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Core 4 Revision Sheet

Algebra and Functions


Remainder Theorem

To find the remainder when a polynomial f(x) is divided by (ax + b) sub in f

( ba )

Eg, Find the remainder when f(x) = x + 2x -5x + 3 is divided by (2x + 1)

( 12 )

( 12 )

remainder is 5

7
8

+2

( 12 )

-5

( 12 )

+3=5

7
8

Therefore the

Factor Theorem

If (ax b) is a factor of the polynomial f(x) then f

( ba )

=0

Eg, Show (2x -1) is a factor of f(x) = 2x - x -2x + 1. Hence, express f(x) as a product of three
factors.

( 12 )

=2

( 12 )

( 12 )

-2

( 12 )

+1=0

therefore (2x -1) is a factor of f(x)

(2x 1)(ax + bx + c) = 2x - x -2x + 1


(2x 1)(x - 1)
methods

by inspection, expanding and comparing coefficients, or long division

(2x 1) (x + 1) (x 1)

Partial Fractions
Express

7 x+ 16
x +2 x8

7 x+ 16
x +2 x8

in partial fractions

A
x+4

B
x2

- multiply both sides by (x + 4)(x - 2)

7x + 16 = A(x - 2) + B(x + 4)
When x = 2

7(2) + 16 = 0A + 6B

- substitute values in for x


when x = -4

30 = 6B

-12 = -6A

B=5

7 x+ 16
x +2 x8
Repeated factors

7(-4) + 16 = -6A

A=2
=

2
x+4

5
x2

Express

2 x5
(x4)

in partial fractions

2 x5
( x4)

A
x4

B
(x4)

multiply

both sides by (x 4)
2x 5 = A (x 4) + B
2(4) 5 = B

sub in x = 4

B=3

2 x5
( x4)

A = 2 (comparing x terms)

2
x4

3
( x4)

Improper Fractions
Express

x +7 x 14
(x+ 5)(x 3)

in partial fractions

x +7 x 14
( x+ 5)(x 3)

B
( x+ 5)

=A+

c
( x3)

multiply both sides by (x + 5)(x 3)


x + 7x 14 = A(x + 5)(x - 3) + B(x 3) + c(x + 5)
A = 1 (comparing coefficients of x)
16 = 8C
C=2

when x = -5

x +7 x 14
( x+ 5)(x 3)

=1+

-24 = -8B

3
(x+ 5)

B=3

when x = 3

2
(x3)

Binomial Series

(1+ x)n

= 1 + nx +

n ( n1 ) x
2!

n ( n1 ) (n2) x
3!

+ . +

xn

- this is in

your formula book on pg 4.


When n is not a positive integer, the expansion will not terminate and is only valid for -1 < x < 1, or
|x| < 1
Therefore, you can only get an approximation of the expansion, usually up to x

Eg, Obtain the expansion of

(1+2 x )3

up to and including the term in x, and state the range

of x for which it is valid

(1+2 x )3

= 1 + (-3)(2x) +

(3)(4)(2 x )
2x 1

= 1 6x + 24x - 80x

Expansion of

|x| < 1

(a+ x )

Factorise the expression first by taking a out as a factor

(3)(4)(5)(2 x)
3 x2 x1

1
2

(4 3 x)

Eg, Expand

1
3.97

evaluate

1
2

(4 3 x)

1
3.97

in ascending powers of x up to and including the term x. Hence

, giving your answer to four decimal places


1
3
[4(1 x)] 2
4

3 1
(1 x) 2
4

1
2

1
2

1 3 3

(
2 )( 2 )( 4 )
1 3
1 + ( )(
x +
2
4 )
2x 1

1
2

3
27
1+ x +
x
8
128

1
2

3
16

x+

27
256

for

|34 x|<1

Hence,

1
43 x
|x| <

4
3

3.97

43 x

3.97 = 4 3x
x = 0.01 (sub into expansion)

1
2

3
(0.01)
16

27
(0.01)
256

0.50188554 = 0.5019 (4d.p.)


