neuralgia,it

associated, for

tell

through

should

year

cavities

we

teeth

string
quill go
instructingpatientsin

ine
exam-

iiistructions

definite

Still the

day.

Dentists

condition; saliva

cleanliness, they

times

unpleasantness of

the

frequency.
In

inflamed

an

and

brushes

the

approximal

new

three

that

or

afterwards.

condition; and

want

not

The

in

gums

done

patients without

teeth

again, with

treatment

Dentistry.

of

it

till,and

is caused

Archives

his

to

be
dogma can
for neuralgia,

no

cure

The
idea
the disease.
we
radicallycure
by removing the cause
should
be
in all cases
of applying the same
remedy to a disease
discouraged; for while a remedy may produce the desired effect in
the majority of cases
disease, it may fail in some.
having the same
in the application of ai'senic for
is particularlynoticeable
This
but

the

destruction

for

the

of

of

obtunding

in

and

pulps,

sensitive

The

abscess.

occupied
he

that

in

dentist

by treatingthe symptoms.
(the symptom), and we
phosphate regardlessof the
teeth
have

to

refilled before

be

the

We

to

of

nine-tenths

that

it

to

occur

examine

of
of

ages

be

the

teeth

find

and

gold, tin,amalgam or
the decay of the teeth.

twelve

life.
until

him

homeopathic principle,viz.,

the

cause

is

his time

of

Does

teeth.

in alveolar

hydrogen

fill it with

adult

will continue

and

from

the

filled between

are

peroxide

decayed

lesions

these

and

finds

in

fillingcavities

treats

acid

aconite

and

iodine

of

dentine, and

carbolic
peri-cementitis,and

in

medicaments

application of

the

and

of .teeth is

Decay
the

that

twenty

oxy-

Few

do
the

instead

is treated

cause

on

ity
cav-

not

crease,
inof

symptoms.
DISCUSSION.

Dr.

by
the

Dr.

Dentists

the

teeth, and

Nichols.

did

is

There

should

attention

he

"

one

point in

particularlystrikes

that

Talbot

teeth.

I called

J.

A.

not

of
take

insist upon

it

and

cleanliness.

patientsto the
kindly at all. "Why,"
of

one

me,

the

my

paper
that
A

presented
is,cleaning

short

time

condition
he

ago

of his

said,"Iclean

Dental

teeth

my

"

"You

do?

that

way,"

said
said

or

eight times

If

or

four

it is

even

three
and

It

simply

was

that

day;

times

breakfast

for

in

me

conviction

teeth

and

on

six

about

going

bed.

to

the

day, and gets up


ground for complaint,

during

will be

night, there

at

his

States."

down

to

man

cleans

often

good suggestion

He

him.

so

like

United

the

expression of

an

is, between

his teeth

in

man

I don't

that;

addressing

cleans

person

"I do

he.

living

other

any

I.

in thus

part

my

than

more

79

Societies.

no

dentists

themselves.

in a great measure
fault
at
are
Allport. Dentists
with regard to patients not
knowing how to clean the teeth.
They
in
this
It
should
be
done
should
be instructed
regard.
particularly
systematicallyand thoroughly. I am in the habit of showing my
W.

W.

Dr.

"

patientshow

young

work

the

is

to
insistingthat they conform
ten
yes, I might say nineteen

habit

knowledge

no

to

really as

properly instructed
old

alike

are

and

mouth

large, and

are

m.outh;

indeed, they

are

We

unfit for the purpose.


instruct

and

matters,

put

all

like

more

be

the

ceeds
suc-

not

and

young

brush

careful

to

and

to

in

own

my

Then, again,

brushes,

patients how

our

properly
they are

Both

proceed.
adapted

shoe

should

cording
Ac-

Scarcely a day elapses but

to

at

not

teeth.

that

themselves.

of

out

patientshave

"

the

simple reason

to

me

brush

time

same

Nine

in twenty

person

patientshow

brushes

such

for

the

at

twenty

every

in this respect.

my

too

one

dentists

the

by

necessary

show

not

and

cleanliness.

should

they

for the
bicuspids,

deficient

it becomes

what

how

observation,

my

cleaning the

in

to

of

of

out

"

done,

be

to

the

size of

and

are

the
the

utterly

conscientious

decay

prevent

in

of

the

teeth.
Dr.

E.

Noyes.

ever

become

in

the

diseased

"nt

and

and

strict

condition
accurate

so

both

If the

"

will

be

practice

dentistryor

then
scientific,

sense

and

of

the

remedy

perceive,that the
connected
by necessary
to

the

medicine
relation

between

for it will become


one

will

rules

so

suggest

and

shall

appar

the

laws.

The

other
son
rea-

cine
why they are not so at present is because the practiceof mediscientific.
and dentistryis empirical and not
The
great aim in
is to abridge the area
of empiricism and increase
dentistry and medicine
that
are
are

science.

of

The

investigationsand

thinking,experimenting, and
spending
in this direction, in
very largely turned

may

obtain

than

she

has

wider

ever

scope

yet been

and
able

efforts

time
the

stronger grasp
to

do.

The

idea

of

men

who

for

originalwork,
hope that science

upon

these

should

matters

be present

The

80

in the minds

of all

is desirable

to be

Dentistry.

of

persons,tliat
they

accomplished;

relations

or

Archives

that

their eyes

open

under

come

may

what
thoroughly pei'ceive

may

their

to

stances
all facts, circum-

observation

leading

in this direction.
G. Reed.

J.

Dr.

cleaning

"

teeth

the

want

which

mention

to

strikes

me

the

small

of

use

these

to

bands,

patientsand

my

It becomes

them.

use

rubber

It is novel, and

done.

present time,

instead

have

taught a great

habit

with

the

many

them

after

is

becoming

custom

to

It is being
consists

and

in

1 recommend

floss silk.

of

relation

novel.

being quite

as

the

practicedquite frequently at

in

matter

how

persons

is easily

while,and

and

more

to

more

common.
SECTIOX

IN

DENTISTRY.

practicabilityof establishinga section in dentistryat the


Medical
International
next
Congress, to be held at Washington, D.
brought before the Society by Dr. T. W.
Brophy,
C, in 1887, was
and the matter
was
ably and eloquently discussed by Drs. Harlan,
Baldwin, Grouse, Gardiner, and Allport.
In this country
the recognized leaders
Dr.
we
are
Brophy said:
be neglect
in this specialtyof medicine, and it would
of the world
dental professionnot
of the American
the members
to make
were
The

some

towards

taken

direction.

in this

move

I believe

furtherance

the

this

of

no

action

object, and

has

yet been

this is but

itiatory
in-

an

step.

three

of

Brophy, seconded
appointed to confer with

motion

On

of

was

motion

Place

Clapp,

of

committee
other

tal
den-

11

at

11:1.5

a.

read

and

this Association

of

and

11

SOCIETY.

12,

1884.

Meeting

by

the

President,

m.,

held

was
was

Dr.

at

called
D.

M.

Boston.

Record
and

Meeting

December

on

December

order

to

members

the

DENTAL

Annual

Twentieth

Boylston

Crouse,

societyadjourned.

MASSACHUSETTS
The

Dr.

by

for this purpose.

societies
On

Dr.

of

last

meeting

appoved,

also report of

officers

committees.

Dr.

G.

F. Eames,

Voted

Inflammation."

Worcester,
June,
Boston.

1885.

Boston,

jointlywith
The

Annual

that
the

read
the

paper

was

"Intimate

Nature

of

meeting be held in
Valley Dental
Society in
read by Dr. E. G. Leach,

semi-annual

Connecticut
Address

on

Societies.

Dental

Bradford, M.

C. H.

anchylosis of

of

D., Boston, exhibited

lower

J. H.

Kidder, Lawrence,

Dr.

H.

Mai'cy, Boston, Chairman

Committee

and

read

Medical

Massachusetts

the

patient with

ital
congen-

jaw.

Dr.

C.

81

presented

his essay.

Experiments.

of Committee

Legislation

on

Society,explained the
of

copy

the act

be

to

object of
presented to

his
the

legislature.
At
Dr.
of

p.

R.

R.

tooth
Dr.

Uses

in

to

exhibited

Salem, read

full power

members

the

in

J. Tufto.

by

diiferent

processes

twenty micro-photographs.

Operative Dentistry.
that a specialcommittee

with

the

Cambi'idge,^discussed

and

C. Meriam,

served

was

Andrews,

formation

H.

Voted

collation

M.,a

"Gutta-Percha

an

essay,

of

five be

Dr.

D.

B.

with

Its

this Society

appointed by

connected

matter

and

lation.
Legis-

Dental

Ingalls,Clinton,

"

J. G.

W.

"

G.

F.

Eames,

"

E.

H.

Smith, Boston.

"

J. H.

Werner,

Boston,

Boston,

Kidder, Lawrence,
Committee.

December
"The
The

12.

Effect

of

Second

Dr.

E.

Sugars

following

President, Dr.
First

"

J. F.

Adams,

Vice-President,
E.

Treasurer, Dr. Edward

for the

E.

B.

f ac-simile

of

Worcester.
-

Page,
Page,

on
Page, Committee
old diploma, w^hich

Lynn.
Boston.
Boston.

Charleston.

Cambridge.

G. F.

Eames, Boston,

"

J. K.

"

E.

Knight, Cambridge,
Leach, Boston,

"

J. G. W.

"

F. A.

C.

Werner, Boston.

Cooke, Boston,

Executive
E.

Cavity."

year:

Hitchcock,

Dr.

W.

on

paper

Oral

ensuing

Stevens,

Librarian, Dr. R. R. Andrews,

Dr.

S. C.

Dr.

in the

Compounds

elected

were

Vice-President, Dr.

Secretary,Dr. W.

their

and

officers

Hitchcock, Boston, read

B.

Committee.

Diploma, presented
was

steel

plate

accepted.
Dr.

W.

E.

Page, Secretary.

The

82

Archives

Dentistry.

of

MISCELLANY.

SANITARY

ADVANTAGES

OF

BY

Lecturer

of

the

of

greatest

CAMPBELL,

R.

Medical

Hyg-icne,

on

ventilation

The

F.

THE

ELECTRIC
M.

Department,

D.

Niagara.University.

public halls, churches


from

importance

LIGHT

and

theatres

is
of

sanitarypoint
evening, when

ter
mat-

view.

not
places are generally used in the
only
from
the
tion
combusrespiratoryimpurities,but, also, those derived
In devising methods
of illuminatinggas vitiate the air.
of
seldom
ventilation, impurities due to this latter source
are
thought

These

exhalations

of, only the

In

almost, if

not

electric

either

human
the
and

by
by

avoided

or

neither

light,which

sideration.
body being taken into conof
combustion
are
products
injuriousas those of respiration.

removed

be

ventilation

of

systems

the

reality,however,
quite,as abundant

should

These

of

consumes

introduction

the
the

oxygen

of

ter
bet-

employment of the
nor
produces ities.
impur-

In

order

places it
A

man

in

an

that

to

will be

exhales

about

at

space

3,000 cubic

feet

of

for

this amount
under

the

small

gas

same

proper

air per

each

gas

time.

degree
dioxide

the

electric

evils of
cubic

To
of

illumination

foot

of

will

give

maintain

the

burner

in 10,000, there

and

burner, if the

chandelier

is

seating six

hundred

in

times

air of

will

gas.

dioxide

off four

individual

done

these

by

carbon

purity, containing

seldom

in

light

for each

hour

ventilator, a thing

dome

the

state

of

parts of carbon

six

than

the

to

six-tenths

ordinary

in

amount

of

advantages

necessary

An

hour.

the

prove

an

not

be

more

required

four
not

churches

closed
en-

times

placed
lic
pub-

and

lighted by one
and
hundred
bon
carfiftygas burners, for example, produces as much
To
the
dioxide
as
change the air of
congregation itself.
sufficient
with
such
rapidity with any
a
place in cold weather
halls.

church

ordinary system
and

the

of

heating and

impuritieswill

persons,

ventilation, would

necessarily become

be

next

to

possible,
im-

exceedingly

The

84

sium-iodide
store

when

placed

liberation

electric

have

no

were

not

placed

attacks

ozone

air

the
outside

those

rapidly than
that

in

papers

iodide.

above

the

and

supplanted'
by

in all
electricity
Med.

Buffalo

"

and

places of

Surg.

the

ozone,

of

ozone

test

attribute

becomes

the

for in them

If

we

With
the
recent
atmosphere.
lightingwe may confidentl}^
expect to

electric

to

lightthey changed
This

pers,
pa-

markedly.

so

production

air.

the

blue, it is

exposed

we

papers
no

more

the

to

destroyed,

the

purifying

from

evident,

so

the

organic matter

blue
became

not

The

room.

The

became

when

in

used.

rapidly nor

so

lights is not
spark passing through

are

papers

Swan

and

Edison

the

same

not

change
the potassium

impurities in

by

The

in the

the

lights

lights,rapidly

ozone.

conducted

experiments

Brush

placed outside, but

attributed

to

by

the

three

the

over

iodine

of

true, when
We

where

street

Dentistry.

of

and

employed

were

Main

on

Archines

fact
thus
in

improvements
the

see

public worship

use

of

and

ment.
amuse-

gas

Journal.

CORRESPONDENCE.

WORLD'S

THE

EXROSITION.

New
As

Association, and

Dental

for

only
the

to

of

readers

the

Cotton

Centennial

will be

at

many

high

dentists

from

the

Archives

from

boats

by

on

tide

of

the

fine view

of
of

wish*

1885,

to

say

Dental

open

successful

world

located

this

will
in

the

be

of

words,

boats,

is obtained

25

at

of

cents

the

the

crescent

not

city,and
the

time

assemble

to

World's

the

to

which
when

so

here.

the

City Park, about


ble
city)and are accessi-

(the heart of the


MississippiRiver; hourly trips being
street

rangement
Ar-

in this

held

few

ern
South-

Association, but

operation at

the

are

in

1885.

Committee

the

to

of

member

general,in regard

now

all parts of

Canal

excursion

numerous

Southern
in

Exposition buildings

five miles

route

of

Exposition

its

The

Meeting

La., January 1,

as

chairman

as

part of March,

members

the

Orleans,

Annual

the

latter

the

city in

New

of

resident

old

an

Orleans,

round
outline

made

by

trip. By

this

of

the

city's

85

Correspondence.

river

front, extending

and

Gretna

fine wharf
Great

the

The

by

run

mule

at

cars

Thus
it is well

The

rates

easilyaccessible by five lines


engines."
"dummy
by steam

also

are

or

accessible

gi'oundsare

known

that

lines

of

all the

city in

no

street

lines

are

grounds comprise

embellished

with

fountains.

In

the

of

area

lawns

vast

and

vines

second

240

acres,

palms

are

varieties

rooted

of

from

substance

only

months

or

America, and
Here

bloom.
every

the

enclosure,

one

and

streams

side

Central

and

Mexico
are

riant
in luxu-

seen

bulbs

Mexico;

from

an

with

be
glass building,may
stage of growth,
every

immense
in

fruit

the

from

rough

on

weeks

sawed

at

also over
Here
are
tropicalislands.
their
derive
orchids, those strange plants which
rank
in
air
luxuriance,
the
alone, growing

transplantedbodily
250

under

paid

is

fare

the

with

Honduras.

Hall,
loaded

Orleans.

New

sparkling
interspersed with beds of glowing
and
trees
shrubbery, transplanted

lakes, running

from

Horticultural

cocoanut

seen,

trains

long

five cents,

of

planted with forest


from
all portions of the United
States, from
Side
America, and from foreign lands.
by
and
palms
Norway
growth, firs from
Holland

road
rail-

steam

run

city of

fare

single

line,where

an

is

the

than

flowers, and

from

cars,

point in the city,for


tersected
more
thoroughly in-

every

world

the

artificial

The

from

cars

exception of the "dummy"


"half-way" station.
The

of street

intervals.

short

on

will

of construction, which

in process

by

Exposition landing, where

the

at

will anchor.

power,

the

erected

been

Eastern

is also
of

has

grounds

Algiers

miles, with

fifteen

of

opposite bank.

the

on

distance

slabs
ago

which
may

variety, and

are

of
from

the

sections

short

or

thousands

seen

from

every

forth

of

portion

of

their

plates of
of

the

limbs,

of

forests

in the

trees

continuallysending

also be

coming

bark,

tral
Cen-

ite
exquisfruit of

American

continent.
The

Main

Building

single partition wall.


12,000

persons

has

36

The

in comfortable

acres

of

floor

Auditorium
opera

chairs.

of

space,
the
The

unbroken
Music

by

Hall

floor of

the

seats

position
Ex-

into
rectangular spaces,
systematicallydivided
in the way
allotted to particularexhibits, every imaginable device
its
to
of pagodas, pavilions,etc., being constructed
display the exhibproper

to

the

best

is

advantage.

The

86

So

admirable

Archives

is the

Dentistry.

of

of

system

location

in finding any given exhibit,the spaces


difficulty
and

lettered

in its

own

is to

The

Government

Model
the

stationry"

is also

the

elegant and

the

row,

no

all numbered

being

exhibits

and

found

of

State

Office,the

relics

kind

the

located
and

"watch

of

the

Smithsonian

largest and
public.

the

devoted

large structure,

exhibits.
and

Of

will

Greely Expedition

be

to

former

the

scientific

other

of

display

the

far

put before

ever

collective

attractive

Co., by

is another

Building
and

Post

of

Manufacturing

exhibit

Government

and

be

Dental

complete

most

the

latter

S. S. White

the

"book

the

class

is

there

etc.

row,

the

Each

exactness.

as

roio,

jewelry"
In

with

that

adopted,

the

exhibits,

found

especially

interesting.
The

State

exhibits

are

complete and,

very

as

rule, artistic

and

novel.
The

Mexican

for the

Government

accommodation

Mexican

Art

The

iron

of

one

troops, etc., the

has

massive

is

miles

the

for

of

and

roof

glass

doors.

bronze

shafting

immense

an

other

magnificent display.

most

buildings,one

fire-proof building,with

Hall

which

characteristic

two

State

walls, having

Machinery

engines,

her

forms

is

Gallery

corrugated

horse

of

exhibit, which

The

has

by

run

Harris-Corliss

five

gigantic
700

of

engine

power.

The

Live

Stock

breed,
Thus

all parts of

the

world.

provided

for.

The

are

literateur,the

scientist,the

the

the

machinist,

will

cational
To

exhibits

from

all tastes

whom

Department

find

something

of

the

the

especial interest

in

ist,
art-

miner, the

live-stock

the

mestic
do-

every

professional man,

merchant,

and

farmer

of

chanic,
me-

of

all

man;

this great

educa-

have

show

exhibit.
and

one

There

you.

the

prize animals

all,we
is

say:
for

room

Come

and

all,and

what

see

we

will

accommodations

ample

to

be

provided.
committee

The

city

in

but

expressing

agreeable
dental

and

the

their

most

association

voice

the

sentiment

determination

of
to

make

profitable,as they hope


ever

profession in

the

this

the

it will

be

the

D.

D.

S.

this
most

est,
larg-

held.
J. R.

Chairman

of

Walker,

Committee

of

Arrangements.

Journalistic.

AN
Editor

by

Archives

side

lifted off the

the

attempting
revealing an

to

tooth-ache

continued

in

that

extract

About

also.

was

also

absorbed.

was

new

of

three

of
by reason
adjoining permanent

Le

to

Relief

few

of

the

crowns

The

roots.

tient
pa-

hours, saying that


On

ing
sound-

of

root

this tooth
The

case

absorption of

the

roots

without

Mars, Iowa.

same

operation.

this last

teeth

of

molar

first molar, I decided

the

extensive

the

me

I found

abatement.

and

one-half

followed

of

before, without

as

consulted

was

teeth, both

these

absence

by percussion the intervening tooth


to

inferior

extract

entire

ago

examination

on

dismissed, but she returned

then

was

days

second

the

In

gum,

few

and

bicuspid

quite loose.

ABSORPTION.

OF

tooth-ache, and

severe

inferior

second

CASE

of Dentistry:

lady having

the

UNUSUAL

87

visible

E. D.

cause.

D.

Brower,

D.

S.

NOTICE.
The

Nineteeth
will be

1885,

at

10

Annual
held

in

Dental

Tennessee

ciation
Asso-

Nashville, beginning Tuesday, February 24,

in

M.,

A.

the

of

Meeting
the

Lecture

of

Hall

the

of

University

Tennessee.

"

"

1^

"

JOURNALISTIC.
'Beading maketh

and

Prehistoric

Dentistry.

1885, contains
G.

YanMaster,
of

of

full man;

writing,

an

The

"

conference,

ready

man;

man."

exact

Independent

Practitioner

ioY January,

interestingillustrated ai'ticle,
by Dr.
is described
certain
Italy, in which

very

Rome,

prehistoric dental

in

art

Italy,

in

now

the

J.
dences
evi-

Corneto

Museum.
The

specimens
taken

were

Roman

described

are

respectivelyfrom

tombs, which

date

the

back

partial gold dentures,

two

ruins

to

of

live and

ancient
four

which

Etruscan

hundred

years

and
fore
be-

Christ.
The
an

relic taken

from

the

Etruscan

tomb

appliance for securing iu position three

(500 years B. C.) was


superior artificial teeth,

i.

The

88

by banding
teeth

two

were

side.

them

Archives

the

to

adjoining

incisors

central

artificial centrals

The

Dentistry.

of

natural

and

and

the

teeth.

first

the natural

artificial

The

bicuspid of

lateral

and

the

left

cuspid of

still in a fair state of preservation,


and retained
right side were
in positionby the
gold bands; while the natural lateral,cuspid,
second
bicuspid and artificial first bicuspidof the left side were
encircled
lost.
The
three artificial teeth were
by gold bands and
secured
by a rivet passed through each tooth; these bands were
united to other bands
fitted to the lateral and cuspid of both sides,
and to the second
bicuspid of the left side.
The
tomb
specimen taken from the ancient Roman
(400 years B.
the Etruscan
on
placing
C.) was an apparatus of gold made
plan, for reinferior incisor teeth, the bands
two
encirclingtwo natural
One
teeth on the right side,and one
the left.
of the artificial
on
teeth was
still
missing,but the rivet which passed through it was
in position.
artificial teeth were
The
evidentlycarved from the teeth of some
large animal, and well executed, and the gold work
neatly made.
the

of the article claims

The

author

age

of these
and

that

relics,or

they

there

be

can

no

reallyfound

were

about

doubt

in ancient

the

can
Etrus-

tombs.

Roman

and
times
as
frequently made
many
doubted
derstood
by equallygood authority that the ancient Egyptians unand practicedthe art of dentistry,
and in proof of this it
filled with
is claimed
that teeth
gold and artificial teeth carved
covered
from
ivory and fastened in positionwith gold wire have been disThe

been

has

statement

"

"

of mummies.

in the mouths
The

Greek

of medicine

historian, Heroditus, says, in speaking of the science

practicedby the ancient Egyptians, that every physician


confine
himself
the
of
disease
to
one
was
cure
obliged to
himself
to the treatment
only (or rather to one organ),one devoting
of the
Plow
the art

as

eyes, another
far

of

the

to

teeth, and

this

people in their
dentistrywe may never

so

wonderful

know,

on.

civilization
but

from

the

advanced
same

in

author-

practicedthis branch of
and polishwith those found
of equal education
the healing art were
scientific
branches
other
of medicine; for
in the
learning and
taught and practiced
knowledge in all its various departments were
vidual
by the priesthood;and in order to obtain this knowledge the indiitv

we

are

had

led to believe

to

in the order.

take

the

that

vows

the

of the

men

who

priestwhile young,andbe

reared

89

Journalistic.

invention
has
of

of

the

tombs

British

caries

That
we

place reliance

may

Cornelius

(A.

Celsus, a

D.

noted

of

art

plugging

of

the

time

of

diseases

of

the

teeth

and

with

teeth

noted
cremating all but the most
in
of the evidence
destroyed most

however, of the artificial dentures

made

reference
have

we

other

in

history to" the

above

discovery,

to,forms

an

esting
inter-

perfection

what

to

the

frequent

by these people,
equal proficiency in the
teeth

of the

care

practice

The

attained,and from

attained

they had

doubt

no

referred

their

consequently

has

direction.

this

dentistryhad

of Roman

this branch

dead

their

of

rius
Tibe-

ing
introduc-

or

Roman

The

demonstrates

es-idence, and

link in the

foil.

gold

of

inventing

with

accredited

also been

has

doubt,

no

surgeon

Roman
the

be

can

terial.
ma-

history.

written

upon

this

filled with

there

surgery

Greek

ancient

from

unmistakably

are

upon

14-37) wrote
and

treatment,
the

teeth

taken

skulls

practiced dental

Romans

the

that

contains

certain

It

teeth.

diseased

of

acquainted with the art


they were
by plugging the cavity with gold foil,and

museum

in which

extraction

the

Esculapius for

third

the

to

practiced to

also

was

surgery

for the

stated

been

treatingdental

dental

gives credit

Cicero
instrument

an

furthermore

that

if

and

extent,

some

Greeks

ancient

the

Among

an

departments.

We

invention

of

acknowledge
have

men

inclined

been

have

there

thought

be

to

seems

"nothing

the

out

under

new

ideas

same

ages

the

an

have

but again we
civilization,

superior modern

our

dentistry was

that

ourselves

Hatter

to

to

sun;" other

before

we

were

born.

Chloroform
Med.

in

effects
of this

disorder
Surg. Jour.) says in treating
curative
the
is no fact in therapeuticsmore
striking than
of a few drops of chloroform
injectedin the neighborhood
of the
division
of the nerve
(the superior maxillary branch

is

seat

of

neuralgia.

frequently affected,and
which
is most
easilyreached

most

Given

treatment:

of the

corner

of the

the

nerve) when

this division

lift the

{Buffalo

Bartholow

this intractable

fifth cranial
which

Dr.

"

and

"there

of

Douloureux.

Tic

case

lipand

membrane

mucous

mouth, pass it

up

till its

fortunately so,
by

of the

extremity

the

hypodermic
lip and
comes

division
for

needle

the

is

at

the

nerve,

tion
junc-

cavityof
neighborhood

that of the
in

it

following method

involving this

of tic douloureux
inserta

It is the

the
of

The

90

the

nerve,

the

former

and

injectfive

is the

immmediate

have

the

Mr.

the

hearts, their

almost

entire

through

form, from

the

species even

four orders

to

siderable
con-

twice

me

other

ures
meas-

and

lasts

At

"

as
reptiles,

branchiae, and

in

common

to

worm
*

an

above

physical

in the

ure
struct-

casionally
lungs, their octhe
variety of
and
alligator,

divided

Reptiles are

to
in-

third, Ophidias, an-

second, Batrachia, toads, frogs,etc.; the


etc., and

guinis,serpents,

the

seen

of

Dental

the

on

in

absence

larger.

of

paper

of

meeting

recent

first,Chelonia, including tortoises,turtles,etc.;

the

"

lizards,chameleons,

Reptiles of

lasts for

no

is

there

cases

complete,

variations

the
of

extinct

the

of

ether;

or

(British Journal

Society,

orders

external

some

Birds.

different

of

is

obtains

mentioned

breathing
their

majority

Fisher, L. D. S., read

author

their

of

Wm.

The

he

and

Naturalists'

Science)

structure

Reptiles

of

Dundee

topic.

the

chloroform

six months."

Teeth

The

the relief

answered;

less than

never

In

of

pain, which, if not permanent,


I have
a patient in Boston, who
comes
this injectionpracticed. In his case

have

to

year

efficient.

most

minims

fifteen

to

Dentistry.

of

relief of
time.

Archives

the

fourth, Sauria, including crocodiles,

etc.

almost

varieties

all

teeth, though this peculiarityis

have

not

an

endless

widely

so

succession

distributed

as

of

among

fishes.
The

chelonians

covered

with

the

habits

are

sharp, in
In

the

have

horny plates which

of

animal; in the

the

herbivorous

the

batrachians

upon

the

teeth

resting,when

above.
toads
the

have

upper

The

and

the

deviations
no

teeth,

and

and

blunt

single row
is

mouth
from

of

type

common
a

uneven.

upon

the

are

but

double

row

lower;

the

lower

the

two

rows

closed, between

this type

frogs have

is

teeth

however

singlerow,

quite mnnerous;
which

is upon

jaw.

newt,

don, each

the

jaw,

upper

The

margins of the jaws are


with
are
shaped in accordance
carnivorous
species the margins

teeth, but the

no

has

salamander, tad-poleand
a

distinct

system

of

its

the

great extinct

labyrintho-

own.

in both
the poisonous
strongly recurved
and
non-poisonous species,and being available only for seizingand
is one
There
it whole.
holding their prey, they invariablyswallow
of Africa, that has no
native
the Rachiodon
a
species of snake
In

serpents the teeth

"

are

"

92

The

Art

Auchives

in

Prof,

Dentistry;by
pamphlet of 24 pages,

for

Art

in

Continuous

L. P.

devoted

distribution.

general

Haskell, Chicago,
dental

to

It is divided

Gum

What

Work;

of Vulcanized

these

subjects

of

general reader,

is treated

Materials

Work;

Temporary
Save

in

and

Best

the

are

Natural

the

styleadapted

the

will

book

This

Ills.

Plates?

for

the

doubt

may

be

Each

of

What

Teeth.

to

no

Rubbert

comprehension
be

useful

found

for

Its object is to direct attention


gratuitousdistribution.
higher class stylesof artificial dentures, and especiallyto the
excellencies

of continuous

every

one

The

Rubber

Southern
"Letters

from

commended
will

is favored

with

Question.

By Mrs.
pamphlet

Journal.
a
on

soon

This
Mother

in

and

revised

the

many

tution.
SubstiThe
read

by

copy.
M.
is

the

by

Reprint

well-known

which

which,
and

J.

W.

Mother,"

hand,

every

re-appear

to

to

work.

gum

of
of Teeth
for the Insertion
Preparation of the Mouth
York.
By W. H. Atkinson, M. D., D. D. S., New
celebrityof the author of this paper will insure its being
who

is

prostheticsand designed
lows
into eight chapters,as fol-

Dentistry; Injurious Effects

and
Preparation of the Mouth
Expected of Artificial Teeth;

the

Dentistry.

of

we

has

so

In the

form.

of

author

gratifiedto

are

improved

been

the

from

highly
learn,
ment
treat-

thirty
question the author has collected over
of matter,composed largelyof quotationsfrom
distinguished
pages
of the use
of this material, and particudentists,in condemnation
larly
of

the

rubber

of

red

rubber,

as

for

base

MONTHLY

artificial teeth.

LIST

PATENTS.

OF

and
relatingto Dentistry bearing date November
December, 1884, reportedexpresslyfor this paper by Louis Bagger "fc
Co., Mechanical
Experts and Solicitors of Pat('nts,Washington,D.C.
For

inventions

Capsicum-bag; W. C. Foulks, Phila.,Penn.


E, T. Starr, Phila.,
Engine Angle Attachment;

307,53'7. Dental
307,686. Dental
Penn.

Impression-ouji;F. M. Palmiter, Fairburg, Nebr.


New
York, N. Y.
Tool; J. G. ]VIorey,
Separting Wedge, D. Genese, Baltimore, Md.

307,579. Dental
Dental

308,424.

309,709. Dental

^i

Dr.

J. H.
to

$1.00

years
the

Smith

has

per

and

with

any
at

other
least

"

i^

"

the

We

package.

past than

market,

"

reduced

price

have
of

equal

the

used

his Adamantine

of

more

of

this for

ment
Ceeral
sev-

phosphate preparations

satisfaction.

on

_C. T. S.

93

Editorial.

EDITORIAL.

It

be

to

seems

FILLINGS.

ENAMEL

AND

GOLD

combine

who

those

general experience of
the
same
cavity,that

the

the
saving result is
amalgam and gold, in
We
have
either is used alone.
yet to learn
more
lastingthan where
have
where
those who
adopted this method
of a single instance
Dr.
report adversely, as far as preservative -effects are concerned.
Kingsley is reported to have said, at the last meeting of the New
Dental

York

this method

with

it,however,

done

this

before

societymany

years

described

I have

ago.

reltictance,because

of

kind

that

remember

will

"You

Society:

always
had

been

to use
anything but gold; but I can say, in all candor
taught never
of these
known
that I have
one
and sincerity,
fillingsto
never
need
refilling.The amalgam portion may discolor,but the filling

Frank

Dr.

tooth."

the

will preserve

Abbott

the

at

"I

said:

meeting

same

know

very

spoken of by Dr.
filling
like to
teeth; but I have often thought I would
Kingsley will save
I do, why it is that
it than
about
knows
more
ask somebody who
the filling
takes place. In such cases
oxidization
this excessive
(he
comes
of
the
the amalgam
filling. Ed.) beportion
we
means,
suppose,
well

what

from

I have

kind

that the

seen

of

"

black

as

as

undergoes

part of the mouth


Dr.

the

undertakes

Transactions

of

his

giving
is

Palmer

S. B.

from

that

answer

well-known

fluid,if

unstable

coat,

your

fluid,these
and
an

two

the

to

Society) and,

negatively;that
electric

current

in

different

when
will

two

the
will

placed
be

the

question (we quote

it is for

the

Dr.

Palmer

metals

are

this item.

elements

or

this

answeV

principle that when


they are subject to

metals

material

same

change."

no

write

we

the

while

so

as

"It

says:

placed

in

effect of

decomposing

themselves

arrange
to

leave

result; that

of

purpose

when

space
the

an

the

tively
positween,
betwo

elements
of the
battery,
placed together,as the two
zation
the
The
of
action
there will galvanic
reason
greater oxidigo on.
the amalgam
is because
the gold is negative and
positive.
shown
the
takes
The
oxidization
as
amalgam,
by its
place upon
this action fills the dentine
turning black; and it is better, because
then
renders
it negative, and
which
metallic
substance
with
a

plates

there
me

not.

on,

to

are

is

no

action

between

it and

formation

of

an

acid

dentine.

Do

not

understand

positive;because, as a whole, it is
if there is decomposition going
animal
the
takes place,and
portion

is
say that the tooth bone
It is positivein this sense:

the

the

The

94

is

only

positive and

already acted
action
with

well-known

in

and

this

is

the

proportion as

is

gold

silver

black

then

when

they

the

The

other

gam,
amal-

becomes

surface

the

there

was

reason

it is very

and

two,

the

plates,which
when
they

annoyance

clean.

accordance

upon
the

the

less

times
somewere

was

no

lessened

much

by

oxidization."

the

We

in the

agree,

main, with

further

goes

and

caries

renewal

of

is used

alone, it

in

adjacent to it,than
to

this oxidization.

When

the

such

Palmer

result

overlooks

tubules

Dr.

to

combination

saving the tooth

is the

he

that

us

Dr.

oxidization," but when

why

lastingresult

seems

of

answer

show

to

attempts

effects a' more

materials

this

this "excessive

question,viz., why

Abbott's

of

less

was

were

between

galvanic action

he

There

Thus

in

the

upon

"

black.

and

negative

of dentine

surface

salts.

action

the

If you

battery.

lime

perfectlyclear

positive,and the greater the oxidization


the same
with
the galvanic current
as
turn

the

tilled with

It increases

law.

in

by insulation, the

becomes

I think

ceases.

element

an

dentine

upon

Dentistry.

or

becomes

softened

protect the

can

Archives

of

the

from

either

when

the

of
a
one

antisepticeffect
ing
surround-

dentine

tilled with this oxidized


"metallic
substance,"
plug beeome
not
the surrounding dentine
negative to a posonly becomes
sible
also
but
becomes
action,"
positively"negative" to
"galvanic
is clearly shown
action of micro-organisms, as
ments
by the experithe

it

"

"

the

Dr.

of
credit

to

and

gold
rather

than

Whatever

the

the

and

favorable

others; and

of
re^sults

the

are

we

of

use

much
this

inclined

more

combination

of

the
to
antiseptic effect of the oxidization,
amalgam
to its negative influence
to a possiblegalvanic action.
the real reason
tablished,
be, however, we
regard it as esmay
beyond question, that the use of gold and amalgam in

cavity,in

same

much

Miller

better

than

proper

the

use

of

proportions,is, in
either

material

cases,

many

very

alone.
C. T.

LOCAL
While

the
and

ANESTHETICS.

profession'sattention
otherwise,

S.

at

the

is

present

occupied
time

so

with

largely,experimentally
the

local

new

anaesthetic,hydrochlorate of cocaine, it may be well to not forget


old and familiar
the value of our
friend, sulphuric ether; at least
so

extracting teeth is concerned.


"outcome"
of the experimentation

far

final

as

Whatever
with

cocaine

may
"

be
when

the
we

Editorial.

shall have
other

reliahle

branches

will

properly applied in
rather

and

own

Our
cut

the

to

as

both

this in

ether; hold

indicate

may
the

several
to

applicationby

have

do

not

case

had

be

in

been

ether

when

when
the

made

pain

no

is

The

fumes

local

inhalation

ether

the

the

reason

effects
of

calm

the

as

of

current

cases

experienced.

secondly,

ten

or

cold

air

syringe. Repeat the


Go calmly at the
tion
operaof
time.
We
seldom
j^lenty
not
expressed surprise and

twice.

in

five

"

air

many

the
the

the

very

undoubted

of

keep

hurry; take a
the patient has

first, the
and

of

meantime

or

ether,

possible and, when


small pieces
a napkin, or
rapid evaporation of the

the

of

the

as

np

minutes

result,and

gratificationat
that

our

extracted, together with

several

means

pnce
a

high

prevent

in the

and

"

be

to

folds

positionfor

saturation,if necessary,
and

teeth

or

sides, as

cloth, in order

cotton

upon

tooth

this with

applied,cover

case

the

cover

tissue,on

gum

of

than

patients'satisfaction.
is to saturate
a piece of
"sjiunk" with

our

method

so

It has

extraction.

tooth

in

"

anticipateit

not

local anaesthetic

market

practicefor
ether when
extracting teeth, locally applied
years to use
than by inhalation, excepting in severe
much
to
cases, and

several

our

as

the

drug on
certainlydo

we

surgery

effective

more

any

prove

minor

of

this

of

preparation

95

remark
be

may
the

on

fold:
two-

tissues,

sufficient

excited

is

amount

of

the

of

apprehension; both of which repatient and allay mental


sults
are
by the aid of this consciousness,
largely brought about
the part of the patient,that something is being done.

to

condition

nervous

the

on

C. T.

ACUTE
A

features

some

inflamed
found

to

to

be

swollen
our

to

were
remove

considerable

extent,

notice, and
any

the

point
beyond

motion

sensitive

so
a

few

an

to

scales

tissue

gum

but

not

more

to

the

anything

lower
was

that

than

to

is

be

often

alveolitis,excepting

incisor

intense,
ever

posessed

found

was
so

chronic, infectious

inflammation

extent

in

entire

of

cases

portion anterior

an

rendering

presented itself, recently,that


The

this

At

ULITIS.

of interest.

present in

that
teeth.

ulitis

of acute

case

S.

and

cuspid

the

tissues

before

came

to

sensitive
extremely painful
condition,
of the jaw nearly impossible. The
parts
and

the

touch

of calculus

of

an
was

instrument
abandoned

that

the

before

effort to

anything

Archives

The

96

in this direction

parts with

We

accomplished.

was

solution

1-1000

Dentistry.

or

then

of bichloride

the
simply bathed
injectingthe
mercury,

of

next

the
teeth, and
thoroughly into the pockets about
On
his' appearance
the
patient for twenty-four hours.
exhibited
almost
surprising results. The
day, the case

had

begun

solution

had

swelling
of the

tissues

the

the

other

relieved

with

such

of

this

that

other

of

remedy

treatment

as

suggest
the

possesses

of

There

that

of

power

condition
was

calculus

all

was,

this case,

very

the

in

usually adopt

we

Disease."

character

pain

sensitiveness

removal

Now,

the

treatment,

congested

abnormal

present.

mercury,

the

thorough

similar

somewhat
of

the

"Riggs'

little calculus

bichloride

the

and

of

allowing

very

cases

or

after

hours

was

ordinary cases

but

three

largely disappeared,

teeth, and

more

two

very

entirely gone,
about

in

subside

to

missed
dis-

with

several

have

we

ever,
how-

treated

strongly the
acting on the

ion
conclustissues

germicidal effect. In this case, at


simple, well-known
to destroy the superficiallayer of pus-corpuscles,
least, it seemed
which
for the
of favorable
account
speedy manifestations
may
its

beyond

results.
The

and

prompt
of

favorable

suggested

treatment,

dentist

well

knows
in

He

short

the

E.

G.

surgical

tion
inflamma-

the

DAM.

so

late

chloride
bi-

C. T. S.

rubber
time

the

dam, when
to

as

become

exposed to
less
nearly use-

of

setts
Massachu-

meeting

the

Leach, of Boston, stated

that

he

in

almost
water.

that

At

purposes.

succeeded

case

RUBBER

Society, Dr.

Dental
had

use

the

to

reduce

to

of

use

surgicaltreatment.

air,will deteriorate
for dental

in this

PRESERVE

TO

the

following the
experience,subsequent

our

its

to the

preparatory

Every

in

mercury,

results

ticity,
preserving it, in its original strength and elasunder
indefinitely,by simply keeping it buried

adds

little carbolic

acid

the

to

water

to

keep

it sweet.

C. T. S.

For

the

wheels
and

some

whereby
They can
stem,

thus

last year
for

the

or

two

engine,

without, but
all the

we

all

have
some

been
with

having
of

using soft rubber polishing


grit mixed with the rubber

hard

rubber

slippingon the
used
and
be
on
a
worn
simple screw
the
avoiding
throwing away of half
annoyances

centres

mandril

or

is avoided.

quite to
worn

hubs,

out

the wire

points.
M.

ti3:e

Archives of Dentistry.
J
A

Vol.

Record

Monthly

No.

n.,

MARCH,

3.]

Of

all the

BY

from

During

of

all kinds

office

of

plugs, .etc.; they


dentists

as

while

five

perhaps

I think

scraps,
melt

them,

this

conducting
original;
Put

amalgam
red

the

the

heat

half

into

metal
process

into

the

they

couple
an

crucible

of

ingot;

may

it

irf

gives

is covered.

of

kind

of

get

as

of

is

worth

ing
contain-

them

in

the

to

re-

is

and

them

amalgam;
good

long

amalgams
of

gams,
amal-

so

amalgams

but

file

to

but

alloy, it

made

be

to

is about

cyanide

hours

box

them

use

by

ly
proper-

amalgam

as

the

this:

crucible;

Hessian

of

in

old

of

themselves,

nothing

use

one

proceed

of

ounce

to

is

in

Society.

accumulate

consisting

ounce

mercury,

only

use

to

way

an

the

process

best

scraps

for

off

dentists

Many

again.

an

there

legitimate

most

drive

affair

for

Dental

there

years

attention
If

PRACTICE.

Valley

mostly

small

over

ounces.

the

to

are

minutes'

five

few

GAMS
AMAL-

OLD

MASS.

Connecticut

scraps,

and

$2.00

pay

give

to

only

OF

SPRINGFIELD

the

before

well."

DENTAL

OF

MAYR,

read

paper

excel,

writing

SCRAPS

WASTE

CHAS.

practice

dentist's

is

PRODUCTS

PROF.

BY

the wise

masterpiece

OF

AND

^Extract

in which

arts

UTILIZATION

THE

Series.

[New

ARTICLES.

chief

Nature's

Art.

and

1885.

ORIGINAL
'

Science

Dental

of

add

for

potassium;

good
cleaner

draft

and

product

every
heat
pour
if

of

ounce

at

the

dull

ing
result-

during

the

98

The

This

high, otherwise
The
low

will
of

cyanide

and

not

heat

volatilize,and

is

excellent

an

excludes

to

care

give

to

gam
amal-

good

as

should

be

not

thereby the

tion
propor-

altered.

flux, because

amalgam

from

of

trace

every

recover

precious metals

the

extract

be

potassium

temperature

operator does

tin will

some

metal

the

of

at

DenI'istry.

of

ingot may be tiled and will be found


the original;it is important that the

as

too

Archives

the

it melts
If

oxygen.

the

in this manner,

he may

in

following

amalgam

the

manner:

old

The
at

temperature

is thus
the

which

at

driven

off, and
is

resulting mass

dissolved

the

of

some

undissolved

color

the

oxydizes

greater

the

more

is diluted
it is set

with

aside

oxide

silver,and

cause
be-

chloi'ine,so

After
the

then

remains

the

oxidation

times

Ave

in

liquidvarying

gold is present, and


turbid
gold. The

no

days, and

of

and

gold, however,

tin.

of
to

say

couple

if

amount

water,

for

of

oxydizes;

water

contains

floatingin

found

the

greater

the

of

part

of

tin and

the

always

violet; white,

to

it into

mercury

tin'

the

draft

strong

all the

of

amount

almost

will be

powder

white

from
the

which

in combination

ceased,

has

Almost

granulated by pouring

nitric acid

gold;

melts.

(-onsiderable

iiir,i)i a

of

access

silver

in nitric acid

commercial

with

melted,

are

scraps

the

then

ored
coltion
solu-

original

the

almost

ume,
vol-

less
color-

the top carefully poured oft". This


liquidon
litjuidcontains
to
usually nothing but silver and copper:
precipitate the silver it
is

into

poured

salt for

solution

of

ounce

salt

amalgam;

is chloride

which

of

of

white

silver; by gentle shaking, it

which

is

This

nothing

mixture
A

heat.
the

dry, mixed

to

globule
violet

was

decanted

then

treated

and

is put
of

crucible, which

gold, the

one

but

ounce
a

decanted

soda
into

about
and

then

be

precipitatefrom
washed

is

with

turbid
and

mixture
ten

mixed

is thus
utilized
which

and

of

to

liquid

collected

on

is

paper,

black

flux,

equal proportions.

melted

obtained
further.
the

the

bulk

in

obtained

at

the

at

To

bright

red

bottom

of
the

recover

of

first solution

silver

cou}"le of times
by decantation; it is
of hydrochloric and
nitric acid, about
of

ounces

liquid

its

of

ounce

1)6 made

can

bottom;

twice,

mixed

crucible

silver

the

twice

flour

sand

pure
may

for every

yellow

with

an

is
curdy j)recipitate

cling together and to settle rapidly to


washedonce
or
decanted, the i)recipitate
allowed

half

about

containing

result.

with

amalgam;
This
solution

its color

will

disappear

is diluted, allowed
of

common

to

tle,
set-

sulphate

of

The

100

that

say

time

present

the

even

among

informed

best

the

matter

are

more

than

that

of

of

be

to

accuracy

men,

leads

would

one

to

good

as

Of

do.

therefore,

as

should

truth

for the

of

any

be

of

be

supposed

Theories

use.

this,however,

long

there

as

we

is

however,

theory

happens that
ends

to

must

false

the

as

have

never

true

ance;
assur-

any

doubt, the search

reasonable

continue.

theory for the explanation of caries

The

to

usually contrived

means

can
a

regard

say,

that

are

it often

applicationof

an

I should

in

phenomena with sufficient


ment
the
prevention and treat-

in

not

tlieories

the

that

explainphenoraena,and

effort to

theory

must

disagreement,
important subject; and

greatest

this

explain the

It

to

the

on

great value, both

absolutelycorrect

in the

that

these

this affection.

of

is

It is proper

correct.
one

Dentistry.

of

there

it is still v^ery uncertain

that

be

the

at

Archives

which

has

received

the

times, is
recognition in modern
to
account
the acid theory. This theory seems
is known
what
as
tained
for the phenomena
more
perfectlythan any other that has yet atAs a working
of
thinking men.
prominence in the minds
to found
principlesof treatment, it has
theory, a basis upon which
of much
good. Yet, in the scientific
undoubtedly been the means
objection to be urged against
aspect of the subject,there is much
greatest attention,and

the

widest

of work
large amount
demonstrating the absolute truth

it.

be

regarded

as

The

object is concerned.
basis

of

service
of
time

as

which

has

hand

other

the

of

are

the

upon

all

writers,

is active

has

theory; all

attainment
not

been

value.

immense

of

view

the

of

which

that

is

this

must

particular

lost,however,
It

of

but

on

labor, the

as

Dr.

has

looking

forward.

theory, the

the chemical

acid; this

an

enamel, therefore

cavitytoward

and

the

with

done

brought to light,that will be of most


for the
theories
in the building up c^f other
tion
explanato us
until
such
the phenomena, which
serve
us
usefully
may
theories shall be displaced by demonstration; the
goal to

we

the

this

of

as

labor
of

been
it

fact which

According to
decomposed by
than

far

failure,so

been

has

very

the

Watt, have

acid
the

internal

substance

of the

tooth

is

dentine
readily on
tendency to the enlargement
Some
portions of the tooth.

acts

attempted

to

more

define

the

acids

thus

ing,
act-

decays into classes according as this or that acid


thus pointed
been
acids that have
in its production. The
nitric acid
(white decay), sulphuric acid (black decay),
to

divide

out

arc,

and

chlorohydric

acid

(intermediatecolors).

101

Selections.

Most
been

of

have

some

have

little or

other

acids

The

been

nothing

views

of

with

Watt

Or.

this country, but

do

to

not

seek

that

show

to

work.

ugly

the

in

commendation

nauch

There,

old.

in the

and

matter,

received

have

so

this

on

the

do

likelyto

moi-e

are

written

have

without

content

while

subject,however, have
specifyingthe particularacids so delinitely;
of the
opinion that these particularacids

who

those

other

'

been

have

men

prominent, and we find that while they have agreed in the main,
have
As
there are
them.
said,
we
important differences between
Dr. Watt
has maintained
that decay is caused
nitric,
,'
by the acids
chlorohydric,and sulphuric,with possiblyothers.
acids has
been
In Europe the influence of these particular
very
generally denied, and the results attributed to other acids,as the
the organic acids. Among
known
as
lactic,acetic and the group
those that have
this subject,
examined
perhaps, have attained
none,
a wider
hearing than Magitot, of Paris. This gentleman published
.

"

work

subjectin 1868, in which


the subject,arrivingat the

this

on

of

he makes

extended

an

that

conclusion

amination
ex-

is

decay

the saliva
derived
from
These
however
are
acids,,
by acids.
action.
Dr. Magitot instituted a
through the process of ferment
the effects of the suspected
long series of experiments to determine
of the
that most
acids on the teeth. This series of experiments shows
organic acids act very feebly on the teeth in the proportion of one
to
thousand
and
that in the
to one
of water;
proportion of one
mitted
hundred
one
they act quite energetically;so that the teeth subwithin a few
will V)e completely decalcified
to their action
tinued,
conweeks
months.
Most
of this series of experiments were
or
caused

for two

however,
caries

be

may

produced by

any

conclusion

The

years.

the

of

of

group

to

seems

acids

be that

that may

be

the lactic,
These
of the saliva.
are
developed by the fermentation
acetic, butyric,etc.
Dr. Magitot states
distinctlythat the agency of micro-organisms
is admitted
in the production of these acids
by him; but discusses
termine
deeffort to
He
makes
this phase of the subjectno
further.
no
to

All

of

his

what

experiments

whatever
may

have

had

on

determination

acids, necessary

to

of

the
to

of

out

ascertain

the case,

formed

be

may

solutions

his

being

acids
tried

were

made

was

This
is the

these

extent

the
the

in the

the

only

strength of

decalcify a

effect

that

progress

the

tooth.

and

mouth,

result

the

in

of

of the

solutions

mouth.
no

vision
pro-

tion
fermenta-

experimentation.
experiments

of

his

these

ferent
dif-

102

The

Archives

This, togetherwith
that

of

most

that

may

the

these

in the

on

go

fact

acids

Dentistry.

of

obtained

from

other

the

products
mouth, gives much
are

of

ing
show-

vsources,

certain

force

tions
fermenta-

Magi-

Dr.

to

tot's conchisions.

Very

the work

came

The

work

of

the

that

decay of

the

been

do

does

fungus

say, after

life and

growth

that

surfaces

of

are

of

an

normal

condition
and
this

we

"It

not

are

show

already

has

substance
the

of

it

sults
re-

the

in

acids, and

rapid

the

intei'ior of

be

to

the

fungus may

the

destruction.

or

dentine
*

at

at

any

their

from

if
any

if the

"But

point, through

the

dentine,

the elements

of

the

fungus

tissues,and

trance,
en-

triumph

of

dental

its

present

when,

denuded.'"

trate
pene-

itself,in

decide

cannot

their

to

if, at the surface


then

the

"We

of

penetrate

able

not

dentine

less resistant

become

are

acids;

itself

when

but

fungi are

]"enetrate sound

to

occurred,

has

said

been

consistency.
density,offers great difficulties to
that the
leptothrix could
yet sure

circumstance, it happens
action

of

the

of

themselves

The

Again:

able

dentine

the

that

seems

resistance."

or

continue

normal
of

is
lejitothrix

enamel

has

l)e normal,

by acids, then

softened, and

enamel

produce by
softening and

loss of

can

their

pass
sion,
exten-

destruction
especiallyin the dentine, effects of
complish."
more
rapid than the action of the acids alone is able to ac*
*
*
"The
participationof the fungus is constant

much

in the

the

this affection.

of

examination

manifest

condition

their

softened

once

say:

vance
ad-

little

to

that

decay

promote

authors

the

the leptothrixbuccalis."
parasitici)lant,
the leptothrixbuccalis
capable in
suppose

Again they

as

development

this

portions thus

into

than

of

purpose

endeavored

have

to

seem

caries,viz.,the action

They do not
attacking the teeth, if

the

In

extensive
an
having made
"From
of the leptothrix,
what

dental

of

development

the

not

more

express

the life and

by

referred.

have

we

but
They certainlymake
of the parasitic
theory

princii)alphenomena

two

formation

over

the

indeed,

year,

established.

They

the

^ame

leptothrixbuccalis.

as

they

the

for

is caused

demonstration

Indeed
this

written

been

the teeth

known

in

Rottenstein,to which

signallyfailed.

have

toward

that

and

have

to

fungus
to

seem

Magitot's work,

of Lieber

seems

showing

Dr.

after

soon

progress

loss of

fungus,

of

caries

substance
so

that

can

the

which
be

have
shown

question

reached
there

whether

this

is found
or

no

stage.

As

soon

the presence
the

acids

of

alone

103

8EI.ECTIONS.

could

produce

The

modus

which

operandi by

without

is

importance."
produce softening

leptothrixmay

er,
can
conceive, howevexplanation. We
something to assist the softening process by
digestive fluid. If,however, this fungus gave

is left without

dentine

of

considerable

more

ravages

that

they may do
the out-pouring of a
fluid that would
a
digest a tooth, we would think
would
for it grows
be very scarce,
abundantly in
Since
of

other

no

The

time

the

ourselves

content

must

mouth.

every

work

remember

we

importance having appeared on this subject.


has continued, however, in the
not
canjournals. We
this literature,
to review
interestingas it would be;

undertake
we

Rottenstein's

teeth

much

of

discussion

but

and

Lieber

of

sound

that

with

writer, Dr.

one

Miller,

now

of

Berlin.
Miller's

Dr.

experiments

than

that

bear

of

the stamp

being

carefully
knowledge.

more

have

to
our
previously come
the fact that
This was
been
to have
they are the
expected from
latest,giving the experimenter the advantage of all that has gone
that he
is very
favorably placed for
before, and for the reason
best experimenters of the
midst of the
such work, being in the

performed

any

his work

Therefore

world.

need

We

work

for

now,

appeared

have

we

show

to

M.

Dr.

very

begins

the last two


result

the

as

of

acids, which

in

and

the

The

We
left

off,sixteen
years
of

to

the

with

the

years

I will

give

has

ing
"Dur-

and

times

places,
dental

first stages of
of
in

generated

the
the

teeth
mouth

ferment, and

begins just

discussion

additional
but

enough

sentence:

tissues

this

M.'s

by
by

in

this

the

ditions
con-

"

The

ago.

this

'the
the

but

investigations described

Miller

Dr.

repeat M.

the

facts

advance

of
as

of

the
to

Dr.

where

Magitot

subject during
essential

the

thought

ture
na-

in reference

investigationshas been such that no


of experimentation
Magitot's course

in view.

end
you

that

of articles,that

will be.

different

determine

is to

given us no
phenomena;

same

at

with

interest.

criticise Dr.

course,

result

of

the

its action.'

to

now

articles

greater part

object of

unusual

through;

the

stated

general subject of such

would

man

the

has

these

of

I have

this that

from

see

these

clearlywhat

following papers
essential

him

decalcification

for

are

fermentation.

heard

experiments,

many

of

cannot,

not

this series
years

consists

caries

We

appearing.

now

with

to

but his last series

not,however,notice any

is

which

is looked

very

brief

synopsis

of

Dr.

M.'s

course.

And

104

The

while
It

I do

is

I wish

:"o

admitted

of
is to find and
It is not

which

to

of

this

the

question to

saliva

could

the
be

to

that

solution
be

heat

in this

sterilized

of the

did

experiments

culture

same

This

not.

the

infected

the

precautions
It must,

then,

with

after

layer

the

inner

fact that

sterilized

purified
of

the

saliva, water,

serve

as

er
anothcheck.

acid, while

became
in

the

90

germs

incubator, together with

constant

moved,
re-

portions
quickly conveyed to a

of

culture

that

})roves

instrument,

an

was

an

was

accidental

fluid uninfected,to

remained

establish

to

in

acid.

an

ceased; the

saturated

mass

until

pty-

taken, all food

was

layer

composed

placed

saliva.

the

to

the

starch

The

This

germs.

were

error

produce

proper

destroy any

to

slice

medium,

starch, and

tube

acid

removed

Then

twenty-four hours

other

belong

cut,

was

culture

and

test

the

i)ortion. Then, with


each

dentine
reached.

sugar

when

atus
appar-

cient
it is suffi-

not

reaction

the

ingress of

not

of carbolic

after

softened
were

here

freshly extracted carious tooth


the outer
portions of the decayed

might

by

but

or

to

as

negative.

cent,

per

all the

whether

starch

in the

sweet

the

prevent

does
acidifying power
something foreign.

Now,

In

permanently

observed

in detail

was

change

so

decided
soon
question was
promptly changed into sugar,

were

this

describe

determine

This

fluid remained

veloped,
by acids, dementation
developed, by ferof experiments
course

about

experimenter provided himself;


appliances for the prevention of

first

in view.

has

ferment.

supposed

all the

the

he

object

be

to

object of

I should

that

the

brought

them

The

that

say
The

aline

examine

necessary

with

used.

kind.

in mind

is

decay

M., supposes

some

Dentistry.

of

keep

to

you

that

Dr.

or

Archives

sufficient

acidity

number
due

was

the

to

of
the

infection.
From

the
which

cultures

had

also became

dealing with a
organized ferment.

was

an

that

become

which

that

ferment

remained

examination, which
showed
shown

the
to

be

cultures

fected,
in-

were

acid; thus proving that the experimenter

capable of propagating itself;an

was

showed
Microscopic examination
organism similar to those found

dentine, and

acid, other

seems

that
in the

constant
to

have

in

these

deeper layers
their
been

contained

cultures

of

carious
ical
Chem-

characters.

carefullyconducted,

This
produced to be lactic acid.
capable of decomposing the teeth by

acid

acid

M.

has

Magitot,

been
and

105

Selections.

others.

many

Yet

Dr.

of dentine

sections

Miller

further, and

still

goes

fluids that

in his culture

he

placing

by

infected, finds

has

they are decomposed by the acid formed; Avhile such sections


he
not
placed in sifch fluids not infected are not changed. Thus
in
only proves that an acid is formed, but that the acid is formed
sufficient amount
to destroy the dentine.
This, when
compared with the best experimentation previously
been
have
One
to
a
had, marks
point seems
great advance.
that

One

gained.
said

have

to

of
to be

All

done.

peculiar
in

has

been

for

in

made

been

be

able

careful

found
he

in the

the
also

dentine

organisms crowding
found

them

indeed

mouth;

he

had

as

before

not

success,

action

of the

caries

veritable

him

Miller

Dr.

in natural

is

is

tubules, and

the

yet

Miller.

without
the

to

into

enlarged

that

which

not

exposed

much

there

that

alone.

also, and

this
of

acids

ena
phenom-

Dr.

by

know

tubules,

by

is

of

spoken

of caries

the

softened

sections

some

study

of

for

is

of the

be

now

may

There

all.

not

point

far, and
certain

produce

to

is

other

thus

traced

this

enlargement
looking

that

teeth

one

dentines

he

has

But

True,

have

seen

to

proven

decay.

who

us

organism

tures,
cultells

of the
caries

artificially
produced.
This

delineation
in the

weight

of results

settlingof

the

have
experimentation must
great
problems at issue, especially if they
of

There
is nothing in
by other competent observers.
facts,unless
experiments that are not in hannony with known
the widening of the tubules
by the crowding in of the organisms.
is
It is known
that
this
previous
experiment
widening
by

confirmed

are

Ihese
it be

caused

not

the

by

medium,

lactic acid
I think

and

as

it exists
few

very

dissolved

will be

in the

willing to

ing
surround-

concede

that

This
point
organisms can accomplish this by physical force.
lead to
and its study will doubtless
requires further investigation,
vance;
further discoveries.
be explained in adHowever, I think it may
the

least the

at

In

ideas

effort may

serve

to

direct

experimentation.
tive
length upon the diges-

previous lecture I have dwelt at some


fluids of livingorganisms.
Unexpectedly
a

I find

use

for these

written
I saw
before
Dr. M's
last article.
they were
I.have
explained how it is that dead bone, roots of the temporary
teeth, ivory driven into the flesh, catgut ligatures,
etc., are
sponge,
now,

dissolved
that

the

for

and

removed

soluble

ferment

by

soluble

of the

ferment.

I have

yeast plant has

been

also
found

shown
and

106

The

Also

proven.
take
the

otherwise

up

tubules
the

by

that

is

Archives

of

ammoniacal

insoluble
conceded

lactic acid

in

Dentistry.

of

fermentation; and

substances.
fact.

Now,

this

It is also shown

that

plants
widening of
how

it is not

done

of other

experiments, nor can it be done


by the physical force of the organisms, but it can, in all probability,
be done
conditions
by the digestivefluid of the organism. The
for
this
the
work
of
that of
as
digestive fluid are the same
the granulations in widening the meshes
of the sponge
and
finally
onstrated
demhas been
removing the last of it. As yet no soluble ferment
case

in connection
Miller

exist,and

if Dr.

be

demonstrate

able

in

to

producing

its

with
should
it

be

some

above

by

decay;
said

be

its

co-operation

at

least

determine

to

have

been

ferment,

soluble

no

in

causative

that

relation

this is
to

fermentation, and
tions, may

caries.

also

large number

decay;

cause

of the teeth
than

speak

has

may

the acid

is it

nor

not

be

of

of others

by any
brought

fermentations.

means

about

acid

the

was

organism
micro-

acetic

fi-rmenta-

settled

fact

by

other

vital

this, however,

Of

that

only organism
(Since the above

the

reported the finding of another


that he thinks
capable of producing caries).
organism of butyric fermentation, possibly that of

decay

tase,
dias-

or

its

probable

means

written, Dr. Miller


The

nitely
defi-

ferment.)

stand

may

of

until this

written

was

determine

will

it, he

for

capabilitiesseparately determined.
Dr. Miller
has reported the finding of

found, isolated,and

this soluble
It is

studied

search

to

speedily, and

phenomena
organism cannot

completely

(Since the

undertake

it must
theoretically

but

organism;

of the

capabilities.This
and

this

that
cesses
prowill

we

later.
and need
explanation.
question may arise in this matter
repeatedly said that the waste products of an organism prevented
certain
in
collected
the activityof that o-rganism when
a

Another
I have

organism continue to thrive in its own


product, and thus continuously promote caries,by furnishing
and still more,
of
this
waste
product? Simple enough.
How

amount.
waste

more,

Every
habit

of

it does

case

can

who

has

much

the

studied
form

not

lactic acid
hinder

largeramount
readilyregained from

way

this

introducing some

"fix"

to

is

chemist

then

lactic fermentation
of lime

in the form

the

])rogress
of the

its salts.

of

of

into
a

lactate

the

lactic acid
This

was

the

been

has

fermenting
of

be

learned

tli,e

fluid

lime, in which

fermentation.
may

in

In

obtained,

this
as

it

long before

108

The

Archives

Dentistry.

of

please,by which the surface of the tooth


is first broken, and by which
ment;
organisms are permitted to find lodgnot
means
by which decay is carried on, to the complete
be
destruction
This
effect cannot
of the tooth.
produced except
in
close
while
in
the tissues
proximity to the
are
or
contact,
very
erative

"

if you

means,

part in the process


from

the

tissues

solution, for

of

would

they could

time

secretion

the

fluids of

the

their

produce

to

that

reason

dissipated in

be

have

the

mouth

the

effects upon

fore
be-

tooth's

the

structui'e.

The
that

which

positionsat

through very
generally,andsometimes
In

of the
before

and

as

rule, if

of their

period
other

they

under

the

whatever

in

nothing.

The

tooth

it will be

several

are

the

often

very

is

but

at

or

trial

on

enamel

usually
the

change

no

discovers

eye

most

the

portion of

the

with

the

excavator

the

prisms,

will

be

may
it

though

was

forms

times
a

is

it

only
find

may

we

veritable

characteristics

called)in
in the

the

first

grinding

surfaces

the

has

gum

for

been

tooth
a

it

which

the

it

be

may

so

teeth; occasionally

has

long

in

at

type.

decay (if
wisdom

of the
the

usual

of

enamel;

of the

depth, however,

more

this character

see

molar, also, where

slowly, and

the

as

tion;
varia-

much

dentine,

the

is much

If there

assumed

will have

into

extending

the

that
space,

will present

depth

part of the thickness

it

cavity.

Occasionally we

The

considerable

over

away

chalk.

much

so

often
other

easilyscraped

from

beginning

its

apparently break in through the enamel


disclosinga cavity of very slightdepth. It often happens

instrument

cayed
de-

different

are

has

tooth;

normal,

seems

they

always

There

of

whitish;

rather

It

gum.

appearance

surface

appears

incisors.

of the upper

they

that

seen

respects.

of the

margin

the

of the molars

surfaces

fullythrough the gum is especiallyremarked;


at a
early
carefully noted
decays are
very

are

progress,

free

teeth

Wisdom

are:

buccal

fact that

teeth, the

these

in

decays

seen

the labial surfaces

on

wisdom

are

the

slowly, on

come

case

results

these

through

conxe

time

in

of

state

very

chronic

irritation.
of this effect

It is characteristic
smooth

of the

surfaces

is necessary
As
gum.
becomes

I have

Now,

said
as

teeth
to

as

prepare

that

in the
the

it is

as

pits

and

way

for

exposed,

tooth
these

spots

are

prone

to

become

seen

grooves.
this

place under the gum; is


rises higher and the surface

this takes

the

often

on

No

the

perfectio
im-

manifestation.
covered

the

thus
seat

by

the

affected
of

true

Selections.

caries

with

caries

does

which

all

of

its

not

take

usual

109

manifestations.
In this

place.

gi-aduallyassumes

However,
whitish

case,

is seen,

spot

yellowish tinge,then

often

very

brownish, and

then

black.
This
result is brought about
linallybecomes
by the
settlinginto, or the formation
in, the affected tissue of the black
the first to show.
istry,
sulphurets;as I was
(See report on dental chemof the
American
Dental
by Dr. H. A. Smith, Transactions

Association, 1874, page


We

these

see

the

on

named.
the

smooth

incisors

upper

often

are,

in the

as

in

occur

though

labial

positions

surfaces

uniformly,

not

They

grooves.
in the

be

to

apt

areas

seen

the

on

stage of

every

They
pits and

oftenest

are

often

so

lilack.

deep

teeth,but

that

decays

to

the molars

upon

surfaces,

of the

any

The

white

ashy

otherwise

occur

may

day

spots every

coloration,from
on

78.)

of

the

of

same

character.
Those

seem,

persons,
Some

irritation

characteristics
examined

everted

of

gum

the

so

to

as

the seat

expose

operator, except

grooved
often
of

see

appearance

the

(and

away
the

is

weeks,

or

been

will

even

by

gum,

from

the

the

enamel

progress,

part, becomes
often

comes
be-

the present

patient to
either

and

tooth, which

he

decided

the

the

patient
slight

the

operator

normal

is

form

will

develop

loss of

the

exceedingly sensitive;the

is left to

case

the

to

just at

seen

that

the

This

of the

ly
close-

are

the
carefully press
will find this abnormally sensitive)until he can
tooth below
strate
plainly,it will be easy to demon-

has

there

instrument

groove
the

of the

root

of

differentiate
if

be

can

the

to

tooth.

attention

of the

neck

However,

he

the

slighteversion

to

tooth.

that
an

calls the

of the

puzzled

gum

closely applied
in

of

continue

case

special

found

margin

exquisitesensitiveness

which

the

be

to

some

they

be

er
young-

seems

have
If

and

character.

spot

also

this,if the

Generally, however, nothing

spot.
or

These

enamel

same

immediate

that

the breach

of the most

stage of the process,

and

was

now

the

decays.
inception,it will

their

after

chalky; soon
till

the

of

other

to

removed,

be

the

in
occasionally

past,

to

cases,
at

common

junction of

or

age

beginning.

early in

which

the gum,

many

been

has

become

in very

not

very

cementum

of middle

of their

condition

one

the

just at

occur

in persons

cementum,

has

that

decays

fact

that

the

dentine

is

itself,this sensitiveness

months,

and

then

substance.

abate; and

will

Trial

surface

within

exposed.
continue

it will

be

with
this

Now
for

found

if
some

that

the

taken

has

case

and

progress
remain

of

It has

of

account

words,

other

out

class of

Another

their
under
very

free

the

plate,in

are

class of

called

been

at

can
same
on

In

by the irritation,

out

that'

which

common

very

often
the

the

at

not

must

studied

I have

Marshall.

produced

whether

invariable
of the

filled with

ON

In

"

found

KLACK's

DR.

tubuli, but
the

mouth

or

Black

refers

experiments under
produced

the

high

with

those

that

the
both

up
gin
be-

PAPER.

of the

York, found

of arsenious

action

course,

teeth

dental

and

the

caries,

culture

fluids,

tubuli, to the

that

same

dental

the

tubuli

acid

of the

enlargement

of the

cause

healthy

upon

enlargement

conditions, to

the

action

dental
in
of

gard
re-

tissue.

Dr.
a

tent
ex-

were

micro-organisms, in his experiments with

the

minus

Of

spot.

experiments on
in his
artificially

penetration of the affection,


micro-organisms.

Boedeker, of New

to

confounded

enlargement

an

the

claspsencircle

Miller's

Dr.

in the

aid of

by

vantage.
proceed to the very best adbeginning of this decay is often

uncovered

be

is formed

pocket

ceraentuni.

DISCUSSION

Dr.

the

where

of the

margin

can

has

gum

occur

Such

crowU;

everted,

that

seem

of the

decays

see

is

gum

not

eversion

the

after

Dr.

rapidly, and

progress

point. Or, if you


that way,
a true
absorption has taken place
for the future decay.

fermentation

which

It does

Dr.

has

to

cease

"

part of the tissue

decays

of the

margin

the

he

It may

in
be
of the
chai'acter
to
seem
same
closely,and which
inception. These begin under the free margin of the gum
are
usually
plates that abut closelyagainst the teeth. These
their
for
the
that
re"son
soon
as
as
evidently
rapid in
course,

very

on

nidus

the

forms

ferment

it put in

have

prefer to
which

soluble

dissolved

has

that

root

chronic

decay.

decays, if that term


stage, is brought about in precisely the
of a permanent
tooth is partiallyabsorbed
irritation
of its peridental membrane.

this

the

that

way

of

it may

color, or

ashy cast.
opinion that this

our

at

character

less

or

more

been

dark

Dentistry.

of

usual

the

on

assume

applied

be

we

Archives

The

110

Miller's

soluble

ment
fer-

and
product by the bacterium
lactis,^
dissolves
which
or
digests the organic portion of the tubuli, and
refers
the inorganic material
surrounding it,while Dr. Boedecker
the

condition

as

found

waste

in his

experiments

to

inflammatory

action

re-

Selections.

suitingin absorption

caused

Ill

irritation

by the

of

the

arsenious

acid.
I would

like

found
Dr.

Dr.

these

by

Black

gentlemen

Black."

1 will first say

in

instances

caused
the

cases

ask

to

both

results

body.

he

be

identical?

to

that

by

I do

the

in both

action

considers

in

probability,by

is the

in

same

tions
condi-

results

lactis, but

hacter'mm

cases

the

regai-d the

not

in all

brought about,

are

The

whether

as

both

tive
diges-

kind, the

jjhi-

in both instances, the difference


losophy of the widening is the same
being that the digestivebodies that do the work are produced
of Dr. Boedecker's
by diffex'ent forms of life. In the case
ments,
experithe
tion

by

and

removes

In

conditions

the

Dr.

which

irritated
the

dentinal

Miller's

due

be

only

of
fibril"

experiments,
and

the

the

to

fonna-

Avhich

menstruum

bacteria
the

removes

of the

case

could

digests

wall.

tubular

digests

In the

described

bacterium

form

walls

menstruum

of

the

tubuli.

or

diastase,

lactis,a digestive body,

demonstrated

Dr.

Miller, the organism is fully


by
of digestion, and
know
to be able to perform, the act
we
proven
the power
that the tissues of the higheranimals have
of removing
has

been

now

is

parts by what

usually called

absorption,and

which

is

form

of

digestion.
It has

been

in this way

process

tinal

in the

action

from
the

of

pulp chamber
long-continued irritation

under
of

process

the

evidenth^

pressure,

digestionby

of

means

be

may
of

the

enlarged
pulp. Bone

by a similar
digestivebody.

Allport. Dr.Boedecker's
experiments with
tissue (though not yet fullycompleted) were

arsenic

"

upon

to

seems
a

have

vital

been
one,

the

and

roots

chemical
may

be

into

the

"re-molecularized"

and

converted

In

one.

in kind

of deciduous

being largelytaken
a

vital

den

upon

living tis.

evidently prove that there was


inflammatory action set
Dr.
Miller's
tubules, causing absorption of material.
tissue (teethout of the mouth), and
dead
were
upon

absorption of

been

was

"

was

cess

as

cases

that

and

sue,

the

shown

easilyremoved

is also

Dr.

in

well

the

like that

teeth, the

new

pro.

manifested

in

removed

tissue,
or

rial
mate-

have

may
carried

other
the
While, in the
product.
case,
would
have
to
without, and
seem
entirely from
of
vital
acids, and
independent
processes
tissues.
I
how
can
imagine
micro-organisms
waste

the

first,the

which
general circulation,
into

up
periments
ex-

off

action
been
within
may

112

The

produce
to

sufficientlyexalted
absorption of material

of arsenic

in the

But

in either

material

would

same

upon
the

or

the

continued

irritation

absorption

of the

occurring in

removed,
and
In

the

washed

the

elements,

lime

for acids.

more

the

as

of Dr.

and

their

Whether

the

excreted

have,

deciduous

teeth; in

removed

are

Black,

both

entire,

in

Black

and

Miller.

doubt

that

we

the

been

excrete

cases

in

while

no

it is the

that

fungi,

interested

lime

question;but it will
too
confidentlythat

well

be

either

of dental

for

us

of these

acids, no

dentine.
in

to

for

decomposition of foreign
to
mind, produces the
my
the

arguments

Thej^ are highly interesting,and


solution
approaching a correct

are

long

so

consequence

of
affinity

from

ternal,
entirelyex-

are

singlechange of
the
affinityof
upon
acid
not
or
(and

an

material

devitalized

the

conditions

the

fungi

whether

by

of course,

phenomena

changed

Dr.

pulp, as suggested by

consequent

is of

there;

produced,

condition

changed

the

expect

general circulation,the
pulp cavity consequent

the

Miller

removal

is found

or

Boedecker.

action, resultingin

acid

matter,

irri-

off in gases.

pass

likelythey do)

how

or

than

matter

the

the

chemical

purely

of

of the

mouth

away,

experiments

and

fibres

inorganic material only is largely


posed
to die, be decomorganic portion remaining behind

the

the

dentinal

off in the

materials

inorganic

the

produced by

I should

of the

roots

of

that

to

of Dr.

conditions

largely carried
the enlargement

organic and

caries

similar

be

it is in

as

irritation

experiments

of these

Dentistry.

of

cause

tion

Akchines

before

pause

gentlemen

of

Drs.

is

little

there
of
we

account

this

vexed

pronounce
for

all

the

caries.

be
May not the enlargement of the tubules
caused
upon
by the physical force of the micro-organisms exerted
In the vegetable kingdom such instances
the walls of the tubules?
rocks have
been
of rare
not
split,and large masses
are
occurrence;
of
moved
of solid material
fungous
by the continued
pressure
Williams.

Dr.

"

growths.
Friderichs.

Dr.
the

"

enlargement

Milles

experiments
upon

begging
Some

do

the
the

not

Underwood

tubuli, and

substantiate

their

prove

observations

anything.
of two

called

first

dentinal

of the

specimens to

and

attention

they presented
Dr.

views.

I would

not

experimenters.

put

to

scopical
micro-

Boedecker's
much

I think

ance
reliwe

are

question.

observers

can

see

whatever

they

desire

to

see,

and

later

113

Selections.

observations

their

larged
en-

in

used

the methods

to

the

not

paring
pre-

slides?

the

"

bersburg, Pa.,

Susserott.

justread by

invited

be

"

Dr.

speak

to

subject.
pleased with

much

the

Black, it proves

this

upon

certainlyvery

am

I. L. Susserott, of Cham-

suggest that Dr.

I would

Allport.

Dr.

due

be

May

worthless.

be

to

tubuli

of the

appearance

Dr.

proved

are

by Butler,

lines

of the

truth

the paper

that

"Large
And
And

remedies

little fleas.

have

fleas to bite

there

And

Various

fleas have
these

fleas to feed

introduced

been

surgicaldiseases,the most
potent
As
in
used
general surgery, a
mercury.
perfectlyharmless, and I do not see why

is

with

safety and

Dr.

Harlan.

The

"

live in absolute

can

chloride
In

order

"

Dr.

anthrax

alcohol, and

solution
it

and

also in

the

of

might

not

to

1,000

be

used

caries.

bacillus

five per

bichloride

is

tuberculosis
solution

cent,

weak

solution

Black.

unfortunate,

"

destroy micro-organisms,
and
individual
apply
organism
will destroy its vitality.

know

to

the
study
specialagent which
in
the
Eugenol
a

bacillus

which

of

of dental

treatment

ment
antiseptictreat-

of

of zinc.

must

and

in the

success

the

for

of

of

these,

on

infinitum.-''

ad

so

have

are

'em;

how

strength of
will prevent

quoted

viz.: "The

an

to

1 in

the

75,000, will

development

expression of
first stages

Dr.

the

destroybacteria,
of the

Miller's

of dental

we

caries

spores.

saying it was
consists

in

for
are
^ofthe tissues of the teeth by acids, which
This
the greater part generated in the mouth
by fermentation."
is the same
question discussed of old, of who led the pig to market,
used
the man
the string. The
or
stringis the means
by the man,
exist in that
and
the acid can
cause
more
no
decay, or even
tion,
posiexist and
lead the
without
the organisms, than the stringcan
decalcification

pig

without

the

man.

have
free oxygen.
micro-organisms that produce caries must
dentine
a litte softened
Therefore, if you plug a tooth perfectlyover
|
It
exclude
and
the
is
the
free
destroy
organisms.
sible,
posyou
oxygen
of course,
that an organism not requiring free oxygen
might
is against that suphave
we
produce caries,but all the evidence
position.
The

The

114

Friedrichs.

Dr.

It

"

need

Dentistry.

of

to

seems

is the

What

question.

Archives

that

me

of

still

are

we

caries

of

treatment
antisej^tic

the

begging

if

exist without
When
free oxygen?
cava
micro-organisms cannot
itv of decay is hermetically sealed
can
quently
no
enter, and conseoxygen
micro-organisms carnot
develop.
It has been
that
there
Dr. Marshall.
are
proved by Pasteur
"

certain

in fact cannot
such

that

secondary

exist

without

develop in that medium; and


exist as
micro-organisms may

it fs not

micro-oi'ganismsthat

of

forms

product

of the

discussion

the

the

to

of its

plant at

food

the

become

diseases

Certain

believe

is

in

turn

without

of the

the

reading

the

first order

Amvl
taken

symptoms:

by

paper

of business

Section

The

then

Nitrite

at

slow

coma;

Dr.

gives

aud

and
algidity;cyanosis;belladonna
followed
of nitrite of amyl were

finallyrecovery.

"

L' Union

tissues

Harlan

the

of

of

lateness

deferred, and

be

Joicr.

Med.

of Am.

"

and

other

by

tinuous
con-

zing
antagonidone.

the

hour

that

it be

to-morrow.

Association.

The

Drouet.

presented

the

pnlse;respirationssix

Medicale

in the

poisons, as is now
different
organisms.
to

or

soil for the

to

laudanum
feeble

adult.

isms.
micro-organ-

that

found

be

which

the

the

hope

now

another.

to

by

of

some

Opium-Poisostixg.
of

that

in

occur

growth

will

unfavorable

maj'

the session
"

ounces

the

This

not

the adult

resort

adjourned.
in

two

\^

aceti.

niycoderma

will stop

nature

certainlybe different for


it was
motion
agreed that owing

On

the

produced

means

some

do

the

will

These

had

in

are

This

organisms.

micro-organisms

of

that

renders

that

cases

of research

round

child

difference

some

of these

form

one

organisms. So it is,that
necessarily poisonous

diseases

of these

fluids in the two

growth

is not
in the

occur

some

There

other

one

food

concentration.

of

degree

of

the

poisonous to

natural

acid, which

acetic

certain

the

another.

is the

plant produces

This

to

come

"

"

alcohol, however

same

of

cause

Only about 17 per cent, of


the excretory
the yeast plant,because
in that degx'eeof concentration
comes
bealcohol
further
growth. This
plant and prevents

plant

poison

able
improb-

in the

by saying: We must
findingspecificmicro-organisms. A poison for
closed

point of
not
necessarilya poison for
be produced by
alcohol can

We

all

at

factors

oxygen,

caries.

Black

Dr.

is

free

remedies

immediate

failed.

patient
following

per

minute;

Inhalations

improvement,

and

116

The

From

this view

mind

of

Archives

eclecticism

has

with

medicine,

and

benefit

the

of

of

lamp
body

with

the

teaching, imperfect knowledge

the

is full

and

the

suffering will
body is thine eye;
of light; but when

prove

any

all

of

when
thine

and

or

for the

avail.

"The

single the

is evil

the

false

spirit,

means
no

is

eye

eye

Look, therefore, whether

capacity, filled

non-ethical

little

the
for

conclusions,
or

thine

of

state

medicaments;

appliances
of

the

small

selfish

or

of

darkness.

is

thy body

light that

whole
full

is in thee

be

darkness."

not

greatest inheritance

The

spiritualand
and

to

mental

its

use

own

of

students, lead

find the

and
look

minds

their

as

for

enslaved

what

like

and

so

from

so

eclectic

is
and
and

taught

to

trust

is

The
take

about

it,or

beings

methods, and

retail

they

are

majority of

great

everything upon

agrees

with

what

never

furthermore

in

whose

called

be

treatment

knoAvledge to

who

sins; in medicine

in

false

and
methods

of

the

the church

the

they
and

so

become

can

neither
slave

so

for
first

must

does

under

eclectic,nor
their

can

and

owner,

men

authority;

ors,
instructthe

tion
condi-

ignorant at
perform

an

exorbitant

al)solution

and

rate.

forgive

patientsare suffered to die rather than


question by counsel; in dentistry whose

acquired titles
to

be

is

earth

on

and
debasing. The people who look up
mutually unnatural
for
ty,
authoriconstantly lean u})on authority create a market
tifully
so
constantlywe find the world liberally
equipped and bountheir following
pretenders, who mislead
supplied with charlatan
and

These

should

except by proxy;

act

thinks

for the bond-slave

have

can

birth,or perhaps through bond-blood

Such

circumstances.

adopt

bird

information, and

generations previous,never
know

child

for themselves.

answers

others

to

of

being

taught to trust and to use


close analytical
observation
should
be early
dren
answering directly the questions of chilthem
far as possibleto try to reason
out
as

powers

wings; the habit


engendered; instead
and

human

freedom.

its

to

do

to

more

practitionerthan with the action


mind
is narrow,
bigoted, shallow, of
pernicious theories, greed, wrong

if the

of

Dentistry.

of

honestly
dis-

in

ceptions
collegesand societies,stamp crude concy
pretentionswith fictitious value and give currenif preand classes of opei'ations
which
treatment
sented

of
the
endorsement
professionat large without
and rejectedas counterfeit
authority,would be detected at once
to

the

the

such
and

valueless.
The

next

great liindrance

to

the

adoption

of

tnu'

eclecticism

is

Dental

kind

egotism, a

of

the
self-blinding,

conceit, great I and

little you:
makes

egotism

because

they practiceand
that very
on
practice,must
therefore

In

all other
and

teachers
of

and

of

matters

In this way

117

of inordinate
deadly miasma
from
keeps many
advancing,

think
methods

the

that

their

they have
superior to

be

account

methods

methods,

been

'

the

taught

all

to

others, and

unworthy of investigation.
egotism operates perniciously in the presentation

leaders

trifles

this

them

methods

that

Societies.

and

are

things absolutely false,as im])ortantfacts

moment.

great

injurious practices,simple and outrageous


have
been and are
and perpetuated.
being inculcated
for instance
the practiceof placing cotton
saturated
with
in root
canals, under the supposition that the septicmatter

methods
Take
creasote

contained

errors,

therein

would

be

putrescent pulps, the exhibition


condition

of the

without

teeth

of structure

cutting away

of

in

render

cavities

of contour.
subsequent restoration
approximal cavities in chalky teeth

foil in

in

sockets.

unhealthy
to

capping

The
as

or

plantation
trans-

The

extensive

easy

of

of

use

access

cohesive

exclusive

an

of

inflamed

an

replantation and

The

in order

The

cathartics

drastic

membrane.

mucous

diseased

of

innocuous.

rendered

ing
fill-

material.
declaration

The

that

some

that the
by others
impact during mastication

from
chief

indications

The

fillingof

first

reducing

the

sound

thoroughly
and

regard

upon

with

necessary

of

roots

and

caries.

seased
hopelessly di-

of

The

failure

teeth

affected

culpable silence

of

the

on

without

tion
extrac-

to

remove

with

they have

practice the only invariablysuccessful method.


is
in dentistry at least
the practitioner
who

The

and

truth
of

master
to

"

or

to

reallyhas
remain

The

boasted

accomplish
cure-all

fails

none.

He

who

circumscribed, who

by theory, however, through


never

or

otherwise, that

"

all methods

become

will

part, implied

much
in

business

tact

good.
majority

of

he

gauges
may

is not

edge
his knowl-

allows

cases,

their

of

part

the

on

litis;
alveo-

practitioners

patrons, and

pretense

their

of dental

The

observances

hygenic

of the

substitutes.

pretext.

the

one

not

metal,

utilization

should

margins

gum

other

or

artificial

any

the

treatment

gold

The

all, the sinful

of

essential,and

in the

of

deposit upon

above
to

teeth

support

teeth

the

is not

sensitiveness.

for the

roots

of

sensitive

retaining pits

protection

be considered

to

and

grooves

be used,

not

in

by

his practice

thrive

and

cially,
finan-

it is

only

118

The

the

by
the

exercise

best

of

shall be

should

be

judgment that
itself brings its
tions
gathered the indicaand rejectionof all
cult
important and diffi-

an

of

out

the

for its successful


that

Dentistry.

of

enlightened and wide-awake


perceived and applied. The case

needs, and

own

Archives

itself must

case

the

treatment,

be

exclusion

being frequently the


point of the diagnosis.
This is "eclecticism
in dentistry" and
so

more

eclecticism

in toto.

Discussions.
Dr.

Edmund
is in

Noyes.

and

sufficient

this is my

details

thoroughness

determine

to

with
principledifficulty

all the

mastering

practicewith

The

"

which

is

thoroughly

master

Take, for instance, so


mallet.

and
He

In

for

it would

be

should

be

and

etc., and

able

desirable

to

to

time.

of

experience
merits
of

Many
skill to

of

them

eclecticism

profitby
"He

must

the
is

for him

to

the
have

of

both

such

strument
in-

an

theoretical

acquaintance with
its various

the

use

in

give
operating.
ordinaiy

the

of

use

it.

forms; hand-mallets,

the

in

man

mallet.

has

done

Now

determine

to

theoretical

practiceor

to

be

become

wise

W.

an

chiefly or
who

man

their

all

that, he

requires

is then

influences.

"

petent,
com-

afraid,a good many

am

and

details

the

on
rely chiiefly

timony,
tes-

investigationsof others as to
special methods.
delicacy,such experience and

expert

largely in

man

who

in anyone

others.

It is

can

profit by

very

them.

of

and

means

our

wise

other

do

must

and

his
Our

abilityto
true

people's

in party polities,
sectarianism
Allport. Beliefs
much
religion,or pathies and systems in medicine, are
very
of prejudice, largely dependent
or
early education
upon

Dr.

W.

and

experience of
a

in

of
of

use

not

could

us

methods

the

as

I do

eclecticism

of

most

require,from their
\hat the ordinarily busy

time

not

than

eclectic

it in all

When

line of

any

determine

has

gently
intelli-

successful;

most

about

all the

t|ieseinstruments

master

to use
eclectically
myself are forced

besides

work

use

time

of

and

and

much

very

matter

be

to

one

best

choose

to

of

automatic, pneumatic, electro-magnetic,engine,

heavy

great deal

the

simple

practicalknowledge of,

light
a

order

details

able

methods

in practice.
difficulty

own

the

various

the

be

to

the

specialand serious
consider
to say
myself competent
practice. It would require more
to

of

all, practically,

us

ing,
sayrience."
expe-

in
ters
matrounding
sur-

Dental

Educated

in the

the

In

to

To

love

the

world

God

with

in

difficult

the

of medicines

patientsdo

get

many

being
hearts

judiced
preis

there

parties,
leadingpolitical

two

our

believe

to

easy

are

held

in

and

our

of the

most

suppose;

both.

by

common

sentials
es-

neighor as ourselves,
prejudiceand bigotry as
the religious
of education, have divided
ples.
yet they all believe in the vital princi-

Allopathic school of medicine, it is


istration
from
the adminthat any good can
come
very small doses, notwithstanding the fact
under
the treatment,
or, as they say,"with-

so-called

believe

to

of

school, we

or

religiousbeliefs,but

sects, and

many

Educated

that

our

nonessentials, born
into

very

of

all

it is not

than

good government

essentials

the

to

others, and

is far less difference

there

sect

party,

one

against
good or truth in them.
the proclaimed doctrines

much

are

of

beliefs

119

Societies.

in
well

medicine."

out

Equally difficult
that old
than

kill their

that

in

some

lieve
Homeopathic physician to beschool physicianswith their large doses do little less
teaches
them
patients. Experience, however, soon
is it for

large

cases

young

doses

far

are

they give them and call


finding out that less medicine

effective

more

small

than

homeopathy. Allopaths are


also
than
formerly given answers
decreasing the
consequently they are constanth"
every
purpose;
size of their doses, and get better results than with largeones.
In this way
these
schools
two
are
year after year coming nearer
and nearer
but the names
together in practi'ce;
keep up the war of
parties.
ones;

so

Eclecticism

practiceof
use
cure

and
more

both

of the

belief
schools

all medicines

and

any
"

disavows

it

in

mentioned,

in the

of

many

and

school

to

of disease

treatment

select and

that effect

"

or

methods

system

now

under

discussion

of medicine

as

would

applied to

treat

dental

say

of the

eclectic

practiceand

not

of

operating.
the essay,
of
Considering the shortness
has been
taken, the matter
ably discussed, and

to

claims

and

just what the other schools practice so with experienced


and
is more
in
the difference
name
intelligent
practitioners,
As
the two
of prejudicethan of fact.
a matter
previous papers
the allopathic and
opathic
homethe society were
read before
upon
systems of practice as applied to dentistry, I had
posed
supthe paper

to

doctrines

the

except

in commendati

on.

and

the

there

stand})oint

is very

little

120

The

Dr.

Noyes'

Auchives

remarks

in

Dentistry.

of

the

mallet

something said to me at Saratoga last summer


noted
practitionerin regard to the use of
young
cohesive
and non-cohesive
gold. I was
trying to

by

regard

the

to

of

use

of

me

in most

teeth

cases

could

be

the

he

trouble
and

gold

"Yes, I understand

replied:
with
hand

cohesive

is you

the

I knew

something

When

and

show

that

him

as

how

have."

men

young
the

about

taught to use soft


to
properly use

were

learn

we

doctor, but

argument,

your

cannot

mallet

the mallet

surely saved
by
cohesive
than
than
gold,
for
a
listening to me

practitionerswho

pressure,

gold and

supposed

old

you

quite a

easily and

more

using a largerproportion of non-cohesive


by the exclusive use of the latter. After
while

reminds

of

use

I had

mallet, but this

the

I had

recovered
from
I
the shock
sufficiently
ventured
remark
that
to
men
perhaps the young
having only
lean.ed the use
of cohesive
gold and the mallet, did not understand
the desirability
of the use
of noncohesive
of or the possibilities
gold
was

poser.

well

as

those

as

with
of the
I

it he

been

educated

in its

prejudiced against its

was

educated

was

taught

was

for many

also
the

the

in fact

years;
make

So

in

came

too

the

of these

would

cases

moderately

contour

highly complimented
and

the

respect

The

less

in

work

the

trouble

of late

would

most

by

in other

tions
separa-

circumstances

of the

Of

it is

course

taught
treated

had

skill

felt that

been

far

sadly in

need
of

matters

pleasant

that

me

examined

whose

I have

cavity and
saving this

in

success

has

those

have

narrow

no

orifice

I have

as

stands
as

under

far' better

years,

some

this,

greatest
with

observation

done

for

naturally prejudiced
and
tween
fillings
especiallybe-

practice.

fillings.And

practiceof
in

of

been

contouring

eclecticism

that

was

to

have

contoured

extreme

used

other.

no

rage

vogue

in

by this method
compliments, but

receive

result

favor

wide

class of teeth

wise

in

and

gold

had

we

contour
against
regard
I was
bicuspid teeth.
taught that
should
the
or
fillingsextend
lap over
I have
often been
on
complemented
my

the

and

use,

perience
ex-

teeth, especially
separationsbetween
bicuspids, and having practicedthis method

to

wedging

it.

noncohesive

of

use

successfully, when

years

and

to

many

between

to

Without

use.

other.

exclusivelyfor
I

had

who

has

put

of

been

so

tions
separaIn

better.

our

in

some

wider

ot

many

revision.

this
A

practicewill

good.
of

us

is

this,

we

are

not

open

to

convic-

Dental

tion, not

willing

methods,
them.

The

eclectic

Show
and

in

me

not

in

anything,but
practitioners.

extreme

successful
7\

Dr.

E.

Baldwin.

anywhere. It
no
pathy about

not

on

there

the

forms

jp. A.

by
more

in views
that

man

you

amongst

most

our

"allopath"

term

school.

the

to

that

tooth

There

"

used
is

There

large number
cassionallyit

is

of

to

cases

words
full

more

to

for

example

hardly

extract

there

say
sound

would

not

effect.
the

will take

are

other

teeth

it is necessary

that
tooth

root

or

me

dom
wis-

conditions
be

cannot

tract
ex-

sion.
expres-

for

we

the

I do

of sound

necessary

essayist,which
not

by

of

extraction

is

I do

of

are

made

that

meaning

it

the

by

(but
powerful

tasteless, these

when

of course,

schools

statement

or

kaloids
al-

doses."

one

the

but

crowded;
to

are

of

but

rected
cor-

in
oc-

is desirable.

Nichols.
and

Brophy.

Tiie

"

cases

referred

consequently not
"

The

given in as largedoses
the change in the form
tinctui'es and
are

than

to

in several

made

of

crude

medicine

in reference

instances,for

formerly. What

as

in

teeth

are

pathological

sound.

statements

doses, is quitetrue

is used

almost

exception,viz.,"he

but
justifiable

conditions;

various

which

pretext,

any

except by extraction.

the alkaloids

and

the form

in

the

by

was

take

must

teeth, alluded

condition

used

relativelysmaller

under

and

allude

sound

remedies

occasions, however,

are

is necessary

small

the

liberal

and

extinct

an

new

essayist understood

the

There

J)r.

and

remedies

used

once

Brophy.

teeth

think

Dr.

eclectic

and

Many
being

way),

in

which

sound

in

different

crude

essayistto
not

show

the

and

its

or

are

administered

JJr.

I will

like

term

ago.

extracts

in

course

school

years

and

course

dont

extinct

an

the

ten

was

than

is

"

is broad

obtain

may

I have

own

our

teaching. They are called "regulars,"


and I object to being called an
allopathicphysician myself.
also
the
of
is
doses
practice
dealing out smaller
say,
the
much
is dealt
out
increase,but just as
nowadays as

I would

to

practice.
of inteligence,
that

my

man

predjudice

less

from

others

results

withal, conscientious, and

is

of

I live the

the

121

different

anything

good

how

longer

am

consider

to

matter

no

Societies.

true.

large

and

drugs are not


said in regard to

many

has been

is also

to

Instead

tions,
of decoc-

drugs, fluid extracts, solid extracts, and


It is a fact
cine
that
less medinow
greatly used.
best
less mediformerly. The
physicians use

^'22

The

cine

in

cure

disease

Archives

their

proportion to
and

Dentistry.

of

practice,and

maintain

resort

health, hygienic

otlier

to

measures,

to

means

diet

proper

etc.

While

I think

good,

when

we

refer to the
think

the

spent

to

time
better
has

is

scarcely any

of

good

do

not

wants

to

there

the
is

read

of

means

difference
use

minute

in

the

before

the

ought

not

let

be

to

him

will

He

needs

to

action
effect

know

of the

cure.

remedy; in other words


distinguished medical
very

he

been

there

if he

cure,

If he

anxious

to

day, why

iodide

of

how

patient

of the

remedy to effect a
of effectinga cure

"a

condition

the

physician

is

he

"

and

practice.

to

If

so.

The

effect

allowed

do

"

schools.

that

remedy

any

doses

various

some

little difference

very

give twenty -five, thirtyor forty grains of quinine in


let him
do so.
If he desires
to
give large doses
potassium let him do so; but, gentlemen, he must know
it.

doing

society
devoted
their
have
to
preparation might
other subject.
advantage in treatingsome
been
so
changed and simplifiedof late that
papers

that, he

use

be

may

them

three

will

sense

papei's

compare

last

Medicine

will

these

to

and

gentleman
remedy must

use

the

lative
re-

able

be

must

of

has

to

said

be caparemedy to be
ble
the
ing
condition, the restorleading to
proper
from
If it is
a pathological to
a
physiological condition."
capable of doing this, it is not a remedy, and in using it we

not

Dr.
read

J. 8. Mariihall.

by

Dr.

or

"

rendering vali;ieto

not

are

cure,

patientsfor

our

I have

"

Nichols.

It

been
to

seems

much

lies at the

very

foundation

I do

successful

in

the

cents;
that

mean

but in
not

curing disease, and


than

more

interested

of
of

sense

saving

fifteen years

returns.

ago

this

successful

gaining

teeth.

You

paper

question
practice.

dollars

and

will remember

that

man

any

in the

that

gentlemen

me

of eclecticisni
not

their

dared

to

use

called a "quack."
fillingmaterial than gold was
To-day
the very
who
of
men
applied this epithet are
using every form
plasticfillingmaterial
perhaps with the exception of amalgam,
any

other

"

and

man)'^ of them

are

using

this.

is

their
gradually passing away,
cases
being now
recognized. With
eclecticism

in

dental

The

usefulness
the

has

surgery

prejudice against plastics

come

in

introduction
in

the

certain
of the

class

of

idea

of

application

of

plasticfillings.
To

be successful

theoretical

in

knowledge

practice
"

of all the

to

save

various

teeth

requires not only a


methods, but judgment
"

The

124

THE

TWENTY-

Archives

FIRST

ANNUAL

MEETING

VALLEY
HELD

Reported

Meeting

called

was

Geo.

order

to

A.

D.

D.

S.

President

m.,

a.

1884.

13-14,

NOV.

Maxfleld,
11

at

NECTICUT
CON-

SOCIETY.