Applications of partial fractions to series expansions
Express as partial fractions first, and then carry out the binomial expansion.

Eg, Express

2x
( 1+ x ) ( 12 x )

in partial fractions. Hence obtain the series expansion, giving all

terms up to and including x, and state the values of x for which the expansion is valid.

2x
( 1+ x ) ( 12 x )

1
(1+ x)

1
(12 x)

1
(1+ x)
=1

=1

(1+ x)1

x
(1+(1) x + (12) (2x 1 ) x + (1)(32x 2) (3)
)
x1

= 1 x + x - x

1
(12 x)
= 1

=1

(12 x)

x ) (1 ) (2 ) (3)(2 x)
+
(1+(1)(2 x)+ (1)(22 x) (2
)
1
3 x 2x1

= 1 + 2x + 4x + 8x

1
(1+ x)

Therefore,

for |x| < 1

1
(12 x)

for |x| < 1


= (1 x + x - x) + (1 + 2x + 4x + 8x)

= 2 + x + 5x + 7x
valid for |x| < 1
Remember, if the range is not |x|< 1 for both, choose the smaller range so that it is
valid for both

Trigonometry
Compound Angles
Compound angle formulae are in your formula book on pg 5.
sin (A + B) = sinA cosA + cosA sinB
sin (A B) = sinA cosB cosA sinB
cos (A + B) = cosA cosB sinA sinB
cos (A B) = cosA cosB + sinA sinB
tan (A

B) =

tanA +tanB
1tanA tanB

Double Angles
sin 2x = 2sinxcosx
cos 2x = cosx - sinx
tan 2x =

OR

cos 2x = 2cosx 1

tan (A B) =

OR

tanAtanB
1+tanA tanB

cos 2x = 1 2sinx

2 tanx
1tan x

Triple-angle formulae
sin 3x = 3 sinx 4 sinx
cos 3x = 4 cosx 3cosx
tan 3x =

3 tanxtan x
13 tan x

Both the double angle and triple-angle formulae are used in integration with powers of sin x and cos x

Eg, work out

4 cos x dx
0

1
2

cosx =

4 cosx = 4

(1 + cos2x)-

rearrangement of cos 2x = 2cosx 1

1
(1+cos 2 x)
2

= 2 (1 + cos2x)
= 2 + 2cos2x

4 cos x dx

2+2 cos 2 x dx

4
0

[ 2 x +sin 2 x ]

+sin 2( )
4
4

(( )
2

+10

( 2 ( 0 ) +sin 2(0) )

+2
2

Harmonic Form
Expressing any function f(
R sin (

) = a cos

+ b sin

or R cos (

in the form

where R > 0 and

is acute is called

expressing in harmonic form.


For f(

R=

) = a cos

+ b sin

a +b

for R sin (

tan

b
a

, for R cos (

or

tan

a
b

It allows you to solve equations in the form a cos

+ b sin

= c, as well as finding maximum and

minimum points of such functions.


Eg, Express 12 sin

+ 5 cos

in the form R sin (

) where R > 0 and

in degrees to 1 decimal place, is acute. Hence, solve the equation 12 sin

13
2

for 0

Let 12 sin

+ 5 cos

360

, measured

+ 5 cos

12+5

R = 13

, giving your answer to 1 d.p.

= R sin (

tan

R=

5
12

= 22.6

Therefore 12 sin

So, 12 sin

+ 5 cos

+ 5 cos

13
2

= 13 sin (

+ 22.6

becomes

13 sin (

+ 22.6

13
2

)=

= 7.4

, 127.4

sin (

+ 22.6

)=

sin (

+ 22.6

)=

13
2(13)
1
2
sin 1

+ 22.6

+ 22.6

= 30

( 12 )
, 150

Remember, the value for R gives the minimum or maximum value of the

function. For example, when R = 5, the minimum value will be at -5 and the maximum value at +5. This is due
to the fact the original function, sin x or cos x, has been multiplied by the constant term R.