MASS.,

by

THE

OF

DENTAL

SPBINGFIELD,

AT

Dentistry.

of

Ross

in

the

chair.
After

the

Anaesthetic

Vegetable
of

the

Mr.
He
a

of

oxide

hops

as

it

of

They buy

their

claim

in

that

used,

but

they
the

passing

with

not

and

therefore

Dr.
his

W.

The

vapor,
rabbit

and

of

full of

was

taken.
it

was

with

placed
the

cover

was

the
As

gas,
soon

found

one

it, condensing

opium

or

life

support

dred
hun-

holds

that

from

longer
after

unpleasant

first used

who

with

Committee
also

five

in

than

effects,

different

this

compound,

combinations

of

gave
herbs

gas.
then

in

box

vapor

timed

as
as

the

tested
the
rabbit

some

with

experiments

having glass sides, and


turned

was

the

rabbit

an

opening

expired, time
lived

nine

and

after

Di's. L. D.

on.

experiments.

'from

had

made

oxide.

nitrous

new

C. S. Ilurlbut

was

when

and

Boston,

experimenting

Executive

the
ard

of

manufacture

receiver

no

article.

safer.

Mayo,

for

it will

that

it will have

oxide, that

is much

K.

reasons

in the

the

nitrous

pure

claim

make

ether, chloroform

use

in Boston,

firms

extracts, their

these

pump

pending.

reliable

They
a

the

name

now

large drug

gas.

they

is

use

getting

into

run

do

the

through

the

into

their

herbs; gave

libertyto

at

usual
bottles

other

seven

different

of

on

are

gas

full

They

through

not

ing
mak-

when

that

He

it.

containing the

it

read

and

using

were

bottle

of

gallons at one time, and


thousand
gallons, and when

the

tion
considera-

manufacture,

one

was

one

that

cylinders. They

its

of their vapor;

patent

propertiescombine

its manufacture.

of

basis

from

confident

are

the

Boston

introduced.

was

company,

fluid extracts

the

extracts

the

through
passed

applicationfor

an

medical

for the

vapor

parties that

the

the herbs

others, as

They

their

method

from

then

mixture
of

one

and

the

was

gas

solution, and

containing a

of

manager

they passed

gas

alkaline

transacted, the

was

presented

testimonials

nitrous
the

business

society.

descriptionof

number

said

Co.

J. Hunter,

R.

gave

routine

regular

As

soon

in the
was

as

Shep-

the

top, the

curing
se-

box
time

again taken,

three-fourths

min-

Societies.

Dental

in the

utes

entered

vapor

this

During

vapor.

box, while

the

126

experiment

free

vent

given

was

flow

constant

of

it from

to

the
the

top.
Another

end

the

at

in

placed

five and

of

box, and

the

half

one

nitrous

minutes

The

Chairman
had

Prof.

of

had

the

Committee

Executive

the
new

Prof.
The

consists

gas

Nitrous

H.

L.

of

laughing

or

ethereal

an

announced

different

two

that

chemists,

Griffin,Esq., of

chloride,

or

gas

Holyoke.

chloroform

"

tests

"

made:

were

determined

was

"

"

100

following conclusive
The
specific gravity

cent.

per

ethel

or

of

trace

99

chloride, probably

chloride

methyl

1.

bit
rab-

the

of:

oxide

Vapors

then

analyzed by

vapor

Mayr, of Springfield and


Mayr reports as follows :

The

oxide

dead.

was

they

then

was

used, and

was

gas

rabbit

exactly

0"C.

at

and

760

The

barometer

m.

in

gas

Pure

oxide

difference
of

lightervolitile

excluded,
2.

The

as

gas

inches).

30

(according to Regnault.)
and obtained
1 per cent
by
like

vapors
than

the

above

mentioned

ture
the admix-

chlorides,

of chloroform
is
cent) amount
is very heavy (4.3 spec, gravity; air=l.)
its vapor
is non-inflammable, hence
no
variety of organic ethers

(more

organic volatile

or

1.52

is less than

considerable

any

and

question 1.51.

nitrous

The

(32" F.

chlorides

per

amounting

to

than

more

one

cent

per

present.
3.

into

splinter of wood
flame, leaving as combustion
glowing

acid
4.

of

and

Treated
trace

of

trace

nitric

chlorine.

2,

The

An

effect upon

of

effect

volatile
of

the heart

shows:

gas

hydro-carbons both amounting


5. Physiological
experiments I made
myself show:
pleasant odor
and ordinary

will

gas

burst

bonic
products,only nitrogen,car-

of

presence

volatile

the

acid,

by organic analysisthe
of

into

thrust

to

organic

nitrous

oxide

1.

less than

one

with

presence
of

trace"

myself

The

organic

per

cent.

the

gas

on

"

ether

in traces.

in every

slightlystronger

than

The

eral
gen-

singleparticular.
pure

nitrous

ox-

The

126

ide.

Not

nitrous

Dentistry.

of

pleasant or unpleasant after

more

any

effects,than

pure

oxide.

Mr.

Martin

follows:

in
Co.'s

"Second

of

as

following direct
Boston
Vegetable

of

trace

no

"

"

of

any

ox.

"

"

ide,
diox-

carbon

dioxide,

minute

nit.

cent

per

these

tected.
de-

gases

of

amount

matter

tion
determina-

in its

made,

this not

of

reported

Quantitative
preparation.
according to agreement."

hei'bs used

the

to

the

oxide, nitric

'v-apor'also actually contains

"The

the

9O.OO

for nitric

made

hydi'ogen, and

oxygen,

made

91.08

'^

were

Mass.,

Holyoke,

vapor:

determination,

"First

"Tests

of

oxide.

impure nitrous

certifythat I have
analyzing a sample

"I herein

Anaesthetic

called

Griffin,chemist

L.

determination

be

might

up, the gas

Summing

due

Archives

for discussion.
then announced
subject was
open
Dr.
not
Shepard. In timing the experiments I was
with
them
as
proving conclusively that the new
vapor
oxide.
In the
to nitrous
experiment with the new
affected
not
noticed
the rabbit
as
was
quickly as the
The

satisfied

"

oxide; the

nitrous

to

was

little

only

nine

over

the

turned

was

gas

the

taking
but
say exactl)"",

cannot

first rabbit

The

minutes, and

the

tne

under

with

one

and

rabbit

began
the

vapor
it

judge

new

vapor

one

other

should

under

other

the

on

effect; with

was

In

accurately.

more

rior
supe-

was

vapor

lived

oxide

lived

nitrous

five minutes.
C. S. Hiirlbut.

Dr.
oxide

allowed

was

I think

used, and

one

cause

so

minutes.

three

about

time

it

signs that
longer.

show

time

the

from

minutes

half

I timed

latter

was

I noticed

"

that

rabbit

the

enter

to

would
die

to

that
box

make

than

when

new

than

the

always

been

vapor
with

difference

quite a

sooner

the

nitrous

of

current

stronger

it, and

under

one

was

the

new

vapor.
S.

Dr.

E.

oxide

nitrous

Dai'enport
as

pure

"

It

has

possible.

as

I do

not

the
think

point
this

to

new

make
vapor

improvement, as there is danger in using impure gas.


Hurlbut
I will say that
to Dr.
Geo. A. Ma.v.jieldIn answer
vent
to the box, allowing all the surplusgas to pass
a free
was

be any

can

Dr.
there

"

out, and
been

any

as

it

Avas

pressure
pressure,

much
of
and

larger
gas

than

in the box,

therefore

must

the inlet, there


that
have

it

was

been

could

simply
alike

to

not

the
both

have
phere's
atmos-

rab-

Societies.

Dental

In

bits.
the

poisonous

four

volumes
could

would

be

the

such

gases,

of

person

kept
danger.

in

In

oxide

expelled from
investigators.

other

under

longer
Mr.

H.

the

fact that

is

J. Hunter.

You

"

merit

some

all

can

see

of

will

finished.

soon

as

he

does

already told

me

that

in the

as

Prof.

vapor

ether
stand

ready

either

in

our

it

Silver.
Section"

Voted
be

asked

to

now

pour

us

and

some

it into

the

company
trace

any

courtesy and

of
tention
at-

first.

paper

Gold

and

out

the

then

on

are

filtered

wash
pour

is the

the

and

into

the

gold, and

this

be

to

in

rubber

This

acid

add

water

inum,
platment
sedi-

the

treated

again.

little water,

and

tate
heavy milky-white precipiof

silver.

by pouring
j)recipitate
I do

subject.

perhaps, some

filter it,and

paper,

Prof.

bottle, and

unpleasant.
gold. I then

dissolve

is chloride

it off.

this

very

piece of

liquid,and

down

of

scraps

liquid off and

salt

common

just read, and

paper

amalgam

which

this

dry

to

Hemorrhage.

acid, having first arranged

fumes,

pour

it throws

liquid and

settle and

oxide

Sections.

Mayr's

on

paper
of

the bottom

at

now

spread
take

has

is neither

our

detect

practicaldemonstration

nitric

strong

sediment

which
the

everything except probably

etc.

give

off the

carry

the

read

I first put these

"

them

dissolves
and

the

Prof.

discussion

the

to

JProf.Mayr.
tube

call up

have

to

Barthlemev}
defer

to

on

voted

was

nitrous
There

the

he

us.

subject and

this

found.

por
va-

results

what

much

society for

the

his

from

can

the

called.

S. B.

pour

shown

who

one

any

chemists

two

Mayr read a paper on Principles of Assaying


(See Prof. Mayr's paper, page 97.)

Prof.

Mayr

to

strated
demon-

having

are

as

minutes

vapor,

the

know

have

to

after

it has

Boston, and

near

agreed

three

new

its manufacture,

thank

vapor.

motion

Dr.

"500

pay

they have
to drop

Voted
On

to

in

used

chloroform

or

find

not

claims

Mayr

lived

We

made.

or

oxide,

experiment

much

how

chemist

as

the

in the

have

published

if three

half minutes

rabbit

other

disagree in the analysisthey


analyzed by a prominent
be

the

and

three

from

longer, and there


bit
morning, the rab-

conditions, I think

same

there

in

box, thus

the

As

precisely the

the

lived

only

it free

nitrous

the

much

state

experiment

the

air

with

given

anaesthetic

an

nitrous

with

be

have

to

oxide, etc., but

nitric

as

under
was

it is necessary

could

oxygen

be

no

oxide

nitrous

making

\-27

this several

on

times.

now

cold

pour
water,

I then

oft'
let it

spread

128

The

this chloride
it in

pack
the

crucible

Voted
Section

lead

defer
4

through

"

would

not

of

length

paper

discussion

bottom

the

of

Hydrochlorate

on

of

this paper.

on

Crowning

paper
ask

like

Dr.

caine.
Co-

of

Roots.

Stowell's

if any

apicalforamen

that

trouble.

any

root, and

the

is,that

reason

cause

perfectlyby

for

reasons

the

of

it would

am

put in

then

using

should

lead

be

encyst there, and

very

careful

lead

plug

filled

Searle.

Dr.
forced

Dr.

Even

All

to

throw

Maa'field
lengthy article on
Dr.

"

to

the

measure

that

just goes

to

end

believe

api(talforamen,
believe

roots

filled in the

them

trouble;

The

in the

this

paper

body,

it does

will

in the

will

olus.
alve-

time
some-

and

herself

assert

off.

In the

Medical

"Dead

Teeth

articles

practice,and

of

described

manner

if

certainlyencyst

surely encyst

nature

them

I found

them,

author

encyst

it will

that

filled

had

root.

the

as

sometimes

bullets

will

lead

the

cause

especiallyif
experience,roots

to extract

the

of

to

measurements

in my

had

apt

root;

thought

I have

when

persistentneuralgia caused

for such

time

will be

the

so

filled

being

roots

accurate

of

it

found

Record
in the

by

are

very

and

Jaws," also
of

teeth, the
severe

charge that such

ignorance,etc., of anatomy

November

of

troubles

subject, citingdifferent

filled.

end

the

the

at

not

to

"

by taking

fillingto

considerable

cause

same

they

reaching the

lead

reason

Riggs.

endeavor

in

the

claims; because
us

I think

and

I do

"

through

give

method, and

afterwards

failed

I had

about

crooked; I have

perfectly,but
that

certain

future.

fail in

ai'e

I had

that

so

feel

not

such

near

will often
roots

I do

"

any

in the

trouble

been

in the

mass

pnt it into

silver.

read

would

the

C. Jones.

Dr.

molten

then

end.

the

the

soda, and

dry

called.

rea,d

My

forced

not

of

When

dry.

to

paper

fillthe roots.

to

Stoicell.

the

of

called.

"

Dr.

you

is

the

was

Miller.

Dr.

result

Maxfield

S. S. Stowell

Dr.

carbonate

then

A.

to

with

metal

Dentistry.

of

piece

on

is pure

3 was

Geo.

Dr.

the

which

Section

so

silver

of

furnace, and

crucible

Archives

in

the

eye
of

and

is

on

also
had

dentists

owing

think

ear,

which

condemning

practice

physiology.

editorial

an

roots

is a

8, there

we

to

their

cannot

Societies.

Dkntal

he

129

in

I find that gutta percha and iodoform


fillingroots.
make
best fillings,
will
close up
the
the
as
by its use you
tubules
into the pulp canal.
that open
Dr.
I wish
S. iJ. Davenport.
to say that the article just alluded
considerable
the dentists of New
to has stirred up
feeling among
of the Odontological Society
York, and that at the meeting next week
tion.
they are going to give up the whole evening to its consideracareful

too

"

Adjourned.
The
evening

session

devoted

was

ner"
"after-dinbanquet and
anniversary of
twenty-fiirst

to

speeches, the occasion being the


the organization of the society,and
of much
interest
was
historical
members
the chief feature being an
address
by
D. Shepard of Boston.
"

FRIDAY

Called
Dr.

order

to

of

Timmie,

continuous

work,

so

there

no

trouble

plate is

finished

in the

used
Dr.
cards

and

societyto
On

in about

method

of

explained their
visit the
it

takes

exhibited

to

new

form

invited

the

Also
at

voted

was

little

very

on

being

furnace

and

and

care

gold cylinders and


gold filling.

use.

Carnival

while

gasoline

clinic

the
of

Montreal,

broken

was

use

given

have

the

minutes.

twenty

exhibited

Herbst

motion

so,

attending it; it

also

Andres,

do

m.

a.

to

furnace

my

to

10.15

at

I intended

"

but

unable

am

Timmie

Dr.

President

Hoboken.

gum

moved,
is

the

by

L.

Dr.

14.

NOVEMBER

MOKNING,

the

to

Montreal

take

this

is

examination

of

members

the

of

winter.

coming

for discussion

up

foil that

the

papers

viously
pre-

read.
Dr.

Maxfield's

paper

Hydrochlorate

on

of

Cocaine

first

was

called.'
Dr.

L.

D.

strength of
of

nse

several

1. This
page

two

such

W.

Dr.

16.

S1ie2Kirdexhibited

H.

cases,

paper

weak

solution

Atkinson.
one

will

I think

cent.

per

case

be

"

will

not

I have

for

found

lady
in

the

results

who

was

four

January

per

very

solution

I have
its

warrant

used

the

the

of

some

had

our

the
tice.
prac-

solution

cent

nervous,

number

the

from

in

use

of

of

and

in

I had

Archives,

130

The

good

Archives

excavating to put in a
said she hardly felt any pain.
I think
cocaine
will be the coming anaesthetic.
full strength in a cavity and think
I

she
that
some

success.

Dr.
two

E.

considered

being

We

full

it would

be

an

eight per

cent

can

ization

effect

of

Dr.

hear

not

grains of

in consequence.
Niles

Dr.
Dr.

Atkinson's

minutes
the

Dr.

mouth.

w^as
sensibility

in the

the

not

two

tidote.
an-

think

not

it

I should

By

able

to

using
get

otherwise

co-

the

solution.
to

paper,

my
a

lowed
swal-

serious

very
a

Dr.

as

had

man

no

such

be

its

to

sult
re-

poison

violent

of the two

piece of

cotton

solution

cent

per

saturated

was

upon

and

lowed
al-

After
ten
superior incisors.
said there was
a marked
benumbing, though
It was
the
clusion
general conwholly removed.

the gum

on

than

be.

small

do

were

with

therefore

results.

known

no

solution.

where

case

try

suggested,but

weaker

alkaloid

applied some

Atkinson

that
use

it may

then

remain

to

the

it.

call attention

cited

to

is

time, though
a

going

stronger, owing

they

from
to

It cannot

thinks

Shepard

like

I there

it.

twenty-two
Dr.

than

far,

stronger solution

cent

Boston

so

shall get better

using

shorter

I would

"

did

in

different

any

in

am

far there

so

results

my

any

eight per

an

in

from

Dr. Atkinson

as

solution

Maxfield.

Niles

careful

use

eye

get

poison, and

very

safe to

to

sell

to

strength

the

not

was

refused

be

able

not

was

violent

should

is safe try the


say

"

they

as

phosphate fillingand

was

S. Niles.
cent,

per

as

Dentistry.

of

solution

cent

per

the

over

not

was

strong

enough

to

mouth.

[to

NEW

YORK

continued.

he

SOCIETY.

ODONTOLOGICAL

held
on
Meeting of this Society was
S. G.
of Dr.
Tuesday evening, February 17, at the residence
The
house
is appaPerry, No. 46 West
Thirty-seventh street.
rently
The

regular Monthly

perfect, alike
great
of
of

design

and

decoration.
the

exhibited
Dr.

credit

the

upon

The

Under

disk

mandrel

destroying

the

"incidents
and
R.

some

uses,

and

flects
re-

ity
exquisitetaste, originaland

Jarvie

modern

forms

of

cupied
Brooklyn, ocof office practice,"Dr. Bogue
sand paper
disks, invented
by

Wm.

I.,designed for

contour.

social

of the ancient

President, Dr.

chair.

and

for his

owner

happy blending

Smith, of Newport

without

family, dental

for

The

use

in

President

polishingfillings
then

stated

that

Archives

The

132

The
its

performs

its proper

for many

years.

At

and

Evil

Teeth

of

it the

the

in

jaws,

them:

disease,

looked

be

it has

as

Conceded

the

of

cause

of

if

they

them

enable

with

in the

ceases
an

bear.

to

would

tartar"
of

dentistry

the

but

cause

noticed

distinctly

that to

bad

or

tain
re-

practice.

general practitioner
in their

instruction

oculist

extraction

saying

unsafe

least tell the difference

often

neglect are
with by both

is not

that

is

treatment,

to

is either
the

comes
be-

becomes

is not

met

are

enough

receive

to

at

to

that

know

compositi
de-

which

alveolaris

amenable

jaws

the

by different
other,that Bright's disease

eacli

to, but

ficulties.
dif-

the cementum

science

suffering from

not

are

the

of

sorts

and

ral
au-

schools

pulplessand

between

teeth.

dead

stated

President

The

absent, being, with


Buffalo,
of
Dr.
have

had

able
the

and

them

New

York,

asked

appeared

object to

such

in the
a

the

Society
If

so

Record.

course,

not,

if it

however,

answer

he

fects
Ef-

Chicago
The

per
pa-

discussion.
intended

was

published as
in

A.

unavoidably

was

Schenectady.
for

Dr.

"The

profession from

before

of

evening.
entitled

Jaws'.'

near

report

the

paper

therefore

elaborate

views

the

snow-bound

Bogue
Sniith'lDodge,of

the very

of

members

hour

w^as

of
which

that

at

Dr.
J

other

of

Essayist

the

to read
Chicago, who was
Pupless Teeth Remaining in the

of

and

that

of

Harlan

W.

all

to

pulp;

been

which

resorted

be

course

pulplessteeth
be glad to
should
specialistwere

to

the

dentine

of the

pyorrhea

troubles,

reflex

aurist, and,

should

rise

"tartar"

often

teeth

that

havoc

fillingwas
decompostion infiltrating

with

be that

whenever

for

marked.

and

much

peri-cementum,

even

observers, widely separated from


may

and

after

gave

putrescent

then, too, it may

effect of

an

course

through

and

remain

long
aid

of

antagonist,

an

kind

the

added

to

months

or

has

or

tooth"

"pulpless

by nature, and
envelope furnished
burden
for the rapidly disintegrating organ
of periosteal nourishment
"divested
by

be

not

the

obtunder

pain

impregnation

the

products
to

of

tissues

affected

as

weeks

few

follow

results

and

mephitic products

the

surrounding

the

used

was

caused, pulps dying


completed,

with,

functions, especially if it

arsenic

time

one

interfered

nutrition

of

source

irritated

is not

slightlyvascular,

but

being

cementum

Dentistry.

of

an

to

should
because

official
the
most

of

to
pression
ex-

articles
uously
stren-

any

dis-

Dental

from

sent

the

arguini'iit

though he did
did
from

medical

man,

dignityof

the

notice
in

this

object to

of

Dr.

schooled

Dr.
in

that
of

the

show

to

where

he

look

into

the

ignorance of
lady patient who

had

did

believe

not

had

in
If

into
Dr.

treated

case

one

disease,

dental

whole

per
ical
med-

dentist's

cited

concerning

men

9.5

the

the

B.

he

ever,
state, how-

success

come

selves.
them-

said

upon,

woivld

He

benefited.

been

extended

and

called

that

cases

medical

it beneath

pulplessteeth.

treated

theni, they might be

the

had

when

articles

schooling by dentists

Philadelphia, being

he

cases,

these

of

signified. He

needed

who

some

elaborate

such

any

Dodge had stolen his thunder.


his practicehe thought he had

cases

from

take

to

in

and

report;

considered

He

subject.

the

teeth"

official notice

this report

as

of

would

men

hands

body

by those

Bonwill,

thought
cent

the

this

upon

the matter

being

"dead

object to the term


society'staking

not

of

facts

of

statement

or

133

Sociktif.s.

cians
by physi-

year

by
completely relieved of her trouble
him
accused
in a single hour.
of
He also spoke
by a
having been
of a
physician of having poisoned his wife by the introduction
red gutta percha filling. Dr. B. thought
would
he
account
on
no
be
derives
from
he
deprived of the satisfaction
treating and
without

saving these

of

cases

Proj^.Garretson,
the

pleasure

his

pulplessteeth.
after

to

the

visit to

them

not

need

to

than
differently,
rich

man

cheeked
red

oral

there

because

because

fact that

one

to

or

for

was

some

milk-maid

alluded
the

person

try

persons
Mr.

said

he

to

prove

one

said

him,

gave

useful
and

the

poor
color

to

of

had

himself

or

her

save

fact said

the

prove

Prof.
oral

proving

practiceto

man,

of

made

serviceable

and

proper

ignorant

fession
pro-

had
of

need

more

no

Vanderbilt
was

It

itself.

white.
they were
in
to
conflictingmatters
many
remote
pains and troubles
many

some

ago

years

defend

There
was
just as surgery had.
that properly treated
pulpless teeth were
for years and years, and that it was
good
some

recalling

consideration, that the

its way

them, because

societyand

some

subject under

dentistrydid

the

complimenting

former

said, in relation
of

was

success,

the

cheeks
G.

rosywere

ally
incident-

surgery
their

seat

and

to

in the

cavity.
Other
made
the subject were
interestingremarks
by Drs.
upon
Atkinson, Allport,Darley, Brackett, Winder, Shepard and others.
The
meeting then adjourned, and at the invitation of Dr. Perry re-

134

The

paired to
of

and

the

dining-room,

hour

an

Archives

social

of

Dentistry.

or

where

elegant collation

an

converse

partaken

was

held.

was

M.

A.

The
of

publication,in
Annual

the

is

this

Dinner,

prevented b}'an

which

accident

office is situated, which


of

composition.

will
March

cordial

this and
An

place on

the

building

following evening,
which
our
printing

the
in

work

time, the

of

the

SOCIETY.
Vermont

Burlington, Vermont,

at

State

ety
Soci-

Dental

commencing

Wednesday

continuing threeCdays.

invitation

adjoining

DENTAL

Meeting

18, 1885, and

took

STATE

Annual

be held

interesting report

very

completely suspends, for

VERMONT
Ninth

to

the

[Ed.

"

The

of

number,

is extended

states

is

members

to

of

profession in

the

l)e present.

to

interesting session

anticipated.
Mound,

Thos.

\t.

Sec'y.,Rutland,

SOIJTIIKRX
The

Southern

Meeting
Dryade
the

City

of New

between

will hold

Orleans,

Canal

Exposition, together

doubt

unusual

Association

and

at

Common

its Seventeenth

Tulane

nual
An-

Hall, situated

streets,

on

commencing

in March.
''{"'uesday

last

The
no

in the

ASSOCIATION.

])ENTAL

Dental

street

D.

with

and

large attendance
and profit.

induce

interest

cheap
the

traveling
meeting

will

rates,

will

be

one

of

.T. 1". ForxT(Vix,


Sec.

Cor.

Scarcely a

week

in

but

see

we

the

evil results

of

D.

A.

simple

in the extraction
persistentcussedness
sunk
better if all extractingforceps were
be
It would
teeth.
This
time it is a beautiful
the
Kentucky
depths of the sea.

unthoughtful
of

passes

S.

blunders

girl,scarcelyfifteen
lateral

incisors

or

years

extracted

has

had

purpose

of

old, who
for

the

four

sound

making

room.

and

perfect
M.

Journalistic.

1 85

JOURNALISTIC.
'Heading

maketh

Ox

Reflex

De

in

which

case

respects

forms

very

time

A.

Signora

of

either
of

the

pain

tooth

which

had

month

daily

of the

and

signs of

during

out

later

years

the

the

lady

and
it

was

the

first molars
sixth
the

to

that

reflex

each

left inferior

began
wisdom

pain, began

the

that

it

ical
physiologin

irritation

the

the

becoming

for

the

it

month

simple

by

ond
sec-

ment
move-

ceased.

pregnant

until

during

like all the


The

second

time,

left molar,of the

in the

tooth

by

same

ing
becom-

early part

mastication.

accompanied

tooth.

lesion

jaw;

reflex

the

the
expiration of the fifth pregnancy
and the right lower
wisdom
tooth.

pregnancy

right

of the fourth

loosened
out

first

manifesting
the
pain and

preceding gestation,the

pushed

port
re-

first

accordinglv. Meanwhile

of mastication

more

belief

the

of

looseness, the

became

some

the

the

pregnancy
of

the

pain

the

the

to

in the first lower

the

pregnancies followed,
At

The

in

as

more

eighth month,

other

time

act

for

or

commencement

immediately pain began


gradually

the

the

tongue, when

spasmodic character
the

of

seat

acute, until at the

more

Two

show

to

pushed

was

the

been

in

lead
On

diagnosis was
changed
and treated
of gestation,

symptom

in

admirable

and

pain

to

as

neuralgia of the trifacial nerve.


itself,and referringto the commencement
the

full and

process,

was

symptoms,

is

perceptible organic

no

such

was

(Chevalier
Science).

article

age,

alveolar

tooth,

Teeth

the

profession is certainly under

with

with

but

the

of

years

attacked

was

molar,

character

19
.,

pregnant,

inferior

the

the

Cacciaguerra for so
substantiallyas follows:

"

of

Dental

of

of

Dr.

is

which

and

one,

Fall

"

Journal

substance

remarkable

obligationsto
and

the

man;

Menstruation.

of

BritisJt

ready

man."

Action.

Cessation

in

and

conference,
exact

an

Dental

Cacciaguerra,

The

writing,

Uterine

Gestation

IN

full man;

and

Three

same

lady

of

toms.
symphad

lost

attacking this
attending physician and

others

and

136

The

the

desired

family

to

it

fifth month

the

tooth

from

attacked

were

of pregnancy,

and

this resulted

the

there

exfoliated; and

was

Dentistry.

of

consultation, and

extract

lost teeth
until

Archives

fact that

was

in

mendation
recom-

the

when

abatement

no

the

of

ding
prece-

the

toms
symp-

the
at
lady had arrived
therapeutic treatment
adopted
the

as

the

was
avail, the tooth
proving of no
accordingly extracted.
twelve
days there was
complete relief,but at the end of this

the

second

and

instead

lost

and

tenth

left upper

molar

of at the

few

her

each,

eleven

pregnancy

the

that at the

so

molar

but

in

usual

order,
of

had

been

the

molar

the

ceased
after

to menstruate

this,just how
of looseness

aware

of

want

The

care

long
and

of the

could
in

pain

finallybecame

only remaining
form

new

she

being
final

last

state,

the

for

Two

years

slie

teeth

which

with

passed

She

passed

time

some

of

became

from
tion.
mastica-

gradual

this

from

free

was

this

recur.

purposes

tooth, however,

nancy
preg-

from

when

remaining

useless

wisdom

disease.

not

the

and

of age

forty-twoyears

at

eighth,

and

the

lady completed her thirty-seventh year and


reflex physiologicalsymptoms
did not
again

the

was

tooth

the
time

tooth

tenth

With

lost.

form^

seventh,

time

acute

more

The

completion

teeth

eighth month,

confinement.

gestations followed

lost with

of the

beginning

before

days

attacked

was

For

ioration
deter-

of the

patient'scondition.
At this time Dr. Cacciaguerra was
first called to attend the lady,
the above
facts having been
gleaned from the medical attendant,
from
the patient and from
the family.
On
olar
examining the maxillary arches "I found a suppurative alve*
*
destruction
of tissue
there was
periostitial
gingivitis,
"

and
extreme
to

other
The
cause

upon
there

the

base, which

alveolar

the

were

of

cause

the

ble
swollen, highly vascular, insensiwere
mobility; the gums
ladened
with a calcareous
the touch, bleeding easily,and the teeth
aided
their fall."
Up to this time seven
deposit which
had

teeth
author
of

the
was

extracted.
In

risingof

resume

affections

been

lost.
that

states

this last form

permanent
no

from

differential

the

disease

cessation

of the

of

to

diagnosis he

be

reflex action,

menstrual

the
caused

of

author

by

says

reflex

"this

action

shows

account
*

from

teeth

the

dependent

discharge,

saving the remaining thirteen


their
Considerable
hemorrhaga followed
hope

believes

and

as

they were

removal.
two

the

periostitial
effect of two

18T

Journalistic.

principalphysiologicalfunctions
first sho-wed

itself with

this

case

reflex action

and

produced the destruction

the

The

second

was

itself in consequence

are

tion
genera-

of
periostitis

dental

in its

arches.

action

if

positionas

discharge.
by a simple
alveolar

the

and

teeth

The

what

foreign to

In

showed

which

menstrual

the

of the

by

clear,marked,,

irreparablelooseness

an

of the

of

caused

gingival swelling followed


teeth, which
increasing destroyed

the

caused

process,

pain

teeth.

reflex

cessation

of the

first with

began

molar

of eleven

physiological

reflex

symptomatic

only the large molars.


repeated eleven times was

attacked

generation, which

This

which,

uterus

menstruation.

and

The

of the

ization
disorgantooth

wisdom

around

happening

was

mained
re-

it.

reflex
of the
diagnosis and therapeuticsof the cure
symj)would
merit
in the gestationswas
but
this
most
exact,
subject
creasing
of the inspecialand profound study on the manifestations
insight into the influence
phases in order to obtain more

The
toms
a

more

of the
In
the

uterus

the

second

teeth.

reflex

affection

which
insensibility,

had

disease

the

been

attained

The
of

the

over

been

by

affection

the

locallymanifested
single tooth

that

tooth
of

In
error

the
in

each

the

his
a

claims

attacked

and

they

condition

very

the
reflex

the

case

of

and

action

the

by gestation

inflammation
At
of

be

from

of

each

all the

tion
gestaothers,

marked

explanation.
undoubtedly
to

appears

irritation

necks

has

one

constitutional

the

are

be

to

seem

purely

exclusion

author

have

treatment."

acute

difticult of

ta

for

could

induced

an

due

was

cure

would
a

These

also

one

mechanical

about
from

marked

to

are

single tooth.

the
the

as

of

molar.

diagnosis,for

upon
calculus

case

second

expressed

time

article

teeth

first symptoms,

stage

irritation

alveolus

was

the

resultingfrom

nervous

or

and

pericementum
a

and

general

of

rational

in the

alveolaris

the

of

in its first

attacked

first described

condition, viz:
and

neglect

local,general, and

pyorrhea

acute

caused

loss

the

his

liarities
pecu-

made

an

scription
de-

own

pendent
pyorrhea alveolaris, but defrom
the
deposits of salivary-

roots

consequent

of

the

upon

teeth, and
the

not

cessation

as

of

he.
the

catamenia.
It would

illustrate the

be

difficult

systemic

to

and

find two
the

local

cases

which

more

completely

origin of pyorrhea alveolaris.

Archives

138

The

One

originatingfrom

purely
The

local

that

in various
the

the

forms

of

and

female,
troubled

certain

forms

to

this

reflex

trifacial

the

from

other

as

constitutional

as

under

there

be

can

in

its

lation
stimu-

proper

doubt,

no

pecially
es-

and

neuroses.

not

reproductive

diathesis, and

of

organs

sons
Per-

diseases.

in malarial

gestation,and

symptom

uncommon

an

affecting the

uric acid

clearlydefined,

conditions

is

nerve

disease

is classed

disease

are

during

with

to

and

and

yet very

not

constitutional

common

of

Neuralgia

is

it which

of

rise

most

disease

the

various

give

the

among

of

form

That

may

constitutional

purely

causes.

etiology

origin.

Dentistry.

of

suffering from

those

also preand gout, are


kidney disease, rheumatism
disposed
of the pericemental membrane
inflammatory conditions
of

alveolar

processes.

in the periocertainly beget irritability


donteal
erate
tissue,and, in cacoplasticstates of the blood, may degenSeveral
nutritional
the
cases
are
on
changes."
(Garretson.)
uterine
in which
from
record
reflex
nervous
ments
displaceirritability
the undoubted
proved
were
origin of the affection,as was

"Neuralgic associations

the

by

trouble.
Other
to

have

as

soon

of

cure

the

disease,

successful

on

of

treatment

uterine

the

liave

cases

been

which

reported in

appeared

disease

the

origin in a disease of the kidneys, and one case in particular,


which
adopted,
rapidly improved under the local treatment
had
before
the
as
cured, but which
kidney affection was
tion.
all attempts to place the affected teeth in a healthy condiits

resisted
-

It is also
times

been

e(juallytrue
the

pyorrhea
times

many

active

causes

alveolaris,and

the

most

rheumatism

that

through

"

the

obstinate

their

gout

the

dental

have

effect of

toxic

this

arisingfrom

cases
ones

and

surgeon

many

ing
producare

source

has

to

deal

with.
Treatmknt
Oil.

"

Dr.

of

Parotid

Fistila

Molliere, of Lyons, has

by

the

resorted

In.iection
to

an

in order
employed by experimental physiologists,
with
lobe of
fistulous opening associated
one

1.

Journallof

2. Journal

of

Fat

of

ingenious
to

the

cure

an

oe

device
nal
exter-

parotid gland.

the

American

Medical

Association,

1885, p. 147.

the

American

Medical

Association,

1883, p. 641.

140

The

from

this

his

the

Further

preference

given by
mixture)

its

peculiarityof

to fear."

cause

Archives

of

means

has

whole

am

These

in the

two

ether

inhaler.

arrestingthe

far better

with

both

statements

corroboration, and

from

interne

and

secretion
it than

France

and

"It

(this

urine, and

of
any

ses
expres-

chloroform,

adds:

he

on

abundant

Tait

part

one

Later

in

pleased

had

report Lawson

same

parts

Clover's

effect

no

action, I certainlyhave

on

for

Dentistry.

of

oa

other

(anesthetic)."
England, require

charge of the anesthetic


in any of our
able
during a given term
hospitals,could contribute valuinformation
to the professionby a
further investigationassociated
with all the necessary
be
scrupulous precautions which can
carried out
in a hospital. This
of Lawson
statement
Tait, that
''for patients with
is a
damaged
kidneys ether
dangerous
any

anesthetic," associated
anesthetics
issue
the

has

made

statement

the

by

lecturer

referred in
we
Charing Cross Hospital, to which
than usually interested
January 3, will make us more

of

at

narration

facts

of

Medical

Weekly
Db.

with

who

John

which

on

on

the
in

be founded.

personal opinions can

"

Jieview.

A.

Wyeth

York
gical
Patholothe New
presented before
Society, December
meeting, four specimens containing one
point of pathologicalimportance and several of surgicalimportance.
The
first was
a
specimen of
Sarcoma

old,
four

by

A.

oe

decayed

and

bled

and

weeks

about

the
On

the

inferior

the

last molar

the

cheek
of

the

inferior

both

sides
on
was

lie had

for

did

tooth, was
side

mother

left

before
to

appear
the

to

extracted, and

side, from

the

seat

of

the

beyond
enlarged.

November
fact that

19.

Dr.

the
The

said

of

new

inferior

last molar.

after

he had

this,and
be

the

alveolar
incisor

growth,
maxilla

along
The

and
the

that

the

process
back

of
to

involving
sublingual

upper

cervical

the

until foin-

tooth
also

that

continuous

also

enlarged

hospitalthe

side; it also extended

maxilla

the

not

the

on

outer

tooth

eight days

admission

same

were

the

in size. The

neck

maxilla

and

the

case

in

toothache

ago.

gland

tooth

flesh increased

severe

glands

had

times.

at

piece of

he

ago

Jaw

occurring in a boy eleven years


The
of England.
patient said that about
noticed
of flesh" hanging down
"a hunk
the lower
jaw. This hurt him on eating,

native

months

Lower

the

side

glands

of
of

was
operation for its removal
formed
perThe
point of surgical importance in the
the periosWyeth kept far away from

Journalistic.

operated in healthy tissues.


so
complete that it had not

and

teum

recovery,

hold

to

apparatus

also

Specimens

presented
seven

portion of

for

and

child

the

when

two

had

cheek,

the

the

size of

down

to

of the

hen's

the

ear.

and

The

showed

sound.

On

touched

bare

jaw.

which

touched

the

probe

bone

had

bare

not

were

until
and

The

point

so

sequestrum
part of the

was

ramus,

loose.
of

by
different
essentialliy
Neurotomy
a

case

performed

the

lobule

of

extracted

the

the

the

terior
in-

the

mor,
tu-

were
some

cavity,
tooth.

pointed just behind

the

the

the

it

On

angle

of

probe introduced,

for necrosis

performed

was

interest

sequestrum

that

was

the

loose, and

was

thought operations performed early in these cases


the operation was
simple as those in which
delayed

of

from

neuralgia

Wyeth

left lower

which

Inferior

for

Dr.

the

operation,and

not

bone

teeth

side

in which

malar

The

was

surgical

side
about

over

into

of

left

with

passed

Operation

cold

extracted, and

was

the

measles

as

connected

and

of
to

the

far

as

dened
red-

tumor

tient
pa-

which

had

the

ulceration.

made

left side

freely movable

tooth

had

was

bone.

involucrum

an

the

swelling

13.

Wyeth

Dr.

behind

incision

An

from

of exposure

backward

or

molar

When

the

the

from

was

Wyeth

subsided

occupied by

hard, and

November

on

and

29,

September 27,
of the

jaw, and

reddening

bone

of

sarcoma.

toothache

after this

angle

was

integument

no

ago,

position.

Dr.

"

removed
had

dental

be

to

Jaw.

maxilla

extended

August

escaped.

pus

the

firm

was

maxilla.

part,

which

of

angle
It

lower

egg,

growth

complete

in

jaw

healthy, except that it


admission
to the
hospital

On

the

lower

been

always

at

use

history of injury,or

no

old.

years

of

was

the

to

Lower

the

six weeks

over

new

Immediately

weeks.

There

jaw.

the

patientmade
necessary

the

of

the inferior

swelling appeared
lower

been

of

who,

of age,

two

The

revealed

Necrosis

of

years

continued

fragments

examination

Microscopical
Two

the

141

was

that

jaw,

presented
which

accompanied
already narrated.

Dental
of the

also

Neuralgia.

inferior

dental

"

the

he
with

Dr.

nerve,

angle,

had
a

moved
re-

history

Wyeth
in which

ports
re-

he

operation for its relief assisted by Drs. Stevens,


Ripley and others
at the
by making an incision down
gle
anupper
of the jaw, along the borderof the inferior
maxilla, turning
the
loose
the
masseter
flap, dissecting
up
muscle, applying the
the inferior
dental
trephine over
a point opposite to
foramen, exan

"

"

142

The

posing

the

fourths

of

dental

had

then, with
and

nerve,

been

Dentistry.

of

canal, exsecting the

inch, and

an

part of the
There

Archives

pain

no

distance

of three-

the

tral
forceps, stretchingthe cenligatingthe inferior dental artery.

also

since

to

nerve

the

Medical

operation.
"

Record.
J. S. M.

BIBLIOGRAPHIC.

Transactions

the

Odontological Society
organization February 1, 1879, to the

its

from

of

1883.

Five

Webb,

Tees, Truman,

authors

of

order,
a

as

proceedings.

years

those

few

these

of

essays

are

The

form

the

year

Essig, Guilford,
others

practice.
would

of

and

as

appear
of

high

society is doing
tion
important addi-

an

library.

by the Secretary,
14th Street, Philadelphia,at $3 per copy.
copies

N.

548

names

on

its transactions

to^any dental
A

incidents

on

and

good work,

discussions

close
of

Register, Bownill, Leech

The

essays.

are

The

Pennsylvania,

of

for

are

in
Irregularities

sale

Human

Teeth.

By

Jonn

J. R.

Dr.

Ambler

Tees,

I'atrick,D. D. S.,

Belleville,111.

of

After
and

long

other

this

State

Dental

from

the

In the

This
research

at

most

devices

his

application.

Patrick

irregularities

has

become

an

the

last

full and

meeting

of

complete

that

Illinois

the

has

come

the

designed
The

teeth

for

pamphlet

I)i'. Patrick

this
is

are

purpose
most

is
of

valuable

fully illustrated;
of

the Jaws
and

read

and
at

is also

pamphlet
and ability that

Proceedings
Reprint

of

causes

teeth, Dr.

irregularitiesof

of
and

universal

author

same

the

pen.

correction

Closure

read

was

author's

It is

one.

the

Society, is the

equally at home,
almost

of

of

subject.

which

essay,

study

thorough

abnormalities

authority on
This

and

from

Co., St. Louis,

of

the

the
1885.

the

the

of
and

marks

Dr.

Patrick's

Medical

Medical

Tumor.

the

interesting volume

the

text

shows

the

productions.

Society for

Meview.

By

place.

illustrated, while

St. Louis

An

time

same

well

Weekly

Removal

J. H.
of

the

year

Chambers

nearly 300

1884.

"
pages,

143

Editorial.

containing full reports


discussions

the

time

to

come

the

them

upon

papers

read

upon

other

and

consideration,

for

up

of

before

the

societyand

subjects that

highly

time

from

creditable

and

ful
use-

volume.
Relation

The

Peter

By

the

of
U.

Medical

Professor
of
of
Medicine;
Academy
ChiruigicalCollege,Philadelphia,Pa.;

before, and
of

Medicine,

October
Medical

Times

for December

"Acme"

without

Medico-

read

paper

emy
Acad-

American

land,
Meeting, held in Baltimore, Marythe
Philadelphia
Reprinted from

1884.

29,

of

abstract

imprimatur of, the

the

its Annual

at

and

28

Rendle's
Glass

with

published

American

the

of

Ophthalmology,
an

tion.
Educa-

Preliminary

to

D., Fellow

M., M.

A.

Keyser,

Colleges

13,

1884.

Skylights, Plant

for

Glazing

and

Houses,

putty.

EDITORIAL.

CONDITION

PRECEDENT

DENTAL

THE
We

find the
of

number

"It is said
the

at

is

This

that

healthy
of

the

its last

to

in

statement

the

each

the

sufficient

English

indication

and

encouraging
stringentand
students

upon

hear

to

noAV

vital

recent

from

question

of

the

organizationto date,
reading,but would

number

of

would
be

applicants

ten

education."

of

of

some

of

the
the

the

growing

other

enforcement
several

statement

successful

timent
sen-

schools
the

of

announcements
college^

of

the

ratio

applications for

institutions,from

several

gan,
Michi-

fecting
exacting i*equirements afthe college course
of studies.

conscientiouslyprepared
whole

of

University

session, rejected

qualificationclause with which


are
annually embellished.

rejectionst()

their

of

college

lack of

this

on

carefullyand

admission

of

of

in order

country

primary

of

dental

more

entrance

It will be
of

the

beginning

in favor
the

reliable

'"'"Dental AnnuaV:

matriculation, for

for

IN

COLLEGES.

following presumably

the

MATRICULATION

OF

the

time

of

terestin
only furnish extremely inhelpful in forming some
intelligent
not

144

The

estimate

proximate
which

have

we

ArchivesHof

of

facilitywith
gained access

which

been

sentiment

the

of

growth

have
aspirantsfor matriculation
colleges,indicates a laxityin the

the

to

of established
vicious

of

rate

to

alhided.

The

most

the

Dentistry.

M^hich

requirements

influence

the

upon

has

education, but

dental

of

cause

ment
enforce-

exercised

only

not

fore
hereto-

has

standing reproach to the profession.


It is folly to
talk
about
a "higher
professional education," by
plying
of studies, or by multiwidening and extending the college course
for the unrestricted
terms, so long at 'the bars are all down
invasion
of

of

defect

is

fundamental,
is

speaking, that can


gold, or any known

by

and

oversliadowing fault

and

lies

deeper

rests

at

the

base

very

curriculum.

the

than

of

the

structure.
super-

alchemy in the schools, metaphorically


into
base
metals
possibility transmute

no

any

of

process

be converted

may

conspicuous

institutions

There

ear

The

comers.

educational

our

The

all

into

metamorphosis

silk

by

which

sow's

purse.

The

of
right to demand
profession at large has an undeniable
the collegesa rigid and
of a
impartial enforcement
requirement
which
all recognize as a matter
of supreme
one
importance, and
and
interests of the profession.
profoundly affectingthe character
Now
that

that

Michigan school has been


implies good faith,and a determination

reports from

others

will be

of

one

example

an

the medical
from

brite

red

The

of

the

The

Can

Cant

teases.

above
notes

of

any

dental

death

from

of

be

student

nitrous

the

City,

"Straned
any
on

way

line,"

but

verbatim

et

and

least
lowing
fol-

spit a
No.

feaver

or.nite

swets?

rite.

Fisical

examenshun,

be

can

at

quote the

we

himself

sounds.

fricton

cured

subject practisedby

York

scapular

Herd

clinical

this

New

had

you

copied

was

to

"hew

to

J. R.

Record.

Have

expanshun
exagerated breading.
Fibrous

laxityon

collegesof

little

Very

in

EXAMINATIONS.

Medical

collor.

from

in order.

PRELIMINARY
As

heard

the

Herd

sent

literatim

to

from

snores

valves.

mexico."
a

medical

dent's
stu-

lecture.
do

oxide

worse?

gas

has

been

reported

from

Paris.

THE

Archives of Dentistry.
J
A

Record

Monthly

n., No.

Vol.

Dental

of

APKIL,

4.]

Of all the

"DENTAL

HENRY

"^^
This

and,

book

in

the

of

Great

Britain,

attend

which
and

dental

for

journals
to

be

and

generally

accepted

as

which

claim

to

correct

its

present

time,

read

L.

D.

ENG.

S.,

for

its

in

then

been

to

of

in
of
in

which

England
of

and

fully

and

some

in
book

they

seem

has

Written,
a

word

dental

yet
as

pretentious

correctly

investigators

without

tific
scien-

in

them

in

of

Society

work

fallacies.

student,

com.-

published

the

cumstances
cir-

the

"permanent

review

their

ings.
teach-

scholars,

then

and

present

possible that,

for

papers

were

No

reliable

but

membership,

Notices

the

its

of

notice

republished

exposes

its spirit,
styl'e,

Odontological

They

teachings.

its
some

The

laudatory,

for

for

special

the

students.

opinions
is

of

before

be, especially

it

S.,

publication.

sufficiently

and

SUMMARY."

science,

worthy

positive style, claiming


facts

well."

is remarkable

authors.

of

C.

E.

dental

journal,

benefit

have

appeared
they

the

M.

includes

investigators

form"

be

originally

were

prominent

of

hardly

excel,

writing

Seajrlet,D.JL..SM^Sptringfip.ld,.Mass....^-^

F.

state

present

which
it

by

is

CRITICAL

sixty-six pages

It would

pose

masterpiece

SEWILL,

Review

the wise

in which

arts

CARIES"

BY

Series.

[New

ARTICLES.

chief

Nature's

Art.

and

1885.

ORIGINAL
"

Science

down

the
to

of

portant
imthe

protest

The

146

other

than
the

The

has

been

student

and

do

in

in the

"Caries

agents.
and

Enamel

and

manifest

neither

And

author's

of

definition

definition

caries

is

is decidedly

answer

of

caries

is

lows:
fol-

as

external

entirelyto

the
entirely passive under
vital reaction
pathologicalaction nor

vital

stands

directlydue

dentine

are

facts

nor

scientific

called

cess
proof

in the

false basis

vitalityof
their

that

views

are

contempt

of

for

sake

the

written, it may
As

has

dentine
manifest

matter

kind.
does
forces

be

the

well

vital tissues?
no

If

vital reaction
On

under
It may

student

for

expose

their

from

irritation
not

of

any

they

the

that

it must

without.

the

not

the

manifest

overpowering
It does

contain
of

be able tol-esist any

in soft tissues

position
dis-

views

is'

attention;

no
are

trary,
con-

opprobious

professedly

possess

that

and

they
ther
fur-

without

living matter, it
bebavior
of living

vital reaction

of

some

successfullythan

more

attacks

enamel

statement

is established

kind

is known

what

The

fallacies.

not,

are

be-

the

and

whom

papers

whom

who

put upon

are

accept other

these

of

party

place; on

to

ing
fury, signifyis fairlyshown

believe"

workers

paying

of

ridiculous.

little
"I

of

prehensible
"incom-

as

teeth

more

who

those

earnest

they

and

enamel

writers"

the

the

contrary, if they do

the

evident

from

to

papers

of

appear

upon

and

sound

"Recent

tissues

may

in

of

"phantoms

stated,the real question is this: -Are

been

proof.
becomes

of

the

ravings

the

is this all.

everywhere conspicuous. The


epithetsareapplieddo wisely

sues,
tis-

irritated

the

and
spirit of candor
truth-seeking find
what
a
specious effort to maintain
to throw

the
kind

characterized

spirit of
the

that

that

by external
"impressiaaists,"
relyingnot upon

writings

all

that
some

theory
be

can

rigmarole," comparable to
bedlamites, a tale told by an idiot full

believe

admit

maintain

observation, but upon

and
nothing." The tone
by the above quotation; nor

which

manifest

the

which

Their

imagination."

agents, but

maintain

who

livingmatter

upon

theories

the

to

passive,but

not

contemptuously

are

vivid

external

to

Those

contain

agents

opposed

least,are

at

reaction.

dentine

but

Is there

kind."

This

his

disintegration due

dentine

is this:

brieflystated

dentine?

and

process

lead
mis-

may

little harm.

The

teachings

erroneous

examination

negative.
is

their

not

enamel

Dentistry.

of

uttered

question under

living matter

any

Archives

of
the

chemical
anatomical

or

it

vital
coudi-

Archives

The

148

mediate

mechanism

of

all vascular

off absolutely from

It

pex'meated by

is

minute

fibrils endow

These

tissue

the

of

do

pulp

in

ramify

not

any

formed

Dentine
of

sists
con-

fibrous

sue.
tisbrils.
fi-

occupied by

are

of

the

form

immediate

odontoblasts, the

fibril.

constitutingthe

The

with

contact

off'the

intervening cut

the odontoblasts

ble
capa-

with

sensibility.They

calcification

cell

each

of

centre

not

in dentine.

only protoplasmicelement
"Dentine
is formed
by the

the

uncalcified

tine
den-

Once

basis

which
with

upon

relation

within.

with

tubes

the

in

connection.

matrix

calcareous

homogeneous

ca])

is enamel

only

from

as

it is not

influencingit

of

capable

it is cut

Not

(internal)changes,

intrinsic

of

superimposed

closelyunited.

it is

which

to

is

Enamel

substance.

Dentistry.

of

supply

of

vessels

the

dentine,

nutritive

rial.
mate-

and physiologicalconsiderations
bearing of these anatomical
is totally
subject depends upon the obvious fact that enamel
my
upon
devoid of any
whereby either vital
physiological mechanism
ever
or
pathologicalchanges can be brought about in it,and that whatby external agenundergoes are induced
cies.
changes the enamel
intrinsic
of
enamel
is
the
not
Not
capable
changes,
only
but it is not in relation with any mechanism
capable of influencing
in the
believe
To
within.
possibility of nutritive
from
it
"The

changes in enamel
calcareous

imagine

next

and

from

way

of

of

These

the

own

words:

teeth, which

cent,

Prof.
of

the

"In

of

presence

of

imbibed

has
water.

talked

shown

layer,by

in which

trace

no

contain

have

can

they

author's

the
ow

to

tine
three, "Den-

page

matrix

therefore

stranyely they do

Mayr

On

a"nd dentine

physiology
height of absurdity when
correctness

effete material

detected."

be

enamel

that

it, and

to

the odontoblast

calcareous
can

brought

and

enamel."

this

tion}
incapable of imbibi-

when

new

pulp through

structure

speakers have

and

Note."

the

and

dispute the

writers

6 per

the

reach

do not
his

no

of

teach

papers

of

conveyance

homogeneous

other

or

have

matter,

material

nutritive

the

and

which

by

means

some

cellular elements

fibrils to

dentinal

the

cellular

They

vessels

the

consists
of

of

assimilate

could
must

devoid

mass

first conceive

must

we

pathology.

no

state

living

no

that

vitalists
To

anatomy.

quote

of
knowledye of the structure
not seem
to dispute,
recent
some

glibly of
that

enamel

inflammation

contains

of

not

enamel,

less

than

Original

inflammation

of

dental

of

tissues,

Articles.

predisposing

as

enamel

tissues

these

and

facts,but rather
authors
here

love

run

he

ought not
gentleman not
himself

tissues

facts and

led

him

know

i. e"

the

the
that

To
and

and

conviction

hold

that

time

and

take

iology
phys-

in which
non-

direct

as

place in
joke."
in

establish

to

have

which

represent them

dentine

in

livingmatter

The

absolute

elaborate

"an

enamel

upon

and

those

the

to

of

intelligenta

anatomy

diflPerent from

sufficient

were

contain

they

for

not

for

is too

of dental

same

save

rely

to

statement

pathologicalchanges

ridiculous
alone

can

author

men

the

at

pable
pal-

imagination."
vivid imagination

own

The

very

make

and

gross

vivid

into

views

the

vitalistsare

by

evidences
minds

that

nutritive

is too

phantoms

from

tissues

that

of
his

to

who

one
Any
disposed to

of inflammation

it is better

that

plead ignorance.

this

the

speak
retrograde metamorphosis

of

or

feel

must

which

man

and

believes.

vitalityof

ridicule
"A

caries.

terms

ridiculous

entertained
he

these

the

to

of

causes

believe

the

upon

of

away

dentine,

indeed

must

of

dentine, of retrograde metamorphosis

acquainted with the meaning of


with the
pass by such utterances
absurdity richly deserves."
of

149

lieving
be-

these
ical
Clinmany

living tissues,

are

communication

with

had
before
structure
pulp, even
any anatomical
been
discovered
to explain the clinical phenomena.
When
Mr. John
Tomes
published (1859) his discovery of the
the dental profession were
fibrils,
ready to accept the fact of their
of

nerves

dentine.

Mr.

oftice of

the

containing
pulji1

fibrils. He

at

It

tissue."
the

The

are

of

no

this

question

Nearly twenty

new

years

decide.

them

from
not

the
the

facts have

been

been

elapsed

in favor
before

of
any

this

sheath

terminate

be

in
owes

readily

of

is

they are
communicating
is,"that
in

the dentinal

dentine, but

carried

discovered

every

and

that

sensation

nutrition

dentine

cannot

assume

power

to

conclusion, but

has

to

the

facts stated

only

which

they

That

of

of

fibrillje of

white

in which

necessary

by

the

I think
fibrils,

of

allowing

conclusion

1859

to

means

also channels

correctness

the

no

to

manner

unable

subservient

are

Since

to

by

before

fibrils

The

presenc

is

nerves

they

doubt.

the fibrils consist

similar

matter

the presence

to

sensation."

that

of

am

its sensation

actual

says, "whether

semi-fluid

doubted.

partialexplanation of the sensitiveness


unable
to
was
explain fully the nature

Tomes

admits

nerves,

the

least

at

as

presence,

the

to

to

that

disprove

discovery pertaining
hypothesis.

new

further

discoveries

of

150

The

in relation

importance

of

Dr.

Living Matter

innumerable

net-work

is also

the basis

the

only

not

of

bodies

of

Prof.

the

but

livingmatter.

he

thought they

is

be

fibrils of

the

dentinal

fibrils."

the

fibrils,but
Three

to

show

with

the

theories

conveyed

of

the

the

these

hold

to

the

I will

second

father

own

and

honored.

the

the

with

of

merits

the

dentinal

the

settled
Sewill's

in

fibrils

That

papers.

living

or

Mr.

the

by

tact
con-

present the first

At

pulp.

tubes

vibrations

excited

were

cordance
ac-

ness
sensitive-

the

to

nerve

has

Sewill

"There

says:

the

demonstrated

to

are

completely

dental

still to

seems

tooth

is

activityand
by

science, as
will

the

further

importance

Boedecker

can

ever

reasons

of

cut, yet

topic, the

which

name

various
out

tTiis

on

published works,

and

Tomes,

C. S.

contributed

is not

author

more

one

author, Mr.

moment

before

to

trace

can

we

of

Third.

dentine

carried

ter
livingmat-

theory.

He

enamel

that

the

fibres and

protoi"lasmin the

pulp.

generallyaccepted.

researches

his

needed

and

is

the

of

quote only from

his

from

of

the

connection

regard

of
the

upon

and

in Mr.

in

presence

pressure

nerves

instrument

favorite
what

The

canaliculi

means

no

made

advocated

structure

theories
the

been

That

molecular

of
of

have

the

prove

character

true

question is by

the

First.

to

the

upon

bioplasm

the

discussion

for the

positiveassertions

Second.

matter.

held

that

dentine:

of

is

veiws

can

indirect

or

ing
liv-

enamel."

describe

thing;

dentine
The

with

the

We

same

not

though
Al-

pass.

of the

jjresent in

first to

direct

to

of

fibres

the

nerves

union

nerves.

introduced

topics are
different

and

fibres

substance

and

the

into

dentine

livingmatter.

direct

the

was

one

ultimate

of

"that

probably

were

of

cementum,

Tomes

the

These

the

in

extremely

an

the

lished.
pub-

contains

throughout the whole


in assuming that
justified

basis

dentine

says,

to

nerves

whole

the

also

dentinal

are

servation
obof

were

canaliculi

of

substance

we

net-work

pulp, of

Heitzmann

and

substance,

Enamel,"

exists

living matter

tlie

1878

Distribution

dental

the

delicate

the

are

basis
of

the

canaliculi

pierced by

matter

the

trace

and

There

living matter.

In

"The

to

thaf'each

off-shoots

cannot

of

relation

show

within

net-work

we

in

made.

were

Dentine, Cement

fibre of

Dentistry.

of

fibrils

Boedecker

observations

in its centre

which

the

to

in Human

These

delicate

Archives

be

of

pale

both
well

be

^fuUy

as

for

ing
suspectnutrition

observations
the

for

esteemed

for
of

versally
uni-

cement

are

stance
sub-

established."

which

Boedecker,
with

is, accepting as

tooth

human

"the

Again,

in every

appear

livingorganism

the

special tissues

the

correct

researches

of

nected
deserving of credence, conthough its
intimately,even

way
very

blood-vessels

For

extra-vascular.

are

151

Articles.

Original

and

nerves

nected
pulp in abundance; the dentine is organicallyconconnected
with the pulp by the dentinal fibrils;these are
with the soft cement
corpuscles,which again are brought by their
in the highly
similar bodies
relation
with
into intimate
processes
vascular
teum
pulp inside, and periosperiosteum. So that between
chain of livingplasm."
outside; there is a continuous
his '"^full
edge
knowlin regard to
Mr.
Sewill
is equally unfortunate

the

enter

of

tooth

enamel

histogenesisof

the

I will quote

"The

his words:

brieflydescribed

; and

dentine."

and

of

anatomy
must

we

tissues

the
shut

not

our

I have

ready
althe

to

eyes

light which has been also shed on the subject(inregard to possisues)


of nutritive changes and
pathological action in the tissibility
of the histogenesis
we
now
by the full knowledge which
possess
take
and dentine
the changes which
of enamel
place in
"

the tooth
We

know

now

its elements

which

by

germ,

is

enamel

that

converted

are

developed

sues.
tis-

into these

posed
pulj)comacter
epithelialchar-

from

entirelyof epithelialcells,and it retains its


formed
the
Once
throughout the process of its calcification.
connection."
all vascular
enamel
is cut off absolutelyfrom
Every assertion and every implicationin the above quotation is
The
rhetoric.
nothing of the
assumption, to
say
pure
nutritive
accurate
of
the
changes, the
tissues, the
anatomy
the
in regard to
he claims
development of
knowledge which
enamel
secretion

calcification

the

by

and

new

of

formation,

cells, instead

the

also

the retention

of
of

the

of
enamel; these
throughout the formation
points,or points settled in oppositionto his
(Magetot, Kolliker, Schwann, Huxley, Tomes, Heitzmann

character

I quote
before
"A

the
tooth

all

as

from

few

passages

read

paper

by

Brooklyn Dental Society,May, 1882.


is epithelialin its first stage of

other

horny

the

formation
this

theory

of
of

the

the

medullary

dental
enamel

reduction.

are

tissue and

epithelial
puted
dis-

are

assertions.
liams.)
Wil-

and

Heitzmann

Prof.

formation

teeth

The

formations.

epithelialinto
medullary) arise all other
"The

from

of

process

the

same

transformed

from

that

(the

tissues.
can

be

understood

only by

taining
sus-

Thk

152

Archives

Dentistry.

of

forms
is a puzzle,unless we
epithelial
find analogies in the developtake the ground of Darwin, that we
ment
of animals,
tind quite a number
of animals; we
of the organs
in their
which, instead of teeth, have horny epithelialformations
teeth

"Why

shouhl

This

oral cavities.

start

as

indicate

would

the teeth

that

originally start
development. From

in their lowest
stage of
epithelialforms
becomes
the epithelium,
a medullary tissue arises which
myxomatous
breaks
down
into
the
tissue
the
then
as
does,
medullary stage
pulp
enamel.
claims
that each
and
forms
the
Waldyer
again,
lastly
of
tissue, each
epithelialbody (all) is calcified (in the formation
as

enamel);

Kolliker

while

of the

epithelia.

truth

is that

the

from

medullary

believes
Neither

tissue

the

"

the

on

up

calcified

tion
secre-

is correct.

same

The

plan

as

dentine,

that

in

the

being

difference

only

is

mass

assertions

of these

is built

enamel

the

that

mer
for-

Dentine
is for a long time
in nature.
ej^ithelial
known
to be originated from
medullary elements."
life
In direct contradiction
of the opinions of Prof. Heitzmann,a
to
important additions
long microscopistand one who has made
tigator,
histologicalscience, Mr. Sewill who does not claim to be an investhe

is

start

and
ago,
has

gathers his belief from works written many


years
about
which
there
of
a
subject
complete knowledge
investigatorsand sets aside the
agreement
among

who

assumes

been

never

unanimous

decision

of

the

authorities

competent

more

the

on

points involved.
Four

in
is

devoted

are

pages

to

of his calcareous

general and

may

take

the

of

the

latest

and

greatest

themselves

is
in

an

injuriousaction
^'"Dentine
it be

the

injured part
to

which

it has

it inflames

that

true

inflammation,

definition, includes
We

we

know

inflame;
of
know

an

as

been

that
know

we

irritant

that

we

may

broken

like solid
drill

term

morbid

dentine
a

during

must,

of

nitrate
into

manifest
of the

every

of silver

or

author

of

injury

healthy

less
un-

"

to

Dr.

kind

to

lacerated

not

dentine

jury.
in-

does

cation
appli-

on

inflame
or

capable
in-

son's
Sander-

due

of dentine
does

ceeds:
pro-

I repeat, be

which, according

violently broken
exposed surface
hole

Our

form

every

action

is this:

It

consequences

exposed."

"

derson,
San-

Burdon

which

results

caries

mation
inflam-

particular.Here

of Dr.

immediate

the

about

authorities."

of those

aggregate

under
being perfectly2^cissive

of

not

definition

"We

"Inflammation

in

matter

specimen:
one

words

of

medley

and

expose

Original

153

Articles.

healtliydentine after excavating a carious cavity,and


a
mass,
forciblywedge on to that bare surface a foreign metallic
matory
inflamwill not manifest
and leave it there, and the dentine
filling,
Yet
maintain
that dentine
action of any kind.
by those who
a

of

surface

inflames
disease

irritation

the

slowly
to

during caries, we

dissolve

induce

instanced

the

of that

It is well

for facts.
the

to

hard
structure

last

can

quoted

held

in which

detected."

read
or

thus

lacerated

hole

manifest
It is

that

chalk

observation

the

either

livingmatter
"We

know

on

years

endure
A

little

his words

that

its connection

with
the
an

surface

by

if

it

what

structure

we

can

well

as

is

drill

may

carious

cavity

bare?)
the

of

process

or

clinical

at

and

foreign

chalk

will not

such

reading

ical
clin-

or

in

conclusions

gard
re-

facts.

his "belief"

that

dentine

contains
and

attendants, pabulum

no

formed

follows:

piece of skin, fat, or muscle be severed from


the livingbody it will speedily undergo decomposition;

other

hand,

extracted

we

tooth

there

know

exposed
in

"

leading on to caries
follow
enlargment

culi"; just the

careous
cal-

homogenous

kind.

appreciable change
following he says: "In bone,
then

of anatomy

without

inflammation

statement

might

that

there, and

arrived

as

sentence

(what

has

its necessary

and

the

The

other

or

excavating a

of any

author

of

know

we

leave

still further

material, I quote

of

bare

his anatomical

illustrate

To

after

filling,and

have

(calcareousmass) violentlybroken

inflame, and

inflammatory action
impossible to conceive

to

consists

know

to

applied to

views

wrong

of cellular

trace

healthy chalk
forciblywedge on to that
mass,

"dentine

supposition

not

when

possible.

the

this

does

injuriesI

misnomer

explained by
no

enough

tissue, is able

severe

parts renders

into

metallic

be

Upon
We

"

be

only

matrix
be

understood

Sewill,viz: that

Mr.

by

We

of the

more

this

depends upon what is the correct


not
are
contending for words, but
that the word
signifieswhen
plied
apwhich
the
pathological conditions

tissues,those

anatomical

the

of

in

produce."

to

in dentine

term.

that

barely powerful

the

inflammation

term

believe

to

constituents

which

process

pathologicalchanges
definition

earthy

quite powerless

are

WhetliCr

acid,

weak

the

out

morbid

of

asked

are

appearances

to

the
a

is

limit

no

the

observed

by
disappearance
by

Dr.

and

Abbott,

ber
num-

may

dentine."

homologous,

most

is manifested
and

the

atmosphere

enamel

tissue

to

increased
of

the

cularity,
vas-

canali-

supported by

The

154

Heitzmann

Prof.
of

Archives

and

Dr.

Dentistry.

of

Boedecker,

present in the canaliculi

be

to

dentine.
That

the

is

bone

admits.

author
the

to

vital

tissue

Will

atmosphere
in both

matter

liable

and
inform

he

us

how

many

The

fact is

endure?

may

and

teeth

bone

do

exposed to the atmosphere, only, to


dentine
than
a higher magnifying
power
is required.
in

finds

author

dentine, in

in both

the

acted

caries?
author's

31

page

of

vitalityit

possesses

from

the

mass,"

pie|^ of

chalk

"impressiHwsts"but
atmosphere of modern
to

The
of

review

dentine

have

we

know

brings us

to

The

"who

taken

author's

our

conviction

stand

of

that

he

is

kind

any

in

case

of
what

the
low

"calcareous

Given

not

illuminated

in the

views

same

difference

derives

vitalityof
knowledge I

only to those
thought."
the

is the

is the

as

glass
eye-

vital reactioK

no

tissue

agents,

Wonderful

of

twelve

process

that dentine

pulp."

posed
ex-

genous
nitro-

following contradiction

the

"We

is

dead

chemical

the

observable

any

living and

find

we

statement.

own

Is there

teeth.

irresistible

by

upon

On

dead

there

carious

the

that

number

that

fact that

destruction

the

when

evidence

assumed

living and

between

another

bone

years

undergo decomposition
observe
the
change in

when

Our

inflammatory changes

to

of the
without

anatomy
evidence

pathology of these tissues will now


be noticed.
Pathology being only perverted physiology,they both
stand
of
fall together. In the
under
review
the causes
or
papers
caries are
considered
in two
classes,the exciting and the predisposing.
to

support his teachings. The

recognizes acids of various kinds


acids are
the most
as
important agents in producing caries. "These
ical
mainly generated in the system, principallyin the mouth, by chemaction.
and
thing
Micro-organisms may,
probably do, have someUnder

to

within

do

the

in the

the

tooth

first head

formation
after

he

of

these

chemical

acids, both

intrinsic

agents and

mouth

and

defects

have

in the

The
predisposing
through the enamel.
causes
first,structural
imperfections of the tissues; second,
are,
crowding and irregularityof the teeth; third, vitiation of the oral

permitted

their

secretions."

entrance

Given

caries

shows

is not

perfect and

Here
Those

our

itself

author

relatingto

these

"and

in every
whose
comes

the

we

account

individual

Avhose

general health is
in sight of the

vital conditions

fully for

of

not

dental
at

the

the

development
highest level."

foundation
the

fact, that

formative

causes,

organs

viz.:
of

156

The

external."
that

He

they

bring

in

This

before

their

or

not

were

the

nutrition.

anatomy

at

the

and

the

This

is

is

not

of

aware

old

almost
of

teeth

the

had

is

teach

irritated

withdrawn,

be

it much

of

and

little,in

or

caries.

Also

that

recent

any

interna.

works

obsolete

clearlymade
though these
author

the

bably
pro-

livingmatter

conservative

favor

to

nonsense."

caries

been

that when

much

enough

within
living matter
compositi
deagainst chemical

the

element

conservative

organic matter;
destroyed just so

and

that

teeth, and

and

theory of
exclusivelyto

who
vitalists,

enamel

agents

of

"vagueness

he

says

of the
is

of

charge

support the

to

character

physiology properly understood.


(Just as
the present time
being developed.) Our

means

dentine

the

is confined

says

vital

constant

himself

enough

he

view

composed
out

Sewill

bold

of

him

upon

Besides, Mr.
author

need

Dentistky.

of

the

recognizes

are

down

Archives

of

the

influence

advancing

this conservative

force

is

nal
exter-

is sufficient

for the

preservation of the life and health of the tissues when not


attacked
This is
and
by special chemical
micro-organic agents.
the dreadful
heresy Mr. Sewill is so ardently combatting.
Let it be granted that the three writers
ill,
first quoted by Mr. Sewwhom
he calls "impressi'"tists,"
pothese
presented their views as hywithout
is
it
what
demonstrable
not
claiming any
proof,
all writers
have
done
who
have
speculated upon this subject, so
difticult of
these

demonstration?

having

papers,

prating about

the

devoted

influence

of

causes

It is
about
of

be

his and

not

shown
In
he

caries,beginning in

of

what
Prof.

regard

says

bases
the

by

said

to

views

instruction
in his views

the

whole

is his is not

Henry
the

"is beneath

his

dozen

shed

the

Sewill
to

pages

constitutional

acknowledged ignorance, having


established
a singlefact which
can
it may

Mr.

just what

and

done

in

prattlingand

hereditarypredisposing

darkness

not

has

and

single ray

ending
of light

in
or

In truth
enlighten the student.
book
that "what
good there is in it is
good," closingwith bad chemistry as

Leffmann.

last
serious

author

whom

Mr.

Sewill

quotes and

criticism," it is noticeable

that he

who
alone

patient and persevering investigation,under


of an
ed
expert in microscopy, and that he is supportThe
and Dr. Boedecker.
by Prof. Heitzmann
points
upon

dentine
of the fibrils when
the appearance
investigation were
was
undergoing disintegrationby caries.
in bone
Dr. Abbott
observed
resembling those
appearances
when
undergoing inflammation, viz: "swelling of the living matof

Original

ter, dissolution

1000

Williams

Dr.

under
a
bringing to view
diameters
the
1500
to
embryonal elements.
is formed
enamel
and
the
by a secretion

of basis

of from

power

157

Articles.

thinks

and

substance

by the ameloblasts, and that


entirelydissappear. If this is so Dr.
mistaken
in thinking they were
brought

the

formation

new

been

noticed

he
is

there
E.

"that

1863,
is

there

changes in dental

caries

bone."

"the

He

the

difference

contained
cells

observed

remarks

the

varicose

marked

and

the

pearances
ap-

proportion as
and

appearance

the
correspondence between
phenomena presented in caries of
is purely formal, depending
on
upforms

the

of

the

cellular

respectively,the
elongated dental fibres on

of the

dentinal

elements

roundish
the

bone

other.

He

fibres

only in one instance


the deposit of calcarto
eous
inflammatory process,
a

latter is referable

the

that

in

tissues

of the

calcification

the

distinction

side, and

one

noticed

between

in each

on

and

says

dentine

These

in each.

about

considered

and

have

mnst

view.

enamel

in both

living matter

Neumann

Abbott
to

ments
ele-

embryonal

expiration of an
particlesat the
in bone.
which
is observed
phenomenon
of
the
dentinal
Hertz, 1866
pathologicar'.jConditions
says, in
fibres,"they appear swollen, cloudy, homogeneous, repletewith fat
granules and
Mr.

John

in certain

take
Tomes

salts."

calcareous

up

speaks

of

the

stages of the disease.

of

enlargement
Underwood

and

dentinal

tubes

scribe
Milles, 1881, de-

the
that

enlargement and commingling of the tubes, and


caries they are
invariablyfilled with micro-organisms.

in

Miller

this

confirms

explanation of

these

views
conflicting
be taken

better

but time
difficult,

is not

statements

the

Milles.

though

not

and

space

show

the

The

necessarily

need

not

and

presented

are

also in consequence

specimens, and

eye

Dr.

Abbott,

the

world

and

the
no

to

gradual

now

ing
unfold-

and
points of anatomy
physiology
microscopes, and by improvements in the

better

the

here

minute

more

of

or

different

somewhat

and

Dr.

for this purpose.

These
of

of Underwood

statement

state

mind

to

see

doubt, after

his best

refutation

has

freelygiven

and

carpings

of

efforts,is
of

the

the

interpret the revelations


having labored
earnestly and
w^illingpatiently

to

of

correctness

of

the

dental

"non-investigator" will

await

the

affect

made.

given

which
The

only

of

tion
verifica-

observations
science.

aration
prep-

training

and

for advancement
a

of

under

the

he

sneers

good

The

158

of

ears

that

in

he

might

and

Neumann

Tomes,

such

the

prehistoricanatomy,
his

of

favorite

own

style,

the

added

the

the

as

be

may

had

wonder

appears

without

in

Strongly
is the

papers

and

Dr.

others.

England
have

to

"a

of

when

the

he

members

listen

in

protest

the

the

by
responding
cor-

and

at

any

into

take

of

in

regard

terms

"impres-

wi'ong

premises,
spirit,to

valuable

science

to

into

these

and

it

account

Odontological

unequivocal

count
ac-

their

papers,

perverse

offensive

such

to

upon

the

both

up

claims

he

take

of

from

misrepresentations

anything
we

been

common

we

those

tone,

Odon-

writings

Sewill's

based

abscence

desirable

Society

extravagant
such

against

terms

nonsense."

solemn

and

that

Mr.

of

as

sneering
labor;

own

patience

the

language,

mann

his

of

result

well

as

conclusions

the
which

When
of

John

larger production

investigators, the

authors

erroneous

all

at

much

features

by

sisftists,"the
arrogant

been

of

and

wild

positive knowledge

yet unsettled

matters

to

been

which

the

kept

members

have

in America."

distinguishing

the

of

of

the

writing

with

have

hitherto

Nor

has

literary dross

of

kind

this

caricatures

been

stigmatized

There

Society.

in the

time

these

has

in

opinions

behalf

on

ry
necessa-

against

particularly

more

achievements

I have

as

and

registered
of

forth

put

observations,

and

discussion.

of the

tone
utterances

observations

Society

scientific

the

of

value

the

the

some

the

reputation of

"The

the

upon

is

anywhere

Abbott's

be

"It

says:

nonsense

Hertz)

tological Society where


time
to time
paraded.

it be

May

grate harshly

be

Dr.

protest should

forcible

that

associated

have

readers.

summary,

terms

solemn

speech (referringto

or

shall

critical

his

such

candid

brotherhood,

unequivocal
of

of

papers

scientific

discussion

solemn

such

in

protest

other

closing

in

Sewill,

Mr.

estimation

world's

the

Dentistry.

of

in the

before

time

long

latter

the

of

name

Archives

let

greatly

and

with

contrast

candid

by

Opinions

have

Germany

as

facilitated

into
the

such
been

well

every

study

the

spiritof

authors

as

C.

as

America
and

dental

corner

that
of

Mr.

of

researches

expressed by

nook
of

and

tone

of

recognition

Boedecker

daylight

the

S.

"these
dental

pathology."

Prof.

Tomes,

men

Sewill's

of

Heitz-

E.

Klein
in

science
researches
science

and

Okiginal

CONGRESS.

MEDICAL

We

Section

through

Dental

Chicago

the
a

informed

are

M.

RICHARDSON,

JOSEPH

and

Oral

on

Medical

Congress

of

that, "With

have

made

of

That

history.
served

and

to

regular

to

its

the

not

be

equity,in

its

obedience

to

the

of
a

Oral

Dental

and

the protest

when

force

exposed

to

would

work

of

relation

admission

there

are

demand.

general

interests

simple personal claims,

pies,
occu-

of
the

Surgery,

It has
of

hardship to
eminently

there

not,

Congress
Its

cording
ac-

tTiat

enforcement

principleof
ignored in
held, in high

been

been

professionalnature

just,must

however

so

abstract

an

light of

the

underlying^is

Medical

the

claims, has

individual

to

paramount

some

to

where

instance

who

believe, be

will, we

merely personal nature?

first

sets

men

very

professionthey have
hardly be gainsayed,but are

will

of

circular

attendance."

from

of

members

all those

which

ington
Wash-

possibilityeven,
recognitionby

the

claim

to

requirement spoken

condition

places,that

national
Inter-

the

city of

distinguishedprecedent, considerations

stipulated
would

of

adorned

to

override

devoted

undeniably true,

much
the

worthy

many

of

proud position it

to

position

debarred

be

lose

to

contributed

section

of

dentistry the

largely
profession in a

all this is

found

with

limited

will be

enforced, many

American

themselves

While

formation

the

against this requirement, the

have

establishment
would

auspices of

the

in the

meet

section

such

this rule

for

placing our

will

which

to

protest

forth

who

under

issued

IND.

HAUTE,

medicine.

In the way

and

TERRE

S.,

D.

of
Society that, in the event
Dental
Surgery ,in connection

in 1887, admission

graduates in

D.

D.,

circular

NATIONAL
INTER-

THE

IN

REPRESENTATION

CONCERNING

BY

159

Articles.

to

be

sometimes

subordinated.
This

was

the

logic of

the

when, after full and


resolution,that
of

merit

alone

Admission

no

was

of

deliberate

the

American

consideration,

Dental
it

college conferring its degree


in
have
a
faculty representation
denied
avowedly on
solelyand

dental

could

action

ciation
Asso-

enacted, by
on

the
the

the

score

tion.
Associa-

ground

with the just


in harmony
not
policyof these schools was
demands
of the profession for higher attainments; that it antagonized
of qualification;
its best
interests
by lowering the standard
and
and that,therefore, as a matter
vitallyaffectingthe character
that

the

160

The

Auchives

Dentistry.

of

in vindicating
felt justified
profession,the Association
its concern
for a
cluding
by ex"higher professional education"
its
did not
conform
from
those
who
its membership
to

interests

of

the

standard.
No

active and
more
perhaps, was
of this disqualifyingresolution

one,

enactment

whose
the

of

the

attached

are

than

of

one

the

circular,and who,

the

the

promoting

men
gentle-

chairman

as

it in his report

the

to

sociation
As-

men"
in
of the very
of its adoption, "many
By reason
American
tistry
Denmade
for
have
language of the circular, "who
ance"
attend"debarred
from
the proud position it occupies" were

Now,

the

make

to

applicationof

some

leave

Association

are

we

to

their

concerned,

and

fellowship in

was

made

their

ourself

far

least

at

the

to

in

case

members

the

as

while

cannot,

of

resolution

that

mains
re-

contemplate with satisfaction the


attitude
of suppliantsat the door
Congress, asking for recognition

contravention

direct

reflections

these

to

Medical

of

closing their

pretext for

we

in the

posing

International

the

that, so

say

operative,bring
spectacleof

Association.

of the

meetings

beg

hand,

of

to

committee, embodied

educational

on

tae

names

in

earnest

the

of

against certain

doors

own

principle that

very

household.

own

It is not

for

concerned

moment

be

to

less tenacious

or

than

Dental

the

that

presumed

afi:"ectsits status

what

about

profession.

Medical

the

At

the

ests
its inter-

or

dental

best, the

very

is less

gree,
de-

in our
expression of the highest attainments
fession,
proTo
medical
culture.
is but
of
a
grant,
badge
partial
this
limited
such
distinction,equal proas
therefore, to
enjoy only
fessional
medical
the
fellowship and equal privilegeswould, from
of professional requirethe standard
ments,
standpoint, not
only lower
which

is

an

it would

but

be

an

against recognized medical


in respect of the complete
To

degree.

sense

proper

any
would

be

for

by

resolution
basis

of

then,

we

not

confer

the
to

virtual
American
which

exclusion

ask, how

provided

with

of

abandonment
Dental
we

from
can

the

have

in

referred, and
In

member

of

the

not, in

are

educated

very

Association

membership.
any

the

medical

in the

dentists, who

on

plane

common

implied

phrase, medically

the

occupy

culture

distinction

such

of

medical

discrimination

offensive

unjust and
who
specialists

specialists,

ed
principle contendthe

which

this view
American

adoption
was

of

of the

made
the

the

matter,

Association,

requisitecredentials, consistentlyor

with

Original
solicit
self-respect,

proper

and

favor

that

in satisfaction

not

of

Articles,

161

could

which

be

granted only

rightfulclaim,

any

and

as

could

that

of humiliation.
some
measure
accepted without
In the adoption of the rule spoken of in the
circular,the InterNational
Medical
Congress virtually says to us, as a profession,
what
Dental
the American
Association, through its resolution,said
is open.
"Come
to the non-conforming schools:
up higher,the way
By this path only, leading in the direction of the best interests of
the profession,can
full recognitionand fellowship be reached."
be

not

The

circular

when

restrictive

the

complied

be

may

it has

"But

not

work
of

the medical

degree as

of

author

in

the

would

not

of the

schools

be

ILLINOIS

far

the

ber
mem-

resolution

manding
de-

distant

1885, and

held

at

purpose.

been

an

as

an

ucational
ed-

taken, and
legitimate

equal place in

SOCIETY.

of

the

Illinois

Peoria, Ills.,commencing

State

Dental

Tuesday, May 12,

continuing four days.

State
at 10

examination

be

rant
war-

such

upon

dentists,

DENTAL

Meeting

and

scope

will have

when

same

in

put the expressed

nnite

country

in advance

STATE

Twenty-first Annual

Societywill

Hotel

self-respect,

of matriculation

take
would
specialists,
recognized medical
unchallenged.
assemblage of medical men

The

the

bide

us

Let

the

it would

practicalshape by giving it

more

if ever,

time

The

Amen!

will find the

He

country.

other, while

the

for

as

the

policy,a long step

any

let

hope.

indispensablecondition

an

collegesof

this

When,

and

the

was

this

of

Congress

the

dental

for

the

fruition

the

Then

consistency and

pur

come

attendance
two
or
more
colleges enforced
upon
mendable
a condition
precedent of graduation,emphasize his comby supplementing
aspirationsfor a higher grade of attainments
with another
this resolution
demanding the possession of

as

"hope"

will for

committee, who

the

all the

meantime

Medical

circular.

the

soon

may

to individuals.

injustice

yet," says

time

the

International

the

without

in the

with

of

terms

with

that

hope

of

rule

come

time, preserve
and

the

expresses

Board
a.m.,
must

will occupy

of

Monday, May
present
until

will be

Examiners

Dental

11,

at

time

punctually.

themselves

Thursday, May
J. W.

which

at

the

National

candidates
The

for

tions
examina-

14.

Wassall,
103

Secretary,
State St.,Chicago.

162

The

Archives

Dentistry.

of

SOCIETIES.

DENTAL
.

VALLEY

CONNECTICUT

[concluded
Section

A.

E.

Dr.

Stebbins

read

KEPOET

Pursuant

to

the blanks
and

for
out

sent

179

Ans.

voted

900

How

years

necessitates

and

1; looks

for the

months
which

artificial dentures
whom

have

following
the

obtained:

are

averages

plate

were

responded, reporting

broke

or

injured?

was

broke

teeth

some

off?

came

or

Ans.

made?

plate was

plate; absorption of

gums

to

known

not

2;

unfortunate

plate

gum,

little

"

broken

the

seems

to

be

victim

of

"false
of

dentist

build

sore

of

prolificcause

most

teeth," and

glad

am

responsibility. If
be responsible for

great

they

sand

on

gum

3.

must

build

we

will

maintains

his

and

ruin, and
smiles
;

that

" (

and

even,

the
on

twelve

half

which

was

heart

patient
one

is

foundation
around

years,

expected
goes

kept

that

down

and

dentist,

half

years

to

to

and

provided
the
patient

his

in tact,

or

plate,over

beautiful
last
mad

till nature
wear

on

be
If

of

three

foundations

must

condition.

shaking

one

wearer's

and

structure

new

our

the

for six

teeth, so white
fortune

endures

and

years

the

absorb

or

changed

the

to

waste

that

integrity,so

dimishing gum,
to

much,

conform

courageously

goes

demoralize,

so

four

reports received, about

the

to

suflice to

which

If

of

meeting,
printed

foundations.

According

he

semi-annual

"

the

patients require us
the

last

of

new

this for it rids the

know

to

the

years.

new

3; misfit

Absorption of
trouble

at

44; absorption of
Absorption of gum
8; broken
plate 22; imagination 1; lost 3;

plate broken

mouth

five

Ans.

out?

worn

5.

before

before

What

SECTION

six years.

little less than

six years.

OF

before

worn,

years

many

the

worn

years

less than

or

them

follows:

as

dentists,nine

From

many

"

instructions

little less than

How
Ans.

CHAIRMAN

to

130.]

page

paper

obtaining records

many

"

OF

cases.

How

from

called.

then

5 was

ASSOCIATION.

DENTAL

out

set

life

the

of

time,

goes
runs

if

up.
full

thing

164

The

for

the

fee of

The

and

he

few

Does

careful

more

of

mending)

unhealthy gums.
or
thirtyyears.
and

Archives

metal

thinks

investigation of
and

age

this
of

sex

some

one

of

research

and

that

the

contribute

to

It is not
those

who

after

truth.

with

this

be

desired

the

collect

to

fifteen

from

further

suggestion for
important branch
have

patient

Will
authorized

our

been
to

me

follow

to

of

not

allow

you

gest
sugthis

up

vited
earnestlyin-

and

profession be courteously

to

designed

number

our

causes

the

considered, but left for fuller reports.


that

the air-chamber

plates reported lasted

this fact afford

not

In this report the

art?

that

Dentistry.

result.

these

facts

the

for

imformation

know

for
such
as
everything, but
deluded
Dentists
and patientshave
been

of

seeking

are

long enough

plate business.

cheap
the people

When

seek

obliged to

fields of

other

tooth

the

enlightened

are

will

jobber

be

labor.

Respectfully submitted,
E. A.

Stebbins,
Chairman.

Dr.

Hurless.

only
that

are

Bartholejnew.

platesis
after

the

teeth

motion

On

in my

of

of

for the

necessary

motion

and

the

the same,

it

be

ask

to

Dental

a
are

"

I would

patient to

short

so

many

inserted

too

voted

authorized

to

be
draw

soon

wait.

to

continue

to

Stebbins

Dr.

time

enough

fitting
mis-

this

appointed
the

on

vestigat
into

urer
Treas-

expense.

New

Atidres.

causes

plates are

was

that

that

is

year

like

without

go

the

to
a

Dental

Massachusetts

Society

England
investigation.
Discussion
again resumed.
Dr.

that

it

and

voted

was

and

year,

charge

On

great trouble

Maxfield

another
take

is closed.

judgment,

Dr.

quence,
conse-

mouth

extracted;

are

no

caused

One

"

of

by absorption. I thiuk,however
it produces an
equal
unby this,because

the

when

pressure

is

is caused

break

the

as

repairing plates

of

matter

all breaks

most

Dr.

This

"

co-operate with

to

ask

Dr.

plate a

year,

us

in

if he

Bartholemew

whole

Society

after

the

the

vises
adteeth

extracted.
Dr.

should
months.
dentists

BartJiolemeio.
have

not

I think
who

"

No,

permanent
that

put in

so

the
many

do

not

jjlatemade

great trouble

that.

mean

for
arises

ill-fitting
plates.

year

from
A

meant
or

they
eighteen

cheap
good fittingplate
so

many

Dental

Societies.

good price,and it should


will
a dentist
thing when
than ten dollars
charged more

is worth

165

be

asked.

go

about

for

I think

it is

temptible
con-

tists
saying if other denplate they are defrauding

their

patients.
In
this
Dr. Morgan.
so
are
highly educated,

State

"

others
does

and

do

that

are

Johns

of

consequence

This

law

riff-raffs from

and

State

neglect

we

other

able

are

take

to

protect

them

is about

the

to

regulating

this

legislaturethinks

they
law

any

frauds.

have

not

need

not

that

the

the

from

the

flooded

are

with

do

claiming

that

if

Stehbins.

Dr.
will
a

give

his

opinion

them

out

like

how

do

them

of

inquire

to

Dr.

their
my

the
do

tients
pa-

advice,
fit

not

Atkinson

will look

healthymouth

advise

night they

over

work.

advise

heed

not

cheap

if

when

as

he

there

is

plate worn.
the

by

Atkinson.

Dr.

Dr.

is
be

must

the

the

color

color

same

that

as

covered

that part of the mouth

of

not

covered,

then

the

mouth

healthy.

Hurless.

There

When

"

plate is

is considered

I would

"

of

the

do dental

states,

most

leave

they
morning.

in the

well

so, but

and

quacks

all

"

to

selves,
them-

that
only one now
practiceof dentistry,and in

professing to
Dr. Maxfield. I would
like to inquire how
many
their
to
I
at
wear
patients
plates
night.
always
not

people

of

care

There

"

continual

more

less

or

is

such

plate.
thing as a permanent
absorption going on under all plates,so there
platesthat do not fit,after having been worn
no

while.
Dr.

Bartholefmew.

Dr.

J. P. Parker.

of

"

"

advise

never

We

to

want

that

platesbe

at

worn

night.

that the American

remember

ple,
peo-

all

for so many
people,like to be humbugged, which accounts
quacks in our profession. It is my
opinion that every tissue of
the body needs
rest, consequently I tell my
patients that if they
their plates at night,they do it at
wear
their
risk.
The
own
more
the
a plate is worn
more
becomes; I
unhealthy the mouth
have

abolished

Voted

to

air-chambers
close

this

entirelyfrom

discussion

and

practice.

my

take

up

Dr.

Bartholemew's

paper
Dr.

S. E.

Davenj^ort.

for his excellent

"

paper,

as

want

the

to

paper

commend
gave

evidence

Dr.

Bartholemew
of

thought

and

thorough investigation.
Dr.

StocJcioell. Those
"

who

heard

Dr.

Bartholemew

read

his

166

The

will remember

paper
used

in the

changed
the

to

In my

and

the

and

have

the

the
Dr.

of

then

W.

Dr.

H.

it is

as

of

Dr.

it

have

Atkinson.

those

"

in which

one

who

For

mix

of

only

quantity

necessary.

his

its

find about

three

or

same

it,if

In

"

two

the

sips from

read

in

I put

dose

study in regard
hypodermic use?

one

where

case

it

was

successful.

not

was

he

minutes; I have

time.

then

once;

acid.

gallic acid

the

give

gallic acid

of

Bartholemew:
did

"

at

tannic

as

acid

conveyed

is

so

fifteen

every

occasional

ergot, what

Bartholemew.

used, and

be taken

asked

there
I

Gallic

limit.

acid, and

within

crystals

patient take

was

use

the

It is perfectly

right in this.

hemorrhage;

find it reliable

to

water,

Question
to

with

gallicacid,

of

use

without

tannic

hemorrhage stops usually

of

is

almost

into

the

on

its influence

exerts

teespoonful of

ounces

used

circulation

great faith in it and


one

be

trouble

any

he

judgment

can

parts and
have

never

and

Dentistry.

of

laid great stress

he

internally.
harmless

is

Archives

desire

have

am

to

say
much

very

interested.

there

this

on

In

ject,
sub-

the

marks
re-

much

ambiguity.
Fibrin
is said to be an
effete product, and
not
capable of
As
of gallicacid
to the change
being taken up into the system.
in the
sumption
system into tannic acid, it is a little bit bordering on asits influence
to
exerts
say it goes to the particularspot, and
there.
this

on

We

Arterial.

2.

Hemorrhage

neither

the

articles

divided

be

embryonal

in

knowledge

recent
can

too

was

tissue

the

journals
gained as to

under

in

the

three

heads:

that

gums

are

veins.

of
general filling

which
capillaries

the

allows

an

of

oozing

blood.
is

There
there

are

great deal
under

transudation

of

there

why
we

The

blood.

administer

want

blood
When

is the

the

There

is pus.
we

embryonal tissue in the gums,


nor
veins, but sinuses, and
capillaries

neither

immediately

it

the

capillariesnor

3.

from

latest

the

Hemorrhage

change.

1.

of

account

me,

the

study

must

subject on

molecular

preceded

words

few

cause

to

mucous

There
does

accomplish?
we

it?

are

in the

is

by

union

no

to

seem

be

internallyfor
What

is it that

controlled

get real
It

membrane

not

remedies

vessels

in which

of

angry

is because

by
we

one's

the

grow

these

mouth.

Pus

first intention

are

is

where
of

understanding
What
hemorrhage.
an

causes

the

vaso-motor

white

feelingsexert

the
an

is

hemorrhage
nervous

in

tem.
sys-

face, what
influence

on

Dental

these

causing them

nei-ves,

drive

all the

out

internal

clot, and
take
of

where
in your

socket

the

The

and

is, first

burr

it will be

around

arrested

do

little

to

so

stop

ister
admin-

we

wash

to

from; if it is

comes

and

engine

to

affect when

to

treatment

blood

the

want

we

want

we

and

closer

bloodvessels

the

this is what

nerves

remedies.

see

burr

Now

It is these

hemorrhage.

grip

to

blood.

167

Societies.

the

out

artery just

an

the

at

bottom
it is

When

immediately.

be
to
from, but seems
hemorrhage comes
coming from everywhere, then ergotine may be used, and it must
be given hypodermically, because
used it accomplishesits
when
so
action quicker than when
taken
into the stomach.
the
The
installed
for
then
ensuing
following officers were
known

not

where

the

year:
President.
First

Dr.

"

L. Parmele.

Geo.

Vice-President.

Dr.

"

Hartford, Conn.

of

S.

Springfield,

of

Bartholemew,

B.

Mass.
Second

Vice-President.

N.

J.

Dr.

"

Northampton,

Davenport,

Mass.

Secretary.

Dr.

"

Assistant

"

Executive
M.
It

Dr.

"

four
and

H.

Committee.

voted

was

that

Society

A.

Mass.

Stockwell, J. P. Parker, and

T.

C,

Drs.

Falls, Mass.

Turners

Nims,

J.

Jones, Northampton,

"

the

voted

years,
that

to

Executive

was

up
Drs.

invitation

an

and

summer,

It

W.

Dr.

Miller.

Dental

with

Maxfield, Holyoke, Mass.

A.

Secretary.

Treasurer.

H.

Geo.

hold

that

the

be

union

sent

meeting

to

with

in

us

for

arrangements

Massachusetts

the

the

Worcester
be

left

the

last

same

Committee.
that

to

transactions

the

and

the

including

the

present

Maxfield

and

Ross, Andres

of

act

society for
year,

be

published,

Committee

as

on

Publication.

This

Society held
A.

Dr.

W.

J. H.

its

regular monthly meeting February 3,

are

ident
Pres-

Harlan, in the chair.

Woolley

read

many

OP

ABSTRACT

There

SOCIETY.

DENTAL

CHICAGO

causes

paper
DR.

at

on

the

WOOLEY's
work

to

"First

Permanent

Molar."

PAPER.

produce

healthy, or

un

168

The

healthy condition
and
The

the

of

Dentistry.

of

under

teeth

consideration, such

live

we

in, and

the

of

manner

its

life of

inheritinga highly nervous


development
prevents a harmonious
Neglect upon the part of the parent

of the

part in the early destruction

these

of

extractions

3,000

first permanent

occuri-ed

practice. Many dentists


that the space gained by
About

overlook

these

belong

child

is

dentists

and

appear,

at

the

they

being
a

in

hospital

four

the

of

the

them

suppose

first set.
the

brought to
finding the

dentist

child

difticult to

tooth-ache.

of

account

on

others,have found

well

very

little difference

also that

the anterior

followed

It may
of

gained prevents

space

I, as

as

in

teeth

decay, but

it is

It is the
not

are

to

necessary

opinion of
caused

by

the

hurry through
often
imperfect

manage,

Dr.

remove

many
lack

room

have

found

there
the
these

was

room

extraction
teeth

expression

causes

and

of

enough
of

the
a

to

the

bring

the

depression in
the

the

voice.

remaining
this

some

teeth

the

cases,

ones;

Here

because

ties.
irregulari-

to

into

and

mouths,

position
The

substantiate

I
irregularities,

these

of

Quotations

jaw.
of

molar.
face

made

position.

correct

cases

models

decaying.

forwards.

introduced
in

fall

to

authorities,that irregularities

in

were

first permanent

also affects

to

of

this

measurement

them
the best

Dr.

by

teeth

in

of

Kingsley and Mr. Tomes


view.
In a majority of mouths

from

but

supporting

these

remove

the

there

teeth

of these

back,

move

from

teeth

removal

Arthur

to

these

the]|decayof

to

seldom

mistake

that

regard

quotation from

be

first

parents

operation,with the result that the operation is


and sometimes
a complete failure.
molar,it is claimed
By the extraction of the first permanent
will
be
teeth
room
gained for the bicuspids and canine
and

maining.
re-

ary
tempor-

inattention

the

back,

and

those

incisors

most
or

ity
major-

as

of

decay

central

when

cord
re-

short-lived

are

noticed, they

are

them

classes

prevents

of

tant
impor-

Tomes'

of

poorer

carelessness

By
if

me

molar.

an

fair test,

teeth

time

Mr.

one-third

these

shedding

teeth, or,

the

to

among

plays

teeth.

the

their removal

the

child, together

first permanent

dentist

to

seem

believe

still remain.

teeth

Many

of

molars

permanent

The

time

the

and

teeth,

not

the

organization, all combined,

of

of

does

molars,

extractions

of the

to

tary
heredi-

as

pre-natalinfluences.

age

with

Archives

that

without

extraction

loss of

individual

of
"

169

Societies.