Exponential Models
bt +c

This uses functions of the form y = A x

where A, a, b, and c are constants and t is

time.
Eg, The value of a car depreciates in such a way that t years after it is new its
value, V, is given by the formula
V = 15000 x

(1.4)kt

a) What is the initial value of the car?


After 2 years the value of the car is 8000.
b) Calculate the value of the constant k to three decimal places.
c) Calculate the time, to the nearest month, when the value of the car
reaches 5000.
a)

Initial value, when t = 0,


V = 15000 x

(1.4)0

= 15000

b) When V = 8000, and t = 2


8000 = 15000 x

8000
15000

2 k

(1.4)

(1.4)2 k

take logs of both sides

8000
15000

log

) = -2k log (1.4)

8000
15000
()
log
log(1.4)

c)

= -2k

k = 0.934 (3d.p)
When V = 5000,
5000 = 15000 x

5000
15000
log

(1.4)0.934 t
0.934 t

5000
15000

5000
15000
()
log
log(1.4)

(1.4)

take logs of both sides

= -0.934t log (1.4)

= -0.934t

t = 3.5 years or 3 years, 6 months

The Exponential Function


This involves exponential functions to the base e, i.e. y = A
Remember ln

e kx

, where A is a constant.

=x

Eg, A pan of water is heated and then allowed to cool. Its temperature, T

, t

minutes after cooling has begun, is given by the formula


T = 80

0.2 t

a) What is the temperature of the water when it starts to cool?


b) What is the temperature after 5 minutes?
c) Find, to the nearest minute, the time taken for the water to reach a

temperature of 12

a) When t = 0,

b) When t = 5,

T = 80

e0

T = 80

T = 80

0.2(5)

T = 29.4

c)

When T = 12,

e0.2 t

12 = 80

12
80

e0.2 t

12
80
ln

take logs of both sides

) = -0.2t

t = 9.486,

therefore 9 minutes (nearest min)

Further Calculus
Implicit Functions
These are functions that are not expressed in the form y = f(x), for example x + 2xy + y = 5.
Differentiate using the chain rule and product rule.
Eg, Differentiate xy + 3x - 2y = 6
for xy, let u = x and v = y
2xy

dy
dx

dy
dx

dy
dx
dy
dx
dy
dx

dy
dx

+ y + 3 - 2

= 2xy

dy
dx

du
dx

=0

=1

+ y

(2xy - 2) + 3 + y = 0

(2xy - 2) = -3 y

dy
dx

3 y
(2 xy2)

3+ y
(2 xy2)

Hence, find an equation to the normal to the curve at the point (2, 1)
Gradient of tangent at x = 1

dy
dx

3+(1)
(2(2)(1)2)

Therefore, gradient of normal is

Equation of normal is

y1=

1
2
1
2

2y 2 = x 2
2y = x
Parametric Equations

(x 2)

=-

4
2

= -2

dv
dx

= 2y

This is where x and y are defined in terms of a third variable t. You may be asked to find a
Cartesian equation for parametric forms.
Eg, 1. x = t 4
y = 2t
t=x+4
sub in for t in the equation for yy = 2(x + 4)
2.

x = 3sin t,

y = 2cos t

x
3

sin t =

y
2

cos t =

using the identity sint + cost = 1

x
3

()

y
2

()

= 1 or 4x + 9y = 1

Parametric Differentiation

dy
dx

In order to find

Eg,1.

you must find

find an expression for

x=3

t4

dy
dt

dy
dx

and

dt
dx

, then apply the chain rule.

in terms of t for

x=3

t4

dy
dt

, y = 2t - 3

y = 2t - 3

dx
dt

= 12t

dt
dx

dy
dt

= 4t

1
3
12 t

therefore,

dy
dx

dy
dx

1
12 t 3

= 4t x

dt
dx

1
3t

2. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve x = 3t, y = 7 + 12t, at the point
where t = 2.
x = 3t
y = 7 + 12t

dy
dx

dx
dt

= 6t

= 12 x

1
6t

dt
dx
=

1
6t

dy
dt

= 12

2
t

When t = 2,

dy
dx

2
2

=1

When t = 2, x = 3(2) = 12, and y

= 7 + 12(2) = 31
y 31 = x 12

y = x + 19

Using Partial Fractions


Expressing functions as partial fractions can enable you to integrate them.
Eg, Evaluate, giving your answer in the form ln

a
b

where a and b are rational

numbers.
7

( x3 )1( x4) dx
5

1
( x3 ) (x4 )
1
( x3 ) (x4 )