Dental

private letter from Dr. G. V. Black he pays: "One point that


molar
first permanent
I have especiallyurged is the office of the
of the shedding
in holding the jaws in positionduring the process
1 deem
This
teeth.
of the temporary
point so often overlooked
the beginThese
teeth take their position before
ning
very important.
otherwise
is
and
while
the
of the shedding,
antagonization
broken
up they hold the jaws in positionand prevent any twisting
In

of

them

the

by

is v6ry

that

liable

to

temporal muscles,

and

masseter

if this support

occur

before

of them

one

any

powerful
the

twelfth

by the removal

is lost

have

molars

year

thing

tion.
posi-

into

come

of

to
kept until the child has arrived
retention."
would
be good for permanent
chances
its teens, their
He further
"my study of the comparative liabilityof the
says
teeth to decay at the different periods of life, shows
clearly that

If

the

first molars

are
a

oftener

better
the

than

second.

the

second

molar

and
first,

Many claim
Experience in

the

second.

oftener
difficult

more

treatment

in the

the

of

crowns

If the

these

teeth

temporary
with

be

teeth

then

dam

be

is occasioned
of

Great

the

In

the

mode

my

cavities

cement

over

are

of
the

few

years.

of

years,
care

as

always be used,

examined

more

file,and

if the

of

that
the

the

the

for the

deep

the

should

should

of

be

as

be

separated

surface

of

the

removed.

second

the

critically.
first permanent

the

mesial

should

tissue,

of

zealous

same

former

in

previouslyfollowed.

pulp, some

the

loss

that

the

in

result

third

and
of

the

traction
ex-

first.
is necessary

care

large cavities
from

by

first

the

number

with

superficially
decayed, the decay
tipping or lapping of the crowns

molars

for

the

latter is
The

are

saved.

coffer

of

safe-sided

same

contact

molar, the distal surface


therefrom

for

will last but

with

is in close

molar

they

treat."

these

can

teeth

posterior surface
position on

the

molar

taught me if they ai"e watched


others, they in all probabilitycan
In making an examinatien
the

after

years

the

chances

than

has

as

If both

on

to

of

three

or

teeth, but in after years

occurs

the first permanent


the

two

fifteen,the

Decay

much

is much

other

of

age

first

any

than

the

at

in the

than

less often

fair condition

be

attacked

are

eruption much
attacked

could

teeth

these

are

cements

floor of

last

few

years

sensitive,with
should
the

of

treatment

be

and
cavitj'"

these

has

been

teeth.

In

different

of
approximate exposure
used
for filling.Flow
after

hardening

fillthe

170

remainder

with

the

begins to wear
a portion of
with

or

whatever

I believe
metallic
In

the

teeth
used

three

cared

for; the

dentist

and

than
that

of

when

the tooth

caused

the

ment
ce-

move
trouble, re-

gold

combined

case.

thermal

when

changes

will

they

in the

teeth,particularly
studied

eruption,are

if

no

the

teeth.

these

verdict

When

tin and

to

other

their

universal

not

fill with
suited

are

after

years

has

susceptibleto

more

I believe

conclusion,
or

is best

harder.

tooth

and

cement

material

these

mixed

if the

away,

Dentistry.

of

material

same

are
fillings

first two

the

Archives

The

be,

it will

erly
prop-

the fault

of

saved.

nat

are

be

and

DISCUSSION.

Dr

Noyes. It seems
are
just,and that the
pleadings for their care

to

"

that

me

conclusions

the

first molars

of the

deserve

essayist

the

eminently
strong
and
ly
preservation which we have frequentin the
heard
of late.
They are, normally, the largest teeth
mouth, with the most
strongly developed roots.
perfectly and
They have the largestmasticating surfaces and stand in the places
where
the
of chewing is most
easilydone. It seems,
largestamount
intended
to be the most
therefore, that they were
important of the
molar

teeth.

The

question of
considered

should

not

and

them,"

and

others

it

will

usually be

can

molars

are

and

first molars

meeting each
cuspids begin

and

the

judgment
al
gener-

the

"if

or

teeth

purport.

from

their

at

are

always better to
If they cannot

is almost

same

the

is better
all

extract

be

served,
pre-

loss, and

equal
is delayed (as
be usually gained if their extraction
of them) till the bicuspids and second
by taking care
in their
mal
norplaces and have acquired their
less

articulation
the

them,"

quality it
to

merits,

its

fully
care-

remove

of poor

I believe

advantages

we

to

cases

upon

be

predispositionderived from the


sometimes
hear expressed,that, "it

warped by
which

in most

case

should

removal

preservationor

in each

be

statement

crowded

their

harm

will

Nature
fullyformed.
puts
places,strongly and fully developed, and

their roots

in their

result

become

squarely, before
loosen, and during

other
to

the
several

molars

temporary
years

they

and

furnish

the

only adequate support and resistance to the action of the powerful


tain
jaw muscles, permitting the bicuspids and second molars to atbefore
their proper
they are
length and perfect their roots
called

upon

this

to

time,

do
the

full work.
undue

force

If the

first

brought

to

molars
bear

are

upon

absent
half

ing
durgrown

172

The

lot, and

whole

the
the

Children

temporary.
this dread

is due

think

child.

Dr.

A.

of

of

result

of fourteen
the

inferior

caused

caused

I have

"

of

highly

and

regard to
the adjacent

dentists, and
I

painful operations.

in the

first permanent

in hand

pi-esent time

the

at

molars

solicitude,andis undoiabtedlythe

sixth

the

from

dread

cases

case

considerable

neglecting
years,

used

be

with

decay

contracts

great many

should

me

It is that

molars.

year

organization.

nervous

The

of

miss
of

crowns

left and

teeth

anterior

ten

offending sixth
as

to

the

I would

Pniyn.

Dr.

Allport.

"

In

"

Matteson, I will

assuming

of

say

that
to

well

that

as

they

come

lost in

been

occludingby ^^^of

it.

Have

like

to

extracted
hear

an

the

tions
sugges-

any

hear

Dr.

this

Allport answer

tion.
ques-

question propounded
by Dr.
order to answer
it intelligentlyit

the

to

answer

would

not

has

correctingthe irregularity.

like to

necessary

together,as

come

molars

method

articulation

]'aw,andare
preventing

molars, and

best

first be

in each

year
year

Dr.

would

molars, the proper

year

inch, the twelfth

But

particularly true

unnecessarilylong

to

Matteson.

twelfth

of the
the

is

cayed
demolars
were
superior right sixth year
to the margin of the gum,the pulps of both
were
hypertrophied
the cavityof decay. Owing to the pain
of nearly filling
extent
by masticating upon these during the time of the eruption

the

to

in

amalgam

E.

has

which

this

Dentistry.

of

molar, which

first permanent

don't

Archives

in

know

several
within

how
other

the

near

anterior

surrounding

just-^^ of

an

teeth

conditions.

in6h,

as

stated

mentioned
the
teeth
were
by Dr. Matteson, and that the molar
of the anterior
that
only cause
prevented a perfect occlusion
teeth, I think I might possibly cut off the grinding surfaces of the
without
molars
far as I could
as
endangering the vitalityof the
pulps,or until the anterior teeth came
nearly together. Then with
their
in
-these
teeth
move
wedges, I would
would
sockets
to excite
such a development of the jaw as
produce
occlusion
of the remaining teeth.
a perfect
In regard to the first permanent
teeth
the subject of the
molar
asked
I will say that if I were
to state what
one
thing in my
paper
enlightenedjudgment,
opinion in dental practicerequired the most
I should
circumstances, the propunhesitatinglyreply,under some
er

plate,or

with

"

"

treatment

That

of the

they should,

first permanent
if

possible,be

molars.
saved

when

the

retention

will

Societies.

Dental

the health

endanger

not

the other

teeth

sacrificed

so

does

long

the usefulness

or

is

for dental

the

is but

of

years

of my

usefulness

of

admit

of

should

be

and

as

An

organ

individual

of the

organs

doubt.

of the

general surgery

surgery

many

patientor impair the

the health

as

reasoning would

No

of the

of other

rule in

good

not

173

is not

endangered
impaired. This

economy
hold

should

not

in

good

dentistry,

part of

general surgery.
thoroughly convince me

observation

have

of
in

had,

this,as

have
the

examining

patientsas well as those of other dentists who


have
followed
in practice regarding the
widely different views
of these teeth, some
treatment
attempting to save nearlyall of them
and others
If the teeth
and
given largelyto extracting them.
and
jaws are harmoniously developed, the teeth all well formed
mouths

dense

in

own

structure,

the

extraction

of

these

be bad

practice;but unfortunatelythese
always exist,and our practiceshould be aimed
the existingconditions.
results possibleunder
To

that

say

teeth

these

should

always

teeth

would

conditions
to

tainly
cer-

do

not

the

secure

best

be

retained,if possible,as
assertion, for it will be

is a very broad
by the essayist,
the other
to
frequently found that greater injury will be caused
than the patientwould
teeth by their retention
suffer by the loss of
them.
So it is not alone the possibility
of saving the teeth that is
in determining what
should
be done
to be considered
with
them,
but the amount
of injury likelyto occur
their retention.
consequent
upon
''The greatest good to the greatest number," in this as in
other things,is a wise maxim
follow.
to
The
condition
of the surrounding teeth, as
I
have
previously
If the teeth are
soft and predisposed
said, is an important factor.
if in addition
to decay, and
to this they are
crowded, it is often
intimated

to

necessary

decay

has
or

remove

more

attacked
a

lack

these

of

less of the

or

locations.

cleanliness

these

and they have to


fillings
surface
is again cut
and
away
years old, less grinding surface
be
in
as
good a condition
at

There

the proper

is

no

use

of
practitioners
Dr.

Harlan.

pulps?

"

in

decay
be

the

will be

from

often

time

place

more

the

these

when

imperfect operations

takes

left and

through

surfaces

less

or

patientis
the

mouth

teeth

had

around
of
35

the
or

40

will not
been

tracted
ex-

time.

saying that

close observation
How

Then

removed;

by
as

proximate

about

these

this is not
knoxo
teeth

that
when

true,

for old and

it is

fact.

they

have

lost

good
their

174

Dr.

Allport.
"

Harlan, "How
I will say,
the

dental

and

some

Aechives

"With

regard

about

Dentistry.

of

teeth

last few

when

months

journals about
good things have been
retainingthem, and some

said

Whatever

all.

at

for whatever

by
canal

injury is done must


decomposition of

the

and

dentine, by

the

tissues.

This

said
other

be

the

to

or

produced

the

cementum

against
patients

within

of

the

erated
gen-

the

pulp

the

upon

apex

upon

not

the gases

pressure

at

better

young

upon

tissue
organic^

against the

said

been

regard

Jaws,"

the

had

things

consequent

the

in

for and

has

in

so

be

teeth

both

septicinfluence

may

posssibly through

or

"Dead

of truth

practicein general is eminently

the

by Dr.
question just asked
they have lost their piilps?"
have
we
a
seen
good deal in

the

to

medical

and

been

these

the

during

practiceof
have

The

the

rounding
sur-

root,

peri-cement-

al membrane.
The

the

younger

dentine, and

in the
will

gases

be

the

younger

formed

far towards

the

by

this direction

will not

An

alveolar

abscess

removal

of

such

these

these

teeth, and

extraction, seldom

alveolar

abscess.
diseases

the

teeth

form

of irritation

of

the

associated
arise

from

detection

and

careful
on

the

of the
older

of

of

the

keep
"

call

may

troubles, urged

At

within

irritation

as

has

in

as

in

the

for
a

inflammation

acute

the

teeth

cause

from

or

discussion

the

in

what

age

so

low

as

observation,
of

these

you

teeth,
of

our

extract

we

tions
condi-

reflex troubles

very

even

diflicult of

after
of the

cure

conditions

mouths

would

be

to

tubuli

nervous

these

times

proved by the
only suspected
of

in the

of reflex

many

in the

canal, or

root

source

if these

retention

them

the

escape

been

caused; and

subjectsby
Pruyn.

that

mentioned

teeth; and

quite likely to

mischief

ear

fruitful

most

state

extraction

we

and

skill

other

the

examination,

how
Dr.

with
a

neural

will go

trouble.

cause

arise from

generated

gases

dentine, is the

the

after

greatest

fects
ef-

journals,as the result of retaining


jaws,isnot altogetherimprobable,because the low
brane
so
frequently produced in the pericemental mem-

in the

these

filled,which

be

may

the

deleterious

for

sue
tis-

these

of

amount

conditions; but the

the

eye

Record.,and

Medical

by

the

of

roots

organic

decomposition, and

will it be

always prevent
is not the only

for their

The

of

certain

of

amount

greater

processes

more

It is true

preventing

greater the

consequently

subject the

follow.

to

the

subject

most

diseases

being the harbor


are
produced in
should

young
these

be

patients.
teeth?

tious
cau-

"

as

should, with

removal,

there

Unless

Allport.

Dr.

the

patient was

the

natural

175

Societies.

Dental

good

some

was

inexpensive fillingstry

fifteen

sixteen

or

and

the

until

teeth

earlier

them

keep

old, or

years

of
(inter-locking)

occlusion

for their

reason

til
un-

time

such

perfectly

was

established.
J. S. Marshall.

Dr.

in the

It

"

city in

same

privilegefor many years to practice


Dr.
Amos
that prince of dentists,

was

my

which

his

Westcott, spent the greater part of


that

it

his

was

practiceto

molars, rather

decay

extracted

"

that

side, while

had

been

and

second

who

had

not

the

or

dead

I would

course

judgment
as

under

been

the

must

future

eleventh

year,

pulps, and

taken
possibilities

the

molars
extracted

the

been

I have
teeth

no
are

Such
in

teeth, places them

consequently caries

is

of

care

of

have

less

present

conditions

their

under

better

condition

likely to

permanent

occur

to

be

upon

so.

Of

well
been

before

the

taken

the

loss has

certain

space

posed
ex-

has

and

soft,badly decayed and

gives

with

as

It

forward

come

by

circumstances;

removed

teeth, and

treatment

do

any

of the

tients
pa-

noted

other

all and

were

hesitation

of

extracting these

consideration.

teeth

arch, of extractingall four

prophylactic measure.

surfaces.

at

age;

observation, backed

habit

the

into

these

when

second

the

the

under

exercised, and

be

this

of

them

extract

not

neai'lyof
recognizable.

in the

of

years

badly decayed and associated


it good practiceto
consider

place very

viz.: when

ten

professional
in

now

am

very

experience that

my

the

consequence

if I find them

teeth

molars

the first permanent

about

that

many

in them.
approximal fillings
mouths
condition
of things in the

experience,I

own

wlien

moved.
re-

same

practitioners. As
my

side

great

was

all had

molars
seen

had

tooth

the

from

one

approximal

prevent

which

eleventh

the

singleapproximal cavity in the teeth of


molars
first permanent
the right side the
upon
1 found
the
to remain, and
bicuspids and first

allowed

I have

is

gentleman

left

had

he

twenty-seven

from

this

to

cases

many
arch

and

"

young

the

upon

the

of

illustrate

cited

be

in

was

side

the

upon
To

might

noticed

often

performed before

when

"

"

badly decayed first permanent


the pulps and perform extensive

extract

devitalize

to

operations upon them.


result of this practice

The
year

than

I observed

life,and
pi'ofessional

hardly

ces,
circumstanmuch

ed
crowd-

molars

for the

as

ing
remain-

kept clean, and


the
approximal

The

176

Dr.
and

Grouse.

do

are

mislead

are

no

how
last

to

treat

of

filling. He
a

of

the

(Dr. Marshall)

to

is

matching

if not

of

and

molar

allow

of

to

large

the

all

were

first molar

the

required constant
sufl"cient
proof of the

and

gone,

as

and

backward,
great

so

each

the

below, and

is left
a

to

side

teeth

with

portion

considerable

the

of

two

necks

the

many

and

above

tops of the

ond
sec-

destroying the

other, thus

the

the

extent,

an

here and
they only touched
mal-positionthus caused made
and
molar
second
bicuspid.

The

molar, the

year

masticating
great extent, destroyed.
bicuspid,not as urged by
that

lean

of

sixth

there

other

its socket

to

touch

instead

and

the

save

space

even

ap-

side

the
on

very

allowed

the tops to

into each

to

not

teeth

the

wholly,

first molar

the

points.

extreme

side

case

the

side

that

on

cites
that

states

other

that

on

early extraction

antagonism,

natural

and

the

on

teeth

molars.

teeth

the

essayist,"to go forward," but to


molar
to
pitch or lean forward

times, as

floor

if that

us

balance

the

were,

loss of

The

year

extracted

principles
helping us

in

sixth

of

the rest

all the

the

of

consequence

organs

been

established

guide

there

Why, I could
practiceof extracting this tooth.
in
own
obsei'vation,where
cases
coming under
my

hundred

usefulness

had

as

think

to

are

act

spoken who
a
tendency

the

of

soundness

the

asks

then

the

while
filling,

and

There

should

on

gentleman

let remain

cite

on

them

cause

dentistry.

even

first molar

the

in

facts which

are

proximal surfaces
sound
requiring no
was

this

subject
For, in doing

speak

not

practitioners and

facts

there

decide

where

would

as

young

established

The

thought

now

the

and
to

Dentistry.

of

ought to say anything.


who
have
take radical
ground against some
have
of reputation,and such differences
must

men

to

I had

"

know

not

I must

so

Archives

of

below

it next
With

the

on

to

possible
imfirst

the

teeth

touching,

both

teeth
it will

cementum,

posed
ex-

be

times, to prevent caries from going on in this


impossible, many
the useoften have
I seen
of filling. Too
fulness
pocket by any amount
of the teeth destroyed by the loss of the sixth year molar
in the

already described,

I have

manner

When

I have

seen

irreparableinjury done
a

dentist, and

the

extraction

then
of

see

the

boil,knowing that such


to

God's

destroy

or

the
in

handiwork

patientby
ray

sixth
advice

to

next

year
would

the

advocate
thus

hand

such

mutilated
of

what

journal somebody
molar, it has
cause

greatly injure

what

many

made
a

would,

was

tice.
prac-

and

an

called

advocating
my

young

blood

tioner
practi-

if otherwise

If I
them

We

been

the

when

etc.

Grant

does

do

will warrant
is

class of

of

the

the

has

there
and

are

I would

that

try and

them

keep

If I
this

subject,I
would

rule

say

never

far better

I should
I

did

the

extract

less,and

thank

has

been

advocated

should

the

tooth, as

God

for it!

universal

even

sixth

some

of

will
the

teeth, or

of

be
the

very
second

from
slow

the

by

remedy,

allow

in

plate to

be

It

occurs

to

me

here

night,
to-

be

tracted.
ex-

radical

ground he
honest
tioners
practi-

of

is

less

growing

Matteson.

I should
to

to

ulate.
artic-

if you

which

that

expect, if

for the teeth

worn

If

considerable

the others
striking,how soon
to grind off three-sixteenths
of

molars.

on

Such

molar

practicalway,

rule

considerable

year

Dr.

case,

perfectlynatural

this illustrated

see

part of the teeth


I should

It is

of

tagonism.
an-

molar.

any

general rule,

regard to the case


spoken
idea of
anything like the correct
patient is young, that time would
You

each

extract

would

their natural

what
to

If

these,

to.

year

this

deformity.

be

sixth

in

extent, the

cap

taken

glad to see the essayist take the


The
against extracting them.
proportion

Now
have

obliged

had

it almost

perfectly.

or

was

who
and

is

was

been

pulp has not


open, making

the

or

even

the

of

extract

than

seldom

say

where

any

lay

more

early age

very

down

viz.,to generallyextract,
number.

teeth

to

am

extract, it would

unless
other

work;

properly

would

cases

obliged

should

be

ditions
con-

condition.

which

its

end

that

in

at

such

pulp? Treat
properly,and I

roots

lost

tracted
ex-

injurious,

under

dead

to

be

in the roots

gases

them

been

them

until the

were

has

entire

the

fill

in these

not

from

pulp

very

fill the

come

where

cases

any

then

nearly completed
this early death

from

completely formed, so
impossible to

with

tooth

being
molar

year

told

been

have
should

and

molars

year

molar

tooth

however, in regard

cases,

root

year

the

sixth

the

will

injury

no

sixth

these

decomposition

other

any

calcification

end

the

with

doubt, that is,when

before

in

gases

extract

than

sixth

the

get rid of the gases,

and

There

the

injury;why
sooner

dead

tooth

in

gases

reputation,Dr. Allport,and

of

that

the

about

is

pulp

account

on

them

also

practitionerof

that

heard

have

from

in

perfect masticating apparatus.


keep the roots filled and keep
the other teeth keep their normal

complete and
do better, I prefer to
cannot
as
long as possible to make
position.

treated, have

177

Societies.

Dental

will
an

will

will

keep
elongate.

inch

anything

from
like

178

The

that

proportion of grinding would


think

I don't

it could

wonders

work

to

reached
the

sixth

had

caused

sixth

that

and

with

them.

there

was

Trying
certain

in

fact,
time

expect

never

rushed

it

that

perform
regard

to

them

the

of

teeth, it

the

was

should

get

his

should

that

ried,
mar-

without
teeth.

teeth, what

do

to

life.

If

understand

family physicians. Ignorance

parents might be excused, but


could

attending the

shortened

community

out
with-

temporary

these

had

serious

ceremony

the

It

one.

was

and

the

regards

parentage

couple

no

As

life,knowledge

into

entailed

last been

at

seen

thought

of his life about

physician'spart

the

on

with

save

class

the part of

on

to

these

of

condition

should

day

puzzled every

was

couples

posted

were

had

he

consequences

minister

no

be

maintained

He

they

seeing that

the

of

should

civilization,
parentage,

married

molar.

year

that

trouble, and

modern

idea

least

the

wished

he

practice. Young

and

the

there

npon

tooth;

delighted that a subject had


was
a
similarityof views.

unlimited

him

much

case.

was

molar

year

commentary

He

in that

which

on

Dentistry.

of

destroy too
done.
I
successfully

be

Nichols

W.

G.

Dr.

Archines

of knowledge

Nineteen

be.

never

lack

of

out

graduates of medical colleges knoio nothing about the


sixth year molar.
Physicians should be able, and taught to consider
it their duty,to inform
parents of the possibledecay of these
teeth, and it should be the duty of collegefaculties to see that no
one
graduates who is in ignorance about the sixth year molar.
twenty

every

one

to

extraction

question of

The

to
save

decide, but
the

last

the

one

he

longer

of

retention

or

them,

lived

but the

of such

the
last

teeth

he

more

he

one

was

would
would

hard

endeavor

extract, if

necessary.
If we
imbue
closing the discussion, said:
our
the
of
necessity
preserving these teeth, speak to
patients with
their co-operationin our
and secure
them
intelligently,
labors,we
shall accomplish better results.
the societyadjourned.
On motion
JDr.

Woolley

in

DINNER

ANNUAL

OF

THE

ICAL
The

Dinner

Annual

partaken of

at

evening, February 18,


and the

menu

1885.

comprised

seven

YORK

ODONTOLOG

SOCIETY.

for 1885

Martinelli's

NEW

of

Fifth
Plates
courses

the

above

Avenue

named

Hotel,
laid for

were

of

the

on

over

choicest

Society was
Wednesday
a

hundred,
viands,

in-

180

The

spects identical,as
into

number

He

present for various


"dared

he

not

of

been

letters

oped
devel-

get along well

to

telegrams

from

quite

unable

were

be

to

that
assigningas a reason
in the neighborhood of Mrs.
D.udley's
telegrams from Drs. Swasey and Koch,

Tbe

the

had

absentee

one

himself

letter from

and

he

as

able

invited, but

Hunt, of Iowa, created

Chicago, and

humorous

been

reasons,

trust

read

had

promiscuous pistol."
of

then

who

those

kickers, and

were

himself, he had

mugwump

of

Dentistry.

of

both

they

his committee.

with
a

Archives

witty Field,

much
of

and

amusement,

the

Detroit, provoked

roars

laughter.
The

first toast

Medicine

and

of

the

the Arts"

evening

"Dentistry,

"

science

born

of

standing, and Dr. J. Smith


introduced
The Doctor
to respond.
York, was
Dodge, Jr.,of New
made
a lengthy, but extremely logicaland
eloquent speech,defining
of dentistry,evoking most
the true status
hearty applause from his
He
other things,that dentistry is historically,
hearers.
said, among
and practicallya part of the general science of medicine,
pathologically
though
The
a

people do
gives him the

law

holes

work

more

by

shaves

do
the

fillthem

to

like
to

some

and

and

no

title of

to

seem

up;

think

than

beard.

The

how

all the

dentist
chisel

man

Doctor

who
then

cuts

gave

an

place the
after

has
and

He

anything else.

the

to

"Doctor," but

bore, and

to

carpenter than
more

quite know

not

man}^

nondescript. They

dig

drunk

was

"

to

tist.
den-

all he
do

hammer,

is

is

to

and

is also considered
combs

and

amusing

the
and

hair
ical
satir-

hard
descriptionof the genus "tooth carpenter,"saying it was
for some
people to distinguishhim from the dentist, and that he
himself.
This genus, which
the difference
thought he hardly knew
The
was
good enough in its time, is happily becoming extinct.
tus
stated that dentistrywas
for Herodonot
Doctor
historically
new,
mentioned

had

that there

were

doctors

for the

teeth

in ancient

dentists
time had gone
could be
said
The
to
by when
Egypt.
struggle for position. Dentistry is a part of the great science of
be separated from the general
medicine, and physiologicallycannot
In the teeth nature
had operated by strange
of surgery.
domain
dentist holds
methods.
The
in his keeping the gates
and unusual
this feature
Leave
of the whole
alimentary tract.
out, and there is
a

gap

learned

in

physiology
when

in their
is the

which

it is under

fill. A
nothing else can
the guidance of skillful and

work, high in their

present attitude

of

profession is
able

men,

aims, rich in their results.

and
dentistry,

as

every

curate
ac-

Such

profession should

Dental,

be

its great

judged by

fingersallied
of

the

accomplishments,

with

dentist

the

was

He

head.
of

one

dentistry

so

closed

and

daily beneficence,

ai:)pro23riately
quote and apply to himself
Roman, that in being a dentist he felt he was
city."
President

in behalf

of

probably

made

Dr.

introduced

medical

the

hear

to

is the

representing the

was

child

of

medicine.

first in his

experience with

equal terms.

Usually
wag

bar-room

He

the

dentist

all its native

wiuh

that

the best

reads

thus:

they can."

journalistwho were
The
professionof
if

peace

had

been

sound

to

they

would

had

the

said

had

to

the

of

mean

no

respond

to

had

Roosa

Dr.

blind

than

see

had

to

to

the

be

when
his

of

infirmaries

dental

any

felt he
in

jaw

shoot
way

would

bear

the
had

right to
been

and

this

of
and

to

philanthropy, and
medical

science

in mind.

notice

they would
great victory

In fact

consult

the

the

renowned

the

York

with

whom

the

advise

are

towards

felt

sturdy effort
profession into the

medical

ver
Den-

fiddlers;they

he

peaceful one.

in

notice

the

his

parentlieti-

add

to

was

on

if familiar

said, as

He

thei*e

him

met

vice,but now

in time

the

was

dental

to

of

men

they

dates
put candi-

hands

of the

profession,it

he

hoped

and

the

soon

to

erection

see

of

by side with medical hospitalsin every city,


more
philanthropy should be made
pronounced. After
of his profession to
alludingjocosely to the recent attempt of one
instruct the dental profession,he
said
he
presumed after he sat
down
he should
brilliant things he might and ought
think of many
to
have
said, but he w^ould then be in the position of the western
hunter who
when
a visit to
on
Troy, on seeing one of those things
which
termed
called
is now
a
a
dandy, but which
years ago was

for dental

side

he

fightfor it,and at last a


medical
profession in New

allowed

direction

this occasion

that

the

was

him
is

advance

might

in the

unification

dental

that

distinguished lawyer

established

Another

If he
be

felt he

speaking for the medical


istry
mother
of dentistryfor dent-

"Don't

"

follow

in the

for admission
state.

task

saying

Roosa,

viciousness.

This

medicine

and

won,

mind

pleased.

the

in

dentist

the

dentist, and he hoped the

have

the

he

"a citizen of

said

more

by personal evidence, but recovered


cally,"so he had been informed," that
doing

said

that

St. John

and

City.
began by claiming that

Roosa

could

of

York

professionhe

jaw

Dr.

profession,and

deaf

more

in New

man

then

that

by claiming

could

The

mated,
be esti-

must

mechanics, but by the work

by that of headless

not

181

Societies.

182

The

Archives

dude, exclaimed, "what

Dentistry.

of

lots of game

feller

when

sees

ain't got

he

gun."

no

President

The
who

announced

known

was

have

expected to
(Some one at our
in

menu

to his

his

absence).

with

them

in their

of

great

or

to

law

owes

to

the

but

have

Dr.

soi'ry

for

He

of

the

Emperor

his

meals.

felt

those

what

in submission

could

be

not

them

be

might

said

it

that

like

the

to

depend

upon

of

all the

Russias,

Think

was

of

what
of

matter

that

popularly regarded
of their
work.
Probably

is

for

account

little to

very

times,have

we,at

cook

nine-tenths

the

clergy he
practitionerat

great deal

mittee
com-

for the

Crosby

but

say

some

submitted

the eminent

with

reward

This

perhaps

not

what

dentist.
not

dramshops,
the clergy.

he
as
speak for them officially,
fraternity. Perhaps he ought to speak
of us
to dentistry. We
so
none
are

law

his

upon

the

else's teeth.
bow

the

were

fact that

could

for

respond

not

was

respond
that

Bangs,

that great autocrat,

the

to

dentists

must

of

Even

he

sinful

important

so

be

He

more

depend

should

said

the

Crosby,

might possibly

could

N.

Howard
to

might

personally he could
clergy; not but that

the

relation

has

Francis

Bangs

of

dentist.

that

Mr.

Dr.

terror

to

present

Crosby

vindication.

the

city as

quietly remarked

Dr.

because

belonged

Rev.

an

As

Mr.

behalf

on

elbow

call upon

bar.

been

the

unguarded moment
inspectionand that that

man

the

the

throughout

was

would

that

regret
which

affection

all

were

the

of

aware

one
wearing some
dentistry accomplishes, and the law
all else.
Imagine a toothless judge

present

were

less
jury who have had to listen to two toothclients
and
at
once
can
lawyers employed by toothless
you
how
the law depends upon
the dentist.
Without
see
you, counsel
would
be silent,all jurieswould
sion
disagree and anarchy and confu-

barangueing

would
Dr.

did

Jarvis

not

with

and
the

Tribune,

know

what

he

made

his friend

only
better

to

When

than

the

the
his

about

the

if you

desired

dies

every

press

in

daily papers.
so

The

not
to

Reid

the

court

of

former

said

he

other

Mr.

day

fullyreported
how
his

reporters consider

they print the

the

rejoices.

one

tell them

know

of

in connection

newspaper

correctlyand

they were
day. He could

law, and

Mr.

journalism.

newspaper
about

Reid, editor

Whitelaw

for

that

next

knows, but

read

say

remarks

some

of

could

ocean.

Mr.

respond

to

he

will tell you

papers

to

ocean

introduced

next

dentistry.

Bangs

from

spread

York

New

toothless

and

much

wit
his
omit

you

law
had

jokes
the

in

as

lat-

said there

He

ter.

With

one.

theirs.

the

The

of

lives.

said

then

there

the

and

next

he

to-morrow

be

may

of

then

He

arts.

and

out

of

Egypt

he

found

there.

ascertain
those

oldest

went

the

purpose

office

in the

they

when

glad

him

is

who

day,

one

mid-ocean,

in

correspondent,

where,

not

said
dentist
as

soon

doctor

mouths

own

he

on

it had

always

to

out

get

his

of

his

been

of
tom
cus-

orchestra

reference
possible. With
his left (Prof.Darby) had

could

there

mummies

thousand
there

whether

thinks

Rowe,

Fawcett

Geo.

several

not

to

dentists

were

have
in

thirty-two teeth

all their

had

mummies

him

gentleman
in Egypt

met

Mr.

examine

to

and

of
he

since

introduced

that

days,

all the

Br.

present

know

building as

their

from

of

the

He

ancient

state

very

hear

we

no-where-in-particular.Mr. Rowe
when
visitinga. performing

been

always

was

a fitting
dramatist; he [,is
representative

and

all the

was

long

not

reader, lecturer,actor

to

such

himself

trust

never

We

cosmopolitan tramp.

in London

chair

paid for

present had

an

which
T'WJtwie,

of the

single page

all of those

than

President

and

for

time

one

it

his..

to

sort

at

Though he would
advertising dentist, he was

in all their

came

he

seriously,said

But

journal$500
probably more
of

illegitimate
said he supposed they thought he might
in
Sheffield
and that they might have
he, the advertisingdentist had paid his

in his mind

Richmond

have

tistry
den-

journalism and

between

present might consider

those

smile

relation

one

feared

he

though

was

183

Societies.

Dental

in

cause
been, bea

perfect

preservation.

John
of

JB.

Jiich, of New

dentists

entertained

and

reminiscences

York,

of

the

called

was

the

company

upon
with

as

one

many

of the
esting
inter-

past of dentistry,contrastingthe days

idea or appliance,
new
kept to himself
every
in
vies with
the other
each
with
the
one
present day where
everything new, so that his fellows may profit
spreading broadcast
by it as well as himself.
Prof. Garretsoti,of Philadelphia, spoke briefly with reference
to the grand
opportunitiesfor labor in the field of dentistry,and
ist,
alluded
to his pride in the fact that he was
once
a
practicing dent-

when

dentist

every

which
need

for

callinghe

had

dentist

to

the

The

time

would

learned

when

defend

the

come

when

no
boy. There was
sion.
high position of his profesackowlit would
be generally
a

poor

edged.
Dr.

Barrett, editor

Independent Practitioner,felt complimented

184

Archives

The

Dentistry.

of

in

to
being called upon
speak for dental journalism. He took
with the literature
of the dental profespride in being connected
sion.
No professioncould be considered
ing
as
having a high standefficient literature.
Dental
unless it had
an
journalism of all
literature is dependent for its positionupon
the professionitself
for its support, not
in a financial
but in a literaryone.
sense

If dentists
Dr.

Atkinson

meeting
Dr.

A.

said

he

because

of

would

say

conscience

own

would

be

complete

that

all:

"Obey

to
at

dentistry,and

of
a

that he

word

It

decision

the

no

him.

friend

of

left medicine

ignosis. In
highest ambition.

merely

was

satisfied

which

from
the

was

tooth-carpentinghe

mere

found

better.

be

without

insinuation

the

it was

would
friend

the

as

inabilityin diagnosis.

had

dentistryhe

literature

our

accepted

when

its

more

introduced

was

dentists

of

dentistry,for

He

do

would

his
of

the

court

of

your

all hazards.

Dr.

Allport, of Chicago, said that after listeningto the previous


speakers he did'not feel competent to speak. Dr. A. then made
with regard to the International
Medical
statement
^
Congress of
D.'s are to be
IBS'?,taking the view that if dentists who are notM.
admitted
in the section on Oral and Dental
to membership
Surgery,
it would
the

be better

council

of

the

that

societies

section

should

should
invite

not
to

delegates but that

send

membership

such

tists
den-

be suitable members.
throughout the country as would
Dr.
Shepard^ of Boston, being called upon, said he had never
He
than
the present one.
enjoyed a dinner of this societymore
regrettedthat there had been no reference to that noble band who
for forty years have
contributed
it is today.
to make
dentistrywhat
He referred
connected
in dentistry those
to the educators
with our
In the speaking to-nightthe collegeshad
dental schools.
out
been represented and
not
the meeting would
be incomplete withreference
and their work, especiallyto those who
to them
some
"

labored

in this

in his

field,but

are

now

no

more.

Each

individual

who

tion
sphere does his duty to his patient does his part in the elevaof the professson and is to be congratulatedupon its standing.
Dr. Kingsley said
that
during the evening he had received a
and, though at first thought he was
impelled to read it,he
message
because
had not done
it would
do no good and send a chill upon
so
missed
here to-nightone
who
the meeting. He asked if any one
was
and who
with
last night,in good health and spirits,
them
to
was
have been here to-night to take a specialpart in the festivities of
whom
the hour
and respected.He regretted
one
they all honored
"

Dental

to

Dr.

that

announce

Societies.

Dwinelle

185

from

was,

learned,

ill.

alarmingly

Jarvis, the President, after speaking of the high regard in

Dr.
which

all held

they

sentiments
Dr.

soon

be

among

were

many

Dr.

them

of

of

Dwinelle, said

all when

Dwinelle

would

As

the

it would

whom

and

jovial one,

most

in

Odontological

be

hour

was

Society will
Officers

DENTAL

contribute

of

D.

M.

State

Iowa

the

first

the

on

the

to

SOCIETY.

Meeting

Moines

York

New

the

up,

been

in

Tuesday

Dental

May,

tinuing
con-

days.
President, S. A,

"

Rogers, Ottumwa;
H.

A.

L.

E.

Monfort, Fairfield; Treasurer,

B.

Executive

W.

G.

Committee,

Fuller, Des

E.

Bluffs, E.

Council

Woodbury,

Tipton; Vice.-Pres.,

Garber,

Secretary,J.

Kulp, Muscatine;

Moines,

had

A.

Annual

in Des

meet

four

occasion

no

STATE

Twenty-third

broke

meeting

the

would

he

from, he felt

hear

pleasure to

that

late,though there

so

society can
surpass
hospitalityor its abilityto

its

IOWA
The

and

ness
ill-

the

that

hope

its guests,

of

enjoyment

that

the

indulged

the

expressed

he

speedily disappear

again.

them

more

he

knew

he

And
thus
obliged to adjourn the meeting.
long after midnight, all agreeing that the

.1. S.

had

he

what

Des

Hughes,

Moines.
This

meeting
society. Every
will

be

hope
to

stay
A

and

every

other
has

make

be

to

of the best

one

dentist

in Iowa

realize

will

welcome
States.

is
Des

extended

pleasant as

NEBRASKA

Moines

is centrally

well

as

the

afford

cannot

Ninth

Annual

will meet
three

at

Meeting

Lincoln

days.

of

the

will

for the dentist.

Monfort,

Nebraska

F.

access,

Secretary.

SOCIETY.

Tuesday, May
W.

profession

attractions,which

many

DENTAL
of

the

located, easy of

profitablerecreation

STATE

session

he

that

members

to

J. B.

The

historyof

effort is

splendid hotels, together with

this

in the

home.

at

cordial

from

expected

which
to present a programme
being made
to
dentist, and we
interestingand instructive
every

both

that

is

State

12, 1885, and

Roseman,

Dental
continue

Secretary,

Fremont,

Nebraska.

ety
Sociin

The

186

THE
The

session

doubt

diseases

raised

of

the

information

MEDICAL

the

D.

Washington,

at

some

of

International

whether

CONGRESS.
Medical

C, in August

to

as

Dentistry.

of

INTERNATIONAL

next

held

Archives

would

the

the

Dudley,

International

section
to

M.

has

been

section

upon

Dear

Sir

Committee

The

"

C, Feb.

D.

13, 1885.

Organization

on

of

Medical

establish a
to
Congress have decided
and Oral Surgery, but the question of admitting
in this section,all dentists whether
they possess

Dental

of

be

be

following correspondence gives definite


point.

that

upon

A.

there

will

teeth, the

Washington,
Dr.

As

1887,

there

Congress

membership
of medicine, or not, has
degree of doctor
*
*
*
by the Committee.
Very respectfullyand sincerelyyours,
John

cussed
dis-

yet been

not

Billings,

S.

Secretary General.
The

"

State

Texas

Dental

Tuesday, May

will

Association
M.

H.

5.
^

in

convene

Hunter,

Cor.

Febritary

8,

veston,
Gal-

Sec.

""".""

CORRESPONDENCE.

Editor

Archives

dentist

for

Dental
The

1.

the

at

but
the

D.

second

General

out

by

on

Oral

to

neighboring

committee

of the

cago
Chi-

section

Medical

and

Dental

Congress

to

Surgery
held

be

at

C, in 1887; and,
of the restriction

who

enough

the

of

established

Congress excluding from

dentists

is well

sent

of the International

removal

of the
those

circular

indebted

am

Society urging

meeting
The

of

copy

establishment

Washington,
2.

of Dentistry: I

1885.

do not

and

the

is,in

Committee

hold

medical

writer

of

will be

slow

section,as from

degrees. The

grant.

The

all

others,

first proposition

decidedly in
improper request

to

mittee
Com-

the General

this is

opinion an

my

this

by

of

favor
and

one

it;
that

mittee
Chicago Com-

practitionersof dentistry recognized by


dental societies of this country ought to be eligibleto membership
admission
If membership in a dental society
to the Congress."
or
sion
of dentists entited to admisis to constitute
the number
eligibility
who
of persons
unlimited.
will be practically
Any number
themselves
dentists can
advertise
as
quickly organize a society and
suggest "That

all

188

The

any

disease,nor

him

to

taken

necrosis.

beyond
The

that

the

Neither

which

from

the

the

patient,in

restored

sequestrum

removed.

was

received

any

before

alluded

abscess

shows

by

caries

and

that

says
It is
J.

W.

"

sensation

now

L.

Pidgeon,

tion
perforaof

one

note

received

has

is

thirteen

to.

exostosis

slight
Carter

Mr.

To-day
he

predisposed
to the jaw

violence

extraction
alveolar

which

have

might

the

his chin.

to

that

rise to

1884.

3,

he

severe

pulp-chamber

December

root.

has

gave

Dentistry.

of

medicine

any

attending

tooth

of

Archives

nearly

months
D.

S.

pletely
com-

since

Eng.,

the

in Derir

tal Record.

The

Nutritive
to

in
Roussel
of

Value

knowledge

our
a

of

Foods.

the

value

prepared by Drs.
by the former before

paper

and

Branny

of

read

of

N.

A.

the

An

"

important

tribution
con-

is contained
branny foods
Randolph and A. E.
College of Physicians

Philadelphia.
Their

that

experiments

is nutritious

and

observations

is contained

in

three

of

little

that

show

bran

four

the

nothing

or

coats

of

taken
as
food,
grain except the salts, and that, when
the approwhich
they induce a rapid peristalsis,
notably hinders
priation
the
of
the
of
nutritious
the
substance
grain;
by
economy
the

wheat

and,'furthermore, that the salts contained

required nor
and

that

therefore

nutritive

the

appropriated,when
bran

relations

of

bread

bran

succulent

food

and

nutritive

bran

in

from

excretions

of

of

the

growth

the

presented the authors


following deductions
justifiable:
carbo-hydrates of bran are digested by
From

I. The

ical
chem-

animal

upon

of the

to

man

The

its exact
the

facts

the

diet.

by a given
organism under

the

not

eaten,

exerted

effects

processes

are

are

mixed

studied

were

coats

vegetables

essential

is not

composition, from the various


diet in question, and from
the

upon

in the

paper
but

diet

servation
obsider
con-

slight

degree.
II. The
in the
of

other

are

the

bread

nutritive

salts of

the

wheat

bran, and, therefore, when

foods, the kinds


more

is used
nutritive

valuable.
as

an

of

adjunct

elements,

to

contain

however,
other

white

foods

bread

are

is eaten

which

bread

When,

grain

bread

as

is

which

contained
to

chiefly

the

exclusion

these

elements

usually
contain

the

case,

the

ganic
inor-

offers, weight for weight,

containing bran.
exists
III. That
by far the major portion of the gluten of wheat
in the central
four-fifths of the grain, entirelyindependent of the
cells of the
fourth
bran
"gluten cells").
layer (the so-called
when
that
cells
the
last
Further,
named, even
thoroughly cooked,
more

available

food

than

does

one

Bibliographic.

all

little if at

are

IV.

That

flour is

diet

its presence

as

through

passage

the

the

the

prevent

V.

That

inasmuch

removed,

there

gluten of

the

is

adherent

endosperm,

flour should

wheaten

layers of

the

nutritious

in the

as

than

any

of

but

also

simply

as

of

the

in

three

yield a flour
ordinarily used.

at

in

bran

only

other

of

stuffs
food-

ordinarilyroughly
of

the

true

the

production of
cortical protective
cheaper

once

Medical

"

of

amount

which

process

digestive

absorption,not

wheat,

would

that

retention

noteworthy

remove

grain,

bran

the

action
quickens peristaltic

so

complete digestion and


proteidspresent in the branny food,
time; and,
ingested at the same

to

as

false economy,

by

healthy adult.
in an
ordinary mixed

of the

tract

affected

189

Neics

Cosmos.

and

in

J.

more

Dental
S. M.

BIBLIOGRAPHIC.

MoTioN^s
the

OF

SoFT

THE

Motions
of

of

Soft

Physiology in

from

Transactions
P.

the

Palate.

in

is

the
of

the

with

nearly
manipulating the outer end of
the motion
position to receive
communicate
which

The
which
the
A

they

the

traced

are

various
show

variations

same

different

in sound

knowledge

of

"

the

of

Recording

Allen, M.

fessor
D., Pro-

of

tract
Pennsylvania. Exdelphia.
College of Physicians of PhilaCo., Philadelphia.
the

the
the

from

nose

roof

of

the

rod, it may
of

illustrated

backward,

naso-phaiynx. By
be
brought into a

the

motions

human
of

soft

by

of

movements

of

the

before

palate in talking and


through the rod to a palate-myograph by
the paper-covering of a revolvingcylinder.
upon

tracings are

the

Method

University

passed through

contact

New

Palate, by Harrison

Blakiston, Son

straightrod

until

the

of cuts,
large number
soft palate caused
by

voice.
the

palate may be
in the study of phonetics,and consequently in that of
is ingenious and
the book
language. The method

the attention

of

those

interested

in

soft

the

subject of

which

very

ful
use-

ative
compardeserves
it treats.

The

190

Archives

Dentistry.

of

EDITORIAL.
call the attention

We
Mr.

book

Sewill's

of

Dental

on

only disputes the theory

readers

our

Caries.

of

The

decay

set

Dr.

Searle's

author

of

this book

not

by

recent

writers

on

to

forth

review

of

observations
of their
subject,but he also denies the accuracy
under
these objectionsin a very
the microscope. Dr. Searle meets
and
his paper
complete and satisfactorymanner,
presents a clear
and the oppoand distinct idea of the points raised by Mr, Sewill
site
this

largelyheld

views

this side

on

of the Atlantic.

It is

profitable

reading.
DENTAL

Territory of

The
law

Dakota

effect

into

is the
enactments

the
of

after

against the

inroads

have

Dakota,

yet

recentlyadopted
is

of

this state

its

publicationin
that

so

law.

nearly a

model

excellent

Missouri, requiring all

from

diploma, emanating
This

rule should

far distant

provision and

the

that
Our

we

in

the

be

made

amend

the

people
of

Kansas
the

in

the

also

for

room

that

see

State

the

be

trust

linquent
de-

legislature

will then

enforced

we

the
has

will make

readers

ple
exam-

of

provided with
reputable dental college.
to

universal,and
be

lieve
be-

we

time

of

dental

is

not

so.

state

where

older

them

in this

in

this

contain
laws

particular.
this important

exist

an

effort

regai'd. Nothing short of


the requirements of the sentiment
will meet
now
prevalent in
and among
the people.
dental profession

should
this

law

the

passed by

act

is

act

acts

new

This

laws, and

state

unfortunately defective
regulatingdental practiceshould

Dakota

The

become
it will

when

The

provision,first
new-comers

,which
territory

1885.

such
stir up

The

number.

next

our

of

enactment

the

of March

enact

activity.

similar

to

state, should

increased

to

tenth

the

territoryjDrotectingitself by legal
of dental incompetents. A number

yet failed

as

not

just obtained
dentistrywithin

the

of

States

it contains

and

on

first instance

states

All

has

regulating the practiceof

went

of

LEGISLATION.

to

COCAINE.
It is
into

now

several

noticejasa

months
local

reports_of its action

as

since

cocaine

anaesthetic,and in
revealed

by

the

ly
brought prominentlooking over the numerous
experience of these few
was

191

Editorial.

months,
in

estimation

high

the

brought

are

we

some

of these

their

earlier

awarded

hands

in the

success

have

effects

reports indicated.

the
In

be

to

seems

it has

That

not

are

held

been

its chosen

symptoms

ophthalmology. Its
tissues,upon
sujDerficial

the

so

well

marked.

action,

which

has

which

membranes,

mucous

field of

utilityin

in

that

to

applicationto

its

its

but

surgery,

with

chieflylimited

instances

some

is not

of its

in dental

compared

its effects

deeper parts

drug

than
general efficacy
counts
occasionally see glowing ac-

We

effects

to be

be

to

appear

it at first.

to

less confident

become

practiceis not

the

that

ophthalmologists is unquestioned, although

of

of its anaesthetic
dental

conclusion

the

to

followed

been

has

created

by

stitutional
con-

if

apprehension

not

alarm.
While

would

we

in its use,

high

should

of

but

continued

until

the

of

opening
I

think

alveolar
the

satisfied

not

am

We

have

reputable
for fifteen
bill?

the

ground

at

anticipate

to

of this

resources

raised

not

to

it falls

case

too

short

not

we

and

for their
not

least
made

us

held

all

follows:

as

operations

and

upon

great blessing

teeth."

with

Law.

Dental

why

the

to

this

big

state

of
a

rules

Have

we

our

passage

different

Have

up?

generosity (?)

found

at

poration
incor-

the

the

secure

keenly, defeat
gave

all

hilati?

not

labored

Delevan

with

comply

to

felt most

The

more

convenient

not

of

times,
not

we

of

mitted
sub-

successful

dumping

rejectedgarbage?
well-dressed

every

accused

and

in

persevering never
to

speaks

HILARITY.

colleges. Then
long years planned and
Have

Atkinson

its action

committee

long enough
have
neighbors, who

or

full

admirable

dental

yet determined

Coast

tion
cau-

teeth.

less in

processes

cocaine

with

there"

"got

pledges

Has

the

the

will be

WISCONSIN'S

our

of

not

expectations are

our

writer, Dr.

letter to the

recent

tissue

soft

readers

our

tissues

if

safety,advise

anticipations.
a

"In

of

measure

the

disappointment

point,our

our

In

be

advise

upon

ascertained, yet

are
a

also

its action

Experiments
drug

wonld

we

from

much

too

therefore, as

of
us

there?

having

our

dentist
coats

responsible

for

from

made
the

Maine
at the

cheap

to

Delevan

material

the

Pacific

factory,
of the

ments
gar-

Has

fired

at

action

united

and

bring

to

their

the

result

the

fluent

vexation

cause

about

anathemas,

'issed

French

the

sufficient
to

Bull

Johnny

genders,

"institution"

our

stimulate

Dutch

Dentistry.

of

'ed of

'ole in the

the

not

Germans

of

adjectives
spiritand

announced,

now

rejoiceto-day with exceeding gladness?


done!"
and
join
think, brethren, you will respond "Well

and

makes

which

We
in

Akchives

The

192

us

us

"smile."

our

this connection

In

let

remind

us

you

that

good

time

to

tender

congratulationswill be at our next societymeeting in Lacrosse.


as
Arrangements are being planned to hold this meeting near
possibleto the time of the A. U. A. meeting at Minneapolis, partly
of you as possible when
of catching as many
for the purpose
ing
passus

through

to

the

But

City.

Gateway

of this

anon.

more

E.

ACONITE

AS

AN^THETIC.

LOCAL

P.

Journal
Dental
a
publishes in the Austrian
in
aconitia
of experiments with
series
form, applied
proper
He
applies the
good results.
directlyto the cavity,with
very
four and a half
about
aconitia in the shape of small pieces of paper
Dr.

Kosmea

Anton

millimetres

allowed

contains

square
The

grain.

in

solution

of

aconitia

in

ether, and

dry.

to

Each

soaked

square,

parts of the

carious
aconitized

the

of
milligrams or one-twentieth
tooth were
only partly removed,
introduced; finallygutta percha

three

about

and

then

was

put into the cavity as

was

paper

temporary

and
filling,

after

twenty-

the
peared;
insensibilityhad entirely disapforty-eight hours
detailed
he publishes twenty-three
cases
including every
of the previously
the insensibility
In every
case
variety of teeth.
four

very

to

complete; the pulps did


unpleasantly affected by the drug.-

sensitive

in any

way

dentine

Kosmea

Dr.

sums

was

up

The

greater the doses

The

paper

his
the

containing the

to

seem

be

thus:

results
surer

not

insensbility.
be pressed
must

the

aconitia

upon

the

sitive
sen-

parts.
If

the

aconitia

pain,which
The
papers;

brought near
disappears rapidly.

aconitia
no

is

is dissolved

unpleasant effects

and
were

the

pulp

it

causes

disappears from
observed.

the

slight dull
aconitized
C. M.

t:h:e

Archives of Dentistry.
A

Vol.

Record

MonthlV

No.

n.,

MAY,

5.]

all the

Nature's

INTIMATE

in
We
oral

be

may

called

cavity

from

"

to

upon
the

thorough

practitioner
It should
and

be

of

When

within

his

inflammation,
the

progress,
It

is

said,

the
which
to

large

occupy

of

medical

truth
that

of
"a

by

its several
and

of

in

all

the

tissues
with

palate

of

is

tion
inflamma-

lives.

the

soft

structure

inflammation

that

is not
this

of

share

department

that

or

laws

found

as

with

meet

we

1884.

10,

the

of

the

its

merous
nu-

teeth.

indisjDcnsable

there
of

or

assertion
of

it is

is

scarcely

less
will
the

that

during

science."

bear

to

does

influenced
be

to

every

in
one

pupilage,

in after

life.

disease

originate

not

by

which

it

during

in
its

suflScientlyobvious.

phenomenon

governed

processes

surgical

attention

science

more

knowledge
which

his

professional contemplation

it is remembered

comes

Dec.

Society,

dentistry.

special object

MASS.

professional

our

dentinal

of

knowledge

well."

S., BOSTON,

that

structure

the

to

fact

it

treat

loose

blood-vessels,

of

day

D.

Dental

the

excel,

writing

INFLAMMATION.

D,

D,,

with

every

is

OF

Massachusetts

the

form,

are

the wise

masterpiece

M.

impressed

some

in which

arts

chief

EAMES,

before

Read

All

F.

Series.

[New

ARTICLES.

NATURE

GEO.

BY

Art.

and

1885.

ORIGINAL
"Of

Science

Dental

of

its course,

another,

of
and
is the

tion,
inflammathe

tion
rela-

keystone

194

The

Archives

It is difficult if not
definition

exact

an

When
and

we

line between

The

and

noting

know

less

if the

is the

would

inflammation
In

such

From

These

and

of the

disease.

be

Examples
H.

which
*

look

We

spreading,
be

and

the

of

what

eye.
in

complete

follows.
line which

shows

the present

time,

the

to

the

ginning
be-

tinct
dis-

five

redness, swelling,heat,

as

rule, easilyperceived,but

of the

inflamed

tissue,

and

very

often

in tissues

may

still with

that

in

in the

as

evidences

shall be

we

the

under
remark

the

tion
duraheat

propriety

present.
the

involving

of

inflammation, clouds,

portion of

some

to

resolve

the

light"

into their

con-

heat, redness, swelling and

shadow

that

are

diseases

of

able

clouds

the

increased

disease

ten
of-

are

teeth.

''theyobscure

beyond
may

of

inflammatory

calls these

until

we

evidences

other

seen

remain

shall

we

we

in disease.

upon

irritant,and

recognized;-viz:

cartilagesand

therefore

stitutents,to

make

we

it will result

excess

an

an

but

produces,

Swelling, pain, and

only

seen

be

may

but

face,

the

near

is made

the eye,

into

merges

iron

heat

of structure

are,

the

Atkinson

are

to

character

while

articular

Wm.

pain,

the

observed

inflamed,

ing
draw-

function.

symptoms

by

process

heated

great demand

first century

been

deranged

modified

gradually

so

process?

the

have

main

not

healthy

applied long enough,

shall

abnormal

symptoms

pain, and

the

healthful, becomes

where

the

Celsus

cornea,

is

impairment

cases,

of

may

which

stimulus
be

and

give

to

of
difficulty

the

abnormal,

by placing a
healthy glow the

heat

natural

degree

physiologicalprocess

to the

professionallabors

our

Light

with

first the

at

that

In

and

be illustrated

may

time

present

is apparent.

them

insidiousness

disease,

call

normal

imperceptibly changing
a

the

quite impossible at

of inflammation.

the

see

Dentistry.

of

the

of the

old

definition

light

of

investigation

but
increasing in intensity,

there

are

clouds

flammatio
in-

of

yet

is
to

dispersed.

with
the
object of
Many diflerent theories have been formulated
these may
or
explaining the cause
originof inflammation, and among
mentioned
is known
be
what
the neuro-paralytictheory,which
as

supposed

the

them,

and

vessel

walls

dilatation
the
from

of the

vessels,the
were

due

of the sensory

nerves.

resulting exudation,
excitation

accumulation
to

of

blood

paralysisof

in
the

The

196

As

the

mesentery
been

has
first notice
arteries

of the

found

frog

is

sufficient to

exposed to the air,the mere


start
inflammatory action.

general dilatation of the vessels, beginning


and veins, the flow
extending to the capillaries

these

vessels

first

at

becomes

Fig.
a.

Dentistry.

of

and

through

Archives

with

posure
ex-

We
the

of blood

rapid, (See Fig. 1)

more

1.

Vein.

b b. Capillaries.
The
so

that

in

the

vessels

smallest
red

but

slightly dilated, and

are

it is impossible

to

In

the

vein,

blood-current
individual

is seen

accelerated,

corpuscles, except
lowish
yel-

swiftly-passing

stream.

later it is retarded

The

distinguish

capillaries.

the
the

blood
may

it becomes

slower
not

cells,which

at

first

afterward

be

easilyrecognized.

could

be

than

normal.

vidually,
distinguishedindi-

in
the capillariesand
begins to accumulate
ing
veins.
(See Fig. 2.) The outer layer in the veins usually containing
plasma on]y,beginsto be filled with white blood cells;which havof the stream, float slowly on or fasteningthemselves
left the centre
of the vessel,remain
there
the walls
to
to and
oscillating
fro or becoming fixed in their position.
is known
the
outward
This
movement
as
ginal
marperipheral or
dispositionof the white blood cells.
blood
cells throwing out
reveals
the white
The
next
scene
cesses
proThe

blood

until

which

now

pass

into

the wall

of the

vessel.

Original

197

Articles.
,

Fig.
a.

Vein.

b h.

Capillaries.

Retardation

of

current.

of the

Crowding

cells.

Fig.
a.

Vein.

b.

Artery.

The
are

2.

migration

shown

The
hours.

and
round

by the

specimen

the

as

here

3.

peripheral distribution

black

of the

white

blood-cells

figures.

represented

had

been

under

observation

eight

The

198

The

soon

aj)pear

white

cells is

processes
of the

in six

ARcnrv^ES

outside

the

vessel; this

by diapedesis, and

veins

the

eight hours,

or

Dentistry.

of

and

this

by

process,
with

surrounded

are
capillaries

gration
mi-

or

escape

these

ing
leucocytes which
gradually find their way into the surroundtissue.
(See Fig. 3.)
We
could find interestingmatter
in the future
history of these
sideration.
migrating cells,did we not have sufiicient matter
already under con,

This

relaces to the origin of


subject,especiallythat part which
the object of eminent
and opposing authorities
ever
pus, has been
since it began to be studied.
The
the theory
recent
majority of the most
testimony favors
that pus corpuscles are
derived
the
blood, the fixed
solely from
tissue cells degenerate or
gle
perish altogether, and in this state minwith
the
exudations.
Wallis-Eberth.
and
Cohnheim,
Key
and Strieker.
Among those who oppose this theory are Boellcher
But

the

also

are

white

cells
observed

soon

the

If at this

where
Not

only

of fluid
but

the

way

through the

walls

of the

blood

that

saying

demonstration

our

is

cells

cells

the

do

be

mesentery

interrui3ted,
migration

stated

observed

the

leave

believe, not

we

of the

substance

as

the

do

also; this

I have

cells

not

cape
es-

strained
the

at

ceases

point

occurs.

because

the

may

point in

stasis

blood

arteries.

the circulation

that

so

for

red

only aliens,the

their

making

capillaries.
Ziegler is authority
from

the

not

are

"accumulation

and

the

on

be

the

applied to
frog's tongue,

in

so

of

takes

same

which

the

place in

process,

is

of

the

as

seen

inflammation

an

escape

have

we

seen

takes

liquid which

of

mesentery

there

because

much

surface

brieflywhat
in the

vessels,but

it,

place in

mesentery."
the

inflammatory process
frog. These statements
in

other

has

been

parts,

as

in

produced by

caustics.
Thoma
in

warm

("Virch.
blooded

Arch,"

animals

Vol.

79,) has shown

is identical

with

that

that

the

in cold

process
blooded

animals.
Observations

in

experiments

of the white

blood

similar
ewsky has shown
containing fine powders of

go

cells
action
various

show

to

is

that

purely

"when

densities

the

position
peripheral dis-

mechanical.

slow
in

stream

Schklarof

suspension is

liquid
made

Original

199

Articles.

tube."

"When

the

flows

to pass

through

tain

ier
lighter particlescling to the periphery, the heavhurried
are
on
by the axial current.
is
is what
the
current
happens in the case of blood; when
white
cells go
the
to
to
a certain
periphery,
extent, the

This
slowed

narrow

when

it becomes

there

also.

In many

still

The

The

trouble, but
the

results

train

the

acting on
deranged

cer

M'ith

the

its

the

dus
"mo-

the

by

ritant.
ir-

in

the

redness, swelling
chemical

or

ritation
ir-

tissue."

products

exuded

of

characteristic

most

disturbance,
it is the
its

and

matter

feature

Ziegler

involved

changes

inflammation

gives

the

function.

tissue

undervalued,

or

viz.:

is

contained

process

in the

nerves

sensory

nutrition,

other

the

go

the

trace

in motion

set

cells

which

to

"pressure, tension,

to

is the vascular

which

infiltration.

or

plainly declare disordered


The
most
prominent and
the

conditions
upon

able

not

are

we

easilyseen,

be traced

may

of

consequent

exudation

the

pain

The

at

red

the

irritant

the

perceive

to

foregoing descriptionare
and

in engorgement,

slower, as

it is easy

cases

origin of the whole


operandi" of

heat,

stream,

the

rate,
ones

disturbance

in

special character

and

that

says,

not

are

of

be

to

flammati
inthough
al-

looked
over-

circulation

the

determines

its

course.

The

question

almost

reduced

of the

the

to

According

to

We

the

is

the

not

white

infiltration

The

fact that
cells

red

cells from

the

the

in the

of

this

tion
dilatablood

vessel-wall.
the

paralyticcondition

give

turbances.
dis-

vascular

capillariesand veins, and


able
all refercapillaries,are

that
investigations,

recent

does

are

is not

the
dead

activityof
Cohnheim

of

rise to

the

of

slowing
of

the

walls

the
of

marginal disposition

cells.

The

whose

the
.

result

vessel, neither

of the

from

alteration

taught by

causation

slowing of the blood current, the


peripheral dispostion of the white

of these

the

molecular

a
are

current

of

the

is thus

of inflammation

nature

the

vessels, the

migration

essential

question of

Samuel

to

cells, the migration


the

the

to

as

has

caused

white

and

by retarding the
red

cells

will

blood

escape

current.

into

tissue

vanquish the theory that supposes


exudation.
neighboring cells will cause
seems

shown

to

that

if the

circulation

through

vessel

creased
in-

is

The

200

interrupted
vessel

wall

allowed

by

time

(infrogs from

changes, that

exudation

itself may

of which

takes

when

to

the

hours),the
blood
is again
40

in

place just as

the

others, says that

probably

the frictional

36

be

due

adhesion

tion,
inflamma-

slowing

endothelial

to

blood

between

of

changes
and

vessel

is increased.

wall

it is pretty

Although
vessel

the
under

the

is

wall

generally conceded
effected,the change cannot

be

inflammation

in

that

taking place

seen

micioscope.

Fig.

4.

Vein.

a.

hb.
c.

Dentistry.

of

author, with

same

current

virtue

such

circulate,an

yet the

the blood

certain

undergoes

to

and

for

Archives

Capillaries.
Complete

c.

d.

Escaped

At

this

hours.

stagnation.

white

stage

Stasis

the

blood-cells.
had

preparation

here

observed

been

is due

to

under
the

observation

application

about

four

of tincture

of

capsicum.
The

vessel

unites
and

wall

becomes

the endothelial
from

vessel

wall

It has
existed
spaces

these
is

been
in the

were

conditions

normal

loosened

become

conclude

we

condition, and
Cohnheim

enlarged.

little

to

seems

that

impaired.
thought,especially
by Arnold,that

finallyoverthrown.
but

cells

masses

The
of

spaces

of Arnold

cementing

in

that

opposed

substance

the

permeable,

more

this
were

substances.

the

or

which

softened,

integrityof

intercellular

spaces

inflammation

theory
found

these

until it
to

the

be

was

ing
noth-

Original

The

against the

argument

exudation

the

existence

has

and

from

cells,and

of the

wall

this

the

of movement

active

effort

the

thus

is

way."

The

itself, the

limited

The

the

effect

of

case

tissues

circulation

of

returns

of restoration

the

of

without

to

at

has

which

THOUGHTS

the

the

in

time,

If

the

ceased,

irritant

an

particular

be

the

direct

in

the

blood

materials

or

the

effect

wall

is the

blood
for

state, exudation

and.

vessel

vessel

the

in

act

surprised

not

of

view

may

may

is

find

to

first supplies

repair.
ceases,

and,

begun. The varieties of inflammation,


changes, etc., might be discussed

effort has

RELATING

vessels

same

are

necessary

repair,textural
digression,but the present

object for

by

contained

poison

its normal

has

is caused

themselves

irritant,we

an

is,in

conclusion

tissue.

connective

the process
process

an

(Fig.4.)

or
sufferingindirectly,

be affected

may

to

the

which

applied

of inflammation

vessels

in the

is

of motion.

power

the warrantable

injuriousinfluence
injured vessel with the

the
The

cells of the

the

when

irritant

an

exciting cause

or

ways.

tissue

first to feel the


that

when

cease

surrounding

surrounding

ment,
experi-

they have
to
migration being due

far

irritant

different

be

to

say, that

object of attack, as

may

the

of

result

unless

escape

given, that inflammation


capable of "altering the blood

which

three

never

themselves,

deprive the

Briefly,wemay
testimony

cells

permeability

in the

the

as

in albumen

part of the cells.

is shown
to

cause
be-

made

was

richer

being

change

It is maintained

blood
in

on

enough

severe

vessel.

white

power

Migration

it

call for the

to

seems

openings

same

simple engorgement,

of the

that

of

guinis.
composition as liquor sanreadily than the
coagulates more

the

not

Inflammatory exudation
exudation

201

Articles.

been

TO

limits

seem

best

to

the

serve

made.

OPERATIONS

ON

THE

TEETH.
BY

There

the
he

DR.

A.

M.

ROSS,

CHICOPEE,

MASS.

to activityin this world; pleasimpelling motives


ure
and duty or necessity,and
the person
who
individually gains
from
his pleasures,or, who
benefits most
those for whom
most
performs duties
performed either from choice or necessity is
are

two

"

"

202

The

who

the

one

the

object in view,

enters

of

the

would

end

may

seem

but

such

The

in

which
not

be best.

may

to

often
more

unimportant.
found
placing self in
often ultimately occupy
first consideration.

that

say
and

the

dentist

his needs
and

pure

constitutes
I will

and
We

will

satisfaction

his successful
his

affairs of

all

it.
the

This

article,

dentistry

to
men.

fellow, desires

doing

is

compensation
he

if he

work

relation

deavor.
en-

that

secondary,
is most

therefore

primary position. Self would


the primary position,if it were
less
It would
be follyand quite senseless
first,last and

consider

always

self
him-

of

the

not

illustrate

the

principle.
patient of yours

one
long time
appears
has
at
one
day in your office after a lapse of several years, who
in
several
had
made
time, say
previous,
gold fillings
years
proximating cavities of his upper
bi-cuspids. Seated
again in
chair you discover
of seven
such
two
vical
absent, and cerfillings
your
in fair condition.
the balance
decay about the third filling,

The

has

be

been

have

and

interim

dentine,
the

the work

system

the

teeth.

and

septic
dentine

the

finally,you
at

You

has
You

there

general system
by illness. The
interruptionin
all

action

between
caused

have,

the

inaccessible

the

gold
disintegration

fact that

than
the
the

this,and

the

these

be used

in combination

also

be

with

prophylaxis.

ures
fail-

pointswhere
demand

toration
res-

requirements

be

case

article,a metal, in commercial

an

shall

conditions

recognize

recognize

points more

that

gold should

restoration

caused

good. The merits of


shall
temporizing. How

believe

the

work,

still remains

to

the

in

occurred

without
met?

of

the

fermentative

seriously disturbed

whole

chemical
and

points where

undermine

the

latter, and

have

at

most

activities

certain

that

occurred

tonicityof

nutritive

the

likelyto

most

in the

lowered

of

suppose

failures

would

that

plishment
accom-

point at all. This is a question,


and
discussion
of
a
professionalethics,
in professioual life,
of true
success

kernel

try and

now

for

the

last,that is
the

of

the

pleasure from
the subject of

is selfish and

should

simple,

of

proper

his

thought
Man

the

what

The

from

pleasure and

and

serving

say

often

aside

singularprelude to

man,

enthusiasm

an

spirit with

satisfaction

very

conscientious

with

results

natural

heartily

most
a

keen

thoughts as these bear a very


they certainlyrelate closelyto the

and

to

be

does

thought
The

the

enter

the

to

but

he

no

in view.

are

must

derive

with

and

Dentistry.

of

whatever

upon

ultimately derived
One

Archives

gold

value
so

that

ferior
inin

The

204

Archives

DENTAL

SOCIETIES.

CHICAGO

Reported
THE

DENTAL
for

Expressly

the

AND
A.

SOCIETY.

Archives

W.

Dentistry.

of

HIGHMORIANUM

ANTRUM

BY

Dentistry.

of

DISEASES

ITS

TREATMENT.

HARLAN,

M.

D.,

D.

ILLINOIS.

S., CHICAGO,

D.

Highmore, as it is commonlyspoken of, is a cavity located in the superior maxillary bone, of


and
its
bone
pyramidal shape, with its apex pointing to the malar
base towards
the nasal cavity. It is lined with ciliated epithelium,
The

maxillary sinus,

which

subjacent to
It has

connection

goose

quillinto

add

is not
does

periosteum, covering the bony walls.


nasal cavityby an opening the size of a

thick
the

its full size until

Its

capacity is variable, ranging


being from two to three.
average
present

and

find

one

or

cavity,being
The
secrete

normal

be

may

The

roots

are

more

than

the

where

the

only by

the

in the

closed

the
that

the
either

it is
molar

frequently
experience

are

uncommon

no

projectinginto

teeth

and

periosteum

the

brane.
mem-

mucous

lining the maxillary sinus, does not


appreciable quantity, as post-raorteras have
is

antrum

larger in the male

in the

than

female

and

subject.
capacity in the same
shape and
molars
of the second
bicuspid and the first and second
generally found in closer proximity to its inner surface
in

other

of

roots

weaker

is

orbital

eyeball, or
of which

the
the

that

the

wall
the

alveolar

by
one

The

antrum.

first
walls

portion,are

fluids

when

the

on

record

bicuspidshave
of

this

ity,
cav-

generally thin,
natural

orifice

so

is

pens
bulges, and it generally hapdisplaced,causing protrusion of

which

is also

palataldepression may

abnormalities

are

cases

molar, cuspids and

of distention

case

the

teeth; however,

third

of the

roots

penetrated the floor of


with the exception of
that

interior

membrane,

dissimilar

The

of the

in any

mucous

disclosed.

roots

more

puberty, or later.
eight drachms, the
does
not
always

to

one

The

floor,and

the

covered

from

trum
an-

of

age

surface, as bony septa

unbroken

springing from

seen

to

smooth

the

to

The

sinus.

the

dependent portion of

most

needless

it is

meatus-nasi, which

middle

the

attain

not

with

the

at

is

of

antrum

or

are

easily detected.

be

first
While

observed,
it might

Dental

205

Societies.

minutely and accuratelydescribe the antrum


and adjacent parts, the above
of preface to my
remarks
by way
will be, I hope, sufficiently
interest in the
an
suggestive to awaken
cussion.
subject which it will be your privilegeto enrich by thoughtful disinstructive

be

to

diseases

The
has

of the

deal

to

more

those

are

which

with

antrum

caused

the dental

surgeon

ally
gener-

violence, alveolar

external

by

scesses,
ab-

eign
dentigerous cysts and the accidental
perforations of forinto
therebodies, as the pushing of fragments of teeth or bone
of entozoa.
New
during attempts to extract, or the entrance
formations
and growths in this cavity, such
as
osseous
tumors,
found
oftener
in the
are
polyps and other varieties of fleshytumors
pitals,
hosat free dispensatories,
or
public clinics of the general surgeon
than in private practice. It is not necessary
to explain why
this is
hands

It is

so.

but

rarely,so

great varieties
The

of those

into

time

recent

membrane

the

find that

may

the

washed
with

If there

be

to

mass,

socket

the

and

is

dilute

two,
The

is

nothing
to

or

there

been

secretion

different

be

may

fiuid

surgeons
a

use

solution

After

the

or

other

requisiteto

produced,

are

lapse of

lining

with

We
foul

semifluid.
the

sinus

The
oughly
thor-

is

tepid salt water,


especiallyimportant.

up

for

medicament

several

Particles
the
or

days
of

opening
other

fore
be-

food
must

suitable

G. V.

Black's

may

be

one,

used.

soever
engorged sinus,from whatand continuous
irrigationby

of the

cleanliness

scess
ab-

ing,
Cantly's fluid for disinfectof potassium permanganate
ten
or
lapse of a week
days

suitable
cure

the

first of

acid, sulphate of zinc, Dr.

solution,

essentials

or

tents, tubes

of proper

quently
fre-

character.

enlarged, and

be

one

has

of the

filled

wholly

or

injectionsare used.
be kept out, and
must

but

II2 O2.

phosphoric

cause

when

by the use,
protoxide of hydrogen. This
this should
be kept
partitions,

inferior

three

when

has

is

is all that

treatment,

of

must

tooth

or

the

subject.

tooth

of

disinfected

by the use
appliances. In England,

and

it

or

maintained

which

be

is

practice

any

root

abnormal

an

cavity is partly

astringentwashes
other foreign matter

and

but

must

of

of the

way

cause

abscessed

an

dentist

every

by

treatment

smelling cheesy
opening through
then

antrum

occurrence,

sufficiently
great

from

it

our

with

contact

which

to

antrum

extraction

usually required
is of

be

the

The

off from

perforce cut

in the

fall into

inflammations

catarrhal

are

experiences which
observed.

is

we

of disease

of pus

escape

The

fact.

The

206

abnormal

Several

this about.
for

me

troubling him

had

by

the

filled

been

sunken

pulps

in

and

accident

the

to

his

occurred

molars,

The

roots

ably
consider-

was

fifteen

some

years

carious

was

process

ination,
exam-

second

face

been

On

smash-up.

As

sulted
con-

had

which

and

an

treatment

months.

first

alveolar

secrete

to

careful

several

had

the

that

and

railroad

ceased

left nostril

the

before.

months

some

for

has

gentleman, aged 42,

the

in

dead

face

the

on

I concluded

before,

from

its offensiveness

by

blow

since

years

discharge

I found
caused

Dentistry.

of

until the membrane


injections,
It
fluid.
requires patience

medicated

bring

Archives

crosed
ne-

or

I
molars.
of
the
tracted
exapices of the roots
removed
and
the first molar, perforated the antrum
some
flocculent
A copious,foul-smelling,
bone.
small
pieces of necrosed
oughly
After
washing the sinus thorliquid escaped through the socket.
Davidson
for three or four days by using a modified
ringe,
sysolution
of
with
a
a
tablespoonfulof
composed
chargsd
the

adjacent to

salt to

quart of

which

to

long.

It

afiixed

attached

was

divided

was

I fitted

tepid water,

Davidson

in

flexible

rubber

middle

the

and
end

other

bulb, the

tube

glass

the

ing,
open-

thirty

tube

between
of

the

to

ends

the
tube

inches
was

drawn

being

ordinary glass bottle which gives us a sort of a


bottle was
The
nasal douche.
suspended on the wall on a level
the
with
the eyebrows of the patient; being filled with
injecting
allowed
to run
through until the tube and bulb were
liquid it was
the

over

filled.
force
on

end

of

an

inserted
glass tube was
water
of the descending medicated
the bulb completly irrigated the
The

bent

escaped through
the

days

Very

case

all such

from

pulpless tooth
the

pus,

had

Death

from

been
and

tumor,
a

cases

seven

no

other

contents

eighty

years.

when

abscess

an

lining

membrane

having

has

matter

the

ceeding
pro-

between
In

antrum.

outlet, in addition

to

the

filtrati
in-

septicemic
degenerate and cause
occasioned
by the non-recognition of

been

One

only

too

late

engorgment

is

case

from

removed

pulpless tooth
of

for

discharges purulent

miicous

the

expiration of

the

supervene

suflicient,pressure
and

antrum

if the

adjacent tissues,may

of this kind.

jaw

all

the

cases

poisoning.

and

may

and

antrum

not

was

remained

so

consequences

of

cases

and

serious
a

At

nasi.

meatus

cured

was

periosteum

the

the

in the

the

gave
of

record

on

what

was

surgeon

half

supposed
discovered

to

of the
be

that

an
an

upper
osseous

abscess

apparently bony tumor.


antrum, the safer plan is to

rise to
the

where

the

In
first

carefullyexamine

teeth; if

the

207

Societies.

Dental

pulplessthen

found

are

none

ine
exam-

concealed
root
be a
if there
ridge to discover
of the
which
by its discovery frequently explain the cause
may
nostril
is discharged through only one
swelling. When
pus
the
In case
of doubt
it most
likelyresults from a diseased tooth.
fossa. Heath, Salter, Band
be punctured at the canine
antrum
may
the
written
have
other
and numerous
so
copiously on
surgeons
alveclar

the

subject of

I will not

that
One

surgicalmethods

the

of disease

cause

attention

is from

told

been

several
such

by

it

such

the
of

essential

have

tents

or

that

alike,and

to

the

open
the

sinus

it

not

have

the

artificial

only

to

in

seen

I'emove

instance

one

to

necessary

the

result

same

blistered.

opening
this.

say

has

destroy its life. Any

to

been

I have

he

antrum

found

was

screw-worm

world.

and

the

The

subject

age
for drain-

made

We

and

find

seldom

plan of procedure can be


adopted. Coleman, in his Dental
Surgery, describes a method
by
the patient can
attend
sinus.
I
which
the
of
the
have
to
injection
valuable.
tried it. It is very
think
not
ingenious and I should
After
the opening is to be closed
after
wellhas resulted
a cure
bones

two

hence

the

accomplished

I will

the

Texas, that

in order

antrum

would

threadbare

so

of
to

necessary

oils would

lining membrane
adapting tubes
is

was

of

of

sinus

the

portions of

Comoton,

Dr.

into the

injectchlorofoi'm
of the

other

They actuallybore into


had gained entrance
worm

worms.

where

and

friend

where

cases

into

entrance

much

received

not

trum
an-

views.

their

of

summary
has

the

from

tumors

insects,including that

other

my

which

antrum

accidental

in Texas

is found

removing

with

you

in the

the

or
flies,

larvae of
which

burden

of

no

universal

surgicalprinciples. It was
such a vast
on
subject
paper

established
write

diseases

and

shrank
done

treatment

the

as

extending

performance of it,as I
being compelled to listen to it.

from
in

without

difiicult to

so

the

Antrum

it into

am

undertake

Highmorian
treatise

sure

to

would

you

that

have

Discussions.
Dr.

by

Newhirk.

Dr.

"

Harlan.

case

before

exhibited.

breaking

down

I have

The
of

Medical

The

case

but

whole

was

Society,and

post-mortem
the

had

just read
experience with

to

paper

ing
interest-

very

reported last evening


mens
photographs and speci-

examination

osseous

the

little

like to call attention

ossium.

Chicago

pleased with

much

I would

of mollitis
the

very

Personally

of this class.

cases

am

system

revealed
and

the

general

patienthad

The

208

The
bones
of
the
face, espelength nearly a foot.
cially
suffered least,and the teeth,
the maxillary, appeared to have
suffered
all. If the
could judge, had
not
at
the doctor
as

far

thought

had

doctor
could

within,

of

form

by drawing

this

when

of

might

we

set

is the

But

stopper and

not

I have
neck

the

tion
ques-

absorption

with

case

is laid

does

hydrogen

from

he

as

the

rest

at

decalify

to

enamel

bottle.

the

over

post-mortem

change except by

no

the

in

Freeman.

W.

A.

believe

the

at

males.
fe-

pregnant
it

down

attacks

is

from

keep

well

been

able

put

out.
with-

with

any

obviate

to

an

nary
ordi-

and

has

of the bottle

finger shield.

rubber
Dr.

claimed

peroxide

stopper

tooth

is liable

suffers

to stay, and

I find that

been

it has

as

Personally I
there

extract

enamel

whether

to

as

to

("without pain")

done

have

from

Dentistry.

of

in

shortened

so

Archines

The

"

is

paper

excellent

an

one

quite
pleasure. During my practice I have seen
diseased
of
from
of cases
number
suppuration of the antrum
a
The
second
them
quite tractable.
teeth, and have usually found
have
usually been the offending teeth.
bicuspids and first molars
there was
illary
One
great swelling in the region of the maxcase, where
A mild, tepid sotooth.
lution
tuberosity, resulted from a wisdum
is excellent
for the first cleansing of
of sodium
of chloride
given

much

me

probably peroxide of hydrogen could, as has been suggested,


in moderate
be profitablyused
quantities to more
fully
Phenol
of
the pus.
evacuate
sodique, full strength, or chloride
zinc, ten grains to an ounce, either of them used only a few times and

the

at

antrum;

for most

remedy

should

which
a

had

he

as

and

had

moved
the

where

kept

subject to
ringing in

been

head

be

of
into

the
the

pressure

and

his ears,
his

on

first molar

left lateral

On

placinga

He

days will
opening

carbolized
a

year.

be
into

cotton.

The

suflScient
the
I

sinus,

ber
remem-

patient said

he

He

sleptpoorly; had a
something rollingin his

had

the left

after the

I found

cuspid
central,the bi-

other, hoping

fistulous

opening

to

tween
be-

tooth, also

canine

revealed

free

of

sense

extracted, one

bicuspid. A
maxillary sinus.
thumb

years.

pillow.

second

of the

suffering.
and

is

there

several

catarrh

it

first three

by a tent of
running over

open
been

rid of his constant


the

the

after

cases

which

case

constant

be

intervals

lengthened

probe
The

through the alveolus


passed readilythrough these

roof

of the

fluctuation.

syringe in the

mouth

This

was

was

soft and

easily

bicuspid opening, vile pus

forated.
perwas

forced
to

Warm
water
openings and through the nose.
the
cavity and phenol sodique used four successive
applicationsat distant intervals after the
only two more

from

all these

evacuate

days, with
patient returned
case

his

to

in

well

was

209

Societies.

Dental

home,
time

short

sole remedies

the

were

and

remains

so

used.

to-day.

The
catarrh

The

cured.

was

If my
have

directions

of

solution

the

The

acid

of carbolic

once

twice

or

acid

fully followed

opening through
facilitated the healing of this case.
zinc, twenty grains to the ounce,

doubtless

used

been

overdone.

been

iodide

had

used

of

seven

of the

roof

Chloride
or

mouth

of

saturated

would

when

water,

the

stimulate

to

is necessar3^

as

to

part

one

be

may

would

treatment

zinc, or
aqueous

sluggish
aromatic

use

there

is

cases,

ric
sulphu-

necrosed

bone.

pleased with the recommendations


of Dr.
Harlan
for thoroughness in treatment,
especiallyin first
There
then to give nature
a chance.
treatments;
ought to be no
in diagnosing any of these cases.
I am
in favor of
much
difficulty
of suppuration of the
the use
of Ho Oo as an injectionin cases
trum,
anSitherwood.

Dr.

after the
listerine

as

"

has

pus
after

an

evacuated, and

been

dressing,for

membrane.

mucous

much

was

In

it is very

catarrhal

like

the

soothing to
I

cases

prescription:
I^ Tinct. jaborandi,
Tinct.

following

gtts. xx.

aconite,rad.

gtts. v.

Water,
A

Sig.
"

This

in the

JV'ichols." The
which

they do
that they

not
are

scanty secretions

gtts in sugar,
Dr.

Grouse.

diseases.
-such

abatement

treated

I have

rather
the

disease

rule

entitled

had

ext.

the

excitingcause

will get well

whatever
of

itself.

is

to

ceptible
per-

been

quite

are

mon
com-

from

is

hours.

experience
and

that these
you

it may
The

cases

attention

of them

If

have

most

me

there

considerable

reverse.

iij,

physicians
congestion and
pilocarpuspennatifolius,5 to

three

believe, however,

than

the

When

all I want

seen

Such

receive

to.

every

there

symptoms.

troubled

have

prescribe fluid

I have

in the

in character.

repeated

"

practice.

as

until

saliva.

of the

which

cases

catarrhal

are

and

30

flow

speedilyj^rocuredan

Dr.
those

fifteen minutes

teaspoonful every

increase

of

inflamed

an

the

use

action

do

cases

be, in

speaker

not
are

the

extract
most

with

antral
for

care

usually over
tooth

or

instances

mentioned

move
re-

the

several

The

210

in illustration

cases

several

months

the

had

case

Dr.

the

which

is

instrument

an

instrument

was

of this
the

fountain
pressure

H's.
the

between

the

the

bone,

The

by Dr.
syringe placed
by clamping

Marshall.

"

think

I do

not

that

the great
of the

lesions

alveolar

be

to

found

in the

lesions

lesions

common

to

the

most

Heath
is

ordinarilythe

to

the

the

of

result

that
of

not

subject,will
regard to

confirm

the

be

but

one

the

opinion

point
when

paper.

the

to

or

fact

caused

are

by
quently
fre-

more

of

sources

most

and

trouble

prominent
the

second

of

the

affections

antrum

abscess

of the

of the

if

are

teeth,
caries.

abscess, resulting from

suppuration
the

I doubt

With

the

general. Salter,

abscess
upon

tissues.

antrum

extending from the teeth


own
experience and
cavity. My

inflammation

of

lining membrane

cous
mu-

the

and
teeth, gums
Garretson, I think,

teeth,

in
of

causes

alveolar

being
opinion

of the

dependent

cases

two

think

not

and

are

first,and

the

membranes

mucous

the

cause.

but

are

diseases

observation, and
the

other

there

to

of

antrum*

and

affections

condition

raised

periosteum

prominence

these

adapt

to

as

upon

disease

proper

tube.

these

make

The

point

between
to

of antral

maxillary sinus,

common

is of the

criticism
sufficient

any

that

he says

as

says,

than

the

in the

the

sinuses

the

at

periostealmembrane

cases

marked

secondary

large majority

correctly,says,

remember
in

by

statement

ot

Harris

teeth.

the

being

the

gave

majority

between

Harlan.

I do

membrane,

occurs

exjjerience

so

of abscesses

mucous

abscess

Harlan

processes,

makes

and

together,and not
I have just one

Dr.

induced

formation

liftingup

pus

membrane
Dr.

the

periosteum
fact.

is the

such

about

paper

glass

maxillary

slightlychanged the shape of one of the glass tubes


in the opening into the aatrum.
it to use
As to the
in Dr.

teriorat
de-

statement.

described

one

controlling the

My

tioned
men-

the

to

think

not

cork.

out

points

regard

do

correctness

M^ashing

the

ordinary

an

and

elevation

of

with

ordinary

the

I found

weeks

three

or

First

the

patient'sleaving

several

two

hydrogen.

for

modification

of

peroxide

for

whatever.

to

paper.

equal to
drugs has proved

volatile
used

refer

and

after

treated

been

the

on

treatment

no

to

had

case

benefit,but

found

will be

have

with

discussions

of

One

returning until

not

I desire

"

Dentistry.

of

point.

little

gotten well

in the

with

but

and

Baldvyin.

stopper

of this

with

suddenly

town

Archives

at

the

that

of all present

opinions of
which
abnormal

to

who

the authorities

open

the

conditon

antrum

is the

have

studied

just quoted.
there
result

can

of

The

212

the

natural

would

be

and

one

the

middle

the

liningmucous

one

opening
not

and

AVith

forced

I have

of my

one

but

I do

of the

One
it

could

that
I have

I had

seen

under

as

ELECTED

President,

FOE

Vice-Pi'esident,

Secretary,
Corresponding Secretary,
-

Treasurer,

Librarian,

of Directors, Dr.
W.

Kepoited

convened
1885.

"

at

And
any

for

man
gentle-

may

be

one

the

Annual

following

Dr.

C. F. Matteson.

Dr.

G.

W.

Dr.

A.

Dr.

P. J.
Edgar

Dr.

Dr.

J.

officers

the

were

Stevens,

W.

Hoyt,

Kester,
Swain,

H.

Woolley,

Dr.

Marshall,

of

Nichols,

"NV. A.

Dr.

S.

Meeting

the

John

YEAR

Ecjgene

Tal

Tulane

new

session.

expressly

morning

ASSOCIATION.

DENTAL

annual

seventh

day

pus

Freeman

SOUTHERN

First

the

eighteen months

case

ENSUING

Recording

A.

next

my

as

for

treatment

THE

SecondjVice-President,

Dr.

cured.

cases

many

evening of April 7, occurred


Society,at which time
Chicago Dental
elected for the ensuing year.

bot:

be

not

the

Board

that

out,

adjourned.

Society then

First

small

so

washed

but

kind.

OFFICERS

On

but

be

gas.) Granted,
been

of

the

cured, however

was

infiltration
would

has

is

used

into

patient,
cannot
Brophy that all cases
In my
own
practice
agree^with him.

case

case

and

there

and

pus

oxygen.

opening

of Dr.

not

I think

years,

incurable

The

no

natural

thickening

remedy
pain to

remark

record

eveutually

of the

with

say

present.

the

of

the

to

must
to

yet

the

consequently

there

reason

eliminated

rapidly

cases

from

discharge

out

regard

cured, I

be

closed

for this

Hg O? until after the sinus

the

quantity

be

of these

membrane,

for the

use

the

could

is

meatus

and

one.

for the

escape

In most

"

Dentistry.

or

artificial

the

abundant

an

{Dr. Marshall.

I do

Archives

for

session.

the

ORLEANS,

Archives

The

of

Southern

Hall, Dryades St.,

on

LA.

Dentistry.
Dental

Tuesday,

Association
March

31,

213

Societies.

Dental

OFFICERS.

A.O.

President,
Ji'irst
Vice-President,

Second

Vice-President,

Third

Vice-President,

Recording Secretary,

W.

Jas.

S.

The

of

New
Knapp.
membership of

nearly

all of the

among

whom

Catching, Atlanta,

Ga.

R.

A.

Holliday, Atlanta,

Ga.

H.

A.

Lowrance,

the Association

be

Brown

Parmly

the

Boards

State

of

of

Association

in the

called

was

to

and

States;

western

and

rison
MorSmith

Chicago; H. A.
Philadelphia; Patrick
Examiners,and

nois,
Illi-

of

others,also the

many

from

represented

of

of Dental

bers
mem-

atives
represent-

Indiana, Illinois,Michigan, Ohio,

and
Georgia, Maryland, Mississippi.
The

Thurber;

McKellops, Spalding

Harlan

Association

well

was

York, and

of New

of the National

J. A.

Walker,

northern

Drs.

named,

Cincinnati; Bonwill

Taftof

Athens, Ga.

Orleans.

Louis; Cashing and

from

J. R.

"

southern, eastern,

may

of St.
andJ.

Arrangements.

Waters, Baltimore, Md.

L.
H.

Treasurer,
Committee

Texas.

Clifton, Waco,

B.

R.

T.

Rawls, Lexington Ky.

Louisiana.

order

10

at

a.

President

m.

Rawls

chair.

After

brief

Thurber

but

of New

address

Orleans, and

Dr.

from

eloquent

W.

his annual

H.

Morgan

address,

of

of

the

on

response

Nashville,

able

an

welcome

pajser,

on

Dr.

from

part of

S.

A.

ciation,
Asso-

the

President

the

pyorrhea

and

livered
dealveo-

lai'is.
Discussion

pathology
On
and

Dr.

on

and

motion

Rawle's

deferred

paper

therapeuticsshould be reached
of Dr.
Chisholm, visitingmembers

physicians were
till 2,

p.

invited

to

participatein

O.

Salomon

the

Louisiana

the

two

State

just named,

Association, viz.:

Dr.

W.
ib

C.
a

in the

of

regular order.
the profession,

of
the

subject

discussion.

journed
Ad-

and

E.

Dental
five
B,

S.

SESSION.

appeared as delegates from


Society. During the first day besides
members
of the
other gentlemen became
J. DeHart

Memphis, Tenn.;
Vicksburg, Miss.; R.

Byrnes,

Vicksburg, Miss.; I. B. Asker,


Jackson, Miss., and J. RoUo
Knapp,
REPORT

the

M.
AFTERNOON

Drs.

until

OF

Wardlaw,

synopsis:

COMillTTEE

OF

New

of

DENTAL

chairman, read

I. D.

Miles?

J.

Miller,

Orleans.
HYGIENE.

paper

of

which

the

lowing
fol-

214

The

He

first alluded

health
to

the

operation of
in their

take

marriage

the

to

dead

The

men

pertaining
the

choice

laws

functional

their

tivities
ac-

of

they

mates

as

of the

hygiene

the

to

to

back

go

subject will always be


governed by their passions. Spartarv

are

"survival

in

study of these laws has led


hygiene, commonly spoken of

of

in

Civil

state.

the

at

The

laws

range;

struggle existing between


ject
subof the body were
organs

laws, both

system

letter,because
aimed

laws

of

wide

natural

nutrition.

of health.

laws

teeth

continual

disease, statingthat the

formulation

the

the

to

Dentistry.

of

and

and
the

Archives

this

on

fittest."

of the

The

medical

science

of

and perpetuates the most


desirable
unto-day, on the contrary preserves
and
Horses
animals
other
be
progenitors.
can
brought
standard
selective
to a given
be
cannot
breeding, etc., but men
by
made
The
will not be
subject to such laws.
generalityof mothers
and fashion
are
quieted in this matter; the requirements of custom

potent than

more

decay; teeth

not

fermenting
first

hygienic
a

habit

you

law.

With

is formed
to

necessary

must

matters.

babe, and

We

"cleanliness

general principles,as
will

advice.

best

the

is next

be

comfort

as

becomes

ideas
for

only give mothers


godliness;"clean teeth
and

acids
a

upon
the

and

the

from

ing,
decaywith

mother

future

the first tooth

easy,

to health.

to

from

kept free
Impress these

lay the foundation


the rubbing of

which

can

following

with

soft

becomes

brush

mother's

Appeals to a
prescriptions of

and

her
of

rag,
as

pride

medicine
and
than
self-respecteffect more
diet. You
can
bread, lacto-phosphates,
give oatmeal, brown
etc., but
do not deceive
other
or
yourselves with the belief that limewater
will
be
first pass
assimilated; they must
inorganic substances
all necessary
through vegetable organisms. Ordinary food furnishes
materials

Every surface
regularly with a
effectual, few

formation

for the

of every

tooth

moderately

know

how

to

of

good
be

must

stiff brush

reach

the

teeth.

cleansed, thoroughly and


"

inner

horizontal
siirface

motion
of

not

lower

the

incisors.
To
The
such

not

gums

cleanse

the

interstices

the

quill tooth-pick,or silk floss.


hotel wooden
The
pick is useless.
persistentuse,- or misuse of
anti-acid
of Riggs' disease.
Use
tooth-picksis one cause
ders,
powbe gritty. Objects to pastes and soaps
but
not
as
they must
with
the
readily soluble, and as remaining too long in contact
and

teeth; may

deposits.

Exercise

be
on

use

pleasant in the mouth, but do not


good food is essential to the health

remove

of

the

Societies.

Dental

215

development of the jaws. Soft boiled food does


beneficial
mastication.
in exercising
Chewing-gum

and

teeth

promote

retards

chewing

cleansing. Tobacco

caries

and

not

and

prevents depositsof

(The reading here was


abruptly brought to a close by
discovery of the loss of the remaining pages of the paper).

the

tartar.

Wardknc

Dr.

read

then

from

paper

topic.
Dr. Arrington took the ground
practicalsuggestions,rather than

Dr.

B.

F.

Arrington

the

on

same

broad

so

at
to

in

sea;

This

view

to

nine

teeth

young

should

be

If

call

by

heroic

sulphuricacid
its

common

for

indicated, would

as

will

in

appear

ADDRESS

Mr.

elicited

papers

OF

WELCOME

and

Arrangements,

to

Xew

Orleans,
of the

meeting
character.

advance

is held

to

the

the

in

of

lengthy

and

dieting
cept
Ac-

the

do

of

too

much;

advanced.

The

decide

the

will be

as

be

treatment

terial
ma-

ciated.
appre-

well

to

mild

if necessary,

by
size, shape

proper

age

or

local
and

spirited discussion, which

issue.

DR.

L.

A.

Gentlemen.
the
same

"

destinies

THURBER

OF

By request

distinguished honor
hall

we

of

NEW

have

of

seen

of the
this

ORLEANS.

of the Committee

where,tifteen years
Association

Dental

after year

of its members.
session

I have

Southern

Year

the

months

sample

BY

President

of

to

next

our

for

treat

applications. (Submitted
quality of tooth-brush).
These

Let

scurvy.

well

treatment

it is

pyorrhre alveolaris,which

name,

and

is

from

frequently. The
temporizing, not attempting to

wait till decay is far


frequently and never
of teeth must
of patient,localityand structure
in filling. The
removal
of tartar
to be used

Uses

we

ness
busi-

our

and

teeth

examine
age

is

this

examined

be

mouth,

impracticable.

The

plain.

ment
treat-

comfort

treatment

and

nofc

was

the

the

for

practice.

Considers

is

tield

specialty. It

our

of dental

duty

our

of

in condition

gums

sense

beyond

went

generations,absurd

and

the

tissues

of the

satisfied.

be

should

ten

or

and

common

That

we

beyond

waters

teeth

future

the situation
of

When

diseases

is the limit

done, patientswill
with

the

deep
the

preserve

usefulness.

and

needed

we

theories.

generally supposed.

as

of the teeth
were

that

welcoming
ago,
most

was

gratifying

ing
body steadily work-

profession which honors every


To arouse
its efforts in the path of progress,
this Crescent
City, chosen at this time by the
a

you

held

one

this
civ-

216

The

ilized

world

improve

can

proud

of

brains

and

the

as

and

Aechrtes

and

grand exchange

benefit

the

calling,we

Dentistry.

of

condition

have

of

point
of

display of
As

man.

all that

dentists,as

men

right to a place in this Congress of


human
should
and
here
meet
ingenuity;it is appropriate that we
show
the world
the accomplishments of an art founded
the highon
est
famous
principlesgoverning science, and made
by American
our

American

hands.

less than

forty years

with

craft whose

any

And

Our

they
with

To

And

now,

that

which

have

loyal

that

hope

rich

the

is

have

NATIONAL

one

to

say

come!
wel-

held

here

will

erecting to

immortality.
assigned to me this
visitors

in

ble
honora-

language
the

more

that

hope

ity
sincer-

the

coxtixued.]

be

OF

held

was

in Tulane

DENTAL

EXAMINERS.

National

of the

regular meeting

Examiners

Association

Ilall,New

Orleans,

of

tal
Den-

Tuesday,

on

31, 18S5.
State

The

Louisiana,

Boards
South

J. Taft
Harlan

and

and

Carolina, Kentucky,

Rawls,

of

of

the

S.

L.

Knapp,

Kentucky;

G.

A.

F.
A.

Ohio;

of

II.

Louisiana,

Mississippi,and

Maryland

following gentlemen:

a'.Smith,

Cushing,
Michigan; G.

J.

Georgia;
"Walker,

Geo.

of

Metcalf,

H.

Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,Michigan, Georgia,

of

represented by

were

of

to

your

ASSOCIATION
third

March

perience
ex-

purpose.

[to

The

the

privileged,

are

eloquent, and thoughts of greater dep^h, I indulge


will forgive my
shortcomings, and only remember
you
of my

The

members

deliberations

consigned

who

less

you

fession.
pro-

results.

here

am

which

welcomed

not

liberal

possess,

of

men

monument

friends, you

my

task, if

of

characteristic

of such

the
to

profession,and

your

fruitful

equality
suffering.

of human

recognized, independent,

kindness

with

professions

footing of

always
freely the knowledge they
humble
gained, to the more
or

stone

more

on

alleviation

are

gathering

welcome,
one

learned

the

tender

have

is the

are

generosity and

family.
add

mission

meetings

advanced,

more

Ignored by
to-day stand

we

ago,

this,we

than

more

of
W.
A.

S.

S. T.

Kirk,

Illinois;J.

A.

McElhaney
Thurber,

of

Robinson
and

O.

and

J. II.

of

South

R.

J.

Miller,

Carolina;
W.

T.

A.

W.

A.