1
x4

1
x3

Express

in partial fractions
7

1
1

dx
x4
x 3

Now integrate

[ ln ( x4 )ln ( x3) ]5
(ln 3 ln 4) (ln 1 ln 2)

ln

( 34 )

( 12 )

ln

= ln

3
4
1
2

()

= ln

( 32 )

Differential Equations
These are equations that include x and y as well as one or more derivatives of y with respect to x.
To solve these, you must separate the variables and integrate both sides with respect to x.
Remember, you only need to add one constant value, c.
Eg,

dy
dx

x +1
y

, y = 3 at x = -2. Find the particular solution to the differential

equation.

dy
dx

x +1
y

dy
dx

=x+1

y dy
y
2

when y = 3, x = -2

separate the variables

x +1 dx
x
2

integrate both sides with respect to x

+x+c
sub in the values

9
2
c=

=22+c

9
2

therefore,

y
2

x
2

+x+

9
2

y = x + 2x + 9
y=

x +2 x +9

Modelling with differential equations


You may be asked to solve differential equations within a context.

the thickness, x cm, of the ice on a pond at a time t minutes

Eg, At an air temperature of -T


satisfies the equation

dx
dt
a)

T
14000 x

, where x = 0 at t = 0

Show that 7000x = Tt


14000x

dx
dt

=T

14000 x dx
14000 x
2
Tt

7000x =

T dt

= Tt + c

+c

x = 0, when t = 0, therefore c = 0
7000x =
b)

Tt

(as required)

Given T = 10, when the ice starts forming, calculate how long it takes for the thickness of
the ice to reach 2cm.
7000x =

Tt

7000 (2) = 10t


28000 = 10t
T = 2800 seconds or 46 minutes, 40 seconds

Applications to exponential laws of growth and decay


In general, if the rate of growth of x is proportional to x, then

dx
dt

= kx, where k is a positive

constant.
If the rate of decay of x is proportional to x, then

dx
dt

= -kx, where k is a positive constant.

Eg, The value of a car depreciates in such a way that when it is t years old, the rate of
decrease in its value is proportional to the value, V, of the car at that time. The car
costs 12,000 when new.
a)

ekt

Show that V = 12000

12000

dV
dt

= -kV

1 dV
V dt

= -k

separate the variables

1
V

dV =

[ kt ]t0

[ ln V ] V12000

dt

integrate both sides

ln V ln 12000 = -kt
ln

V
( 12000
)
V
12000

= -kt

kt

ekt

V = 12000

(as required)

When the car is three years old its value has dropped to 4000.

1
3

b) Show that k =

ln 3

t = 3, when V = 4000
4000 = 12000

e3 k

e3 k

4000
12000

e3 k

1
3

3k = ln

1
k=

3
k=0+

1
3

ln 1 ln 3)

1
3

ln 3

k=

1
3

ln 3 (as required)

The owner decides to sell the car when its value reaches reaches 2000.
c) Calculate, to the nearest month, the age of the car at that time.
V = 12000

kt

when V = 2000:

kt

2000 = 12000

ekt
kt

1
3

1
6

= ln

1
6
1
6

ln (3)t = ln

ln
t=

1
6

1
ln (3)
3

t = 4.9 which is 4 years and 11 months (nearest month)

Vectors

()

OA= 5
3

means to go from O to A is 5 right and 2 up. It is called a column vector.

The magnitudemodulus of the vector


OA

|
OA|
|
OA|

is represented by the length as follows:

= 5 + 3 = 34
=

34

Addition and Subtraction of Vectors


If given

AB

and

AC

BC

AB

, then to find
+

BC

AC


AB

Eg, 1. Given that

AC

AC

2.