Coyle,
and

Salomon,

Wright,

Dilehay,

Indiana;

T.
of

J. R.
A.

O.

Martin,

Dental

and

W.

H.

The

Marshall,

fullest

the

Hesolved,
of Examiners

Mesolved,

and

that

secretaries

of

dental

to

in the

existing laws

That

the

appellationto

which

fraud

may

and

that

amining
ex-

all examinations

of

principallyin

should

be

be

considered

seek

in

recommend

we

this

kept by

to

is not

he

the

as

the

diploma

future

only
enter

to

all State

boards
of

amendment

the

end.

appropriation,by
be

Association,

practicablemoment,

attend

to

as

so

Mesolved,
or

this

of

opinion

earliest

the

at

the

boards.

the

profession,and

secure,

Boards

both

conducted

examinations

college should
for those who
qualification

of

that

be

reputable dental

evidence
the

should

adopted.

Avere

all State

with

after

courts.

county

thinks

of such

to

made

be

of the

boards
record

JResolved, That,
from

clerks

this Association

State

by

writing, and
the

the

That

candidates

recommends

registrationshould

Maryland.

deliberations,and

resolutions

following

this Association

that

boards

the

of

Grady,

in their

prevailed

consideration
That

217

Mississippi;Richard

of

harmony

greatest

Societies.

any

justly entitled

practised is, in

and
sociation, highly rej^rehensible,

the

and

by

opinion

of

be

should

of any

person,

title

which

ception
de-

this Asso-

prohibited by legal

enactment.

Mesolved,

examining

boards

professors in

dental

The

such

that,
their

in

of

composed

so

far

as

adjourned

August,

INDIANA

Twenty-seventh

Tuesday,
will

June

also meet

will

30,
at

as

apj^ointing

possible,the places of
filled

by

those

to

in

meet

be

1885.

the

the

first

Minneapolis

on

II.

Secretary.

1 885.

DENTAL

STATE

Association

the

expire,be

of office

terms

Geo.

The

to

be

may

serving

gentlemen

recommends

State

that

2:)ositions.

Association

Tuesday

be

it undesirable

deems

colleges,and

professors,when
holding

not

should

of all States

powers
such

this Association

That

same

Annual
held
The
time

ASSOCIATION.
of the

Meeting
at

Lake

Indiana

State

Maxinkuckee,

State

Board

and

place.
R

Gushing,

W.

of

Van

commencing

Dental

Examiners

Vatzah,
Terre

tal
Den-

Sec'y,

Haute,

Ind.

The

218

Aechives

DENTAL

CHICAGO
The

COLLEGES.

COLLEGE

third

Dentistry,

of

OF

Commencement

Annual

SURGERY.

DENTAL
Exercises

of the

lege
Col-

Chicago

Surgery, took place at Hershey Music Hall, Chicago,


2Vth, 1885, at 7:30 o'clock.
Friday evening March

of Dental

111.,on

address

The

field,M.

the

D.,

number

The

the

to

graduates

J. E.

valedictoryby
of

was

matriculates

delivered

by

Hinkins,

D.

D.

of

1884-5

for the

course

Prof.

W.

T.

Bel-

S.

sixty-

was

two.

The

degree
senior

of the

D,

S.

Austin

conferred

was

J. A.

Dr.

by

Edward

D., Illinois;Jesse

M.

M.

Everett

Austin

Nelson

William

Jedd

Illinois; Amos
Illinois;Joseph

George
The
Call

McChandliss,

Stuart

W.

J.

Peoria,

W.
Jno.

M,
E.

IV,

of

D.

Lambert^

Lewis, Illinois;

Williams

Illinois; Charles

D.

Moody,

Putnam

Pruyn,
Wachter, Maryland;

Henry

S.

conferred

was

1885

DENTAL

CITY

following were
March

D., Illinois; Edmund

E.

upon

B.

111.

KANSAS
The

tario;
S., On-

D.

Whitetield, Illinois.

honorary degree
of

Josephi

Illinois;A.
L.

Johnson,

Illinois;Charles

Reed,

Gerard

Illinois;Astor

Illinois; Joseph Donahey

Nichols,

Bar-

Leon

Hinkins,

Lane, Illinois;Charles

of

Board

Hasselriis, Denmark;

M.

Johnson,

Holt

Illinois;Asa
Archibald

J.

the

member*

Illinois;Warren

Cady,

Dunn,

Charles

Canada;

of

D., England; Harry

Edward

Hudson,

following

President

Gray, Illinois; Rudolph Theodore


Territory; John
Hickey, Dakota
Melville

the

on

Swasey,

Armitage,

D,, Wisconsin;

M.

Gary,

class
H.

Directors,
num,

of D.

graduated

from

COLLEGE.
Kansas

the

City

Dental

lege
Col-

Dunning,. Wyandotte,
Crozier, Lee's

Summit,

Kan.; H. I. Parr, Wyandotte, Kan.;

Mo.;

J. W.

Buchanan,

Kansas

City^

Mo.
Mr.

Dunning
and

oral
The

Mr.

secured
Parr

the

facultyprize

for best

for

examination

best

in dental

general

nation,
exami-

pathology

and

surgery.
first

prize was
pluggers,donated by

1^25.00 in
Dr.

R.

J.

cash;

the

Pearson,

second
of

Kansas

set

of

City.

Varney

Archives

The

220

Dentistry.

of

H.
Pennsylvania; Frank
M.
Horner,, Pennsylvania; Marshall
Keep, Pennsylvania; B. G.
W.
Miller, Michigan; James
Prall, Indiana; J. Monticello
Sprinkle,
Gust.

merling, Wisconsin;

W.

Indiana; George

OF

Thirty-ninth Annual
held
Surgery was

Dental

evening, Mai'ch
The
D.

annual

Commencement

The

class

The

number

The

degree

W.

oration

was

delivered

of matriculates
of D.

D.
D.

How,

Storer

S.

L.

Walter

H.

William

P.

Professor

W.

R.

Ohio;

S.

conferred

on

of

nesday
Wed-

C.

M.

Wright,

James

D.

Edward

M.

Geo.

M.

of

J. E.

Ohio;
W.

Albert

Gray, Ohio;
C. R.

Hoff, Ohio;
M.

Kempton,

Ohio;

J. Fred.

Colorado;

Holt,
Frank

Kruger,
Louis

Morton, Indiana;

Paffenbarger, Ohio;

Seeger, Wisconsin;

F.

Clark, Ohio;
P.

Charles

McPhee,

W.

Trustees.G.

Charles

Kinsey, Indiana;

Ben

Moore,

Pitner, Illinois;William

R.

Harry

following graduates

Cosford, Michigan;

W.

Edgar, Ohio;

Illinois;A.

Olmstead,

the

Ohio;

John

Jackson, Ohio;

Edgar, D. D. S.
was
fifty-five.

Board

the

Chance,

Lloyd, Indiana;

Meyer, Ohio;
T.

session

Robert

King, Pennsylvania;
Carrie

by

S., of

Genslinger, Ohio;
W.

Oregon;

bert

by

for the

Conkey, Wisconsin;

Doerler, Ohio;

Harry

was

D.

Ambi'ose, Illinois; John

L.

College

o'clock.

at

delivered

was

Ohio

of the

College Hall, Cincinnati; Ohio,

at

4, 1885,

address

SURGERY.

DENTAL

S.

D.

by

Missouri.

Tainter,

COLLEGE

OHIO
The

Weinmann,

AdelW.

Homer

Jerome

P.

G.

liams,
Wil-

Wisconsin.

VANDERBILT
The

Sixth

Annual

DEAPRTMENT.

DENTAL

UNIVERSITY"

Exercises

Commencement

of

the

Dental

partment
De-

held in the chapel of the


University were
university,Nashville, Tenn., on Wednesday, February 25, 1885.
The
by W. H. Morgan, M. D.,
charge to the class was delivered
the part of the class by George W.
D. D.
on
S., and the address
of

Stokes,
The
The

by

L.

D.

Vanderbilt

D.

number

degree
C.

S.
of matriculates
of D.

Garland,

Arkansas;

Geo.

C.

Alabama;

John

W.

D.

S.

conferred

was

chancellor

Cooper,

for the

of the
M.

Fambrough,

session
on

the

was

fifty-five.

following graduates

university:Charles

F. Barham,

A.
Ellard,
England; Jonathan,
Georgia; Frank H. Field, Georgia;

D.

James

Fraziev,

A.

221

Colleges.

Dental

R.

David

Alabama;

Fred.

Garrison, Texas;

W.

11. Hogshead,
Hays, Kentucky; Wm.
C. Naif, Tennessee;
California; Robt. H. McXair, Mississippi;Wm.
W.
Clarence
Y.
Shoemaker,
Rosser, Georgia; Jessee
Alabama;
Geo.
W.
Lawrence
A.
Smith, Mississippi;
Slaughter, Alabama;

Gradolph, Ohio;

Edwin

Geo.

South

W.

Stokes,

L.

Carolina;

F.

Tynes, Mississippi; Joseph


Weekley, South Carolina; Thomas
A.

South

Williams,
L. D.

Wood,

C.

T.

Taylor, Tennessee; Tyra


Peete, Florida; Pinckney L.
C. West, Mississippi;Sheridan

W.

Lucius

Carolina;

S., R.

John

D.

Wright, Tennessee;
and

S., Edinburg

Ireland,

of

John

Dumfries,

Scotland.
The

ad

eundem
M.

Franklin,

D.,

D.

Third

D.

S., of

D.

OF

UNIVERSITY
The

of

degree

L^niversity of Maryland
Baltimore, Md., on Tuesday,
The
reading of the mandamus
Gorgas, m!

D.,

The

address

annual

DENTAL

Commencement

Annual

D.

conferred

was

on

James

S.

Tennessee.

MARYLAND"

the

S.

S.

D.

of
held

was

March

the

Department of
Academy of Music,

1885.

the

by

was

Dental

the

at

17,

DEPARTMENT.

dean,

Professor

F. J.

S.

D.

delivered

was

by

Professor

R.

Dorsey Coale,

Ph.D.
The
The

by

number

of matriculates

degree

Hon.

S.
A.

Henry

Clinton
P.

Thomas
Edward

W.

S.

D.

Teackle

Madison

John

of D.

was

Wallis,

session

conferred

on

L.

L.

Bradford,

seventy-four.
followinggraduates

was

the

D., provost

Carolina;

Bailey, South

Carlisle, South

for the

Virginia;

E.

Payson

Claude

D.

Carolina; Joseph

W.

of the

university
Beadles, Virginia
Brown, Virginia
Carter-

Missouri

M.

J. Cook, Texas; Willie


Comegys, Tennessee; Frank
dinand
Dorset, Virginia; Joseph Fournier, Jr.,New
York; FerGroshans, Maryland; Charles W.
Hebbel, Maryland; John

Helm, Maryland;

land, Indiana;

Charles

Clarence

H.

Hill, Australia; Ulysses S. HougD.


Howland,
Columbia; A. Hersey
E.

Howlett, Pennsylvania; Peyton Hundley, Virginia;Eli E. Josselyn,


M. D., N. Brunswick; John
S. Kleober, Virginia; Augustus
thews,
MatNorth

Carolinia;

Norwood,

South

Henry

Clay Pitts,

North

James

M.

Ranson,

Robert

T.

Carolina:

McQuown,
Will

W.

Carolina; Capers

Jr., West

Virginia;

Virginia;

Wm.

intosh
Mc-

Parker, Minnesota;
D.

Brooks

Perkins, Georgia;

Rutledge,

South

Archives

The

222

Carolinia; Charles

T.

Schaer, Maryland;

A.

Pennsylvania;
Germany; Floyd J.
Frank
Le Roy Wood,
BALTIMORE

COLLEGE

annual

The

class

D.

Thursday,

on

The

D.

Maine.

OF

Forty-sixth Annual
of Dental
Surgery was
Md.,

Sherman

Wm.

Trapp,
Twitchell, Minnesota; Albert Wangemann,
sin;
WisconF. Wegge,
Welch, Virginia; William

Fred.

The

Dentistry.

of

oration

Commencement
held

of

the

at

March

valedictoryoration

at

p.

m.

L. Wilson.

AVilliam

delivered

K.

Frank

by

lege
Col-

more,
Music, Balti-

of

o'clock

Hon.

by

was

Baltimore

the

Academy

5, 1885,

delivered

was

SURGERY.

DENTAL

White,

S,
of matriculates

The

number

The

degree

of D.

S.

D.

Avas

for the

session

conferred

on

dean of
R. B. Winder,
by Professor
Georgia; H. Clay Anders, Maryland;

the

seventy-nine.
followinggraduates

was

the

F.

faculty: Eugene
M.

John

Adair,

Virginia;

Anderson,

Chapuis, France; Thos. L.


Ola B. Comfort, Pennsylvania; E. E. Early, Maryland;
Cobb, Alabama;
cock,
C. H. Gatewood,
Virginia; H. IL Hafer, Georgia; J. E. Han-

J.

Carolina; M.

North
"

Carolina; G.

Bi'eland, South

A.

H.

California; Samuel

Harris, California; L. Hedrick,

Parke

Jones, New

York; J. C. Morgan, Kentucky;

Herbert

Phillips,Massachusetts;C.

Phineas

A.

St.

Araand, South

Maryland;

R.

C.

of the

University

of the

Medical

by

number

The

degree

Department,

Hon.

John

L.

S.

D.

S.

was

the

Dental

delivered
L.

by Robert

Smith, M.

for the
conferred

session
on

Todd,

Department

Nashville, February 24,

at

S.

E.

Maryland.

held, in connection

was

was

of matriculates

B. Anderson,
T.

of Tennessee

of D.

of

Geo.

R.

DEPARTMENT.

DENTAL

S., the valedictoryof Richard


The

Columbia;

Pennsylvania;

Commencement

salutatory address

The

Swartz,

TENNESSEE"

Annual

Seventh

The

A.

Staire, Pennsylvania; Claude

Warfield, Maryland; F. K. White,


OF

UNIVERSITY

Smith, Maryland;

Carolina; N. A. Strait,District
York; J. H.

Sunderlin, New

D.

M.

Sprinkle,Virginia; J.

B.

Carolina;

Richardson, South

G.

Massachusetts; G. Marshall

Sherman,

W,

P.

the

S.

with

that

1885.

Griggs, D.

D.
was

twenty-nine.

following graduates

of Trustees:
uel
SamMoses, president of the Board
Carolinia;
Tennessee; A. Y. Cartwright, South

Cartwright, Kentucky;

Southall

Dickson, Tennessee; George

Miscellany.

AV.

Dodson,
John

M.

Miles

F.

Puckett, Georgia; M.

the

Shelton, Missouri.

E.

COLLEGE

Annual

held

HOSPITAL"

Commencement

of

the

in

Minneapolis, Minn., on the


conferred
degree of D. D. S. was

1885, the

S.

Robert

Glenn, Tennessee;

Carolina; Hardy B. Harrell,


Harper, North
A. Lee, Tennessee;
Johnston, Mississippi;John

MINNESOTA

At

M.

D.

H.

Griggs, Georgia;
Georgia;

James

Tennessee;

223

in

the

Dental

Dwight,

and

Charles

Department:
L. Opsal, all

John

DENTAL

PARTMENT.
DE-

Minnesota

pital,
College Hosevening of February 27,
the following gradon
uates
H.
John
H.
Spaulding,

of Minnesota.

MISCELLANY.

DENTAL

LEGISLATION

IN

An
To

Act

regulate the practiceof dentistry,and


Be it enacted
by the Legislatureof the

Section

That

1.

it shall be

KANSAS

unlawful

violators

punish
State

for any

of.
there-

of Kansas:
to

person

practice

in the state of
practicedentistry or dental surgery
first having received
Kansas, without
a
diploma from the faculty
of some
reputable dental college,school, or universitydepartment,
other
of
the
or
some
duly authorized
by the laws of this state

or

to

attempt

United

States, or

which

college, school,

time

of

of lectures

oourse

Provided,

and

of

foreign government,
universitydepartment, there was

or

such

diploma, annually

instructions

That

in

section

at

the

time

of the

And

in
1

dentistryor
of this

as

to

prevent

act

dental
shall

dental

except

That

nothing

physicians,surgeons

at

delivered

this act,

provided further.

construed

so

of

passage

and

some

nothing
engaged
practiceof dentistryor

provided:
be

of

laws

in the

person
state

issuance

the

the

by

surgery.

apply

to

any

in this

hereinafter

in this act
or

the
full

surgery
as

in

others

shall
from

"extractingteeth.
Sec.

2.

residents

board

of

tists,
examiners, consistingof four practicingden-

of this state,

is

hereby created,

who

shall

have

Archives

The

224

dental

or

surgery

to

persons

in the state

at

the time

also to decide

and

in the

certificates

issue

authority to

Dentistry.

of

of the

validityof

the

upoa

such

3.

governor,

The

members

and

shall

of the

members

the

Two

follows:

their

until

the

board

board, such
board

Said

4.

the

and

names

secretary thereof, and


oftener, and

much

quorum,

such

at

within

surgery

within

shall

dental

kept for
diploma, or

such

board

said

board

shall issue

duly signed by

Sec.

all

certificate

rightsand
7.

To

this act, said

to
or

after

said

of

determine.

holding

such

the

members

person

to

privilegesset forth in
provide for the proper

section

of examiners

be

shall

and

of
tificate
cer-

said

board,

it is

issued

of this

act.

of

tistry
den-

of this

passage

for

of

and

board

practice

the

this

name

person

or

record

in

examiners, his

a
or

thereof, the validity of

copy
to

majority of

board.

open

of

said

one

practice, file

essary.
nec-

constitute

her

or

whom

the

one

dentistry

such

to

commence

power

person

to

in

and

year,

passage

in section

forth

with

shall entitle the

board

persons

times

of

members

person

authenticated

the

tered
regis-

deem

all

at

his

cause

each

shall

of the

of the

the

such

purpose,

shall have

all

it may

practice

this state

within

duly

shall be

shall issue

shall entitle

in

registeredwith

be

to

majority

commencing

which

the

shall be

board

time

the

at

said board

surgery

act, shall,before

which

curring
oc-

by appointment

of

once

said

in the

rights and privilegesset


Any person desiring to

6.
or

her

filled

places,as

thereafter

business

which

certificate

which

Sec.

and

engaged

duly signed by
all the

least

at

times

six months

examiners, upon

book

as

of vacancy

case

business

place of

or

this state

place of

and

residence

to

In

record, in which

it shall meet

public inspection.
5.
Every person

and

ofiice

practicedentistry or dental surgery


of its members
president, and

to
one

Sec.

act,

keep

of
majority of the members
and the proceedings thereof

dental

their

respectively, and

years

shall be

vagancy

residence

It shall elect

this state.

for

four

for

be

may

provided.

shall hold

appointed

two

shall

this act

under

authorized

four

duly aj)pointed.

are

successors

of

as

appointed by the
years, excepting that

shall be

term

first

and

board

diplomas

governor.

Sec.

as

for

serve

for two

in said

by

of said

of this act,

passage

hereinafter

as
subsequently presented for registration,

Sec.

practiceof dentistiy

accepted,said

If

diploma
of

board, and
to

all

of this act.

effective
entitled

said

certificate

it is issued

whom
one

enforcement
to

the

of

following

225

Miscellany.

fees, to-wit:

For

each

practicein

this state

in the

Sec.

practice
The

8.

duties

of their

from

received

fees

and

of the

state

board

board,

as

he

by

them

Sec.

9.

expenses,

board

the

less than

not

sum

Sec.

This

10.

DEATH
A.

having
dead

in his

that

form

which
washed
The
watchman

we

shall

the

Boston
which

of nitrous
have

been

take

annual

Dr.

by

be

secretary of
time
its

of

received

time

to

ings
proceed-

of December

day

said

of

expenses

report

paid
diem

per

the

shall from

in

thereof
than

more

effect
state

of each

and

ed
disburs-

and

show

S. had

not

state

deemed

be

guilty

fined

hundred

in force

Hotel

evening

his death
as

is

or

first

in

dollars.

from

and

ter
af-

paper.

at the

oxide,known
informed

one

be

without

OXIDE.

practicing in Natich, Mass.,

the

that

practicing

by

shall be

NITROUS

Boston,
on

the

this act, shall

dentist

office

this act

within

INHALING

solution
through some
janitorof the building
that

an

violate

nor

statutes

Shurtleff, a

circumstances

board

conviction

dollars

ten

office also

an

shall

upon

FROM

J.

the

of all moneys

provisions of

act

publicationin

Dr.

meeting
the

paid

of this act.
who

and

misdemeanor,

pensation
com-

be

time

any

of said

held

practice dentistry

to

at

excess

fifteenth

account

an

person

with

complying

make
the

by

in pursuance

Any

as

shall

be

shall

for

shall

the

provisions of this act,

the

in

monevs

bond

such

governor

attempting

board

other

together with

year,

of said

special fund

such

the

to

under

All

receive

duties, shall

of such

board

treasury.

giving

direct, and

of

by

and

allowance,
said

the

age
pass-

day actually engaged in


together with all other legitimate

performance

part of the expenses

no

out

in the

ed
engag-

of the

for each

office,which,

incurred

expenses

time

the

at

not

persons

shall each

board

day

per

state

to

sum

dollars.

of said

members

of this act, the

passage

in

engaged

persons

issued

certificate

of ten

sum

to

of the

dentistry in the

five dollars

of
the

each

of

of this act; the

time

the

at

For

dollars.

of three

issued

certificate

Boylston,
of

was

February
caused

and
fouud

was

26, under

by inhaling

"Mayo's Vegetable Anesthetic,'

simply

nitrous

oxide

that

has

been

of

vegetable compounds.
being informed
by
upon
gone

out

of his

office, at

the

night

about

10

226

The

o'clock
the

p.

entered

M.

floor dead.

by

Aechi\':es

the

The

Dentistry.

of

found

and

room

cylinder was

gas

the

doctor
the

lying upon

his

lying

head, completely emj^ty of gas; the


the inhaler, was
held in the
left hand
with

tube, detached

tightlybetween

attached

the

other

the

wheel

from, the cylinder. The

face

The

the teeth

right hand

held

discolored, but the body

expressed the opinion


The

last

when

time

the

friend

how

with

him.

do

to

left the
was

in

by

gas
the

under
reason

fatal

the

as

persons

the

too

is that

o'clock

for

such

found

took

he

ory.
thethe

Once,

reason.

of

use

it

during

giving himself
free

and

the

tor
doc-

gas.

As

spirituous

the

when

gas

judge rightly in regard to it,


his own
on
part, in taking

to

The

on,

and

writer

been

what

dying

it

the

with

of

result

the

and

educated

intention

of

few

40

years

at

Brown

any

student
and

minutes

cases

in

on

to

and

an

the gas
death

more

with

experiment

old

should

under

themselves

considered

was

himself

still in his mouth

put

to

dentist

dental

many

about

was

are

attempt

to

student's

that

There

Shurtleff

practicenearly 20 years
practitioner. He was
Europe

in

probabilty

the

from
Dr

the inhaler

like."

was

found

once

with

in all

anesthetic

an

No

himself.

to

gas

administer

to

chloroform.

to

to

of mind

administer

to

condition

have
see

of

tellinghim
that

that

at

When
found
pleasureablesensation it gave him.
slightly
janitorin the act of giving himself gas, he was
is every
there
of something besides
the influence
gas, and
he had
"been
to believe
taking something previous" to the

anesthetized

"to

act

in the

he,

supposed

the office and

entered

gentleman

tooth-ache

for

gas

of carelessness

result

circumstances.

would

took

o'clock,

o'clock

reason
a

hour.

an

doctor

not

known
of

much

for the

attempt

turned

It is

addicted

condition

found

after

right.

complaining

der.
cylin-

very

about

at about

soon

no

was

was

and

away

probable theory

more

undertake

ever

all

been

times

at

was

just the

died

the

went

the

for about

little gas, the

it is not

liquors, the
in

says

him

says,

had

doctor

doctor

and

that

probable he
before, the janitorhad
his operating chair and

but

not

friend

suicide,as there is

of

extinct

office door

held

it

physician summoned

alive

seen

from

of
to

deceased

been

close

close to, but disconnected

The

the

friend
he

cold.

was

gave

This

doctor, as
case

weeks

the

That

request,
it.

The

day

doctor

janitor opened

doctor's

the

the

of the

life had

that

course

wrench,

not

was

of

end

one

upon

floor

gas

record

sleep with
had

been

ful
good and successUniversity and went
a

studying medicine,

but

of

abandoned

in

The

228

time

The

without
The

or

used

in

it is

during
of the

the

wound

the

dressing

whole

anaesthetic

the

safest the

K.

ly,
perfectdentist

the

Mayo,

own.

icorld has

Wm.

yet

seen.

M.

Thorndike,

D.
St."

Boylston
date, August 15,
92

of these

Both

It
is

be

will

simple

but
In

the

second

verbal

who

those
make

should

based

gas,

inference
been

has

Thorndike's

such

It will

be

the

world

has

yet seen."

by reputation, that
regard to the safety of

in
is

belief,and

beyond

the

the

he
this

only

in

Dr.

living

not

the

to

reader

that

of

exactness

ifi the

expression

professionas

the

the

be

Dr.

from

inconsistent

gentleman

Thorndike.

H.

line

added

the

charlatan

merest

would

give

of

nothing

nothing

expected

W.

edition

second

and

first

as

contained

and

gas,

to

"Statement"

the

contains

strongest possibleexpression of approval of this gas, such


but

some

even

declaration

proprietors of

to

printedin

As

Thorndike

carefully prepared

very

eminent

so

following added:
the

besides

falsehood.

ajjparent

value

with

Mayo's

find the
the safest

tion
opera-

Gas.

interested
in the
one
possibleis that some
the
dishonest
enough to make
change shown
relying upon the fact that he is
statement,

printed was
much

of

of the

sale of this gas

dispute the

to

value

time

the

at

statement,

single experiment,

on

Dr.
a

1883,

the first edition

Thorndike's

changes, we

knew

of the

of Dr.

this anaesthetic

printed in

as

occurred

opinion

edition

same

certificate

the

of what
no

expresses

the

operation.

same

that

seen

"I consider
To

the

to

statement

unimportant

bear

statements

refer

both

and

and

operation,

speedily and

prepared by Dr. W.
new
discovery of his

this anesthetic

I consider

and

ill effects

any

was

that

claims

who

influence

the

nausea

agent

it

removing

insensible

was

from

out

came

Dentistey.

of

minutes

patient

The

in

occupied

twenty-two

was

Archives

the

on

test

as

of

the

no
a

one

single

case.

In this communication
the

merits

But
should

be called
use

Thorndike.

to

of

this
name

have

not

entered

into

any

discussion

of

anajsthetics.

that

it is proper

fraudulent
H.

of different

the

attention

statement

held

that

in such

of

it may

high

Profession

Dental

the

not

honor

be
as

misled
that

by

of Dr.

the
W.

229

Journalistic.

JOURNALISTIC.
'Reading

maketh

and

New

A
"

The

Form

The

1.

of

conference,

ready

man;

Teeth

Separating

Filling.

for

teeth

appliances for separating


by the following circumstances:

most

is caused
filling
teeth being narrower

necks

the

at

present used

at

man."

exact

an

for

to

material

edges, any
the

failux'e

constant

preparatory

Rubber

op

full man;

writing,

has

than

the

at

cutting

to drift towards

tendency

delicate and
nervous
producing irritation,which to some
is unbeai'able,thereby preventing the
time
for
persons
necessary
end, and often failure in insertinga
accomplishing the desired
good tilling.
gum,

The

2.

materials

enable

to

the

usually made
the

of

or

gum,

therefore

used

at

wood, which

soft,uncooked

has

rubber,

unequal

is done

series

and

rubber,
the

ing
be-

close

to

scissors;

common

if done,

Separation made

time

saves

and

al
sever-

different

by using

of

with

experiments

I have

found

various

kinds

preparation of the

sizes

pain
so

tending
at-

mon.
com-

wood,

of

latter

to

complish
ac-

be
rubber, vulcanized
object. It must
pure
in steel moulds
and
under
steam, without
sulphui*,
great pressure;
but the most
is
in
have
the
rubber
to
important point
lar
trianguwith
the
strips,wedge-shaped, varying in thickness, and
edge
be used near
the gum
round
and smooth.
It
will
be
readily
that

seen

soft
its

home

the
gradually as to prevent in a great manner,
such operations,and entirelyavoid
the irritation

cotton

to

driven

so

After

in

dentist.

the

position,they

with

cut

trol
con-

in

being impossible to cut


by the patient in succession, which,
to

in

sufiicient

strength,and irregularin shape,


consecutive
pieces true enough to be used

them

it

visits

be

to

under

not

are

to place the wedge


{patient

of

making

present

shape

desired

wedge

be

or

and

exert

only press
cuttingedge of the
round
wood

of the

edge

gum,

will not

left with

prepared

altered

will

margin

so

great utility. It will

in character

continuous
from

widest
It

sharp edge

as

will

raw

do.

fluids; it will keep

and

by being wedge-shaped,

rubber
The

come
be-

oral

not

such

not

the

part,

would

should

irritate

by

pressure,

its

teeth.
and

is of

be

which
driven

thing
cut

is

nearest

too

close

occur,

with

the

the
to

the

smooth,

scissors

stripsbeing prepared

or

in

230

The

different

Archives

Dentistry.

of

thicknesses, the teeth

be

can

gradually

and

almost

lessly
pain-

separated.
In

the
stretch
to
applying the wedge, it is only necessary
strip
between
thin enough to
the
teeth
above
the
just
cutting
pass
it
will
the
it
its
of renot
force
gaining
forcing near
own
edge
by
gum;
"

its
until

originalform
is

pressure

divide

the

exerted.

longer

no

teeth, and

work

its

It will

way

ward
up-

expand

not

its

originalsize in moisture, thereby enabling the


decide
the size to be used.
to definitely
upon
Should
of
it be required to force the gum
beyond the neck
tooth to reveal a cavity,it is only necessary
to place the broad
than

more

against the

Southern

pleasure.
"

Treatment

without

separate

of

trial,and

great

will be

hailed

these
Ferri

Dr.

"

Garretson

In

says:

aa
carbonatis,]

Syrup acaciae,
100.
Ft. pil.No.
Sig. Begin with three

the
face
surness
sore-

with

day,

and

increase

to

ful
use-

so

gr. ccl.

q.

of

cases

neuralgiasno singleremedy has proved


pills. My prescriptionis as follows:
sulphatisexsic,

Potasii

tist
den-

Journal.

Dental

..nable

unex

i^

to

worthy

Neuralgia.

of
"

as

method

irritation, is

and

the

gum.

to

six;

s.

take

M.

"

several

hundred.
serviceable
in paroxremedy that not infrequently proves
ysmal
neuralgia is Duquesnil's preparation of aconitia,in doses of
is felt;but in
grain 1-200, repeated each two hours until numbness
it did no
this case
good.
generally to nothing; here
pillamounts
Brown-Sequard's famous
his own
tried faithfullyby the patienton
it was
prescription. A
A

local

application,commonly

is

devised

combination

J. L. Ludlow:

Dr.

by

of great use,

Atropine sulphatis,
~B/,

ss.

gr.

gr. iss.

Aconitonse,
'

Olei

tiglii,
ITng. petrolii,
"

Phil.

Med.

Hydrochlorate
the

Times

5 ij"

in Southern

of

gtt. ij.

Practitioner.

Cocaine.

Odontological Society of

^-

Great

"

At

the

Britain

December
a

short

meeting
communication

of

231

Journalistic.

read

-was

Mr.

from

Coles

Oakley

Use

the

on

in Dental

Cocaine

of

Surgery.
week

ago

had

placed

at

disposalVjyMr.

my

Martindale

in oil of cloves.
drug cocaine dissolved
quantity of the new
evidence
confirm
the
The
experiments I have been able to make
anaesthetic
its remarkable
had already been
to
which
given as
properties. One applicationof a 20 per cent, solution, will allay
in the dentine; two
sensitiveness
applicationsat an interval of five
minutes
will suspend for a time the sensibilityof an exposed pulp.
small

It has

adequate strength, cocaine


without
tooth
pain. Of this

quantity and
to

remove

of

experience,but
surgery.

The

in which

it may

there

be

can

doubt

no

will enable
I have

only point to be decided is in


be most
conveniently used.

the operator

at

present

utility in

its

to

as

in sufficient

used

that, if properly applied and

stated

been

reference

dental
form

the

to

no

in water,

It is soluble

It
glycerine,the essential oils,and chloroform, but not in ether.
efficacious in th'e cavity of a
be most
is quite possible that it may
form. It promises,
tooth if used in powder or in the solid crystalline

however,
directed

be

to

its

to

of forms.
vehicle

best

as

power

its effects

Perhaps

information

used

Woodruff

He

Storer

dressed

with

he

same

tried

to

10

per

had

10

per

better

but

cent,

he

own

that

20

exposed pulp.
to
give more

had

if

know

ic
anaesthet-

of which

left it for half


the

on

with

effect,and

with

with

the

and

to

of hard

formed

hour, but

no

the

"the

it
he

better

left it for

patient said

an

plication
ap-

percent, solution.

vaseline, and

little benefit

ointment

sensibility. Next

dentine, but

mixture

with

was
an

as

it useless.

found

begun

solution

cent,

per

had

but

surface

soft

cent,

forty-eighthours,
the

said

effect

no

tried

dentine,

cavity the

way

an

present might be able

he had

Bennett

produced
in the

said

solution, and

this

of

sensitiveness

to
subject. He particularlywished
a local
the hydrochlorate of cocaine
as

sensitive

to

Mr.

the

of its

his

that

riety
va-

the

limits

the

added

Hutchinson

extraction.

for tooth
Mr.

the

on

had

one

any

be

must

limited; he found, however,

was

members

of the

some

ascertain

once

we

Mr.

removed

solution

cent,

per

exhibition,if

local anesthetic.

experience of

efforts

our

applicationin a variety of cases, as well as in


indicate
Time
and experience will doubtless

for its

forms, that

in many

useful

so

had

dentine
rently
appait

applied

result.

left sealed

Then
up

for

patient.Lastly,heapplied
a

ly
week; this certaintooth

felt numbed."

The

232

He

going

was

he

believed

bined

to

Archives

try

had

20

been

found

strength of

cent,

per

Dentistry.

of

much

efficacious

more

which

muriate,

the

than

the

uncom-

cocaine.
Walter

Mr.

made,

Coffinsaid

this had

as

he

found

been

trying to get an oleate of cocaine,


be a very good way
of using alkaloids

was

to

generally.
Mr.
for

W.

Hern

said

he

had

lately extracted

lower

wisdom

the operation was


followed
ophthalmic surgeon;
In
acute
pain in all three divisions of the fifth nerve.
relieving this he inserted some
drops of a 4 per cent,
an

cocaine

into

Journal

of Dental
E.

Dr.

In

that,

or

in

20

per

odor
diseases

that

will

odor
in the

solution

cent,

"

British

of the

tend

teeth

render

to

doubtless

be

of

larynx and

Journal

Journal,
for the

is
and

the

Odor

great

lion

and

Dec.

think

it
a

prove

the

to

many

The

"

its

this valuable

di

"Paletzer

in New

Torino

agreeable
dis-

in

u^o

ing
treat-

will

persons

not

therefore
Any suggestion
remedy less objectionablein

cases.

appreciated.

Medica

likely

attacks."

places a

Tonka

emits
cumarine, which
jar; it contains
agreeable odor.
Tarquety adds vanilla and lavender.
has a pleasant smell, and the iodoform
loses none
of
Gazetta

13,

valuable

iodoform

"

lution
so-

I have

nose,

Iodoform.

or
o

mouth,

in such

the

prevent

even

the

of iodoform

Med.

drug. I
preparation, would

weaker

its exhibition

will

the

to

British

for the

Concealing

of

to

writes

in the

says

hay fever, or might

Methods

submit

British

pain.

strength of hydrochlorate of cocaine


practiceshould be 40 per cent, and that

Mackenzie

somewhat

remedy

the

on

the

operations "Both

employed

effect

no

of

solution

is oil of cloves.

Morell

1884

that

in dental

use

solvent

Dr.

it had

by very
hope of

Science.

Science

for
best

socket, but

Gregory.,of Cheltenham,

Dental

of

the

the

tooth

Orleans

Med.

bean
a

very

The

ture
mix-

its
and

erties.
prop-

Surg.

Jour.
Billroth
acid

on
as

serviceable.
and

now

the

fluid
antisei:)tic

However,
uses

heard

English
the

Antiseptics.

the

it
of

only

some

surgeons,

irrigationof

the

he

Billroth

which

in

still

his

holds

hands

the

stronger

in the

strength of 2^

per

cent.

eighty

successful

wounds.

ovariotomies,

to

bolic
car-

most

seems

abandoned

who

has

"

solutions,

He

has

done

by

employed nothing but clean water


of this fact, he
Taking note

cently
retain
cer-

for
an-

Journalistic.

shall

he

that

nounces

results

hopes

so

of the

solution, which,

cent,

plain cold-water

great continental
is the

Iodoform

1.

1 per

obtained, shall be reduced

are

become

to

try

soon

283

and

at

man

effective

most

half per
last.

of

cent., and

The

summed

be

may

surgeon

safest

to

sions
conclulows:
fol-

as

up

all

if favorable

manageable

antiseptics.
Moss,

2.

useful

are

when

turf-mould

there

sublimate

Corrosive

3.

and

wood-wool,

discharges from

are

in dilute

antisepticto wounds, and renders


liable to mercurial
poisoning.
acid, which

Carbolic

is,in very weak

solutions
clean

is known

but

water,

probably

be

cluded),
in-

the wound.

the

to

be

is

dangerous in strong
wound
irrigationas

for

good

as

ones,

should

practicallyinert as
patientand surgeon alike

solution

an

4.

(oakum

better.

no

iodofoi-m, which

applicablein all cases,


and
like a return
looks much
to cleanliness
preantisepticsurgery.
ter's
of Sir Joseph LisBillroth
had not at this time heard
Of course,
ring
recent
discovery of the sero-sublimate; but since this,by insuwill probably render it
the prompt
absorption of the mercury,
all the more
dangerous to the surgeon and nurses, and possiblyfatal
his microbes, the situation is one
from
alike
the patient and
to
draw
but little consolation.
which
Sir Joseph and his disciples
can
the wily bacterium,
Fortune
to be smiling upon
seems
just now
of possibility
that he may
it is not
and
out of the range
yet get
his germicidal foes.
the laugh upon
This, barring the

Carbolic
H.

Acid
writes

Brodnax

Monthly:

I wish

Burned

for

the

to

Surfaces.

Dr.

"

Jilississipj)i
Valley

attention

call the

to

Scalded

and

follows

as

is not

of your

readers

to

It
and
scalded
surfaces.
treatingburned
acid applied to a burned
scalded
That
the
or
pure carbolic
relieves all pain and tendency to inflammation.
instantly
mode

new

"

I have

as

skin

of

tried, it

is broken

or

them

with

the

and

of which
Mrs,

If there

not.
a

I have

make

to

seems

acid

treated

very
are

made

mop

stick, apply the

edge.

whole

of

little difference

blebs

filled with

by tying

all

over

number

the

piece of

surface

of them

and

"

Ben.

Medical
to

is

me

this:

surface
So

far

whether
ser"m,

rag
a

on

the
uate
evac-

the end

little out

recently,one

or

on

two

I will report:

L.,
of the

an

old

upper

lady,aged 73, weight


surface

of

the

left

400

foot

pounds, scalded the


with
boiling water.

The

234

When

called, the skin


with

soft cloth

the

and

poured

about

that

acid

to

freely over

the

white.

an

with

cover

used.

was

bandage

I wash

apply

seems

to

it

act

as

skin

new

Extracting
while
married

who

years,

passing
in labor

down
about

womb,

but

during

the

and

it

in

past nine

was

few

with
in the
few

back

and

minutes

by

the

of

hours
a

its

the

face
sur-

and

is suppurating,

clean, soft
need

be

the

cloth,
It

had.
and

surface

as-

to

Child.

Recently

"

as

company,

"

the

of

about

usual

with

me,

part of my

five

tooth

that

months.

eight hours,

in the
and

came,

bowels.

When

that

womb;
returned

I wanted

cavity.
to

the
the

pain

have

him

that

pain

left the

soon

passed off;
be

said

times

being
cavity in

it filled-r-couldn't

The

chloroform; the doctor

and

it

the

aching?

tooth, to

been

several

He

effect

back

back

pull it, but

to
to

the

paroxysmal, coming
in my
tooth
pain was

The

I said

thing
anyage.
aver-

had

my

aching

was

wanted

to

stop the

but

been

in

dren,
chil-

an

on

in

womb.
he

by

pain beginning

had

The

living

unmarked

gestations are

last

lower

of

mother

labors

in the

chloroform

for several

sick-room, I had,

the

am

terms

it and

on

the

applied

dressing,except
rubbing by clothing,etc.,

Birth

remaining molars,

small, and

something

up

lessly
care-

of my

No

hour, the pain suddenly ceased

going just as
physician
my
of but

in

"I

as

the

an

set

left.

"

it did

when
one

came

to

back

patient,an intelligentlady, aged about 32


the
most
following to me
singular phe-

My

last

My

on

up

instrument

of my

My

unusual.

had

was

edges, turning

pressure

Give

to

she:

dead.

one

under

related
Said

nemnon.

the

to

as

She

the

being

was

gone.

solder

white,burnt (by the acid), skin stays


it peels off.
port.
it,when
Try it and re-

new,

night

daughter

water

hurting
powerful anaesthetic, drying

Tooth

spending

cold

moved
re-

with

remarked

deep purple.

existed

fears

surface

She

soldering an

melted

clean, dry with

forms

was

pain

has

tringing the vessels; the


until

pain

protect from

to

No

if

around

the

wound

above.

as

and

instant

If the

and

burn

the

acid.

as

In

quantity
instantlyturned

In

all

of

wound

dried

raw

felt

eight days.

or

dropped
thumb;

the

minute

surface, having been

the

immediately

burn

the

In half

in six

the

from

gone
I

Dentistry.

of

applied as above,

it.

on

was

stocking.

afterward

moment

and

Archives

put

again
no

he

tooth,
and

progress

put

saturated

cotton

to

the

appear

pain
again

was

in
lieved
re-

being

236

The

In this last

edition,the
of

arrangement
while

been

editor

of
that

omitted.

has

also

made

added

illustrations

has

become

Whether

number

of

the

limits

has

also

obsolete

in

changes

many

enlarged beyond

are

much

Dentistry.

of

parts, has

number

and
has

the

others

The

text.

Archives

of

and

chapters
original

new

the

been

the

creased,
in-

greatly

therefore

useless

the

weeding out has been as thorough


it might have
been -with profit,
is a question.
as
Additions
have
been made
in every
department of the work,notain
the treatment
of irregularities
of the teeth, in the
bly
lation
manipuof plasticbases for artificial teeth, and
in the grafting of
crowns

natural

upon

Nearly the

roots.

whole

and

literature

all the

new

of

been

dentistryhas
and

processes

laid under

tribution,
con-

presented in

appliances are

this volume.
To

task

the

done

result

the

The

this

is

eleventh

that

and
Dental

have

of

ton, Son

"

for

Co.,

no

vacancy

and

use

their

That

brief

this book
That

literature

cannot

respects is what
tion.

we

W.

in

part

in

the

the

the

sincere

Practitioners

and

Barrett, M.

B., M.

London

that

has

superior manner
production of this

thanks

of

both

Students

dents
stu-

R.

C.

tal
S., L. D. S., Den-

St. Louis:

Cloth, Sl.OO.

S.

cine.
Medi-

of

Hospital. Phirladelphia:

be

of

students

have

to

filled

P.

Blakis-

J. H.

impart

will

it is

open

it will be
be

of

text-books

practitionersof

Until

students

way

by supplying
and

known.

diseases,that

evident.

and

done,

C. W.

to

which

to

in

deserve

1885.

existed,is well

would

well

bers
Cham-

Co.

for the

book

laborious

hand

and

practitioners.

By Ashly
Surgeon to the

long

their

all concerned

Harris

Surgery

done

firm, and

edition

"

the head

to

its predecessors,

of

work.

with

That

is

highly creditable

publishers

usual

edition

greatly superior to either


is to only do simple justiceto the editor.
The
has in the main
been
revisingthis large volume

of

and

that

say

this volume

medicine

medicine

appeared

could

be

that

way

useful

questioned.

to

book
That

others
as

the

which

is

there

was

the

teeth

possess.

will follow

pioneer
work

has

referred, that

knowledge concerning
physicians should
necessary

the

tistry
Den-

on

in this line

faulty in

is
of

many

work
might reasonably be expected in an initiatory
thank
the author
for breaking ground in this direc

Bibliographic.

237

of the
in a hasty
imperfectionsnoticed
pointing out some
wish
be
understood
to
as
reading of the volume, we
doing so
dental
interests
of
and
for
in
the
the
of
science,
solely
purpose
contributingto their correction in a future edition, should one
pear.
apIn

author

The

tooth

than

first molar
the

the

and

its central

The

order

for the

in which

deciduous

the

that

as

more

ful
use-

the

larger size of
masticatoryposition,would point to
of all,for masticatory purposes.

the

seem

deciduous

teeth

denture; in the lower

upper

molar

permanent

It would

first.

important tooth

most

that

second

regards the

canines

shed

are

the

set

is

fall

before

it

as

correctlystated

order

the

the

differs in

this,

molars.

The

general use of the word "fang" as applied to the "root" of


sounds
American
a tooth
authorities
ears.
harshly upon American
define "fang" as a tusk, a long pointed tooth, a claw
or
talon, or
that by which
hold is taken; and "root"
as
a descending axis; in a
plant,that part which is under ground; or that j^artwhich affords
nourishment
if

by growth
In

support, and

or

development, as
irregularitywhere

or

cases

of

the

author
The

mentions

the

"the
the

first

preference

to

proceeds from
of

root

of
the

is to

country

the

anything

as

tooth."

extraction

bicuspids as

practice in this

usual

bicuspids in

which

that

teeth is advisable,
teeth

moved.
re-

the

extract

first,all other

be

to

ond
sec-

things being

equal.
The

of

use

the

"nerve"

term

when

the

pulp is evidentlyspoken
That
claiming to be exact.

in a work
quite inexcusable
the word
ways
"pulp," or the compound word
"nerve-pulp" should albe
when
employed
speaking of the soft body of a tooth,
needs
to gain approval.
only to be mentioned
of

seems

Other

being

minor

must

unnoticed.

pass

considered

we
hypercritical,
protest against the recommendation

our

wool
a

defects

saturated

the

neck

"the

remedy,"
injury.
We

repeat,
for

carbolic

filling.Also

permanent

through

with

we

this

hitherto

The

author

of

we

death

when

are

of

glad

feel assured

antiquated
and

the

pulp

the

which

book

into
has

has

its appearance
place in dental

unoccupied
and the publishershave

our

risk

of

entering

fill root-canals

to

tooth

the

at

refrain fi'om

cannot

acid, over

the

sound

Yet

with

is to be

ton
cot-

inserted

of
drilling
process
the pulp chamber
as
followed

been

mechanical

written

will attract
or

medical

sincere

thanks.

and

lished,
pub-

attention

to

literature.
c.

w.

s.

The

238

Archives

of

EDITORIAL

NINTH

NOTES.

INTERNATIONAL

MEDICAL

WASHINGTON,
SECTION

Below
and

Oral

meet

in

ON

the

appears

D.

DENTAL

AND

list of the

Surgery of the Ninth


D.

Washington,

announced.
officially

foresightof

and
and

their

and

efforts to

credit

to

our

in

1887.

ORAL

of

SURGERY.

the

of such
reflects

Executive

elect

gentlemen
specialty,should

Section

has

noble

credit

Committee
that

Congress

which
a

would

receive, and

just

body

of

upon

the

of
be

Dental

on

Medical

and

1887,

America

the

C,

officers

selection

of

CONGRESS

International

C.

The

represent the dentists

Dentistry.

to

been

men

to

judgment
Congress,

the

representativeof,
no

doubt

will,the

hearty support of every dentist in the land.


and true," and
The
the honor
gentlemen chosen are "good men
of American
dentistry can be safely entrusted to their keeping.
PRESIDENT.

Cincinnati.

Taft,M. D.,

Jonathan

VICE-PRESIDENTS.

W.

Allport,M. D.,

W.

William
Jacob

H.
L.

Dwindle,

Chicago.
New

M.D.,

Williams, M.

D.,

York.
Boston.

SECRETARIES.

Edward

A.
H.

George

Bogue,

M.

New

D.,

Cushing, M. D.,

York.

Chicago.
COUNCIL.

W.

C. Barrett, M.

Buffalo.

D.,

Thomas

Fillebrown, M.

F. J. S.

Gorgas, M.

D.,

Maynard, M. D.,
J. McKellops, D. D. S.,
H. Morgan, M. D.,

Edward
H.
W.

C. Newlin
L. D.
James
J. W.

Peirce, D.

Shepard,

D.
D.

Truman,

White,

M.

D.
D.

D.,

D.

Boston.

D.,

S.,

S.,
S.,

Baltimore.

Washington.
St. Louis.
Nashville.

Philadelphia.
Boston.

Philadelphia.

Philadelphia

Editorial.

ABRASION.

EROSION"
March

the

At

the

Perry presented a
abraded
by the vigorous

been

idea

this

it

teeth
effort

the

remark

were

at

by a brush
subject.
brushing
dental

We

teeth, and

the

tissues

the

of

gives but
"agents with

key

note

teeth

then

And

side"

the

little

such

connect

to

condition,

the unfortunate

made
teeth
them

the

whole

vigorous
of the

waste

such

any
the

sions
ero-

or

diate
imme-

essential

shall

mately
ulti-

not

we

side

systemic

tor
fac-

of

the

latter is found

to

far

so

as

"

know

we

ing
generally goes on, notwithstandof such
sult
injunctions,and the re-

process

reason

to

such

to

as

mechanical
cause

and

or

chemical

effect.
J. M.

ABOUT

TERATOM

if

on

abrasions

of

to

effects

the

neither

traced

be

process?

other

which

produce

of the

obedience

sedulous

most

such

produced

the
predisposition? When
interdict excitingcauses
course

them, but the destructive


the

be

the

must

opposed

Kingsley

in

instances

cannot

the

Dr.

had

lathe, even

cases

can

numerous

condition

at

the

many

fruits

which

seen

look

to

combat

we

in

acid

yet

be

to

peculiar destructive

learn

"exist

are

is not

in this

to

of

when

effects could

seems

that

eating

nor

cause;

teeth

know

As

on

condition

the

on

such

This

not.

or

brush-wheel

said

he

stiff brush.

long time;

depended

time, whether

which

impossible to produce

was

for

Odontological Society,

teeth

of

of

use

with

mouth,

it

that

it

that

continued

was

the

of

the

of

out

the

said

was

York

New

model

G.

S.

Dr.

on

of

meeting

239

THE

OF

H.

HYPOPHYSIS

CEREBRI.
Dr.

Beck

Hugo
A

the

size of

consisted
and
and

in

of

frame-work

cholesterine, a

that of
both

The

of

to

pea

and

had
that

of

amount

they were
of a grain

mation.
malforabout

tumor

hypophysis

and

cus
stringy mucartilaginous substance

teeth.
of

rare

corn.

macroscopically
Their

They

sizes

and

varied

were

teeth

found

ited
exhib-

enamel.
in which

the

teeth

were

periosteum. There is no doubt that the


to early derangement
during uterine Itfe.

of
due

of

this

meshes, besides

that
that

age

found, which

were

cavities

the

structure
was

large

masses

dentine

walls

the

in whose

of

case

seventy-four years of
walnut, that occupied the place

showed
microscopically

with

woman

yellow bony

from

Prague publishes

formation
mal-

The

240

Archives

Dentistry.

or

OPERATIVE

row,
finishingapproximal fillings especiallygold the use of narwill
lapping
remove
thin, pointed blades,
by cutting,surplus,over-

In

"

"

material, which

who

those
will

their

be

revelation.

otherwise

margin,

decay.

One

One

right angle,

the

best

powders.
by

thin

flour will

corundum

the

treatment

will

corundum

carry

is

best

blunt

looselyplaced
used

in this way
than
of

tried

lamp

canal

root
acts

method,

mixture.

be

dipped

in

as

but

after

for

the

through

plasticpiston

Many,
there

no

may

and

doubt,
be

many

have

the

latter

with

the

has

much

realized

others

who

been

let
percha pelfective
ef-

more

the
have

dition
expenot

H.

burning in a common
and bisulphide of carbon.
of equal parts of benzine
is abundantly given off in the
burning of
vapor

disinfectinglamp
acid

than

gutta
is

of

means

larger
the

The

cotton.

on

pose.
pur-

fistula,the

with

medicament

the

for

seen,

J. M.

mixture

Sulphurous
the

instrument,

it.

Simple

can

iron,

forcing an antisepticmedicament
out
through the fistula,is by

"pumping."

this

cutting

have

we

abscess

alveolar

other

of

in the

of

most

cutting

metal

and
apical foramen
base-plategutta percha somewhat
pelletof warm
be quickly pressed into
cavity. This should

finger, or

bent

one,

and

wet

disk"

the

perhaps

chronic

the

of

thin

soft

or

when

"diamond

any

or

copper,

time, and

short

equal

of

and

will do

cut,

the

at

in renewal

best, for

the

not

aluminum,

of

very

method

effective

most

if

materials,

Aluminum

all purposes.

In

in

one

any

material

result

pull

find

handle,

the

probably
a
filling,

instruments.

these

disk

with

make

to

and

finished

will

to

of

surface

debris,

in line

as

so

soft metal, which

disks, is
made

of

required
of

retain

perfectly

than

common

more

result

the

manner,

finishing

have

they

If

remove.

in

knives

files,

of

use

fail to

after

overlapping

must

thorough

will

such

way,

usual
is

an

which

blade

work

in their

with

good,

at

this

Nothing

cervical

nearly

in

work

their satisfaction

used

thus

not

to

patient and

most

polishing tapes

have

test

the

and

disks,

scrapers,

the

NOTES.

is formed

by

omE

Archives of Dentistry.
J
A

Record

Monthly

n., No.

Vol.

JUNE,

6.]

Of

all the

THE

In

SHAW,

of

disregard
but

all scientific
is

there
than

conditions

the

and

have
when

have
in

they

Africans,

settled
It is
of
in

I will

others
on

will
a

Americ

solid

favorite

American

in

are

and

parts
of

parts

follow

than

less

most

value

for

of

the

into

as

and

well

as

with

their

the

and

and

of
of

the

of

norance
ig-

purpose.
the

cans
Amerifrom

people

woolly-haired
and

conclusions,

experience

And

result

settled

teeth
of

facts,

teeth.

the

teeth

some

observations

my

the

the

text-books,

our

for

in

which

on

of

the

merely

observing

Union,

of

pearances
ap-

one

subject

no

knowledge

cases

by

fundamental

misrepresentations

Europe,

record

with

judge

"not

is

there

until

this

hope
is

matter

basis.
way

in

Europe

of

accounting
that

dentistry by assuming
a

is

incorporated

opportunities

different

different

that

had

should

we

comparative

become

prejudice,
As

that

assertion,

dogmatic

current,

pass

law

great

ENGLAND.

S., MANCHESTER,

D.

investigations), perhaps

assertions

these

D.

PEOPLE.

I'ighteously" (which

judge

more

on

the

excel,
writing well."

wise
is

DIFFERENT

OF

PARSONS

the

in which

chief masterpiece

TEETH

BY

Series.

[New

ARTICLES.

arts

Nature's

Art.

and

1885.

ORIGINAL
"

Science

Dental

of

elsewhere,

owing

to

the

dentists
more

for

the
are

superiority
more

rapid decay

needed
of

the

242

The

teeth.

"When

Archives

Dentistry.

of

meaning of this assump


It
tion, we find it to be only a part and parcel of a great system.
is taken
for granted by European authorities
that
everything must
be wrong
in America, as the government,
fiscal policy,social life,
on
a
religionand morals are, according to their views, all based
false foundation.
And
then it is argued that, as
under
pernicious
institutions

people

no

gradual decay
The

few

of

the

Puritans
The

the

of

blood

but

climate;

in

real

apparent is owing,

more

in

by
is

and

meaning,

views

these

quite

so

he

of

settled

the

has

fact.

average

suspicion

no

out
with-

them

adopt
investigationsit

too

to

apt

the

assured,

are

we

When

emigration.

with

in contact

as

tribute
at-

ation
degener-

the

descendants

brought

comes

their

the

ly.
physical-

institutions

American

to

find

to

and

politically,
morally

deterioration

it is not

why

American

natural

general,and of the
particular,is almost universallytaken

in

new

is,therefore,

it

quite condemn

Americans

reason

to

the

prosper,

do not

this assumed
of

can

Americans,

the

who

understand

to

get

we

is usually
begins to make
his foreign patients,by whom
either
he is misled
through
among
their preconceived notions
of American
ceit.
degeneracy, or their conIt comes
in this way.
know
the
teeth
about
We
decay a
reflection.

deal

great

before

thing

for them

when

the

more

for
to

their

say

It is

years.

his first

have

live somewhere

and

decay

all round

there.
of

been

from

man

until

compass.

It

the

and

that

His

decay

in if he
notions

American

in his

had

never

which

do

he

the

he

in

based

upon

the

to

the

he

reason

he

went

to

is

South

the

to

came

had
and

he

speck

it goes

so

when
until

pened
hap-

dentist

the

never

evidence

came

same

until

he

all sound

were

decay
of

been

South;

into the

is,therefore, no

teeth, and

that

from

avows

practice

until he

the

when

decaying,

in my

here

For

man

sound

went

are

had

common

months,

been

decayed

never

North

not

came

few

they
experience
never
decayed

teeth.

and

it is

have

his

his teeth

teeth

assurances

he

within

never

all

the

gone

and

of

were

it,and

after

was

his teeth

his teeth

tells the

America,

his teeth

the

on

it

England;

of

out

common

toothache,

is certain

Englishman

of

have

his teeth

real condition

the

equally cei'tain

of

aware

slightestinvestigationshows

ascertain

North;

are

teeth

me
foreigner to assure
England, simply because

the

do

patients

to

to

to

less,for

or

if he

Or

the

eigner
forto

came

"old

country" as they
ignorance of the progress

condition

they

would

emigrated, strengthened by the


of his patriotic bounce.
out
grew

have
ceived
preconIn

so

The

244

in every

transaction

favor.

The

is that

those

work,

at

are

inevitable

result

who

the

sink

laws

as

it.

And

got elevated

have

luck, to maintain
fortunate
that

which

to

they resort,
of
of

means

when

slass rises to

and

because

they

are

modes
but

and

physicallaws;
of

wedded

of

there
stances
circumgether
alto-

not

that

scale

social

the

lower

mere

certain

whole,

classes

sumption.
as-

ly
eventualthat

remains

and

the

on

and

less

less

imagine

to

which

the

their

manently
per-

the

great

remain

such

dices,
opinions, appetites,instincts, preju-

to

and

thought

the

order

system

none

they obey,

it is because

there
moral

top of

the

lead

devices

low

the

to

apt

same

these

they are only a part of


degrades; and it remains

more

selection,if

are

the

But
still

set

true

unpreventable

this natural

fellows

by

It is

scale.

life

of

orders
strugglesof such of the lower
stroke
of
their real
sphere by some
numerabl
in their unnatural
positionby the in-

of

out

lifted up

are

men

social

the

aside

the

unreflective

and

of

themselves

devices

physical laws
habituallydisregard either

who

set

named

I have

and

times, unexpected and


to

conferring the

are

selection

natural

mental, moral

bottom

appear

defy

of the

those

the

all

at

which
to

obey
to

Dentistey.

or

life,that it is they who

of

top, while

arise to the
these

AKcnrv^ES

of

ways

life

which

elevate,

cannot

found
with
the foregoing,I have
degrade. In accordance
classes, all
those who
belong, by inheritance, to the upper
ally!
Europe, are in almost every way the superiors,mentally, morThe
orders.
and physically,of the permanently lower
lish
Eng-

must

that
over

fellow at everything,
gentleman has always beaten the common
all classes
countries
to which
especiallyin roughing it in the new
It is
have
emigrated from the beginning of the English colonies.
of Europe, and of
of the very best blood
the descendants
because
and
reaped
England in particular,have dug and delved and sowed
from
to

Maine
labor

to

Georgia

for

in all parts of

two

over

America

have
the
we
intelligence,that
cannot
thought and feeling. You
of a refined and
out
gentle nature.

centuries, and

by uniting it

to

still

ty
give digniand

refinement

American
of
elevating tone
create
a "gentle" man
except

Wealth,

the

versity,
Uni-

tailor,the

"society" can only put on a transparent surface polish


if there is not the hereditary elevating instinct which
nothing can
or
invariablygo back, sooner
smother; and the snob's descendants
which
he
when, for a certainty,
later,to the class from
sprung;
and

their

last state
mistake

to

is

worse

suppose

than
the

their

first.

peasantry

It

of any

is, therefore,
country

have

an

tire
en-

better

teeth

the

than

gentry,

other

quite the

respect their

in any

are

The

way.

middle

lower, and

or

are

ivided

Adam

Smith

English

classes,

245

Articles.

Original

as

or,

the

into

is

It

superior.

upper,

puts it,into those

by rents on land, those who live by labor, and those who


class is distinguishedby simplicityof
by profits. The
upper
and of personal living, cleanliness, hi^h
integrity, and
live

who
live
manners

great frugality. With

diet, they
of the

people

are

class

lower

and

strong

very

food

their

eat

ple
sim-

teeth.

excellent

have

uncleanly,

are

exercise, and

air and

fresh

plenty of

The

miserably

passionatelyfond of dainties, are imprudent in all their


lay out
doings, and so improvident that, as a rule, they cannot
but
their earnings so as to make
them
a single week,
spread over
cooked,

are

food

want

before

the

simple diet, and


of

their

instincts,
lower

orders

have

working
to spend

that

they

race,

made

in
bad

have

teeth.

fi'om

up

middle

The

all ranks

and

in

England as in the
immense
changes in

causes

be the

may
of

lord.

class
the

bad

are

I have

known

among

the

general
the

can

poor
artisans

average

say
teeth

natural

to

I have

pretty in youth, but

go
seen

been
ever
soon

met

in

decay.

large teeth, as do most


them
fairlywell so long as they live
bread.
But
some
they are deficient
stamina, and if attacked
by decay
class

of Germans

have

be the

low

dle
mid-

the

very

that

suppose

grandson
best

good

Welsh

The

the

family,

for
and

They

The

lowest

inferior
out

pearly

are

class

and

mans
Ger-

of

people, which

of doors

the
have

peasantry

Europe.

to

because

the

giving.

as

profit

of all

the

is from

is

longest pedigree;
It is only
splendid teeth.

with

have

upper

to

chant,
mer-

class

find in

we

of teeth, from

mistake

the

great merchant

The
may

that

patient

the

I have

I have

of

This

etc.

generation.

conditions

It will be

we

poorest teeth

and

and

sorts

thoroughly mongrel

his clerk

is

consequence

uncertainties

The

and

but

is,therefore,

It
all

each

The

It consists

classes.

colonies.

laborer

farm

poorest.

very

teeth

of

son

is

class

tradesman,

farmer, professionalman,
mixed

by living in large
all, by having good

intensified

are

above
impure air^ and
indulging their appetites.

in

tisans
ar-

efits,
ben-

compensating

these

not

sults
re-

the

But

teeth.

evil

the

overcome

fairly good

have

and

have

necessity

dire

from

somewhat

the effects of their faults

and

wages

air, and

fresh

borers
agriculturalla-

The

in.

come

wages

in consequence

the

among

towns,

of

plenty

get

new

eat

serve

Avhole-

little
but
vitality, have
crumble
rapidly. The
away
in

teeth,

but

not

so

vital

as

the

246

The

Archives

Americans.
English or the
Magitot) have teeth much

Dentistry.

of

French

The
like

the

Gothic

of

Germans;

but

origin (see

those

Keltic

of

There
doubt
that
be
cannot
a
vastly better teeth.
the pre-historicpeople of Europe
had the best
the
Kelts
among
teeth.
Irish are
The
a
curiouslymixed
people. The
peasantry,
who
the descendants
of the aborigines,have
are
large,and
coarse,
settled
All
around
the coast
of Ireland
there
not
good teeth.
in ancient
their descendants
have
times, the Northmen, and
good

origin have

and

strong teeth.

are

English in origin than is admitted, and


the English, The
North
of
Ireland

like

Scotch
There

descent,
is

even

Then

and
a

between

here

find

we

different

good teeth, and better


higher classes of Scotland
in structure, and

much

very

largerproportion of

good,

classes.

than

his

teeth

vital

peasant

In

highly organized.

all

fine in

of

teeth.
in

land
Eng-

has

ly
fair-

than

English neighbor.
teeth

much

wholly

and

Scotch

Irish

the
are

is almost

in Scotland

The

find the

we

their

strong,

difference

marked

more

the

the

Among

form, compact
racy
aristoc-

probabilitythe

Europe. The Danes, Swedes,


The
and Norwegians,
fine teeth.
have
being a superior race,
The
Spanish teeth decay early,and the Portugese still sooner.
Greeks
the real Greeks) have
good teeth, as a rule. They
(I mean
Arabs.
do
Turks
and
well with the English, and so
the
compare
What
had
with the wooly-haired Africans
little experience I have
of Scotland

shows
is
do

so

is the finest

they have very poor and


persistentlyasserted, with

these

take

the

any

other

teeth

with

compare

trouble

make

to

conclusion

in

race

dark

American's?

than

that,

for

in

dentistryflourishes
are

the

unusually
very

bad

and

opposite reason.

present

much

very

people, of those which


operations. The
proper
in other

be
more

saved

the

among

by

the

dentists

in

same

ot

structure,

other

not

than

usual

It is because

the

great drawback
is found

better

And

in the

the

as

the

can

because

of

the

teeth

attention,but
of

the

American's.

from
cans
Ameri-

the

other

of

by
dentistry
save

conservative
fact that

the

of

tive
conserva-

because

teeth

to

vitality,are

classes, relativelypoorer,

skill

America

to

will

come

teeth

and

people.

country,

more

the

whole,

that
larger proportion, than
the dejitist can
experience shows

parts of the world

excepting

that

need

the

on

think

as

how

who

man

will I

observations

strength,fineness
of any
decidedly superior to those

American's,

No

white,
Now,

unusually large roots.

the

careful

yellow teeth, not

teeth
and
There

are,

cannot
are

general superiorityof

Original

the

natural

teeth, the

which

with

ease

other

in most
of

the

this is

dentistrywill remain,

And

accomplished.

nature

population,to

great

extent

been,

the

very

for

means

comparative

the

and

them,

save

of the

it always has

what

to

parts of the world, because


of the

mass

desire

247

Articles.

supplying

teeth

of the

much

very

false

the inevitable

ones.

ROOM

BY

minds

Those
and

their

allow

there

were

the

on

of
It

is not

of

score

led
on

this

the

Ou

in

of

It is

of

who

all such

Let

many
it?

us

who

aside

many

intentions

laudable

efforts

and

last

have

that
claim

feel thankful

we

for

as

the

is not

yet

won,

appreciationof

proper

of the

the progress

upon

invite

goal

especialattention

to

the

the

ideal

this fact may


art

aud

not

cise
exer-

in the immediate

following brief

the

marks.
re-

ble
valuaof the most
engine," one
additions
made
been
that has
to
operative dentistry. How
dentists now
in actual practicewould
be willingto do without
I apprehend that, notwithstanding its many
disadvantages,no

one

not

would

that

improvements
professionduring the

acknowledge,

that the

potent influence

future, we

ladder.

notable

successful

so

suit
pur-

inventors
both
to
expressing our esteem
with
untiringdiligencehave placed within
valuable
auxiliaries
now
as
we
enjoy.

plain,however

yet reached; and,

to

top of the

the

at

the

contrary,

proud

are

we

the

in every

dentistryas

dental

the

respects

many

manufacturers,

of

progress

opportunity

reach

is

years.

which

us

In

art.

fluence
in-

its beneficent

exercise

to

plenty of room
design to decry the

our

these

to

of the

and

droop

to

gratitude not
cents, ought not
as
though
wane,

of

and

dollars

heart

professionat

debt

of

occasion

further

there

marked

have

already owes

vulgar terms
inventive
genius

progress

good,

of the dental

the interest

the

no

GA.

SAVANNAH,

BEST,

H.

dentist

every

representable in
to

A.

DR.

that have

whom

to

IMPROVEMENT.

FOR

begin

has

with

become

the

"dental

familiar

until

find

something better
serious objection to

varieties

contrary, it must

of dental
be

the

use

would

special features
at

that

present
the

prefer

to

in its stead.

offered

shall be

engines

admitted

its

with

on

the

advantages

lay
We

presented in
market;
obtained

it
do

the

on

the

by

spe-

248

The

cific forms

Archives

Dentistry.

of

of construction

iences
the inconvenconsiderably overbalance
occasioned
thereby. But this very fact of a compromise
between
desirable
and prejudicial features
sufficient
is evidence
to establish
the truth of oar
propositionthat "the end is not yet."
For instance, take the suspension engine: It
has one
powerful
to the operarecommendation, that of being at all times convenient
tor
without
in any way
of
his
side
the
movements
at
incommoding
the

chair.

always

an

eyes,

or

lack

The

many

overcome

but

to

form

the

yet

way,

would

capitaladvantage

of dental

the

side of the

operators

some

this form

forms

of

less familiar

is far from

engine

engines that are


operating chair,
all.

At

against it,

urge

intended
and

ideal.

the
to

occupy

right

usually the

first

to
sight they seem
the objections brought against the
suspension engine,
accomplish this, they resign the advantages peculiarto that
more

of

In

which

that

position at
are

of power

admit

must

we

side

This

reach.

easy

of

out

counterbalanced
not
fortunate
preference,if it was
by the unthe ceilingor
objectionthat the engine must hang from
the
unsightly crane
constantlybefore
unlucky patient's
his
like
Add
the
sword
of
Damocles.
head,
dangle over

this the

and

hand, it rises

it the

from

to

his

from

within

remains

insure

Released

or

construction, and

the

first

the

place,
means
i'equired;the

to

must

latter

contend

style

with

of

defects

engine

may

of their
have

own.

all

the

that power
is conveyed are
by which
such that its utility is greatly lessened, and
freedom
of movement,
essential pre-requisite,
much
trammeled.
usually an
very
Another
forces itself upon
the notice
very serious objection,which

power

of all who
the

use

Wilkerson

feet of the chair

present

absolutelyimpossible
for

use.

to

either

to

the

in the

placing of

get the latter into


be

which

engine so that it
position convenient

the

the

brought so near
an
auxiliary,or

obstruction

operator

that

is

it is

else too
far toward
the
impediment as
window
to permit of
thoroughly
easy manipulation. Again, any
practicaldental engine ought not to be of a nature
requiring its
removal
from
in use.
This nenot
cessity
positionbeside the chair when
half
the
for
the utilityof
device;
really destroys
though it
as

may

much

It must

chair, consists

seem

an

trifle to

casual

observer

that

dental

engine weighing

fiftyto seventy-fivepounds needs to be lifted to and from the chair,


times a day
yet the repetitionof this effort,perhaps half a hundred
that
of simple physical labor
amounts
to so great a waste
many
thoughtful operators would rather forego the adv^antages of this

Original,

249

engine, if the services required of it


indispensable.
various
stylesof electric engines, and

of

form

The

by

run

water

power,

in

come

forces,however, do

motive

without
the

Articles.

that

agents

which

imposing

continual

the

penalty

is

power
anxious

of

dental

are

to

Such

servitude
few

but

procurable; while

attention

engines

slavery of propulsion,

of greater

There

lutely
abso-

appear

attention.

the

battery

solutions,jars,zincs,carbons, connections, etc.,

quite unadvisable

not

also

our

from

us

genei'ate the power.

sufficient water

means

share

free

not

us

on

for

do

to

in

towns

"electricity"
and

chemicals,
which

care

it

is

sistant.
delegate to the intelligenceof the average asout
Were
it, however, possible to utilize these agents withthe
with them, then many
of
disadvantages usually associated
Xumerous
ures
featmanifest
lose their force.
objections would
onstrate
demwhich
the various engines present,clearly
utility
ofpractical

the

to

of aggregatinggood qualities,
to arrive
so
as
possibility
and practicalapplication much
at something in construction
er
nearend than any contrivance
hitherto
made
the desired
public.
In the foregoing remarks, it has not been
aim
to
enumerate
our
all the advantages or disadvantages peculiar to
special styles of
the

construction, nor
it

exhibit

to

terms,

thought only necessary


and to avoid
giving our

aspect

which

as

was

We

might

that
such

under

the

to

observation

the
in

matter

of

anything

other;

general
a

critical

circumstances

any

be

glad

to

see

the

stated

engine.
the first place it

should

It should

be

at

operator
in the

always

face, nor

in size
see

picked

up

power

to

would

not

engine

be

attracted

conclusion,

we

of

positve power.
reach

easy

the

stare

his head.
spiritover
view; the hand-piece neither
an

evil

in

of the

patient

The

ing
work-

able
objectionshould

(in fact,we

movement

the bracket

so

within

neither

must

constructed

so

and

like

hand-piece could be
other instrument) and the
attention
of the
patient

that

just like any


silentlyapplied that the

from
be

from

trammelled

nor

dental

like

hover

chair

it

abundance

an

possess

at the

time;' but

any

parts concealed

In

to refer

with

generally appreciated, as we could then hope


would
itself.
It is in some
assert
some
dispositionto advance
to
hope that we venture
suggest the requisites of the ideal
above

dental
In

contrast

one

misconstrued.

should, however,

facts

to

be

in

the

the

thereby.

admit

that

our

requisitionsfor

the

ideal

are

The

250

rather

high;

but

for the

being

not

to hit the

in mind

rules

the

that

elevated

long-

govern

that it is necessary

unaware

have

earth-attraction,we

Dentistry.

of

borne

have

we

practice,and

range

Archh^es

allow

to

aim, hoping thereby

our

mark.

TRANSLATIONS.

TREATMENT

THE
About
C.

the

has

this article

the

writes:

he

tools which
on

steel

in

FOR

TOOLS.
drills

making

Zeitschrift

f.

and

burs,

Instrumenten-Kunde,

interestingarticle.

very

In

STEEL

Berlin, in the

of

Reichel,

of

treatment

OF

used

are

The
for the

which

treatment

and

endurance

working

the

steel

of

tain
strength of cermetal
tially
depends essen-

the

undergoes during

ing
forg-

hardening. The working of steel for tools which have to


not
to be done
in turning,boring, and drilling,
to me
serve
appears
is very
bitrary.
arirregular and
according to fixed rules; the treatment
and

The

will enable

which

rules

view

seems

annealed

is

The

tools.
not

been

this

opinion
the

be

experience of

the

hardness

they could
permit them to

not

of the metal
tools

and

few

simple

enduring
which

has
to

oppose

ing
occurring in the trade, while havexceedingly tough, but these cannot

all files

glass are

would

become

so

soft

by

ing
overheat-

Their
shape would
required work.
rior
conduct
the heat quickly enough into the intetoo soft; also the engraver's
they would become
do

not

with

possess,

to

me

produce resistingand
steel
be wide-spread, that
to
breaks
easily. I
very brittle and

annealed; their sharp teeth


that

led

to

one

any

fact that
of

has

years

many

their

the

original,not

"

hardness, such

annealed

preference for burs


them
properly by grinding. They do not
the cutting edges are
on
chip, although severely taxed; fractures
This
in the treatment.
can
mostly be explained by errors
rare, and
the quality of the steel
the brand
resistance
does not depend on
or

degi-ee of toughness
after having shaped

alone; the best


and

then

the

steel may

tools

made

quality of files,etc., and


that

the

establishments

that

be
of

use

them

spoiled by
it

their
where

possess
uniform

they

are

with

wrong

only
looks

in

treatment

little
allow

manufactured

strength.
us

to

fire,
The

conclude

for the trade

252

The

tention
To
In

to

the

avoidance

heat

the

steel I

such

red

flame

hot

and

Archives

damage

no

suffices
the

to

of

excess

for

gas

should

be

and

expose

for moments

oxides
To

does

layer of

such
oxidize

not

oxides

the

steel with

red

flame.
it carries
the flame

is
of

form

an

that

which

prevents

for that

purpose,

air,else it will flicker

piece;but

air is

steel and

good

without

contain

cannot

surface

flame

hot

unburned

the

its

on

kerosene

or

flame

protected against currents

is thus

imperfection.

can

Furthermore,

but

of

of

sources

hence

oxygen,

piece of

two

only take the temperature of


be
exceeded
hardening; it cannot

steel.

especiallyharmful
rapid cooling.

these

strongly smoking carbonaceous


take place so long as
overheating can
use

carbon, the steel

this

hot

of

Dentistry.

of

of the

contact

every

harmful, because

the

layer

formed.

determine

if the

has been
obtained, I
right temperature
As soon
the
blacken,before heating, the pieces to be hardened.
as
is reached
soot
and
the
begins to disappear,red hot temperature
be done
as
cooling must
quickly as possible. Distilled pure rain
or

river

acid

water

excellent

is

facilitates

the

for

muriatic
cooling; acidifying with
tools are
prepared in this manner
and need
the
no
annealing. With
can
designated,one
only harden

If

process.

they possess a tough hardness


ordinary flame of the materials
small

To

objects.
pieces in this
would

have
seems

be

fanned

form

and

method,

construct

into

muffle

remunerative

carbonaceous

larger
One

task.

large flame

osene
ker-

"

the flame
to
especially suited for this purpose
To harden
by a lightblast.
large tools of complicated
known
a well
apt to change shape in hardening, I use
and
low
to bring all the
as
a
so
piecesupon as uniform
"

possible.
pieces are packed into
as

surrounded
old
charcoal

heat

to

apparatus

be

to

temperature
The

be

might

manner,

direct

to

suitable

with

leather.

boxes

sheet

iron

and

are

pieces of charcoal, obtained

small
This

of

box

is then

introduced

into

pletely
com-

by
a

bonizing
car-

low

slowly heated through and through. The pieces


therein
are
effectuallyprotected against high or uneven
tures.
temperaThe
be done
eral
as
quickly as- possible. If sevcooling must
ening
pieces are in the box, the latter may be emptied into the hardor
warping is
water,
by turning it over; a change of form
rare,

This
coal

fire and

still.
bursting rarer
method
of using leather

contains

cyanides; at

red

coal
heat

has

another

they

become

advantage: This
decomposed in

253

Translations.

which

nitrogeneouscarbon
commercial

of the

coal

leather

coarse

meal, it has the

fine bone

with

them

into combination

partly enters

of the steel. Instead

surface

surround

steel and

pieces of

-vvith the

contact

with

some

the
the

use

chemically,but

action

same

layer of

disadvantages: The powder is apt to remain upon the


It is
and thereby prevent rapidmoistening by the water.
difficult to heat it all evenly to the same
temperature because
some

is

conductor

poor

In the

and

seems

heat.

just described, by packing in leather coal, I have


low
circular f raises; the hardening mixture
was
blubber, talthey cut glass easily.
wax;
the hardening fluid.
important to discuss somewhat
but

employ hardly anything

does

contain

not

If such

layer.

only

immersed

The

it is

when

of

used;

even

of

carbonate
with

the

is of

water
100

bonate
car-

poorly conducting

it is

of

water

This

lime.

good to boil
cooled, a
sufficiently

obtained

temperature
is

Clearwater

no

which

is, water

that

water,

pieces

be

cannot

using,adding

acid.

j^ure

alkali,at least
the

covers

before

it

manner

hardened

It

of

face
sur-

also

the

water

little muriatic

little account

C. hardens

if

well.

of fat of little value.


experience I consider the use
is considerably increased,
It has no particular advantages while the cost
If a large
be hardened.
to
chieflyif large pieces are
of red
hot
lead has
number
of pieces are to be hardened, a bath
exceeds
the latter
the advantage of the
coal packing, and
even
careful
One
be
with regard to uniformity of temperature.
must
from
in taking the pieces from
the molten
lead, to protect them
oxydizing when cooling. A good preventive is a thick mixture of
fore
Besalt,ferrocyanideof potassium and water.
rye meal, common
which
the pieces are
dipped into the liquidlead, the mixture
is spread on must
be perfectlydry.
Instruments
that
are
rapidly as drills and screw
usuallyworn
From

my

taps, I have
fifteen

to

twenty

Boxes
drilled

of

by

diameter
sides.

subjectedto

means

of
The

cast

the
cast

In conclusion
follow

in the

1. The
soot

hard

usage

upon

cast

iron

and

steel

for

hardening in this manner.


the
have
been
steel of
following dimensions
of these cylinder drills;length of the hole 13 cm."
The
holes showed
8 mm.
same
brightlypolished
annealed
before
steel was
not
drilling.
which
I
I wish to place in order the simple rules
years,

manufacture

steel must

be

after

of
heated

my

only

justbegins to disappear.

instruments:

own

to

dark

red

heat, at which

254

The

2. The
a

red

hot

carbonaceous

Akchives

flame

ought

be

to

rapidly as possible,in order to


3. The
must
hardening water
from

carbonate

of

lime.

protectedagainst oxidation, hence

be

pieces must

used

avoid
be

From

"

Dentistry.

of

and

in the

longer stay

free

from

as

air.

alkalies,particularly

German

the

cooling effected

the

C.

hy

Mayr.

SELECTIONS.

DISEASES

OF

THE

TEETH
REFLEX

CALLED
DUDLEY

BY

Assistant

It may

be

taken

the

the

of the

other

the

case

local

The

convulsions

authors

due

believe

they

to

so

the

result

the

M.

S.,

C.

R.

in University

College.

eased
give rise to disby direct continuity of

dental

lesions

may

of

and

jaws

P.,

the

while

gums,

contiguous soft

tures.
struc-

condition, although the startingpoint

by

the

of which
at

common

B.

inflammation

to

trouble, is yet dwarfed

disease, the connection

of

D.,

They

and

extend

may

process

that

ways.

originatecongestion

same

In

in two

M,

of Medicine

accepted

as

SO-

TO

MALADIES.

BUXTON,

Professor

to the

conditions
tissue

W.

RELATION

IN

most

diverse

from

the

severity of
with

teething

the
are

conditions.

jjyrexialstate

remote

some

area

only assumed.
according to various

teeth

is

Thus

while

of

the

Trousseau

blood,

recent

of
elevation
independently of any
they occur
Eclampsia, again, it has been sought to explain, by
temperature.
is present in the mouth
the hyperemia which
structures,
supposing
vascular
motor
by the vasopervades the whole
system and is controlled
Barrie r,however, adopts another
of the head and neck.
nerves
becomes
nervous
view, asserting that the whole
unduly
system
it by the
excited
pain expeowing to the impression made
rienced
ui^on
writer^

holds

that

in the gums.
is

It
French

interesting

notice

that

school, refer the dentition

Bouchut

to

Lewis

going

so

far

as

Smith, Diseases

so

of

term

some

diarrhoea

it "nervous

Children.

writers
to

especiallyof the
similar
origin,

diarrhoea," thus

asso-

Selections.

ciatini?it

with

manifests

which

shows

of trouble
the

to

state

itself also amongst

morbid

some

be instituted

It is

system.
have

to

man

Although
does

and

disease,yet

venture

we

dentist.

the

as

receive

should

far

too

by

the

search

steps taken

the intervention

at

an

what

are

at

present

does

not

should

remedy

to

of the

nervous

that

cases

we

capable of defining

not, constitute

reflex

or

thetic
sympa-

understand

must

upon

we

earnest

description,
always provising
attempt
may
elucidatingpathologicalenigmas than their

we

rather
We

solution.

and

us

of adults.

with,thislatter class of
particularly

more

deal.

it aims

the emotional

is at fault and

what

it has gone

exactly what
that

tells

Shylock

said that the

well

as

ascertain

to

evil before

the

of which

work, and

at

process

of the medical

care

of diarrhoea

preponderance of evidence
a predisposing than
an
exciting cause
children.
At the same
time
warning is often given
of the gums
and their dejiarturefrom
the
ical
physiologThis
should
indication
always be recognized as an

standard.
of

form

summing up it must be
that teething is more

In

by

that

265

the

explanation

of

of

terms

its

our

problem

mysteries. Let

us,

before

then,

We
have
a nerve
simplestcase.
centre, which
performs
the function
of regulating tissue trophic changes, we
have
ry
emissastrands which
nervous
perform the behests, so to speak, of the
strands
which
travel
controllingcentre; we have afferent nervous
the centre.
It is these last which
from
to
peripheralterminations
take

the

maintain

the

centre

en

rapport with

the

outside

world.

tell us at what
at present
Pathology cannot
point the afferent
impulses of nerves
peripherallystimulated, may
simple
promote
maintain
and
the
balance
between
destruction
and
healthygrowth
regeneration,and at what point nutrition becomes
deranged. The
results of which
are
we
cognizantare on the one hand hypertrophy,
the

other

atrophy.
We
know
that peripheralirritation acting upon
which
nerves
are
in connection
with centres
exerting trophic influence
will, if
allowed
to act long enough, produce marked
structural
changes in
on

tissues.
and

The

muscles

of the

arm

become

increased

alike

in

bulk

when

subjected to frequent calls for action, but should


be imposed upon
80
the trophic centres
severe
a strain
as
not
they canis kicked
and
a
meet, the beam
pathologicalatrophy replaces
physiological
growth. The
trophic centres, however, preside,it
power

be, over

may
its

very

wide

area.

One

branches, regions seemingly


in place and function.

alike

centre

unconnected

will dominate
and

through

widely remote

256

The

Aechives

Dentistry.

of

was
physiological connection
exist between
the nerve
supply of skin and
connection
which
probably really obtains

thought

close

fails to
that

when

that

lesions

demonstate

the

the

control

result

in

and

trophic

one

when

even

to
a

omy
anat-

coarse

Now,it would

appear

profoundly affected,

is

centre

due, of

areas,

more

or

time

one

subjacent structures,

channels.

nerve

at

to

course,

impaired

absolutely out of
in
connection
is sought and found
relation until the
physiological
An
the nervous
example
trophic centres.
supply and associated
perverted nutrition.

or

will illustrate

These

ai'eas

appear

may

it:

patientattending the ophthalmic clinic of a general hospital


was
gested
concomplained of discomfort about left conjunctiva. This
A

and
that

minute

vesicles

unilateral

severe

detected

were

headache

had

It

it.

upon

Examination

manifest.

become

elicited

was

vesicles along the line of the supra-orbital


nerve.
scalp showed
with
irritation of the supra-orbital
It was
of herpes from
nerve
a case
This is an example
impairment of the nutrition of the globe of the eye.
lesions
in
solutely
abrise
fifth
the
of a nerve
to
areas
pair giving
distinct,namely, those of the scalp and those of the eye.
which
directly
It is,then, mainly the fifth pair of nerves
directly or inand pains with
aches
the
gives rise to those innumerable

of the

"

"

of which

causation

of this fifth
difliculties in

folks

pair of

tracing to

lesions.

supply

The

saddle

the

teeth

two

roots

the

teeth.

will

nerves

fibres to

motor

the

such
of

diverse
the

sympathetic
then gives off
nerve
orbit and
becoming

"

with

the

third

again

with

the

nerve

the

at

"

or

in

which

motor

sympathetic.

The

nerve

second

omy
anat-

of the

and

sensations
the

from

connected

connected
dis-

ry,
senso-

to

mouth.

Casserian

its three

communication

some

motor

and

nose

branches

the

plexus join it. The


the first going to the
ganglion the ophthalmic

"

the

at

apparently

masticatory muscles,

face, fore part of the head, the eye, the


The
first junction,or anastomosis, occurs
fibres from

away

and

nerve

the

where

clear

to

serve

glance

the

lion
gang-

carotid

large branches,
with

another

is established

of the

globe muscles
going to supply the

and
face

brane
memsuperior maxilla as well as the mucous
membrane
of the
lining the maxillary sinus, the mucous
and upper
portion of the pharynx as well as
lips,that of the nose
and soft palate. In the spheno-maxillary gangthe tonsils,uvula
lion,
communicates
it
and
in realitya plexus
not
a ganglion,
again

and

with

the

the

teeth

of the

sympathetic.

The

third

division

supplies the

teeth

of

257

Selections.

the

lower

jaw,

the

jaw,

it also

the

sensation
with

connected

this division.

from
the

and

pharynx, tympanum
face.

the

that

grounds

it is

But

possible channels of
pair and other nerves
There

by

motor

lower

also obtains

exhausted

are

and

exist closer

in

physiologicalcontinuity of

ly
hard-

muscles

anatomical

flow
by overtrophic changes,

central

or

that

to assert

fifth

anatomical

above
series of

parts

all the

the

between

the

subtile

more

the

upon

intercommunication

nervous

need

we

to

communication

accurate

means

pharyngeal
glosso-

filaments

of

plain

mon
com-

becomes

and

facial

nerve

rendered

no

lip, and

tube; while

of nerve
possiblesources
nervous
explosive action

numerous.

in the

thus

nal
exter-

supplies

the

of central
are

is

the

of

head, the

lower

the

nerve

Eustachian

is

nerve

It

with

last named

The

facial

the

otic-ganglionit

In the
and

sympathetic

nei'ves.

add, the

articulation

and

greater part of the tongue

The

part of the face.

of

salivary glands

gives sensation to the side of


supplying the external meatus, the

ear

the

the

gums,

and

count.
ac-

nels
possiblechanassociation

in

function.
How

is the

commonly

aspect of the

taken

condition

and

tween
physiologicalconnection
subsistingberealized
the tongue and the stomach
or
duly appreciated.
rious
cycle of physiologicalfunction in which participatethe va-

In the

seldom

sections
and
do
to

the
the

suffer.

the

milk

first few
from

most

that

of the

active

more

nervous

break

irradiate

throughout the
puberty becomes

in this way

does

profound upset of
The
teething is
metabolism

speak, under

its
one

the

down

the

are

have

we

tudes,
vicissi-

many
of

out

call

to

gear

so

attention

the

the
medical
laity,and even
referringto the process by which

many

maladies
It

evolutions

which

which

be

to

seems

appear

in the

inseparable
in the human

occur

impressions are called into existence,


the inhibitory resistances
and
so

widest

areas

of the

subject of

teething child

such
show

The

system.

nervous

catastrophe,

nervous

the

most

general cycle of evolution.


is being worked,
bodily structure

The

nervous

sign of

of the whole

high

stomach,

the

part becomes

one

existence.

of infantile

years

impressions which

and

those

egress,

frame, that profound

girlat

which
fall in

commonly

teeth

as

this connection

In

into

errors

so
practitioner,

of

there

elementary apparatus

it is undoubted

common

mucous

is the

of the

others

membrane

indicative

as

of the

yet how

present in the

tongue

pressure.

signs

of

centres.
a

shock

too

trivial

to

so

to

elicit consci-

258

The

in the well-balanced

ousness

in the

infant

and
Dr.

to

of

process

Smith'

in

from

the

and

Barthez

and

the

the

other

is in the

the

remember

to

tion
func-

tooth

kindred

or

the teeth,

most

strained

although

the children's
this

at

the

balance

disease.

of

exhausted

an

with

kick

to

in

are

of evolution

processes

declension

of

follicles

the

that

yet it taxes

fullycompetent

the

to

passu

place under

bound

are

symptomatic

trouble

upon

of

alimentary tract

pari

progress

it is

progress

be

teething" may
in turn

with

of health

mean

whole

take

fact that

the

to

physiological
process,

coupled

active

the

the

along

further,we

is jyer'se

time

when

studded

And

strength,and

gives rise

profound derangement

attention

alimentation, must

conditions.
dentition

draws

development

hence

adult

of the

system

nervous

development.

found

are

Dentistry.

of

wide-spread and

of

even

Eustace

which

and

Archives

"Cross
but

centre,

nervous

structures,itplays back

parture
degiving rise to some
function.
from
the physiologicalcerebro-spinal
In fine,children
suffer from
convulsions
during teething, but
elicited by the eruption of the
more
rarely are such convulsions
work
This point is fully worked
in the classical
of
teeth.
out
Rilliet.
the

tooth

upon

which

may

in

teeth

system

central

is, as

As

we

is well

gives

gum

which

to

the

the

more

pressure
less

or

mouth

spread

may

pointed out
it happens

known,

rise

itself to

confine

default, or

system

nervous

in

far and

of

the

stomatitis,a

ady
mal-

the

region

of

wide.

The

nervous

peculiarly sensitive

above,

ing
erupt-

the

pressionab
im-

and

atitis,
pyrexia caused by this stomof digestion. Thus,
seriouslydisorders the child's powers
act
teething,and reagain, the vomiting, diarrhcea etc., ensue
upon
concerned
in teething.
the structures
upon
When
morbid
conditions
are
present and teethinghas ceased to be
with
of those maladies,which
meet
a physiologicalprocess,we
some
To
form
stomatitis
more
particularlythe subjectof this paper.
referred
have
and
we
above, aphthae,
gastro-intestinalcatarrh
vomiting and diarrhoea complications,occurring usually in warm
it be profitable
detain
would
need
to dwell
not
weather,
us; nor

and

upon

the

when

winter

on

the

which
Jour,
I. A

eve

succeds
of

to

ofDental
Practical

troubles
whole

The

summer.

disease, that

casuallybecomes

the

bronchial

and

pulmonary

that

organ

exposed

system

or

to

some

which

replace them
body being as it were
feels

exciting

Science.
Treatise

on

the

Diseases

of Children.

the

brunt

causes.

"

of
British

it

260

used

the

across

no

dentist

No

one.

of

kind.

any

brush, soaps
are

for

only

injury

will

be

done.

If

axis

of

handle

in

chieflyuseful

know

to

such

specificpurposes,

handle
effective

an

preparations

secret

formula.
friction

the

friction.

of

the

Tooth-washes

local

applications

alveolaris

pyorrhea

as

way

brush
is

the

increasing

diminish

in the

the

Therapeutically uses

water.

as

the

prescribing

in

and

if used

but

in advance

lubricants

are

the

on

is entitled

is

valueless

as

harm

warranted

is

He

dentrifice

does

motion

straighta rotary

Dentistry.

or

often

teeth

indicated

have
is

Archives

The

and

the

vitaliza
de-

of

pulps.
hygiene must

True

in childhood

formed

are

TF". 11.

Dr.

Morgan.

"

will be

Both

papers
all the

failed

from

sulphuricacid.

claims

secure

"Clean

life.

early

there

Have

to

in

commence

If

habits

proper

little trouble

in after

good

general principles.
Dr.
Arrington
decay?" I do

to

as

benefits

that

Avill

teeth

never

life.

does
instances
Decay in many
of foreign substances, as in the case
the
from
presence
mouth
If the acid theory of decay be true, the
fluids.
rapidly.
very clean, and decay go on
know

not

be

Must

back

progeny." In the hills


amidst
surroundings of
favorable

most

Keep

Orleans.
condiments
Had

for

the

swallowed

filth and

the

that

good

secure

and

of

absolute

\vhen

first

but

advanced,

children,
want,

general good health, but


required. There is nothing in

are

holds

now

may

for their

of the children

teeth

sult
re-

of vitiated

"mothers

teeth

mouths

the

squalor

to

said

was

in

mother

it

to

Tennessee,

contrast

foods

or

of

It

causes.

pleasant surroundings

have

not

means.

further

reach

must

that

what

sent
preNew

in
no

special

that

theory.

contrary

opinion.
No
to

article of diet but

develop

lime

salts

in

dry

skeleton.

entire

weight

rice,which

is nine-tenths

eaten

in

and

year

furnished

It has been
Look

at

limestone

this
bed

one

claimed

great
the

of

cent.

years

than

one

this poorest

that
river.

the

is but

Huxley
the dry

seven

more

from

of

There

per

it takes

will be

skeleton, there

nvally

of

lime-salts

more

poorest in lime

is the

there

it

system.

osseous

The

pounds.
In

the

in

has

very
not

says

is

salts of

all

If

three

to

wear

Tennessee,

takes
from

small

of

the

six

two

pounds.

food

pounds

of

stuffs,
rice is

rebuild

and

bone

of

amount

than

only

out

pound

is necessary

rnore

skeleton

material

the
an-

of all material.

MississsippiDelta
It

than

up
Ohio

the
and

has

no

lime-salts
New

lime-salts!
from

the

York, by the

Societiet.

Dental

Wabash
these

all

form

to

goes

the

that

in this

most

I do

alkaline.
but that

in

in the

not

need

something

brushes, they
and
become

necks

of

and

the gums,

work.

molar

the

have,

do

to

what

the

cleanser

It is

of

age

charotics
failed

with

Dr.

Jas.

the

silver

as

everything
S. Knapp.

often

accounted

ble
terri-

the

will be

soon

Dr.

stroyed
de-

that

They

for in

it with
be

substance

on

It

way.

will illustrate.
a

will

"

soon

matter
a

great

oily

quired.
rubbing is reastringentes-

use

control

I have

when

else.

other

no

thing
some-

It dissolves
little

very

local treatment

nitrate,etc.

fissures

mouth.

own

fissures

gold, use

temporize. No
perfectly. Soap is

Agrees perfectlywith
The
are
injured and
gums

find loss of

J. R.

point

of

wood

the

Place

dipped

gards
Morgan as reteeth grooved.

the
surface

outer

does

Dr.

not
a

look
tooth

that

can

be

possible,but
in

in charcoal.

vise, and

groove

worn.

Walker

fillingchildren's
other

need

the

out

use

out

"

simple experiment
across

if you

so

to

cut

the work

adhere,

gums

toothbrushes.

use

stiff

regards
to

cut

age,

how
to

it in my

with

that

not

again

over

patient do

deposits
such

don't know

mistake

great

the

When

As

by'
We

cavities.

so

yeaj's of

seven

you

satisfied

am

"

If

work

your

other

will

result

filled at

gold.

else.

rub

and

exposed, that fillingssoon


of gold will
follow
the
ribbon
a
the
of stiff brushes
applied across

teeth

time

in

as

is to be

fill with

We

the

posed
ex-

between

and

when

stiff,
gums

too

Am

decay.

It is found

fluids.

are

substance,

Ammonia,
acid.

edly
decid-

the debris
from
prefer a napkin for friction,but remove
I condemn
all temporizing
the teeth
by other means.
To preserve
teeth we
must
put in good fillings.If a sixth

teeth.

and

alkaline

meet

are

tooth
favors

interstcies

the

If brushes

teeth.

of

the

dissolve

nitric

and

to

fluids

the

saliva.

all

investigation is

my

formerly universally recommended

necessary,
of

neutralize

to

were

destruction

in

of

place wnich

takes

alkaline

saliva,but

tests,

year

of

cases

alkalies

atmospheric action, develops

to

edges

action

intended

where

cases

from

this country

over
are

result

in

that

say

chemical

some

concerned

most

not

cereals

The

regard.
rapid decay is

Arkansas,

all

spread

The

soil.

from

River

brought, and

this alluvial

wants

our

is

lime

sources

Red

the

Illinois,by

from

261

of

than
the

all that

Dr.

Morgan

has

said

about

sometimes
them
well, but would
filling
because
the
sarily
gold; not
operator is necesof
of gold, but because
the soft texture
use

teeth, and

material

ignorant

indorses

The

262

teeth makes

young

admit

Morgan

and

advisable.

for any

difference

the

Dentistry.

of

material

other

imperfect work,

do

or

Archives

in

Was

reason.

the

character

Mississippi delta.

in the

Would

The

glad
of

ize
tempor-

never

hear

to

teeth

the

prevalence of

Dr.

in Tennessee
poor

soft

in
localityis due to the absence of limesalts
food and drink; appreciated his eloquent portrayal of the great
Mississippiriver,but unfortunately it is not that river water, with
all those lime salts held in solution, that is used
for drinking and
which
described
was
cooking purposes, but rainwater
by Dr. Stienis destitute
ments.
of organic eleberg, as "sewage of the air," which
A recent
tripthrough Texas had served to confirm him in
in the

teeth

his belief
the

latter

carbonate

the

that

mountains

of

have

those

in

the

the

people

mineral

they

must

that
In

elements

the

Texas

western

the

of

is

there

strongly impregnated
as
"gyp-water."

known

the

of

of

teeth

raised
Louis
teeth.

The

that

country

benefit

where

lime

curiosityas

some

of

is of

sulphate of
the

upon

has

nothing

W.

give

from

fauna

that

very

mothers.

to

the
be

as

to

to

what

is

water

so

popularly
effect

this

gratifiedto find
superiorquality. No
grain is
teeth, and

was

each

will be.

to