Given that

BC

()
2
5
1

AB

()

, find

AC

() ()
()
2
5
1

3
8
4

()
3
4
2

5
3
3

AC

and

BC

BA

BC

BA

2
3
3

BC

BA

and

BC

()

2
BA
1 , find
3

CA

AC

() ()
()
3
4
2

2
1
3

5
3
1

Scalar Multiplication
If you multiply a vector by a scalar (magnitude), you get another vector. Eg, 3 x a = 3a
3a and a are parallel
In general, if u = kv then u is parallel to v

Position vectors and direction vectors


The position vector of a point P with respect to a fixed origin O is the vector

Eg,If P has coordinate (1, 2, 3) then

OP

=p=

()
1
2
3

OP


OQ

If Q has coordinate (3, 5, 2) then

Therefore,

PQ

()
2
3
1

()
3
5
4

=q=

PQ

is the direction vector from P to Q.

Collinearity (lying on a straight line)


Vectors can be used to show three points lie in a straight line.

Eg, Points P, Q and R have position vectors

PQ

a) Find

PQ

and

()
2
1
3

() ()
5
4
1

7
5
4

and

()
11
7
10

, respectively.

QR

QR

()
4
2
6

b) Deduce that P, Q and R are collinear and find the ratio PQ:QR

() ()
4
2
6

=2

2
1
3

and

QR

=2

PQ

which means they are parallel. They share

point Q, making them collinear.


PQ:QR = 1:2
Scalar product

|a|

The scalar product a.b of two vectors a and b is defined by a.b =


where

cos

is the angle between the vectors.

When two vectors a and b are perpendicular,

= 90

and cos

Therefore, a.b = 0

|b|

When the angle between the two vectors a and b is acute, cos

= 0.

> 0 and a.b > 0

()
a1
a2
a3

If a =

()
b1
b2
b3

and b =

, then a.b =

Eg, find the angle between the vectors a =

a1 b1

()
2
1
2

a2 b2

and b =

a3 b3

()
4
3
12

, giving answers to

one decimal place.

|a|

a.b =

|b|

cos

() ()
2
1
2

a.b =

4
3
12

= (2 x 4) + (1 x -3) + (-2 x 12) = -19

|a|

2+1+(2)

|b|

4+(3 ) +12

169

Therefore, a.b =

|a|

|b|

cos

cos

=3

= 13
gives -19 = 3 x 13 cos

19
39

and

= 119.2

Perpendicular vectors

If a.b = 0, then a and b are perpendicular vectors


If a and b are perpendicular vectors, then a.b = 0

Eg, Given that the vectors

() ( )
2
t
4

1
3
t4

and

are perpendicular, find the value of the

constant t.
a.b = 0

( )( )
2
1
t . 3
4 t4

= (2 x 1) + (t x -3) + (-4(t 4)) = 0

2 3t 4t + 16 = 0
7t = 18
t=

Vector equation of a line

18
7

=2

4
7

r = a + t (b a)

where t is a scalar

Eg, Find a vector equation of the line passing through A( -4, 1, - 3) and B (6, -4, 12).
Show that the point Q (-2, 0, 0) lies on the line AB.
r = a + t (b a)

r=

r=

( ) [( ) ( ) ]
() () () ()
4
1
3

4
1
3

+t

6
4
4 1
12
3

+t

10
5
15

4
1
3

2
1
3

+t

therefore,

()
x
y
z

( )
4 +2t
1t
3+3 t

compare against Q

()
2
0
0

. If Q lies on the line then:

() () ()
() ( )
2
0
0
2
0
0

4
1
3

4 +2t
1t
3+3 t

2
1
3

+t

x -> -2 = -4 + 2t

t=1

y -> 0 = 1 t t = 1
z -> 0 = -3 + 3t
t=1
since t = 1 works for x, y and z, Q lies on the line.
Parallel and skews lines
If one vector is a scalar multiple of another the vectors are parallel.

() ( )
1
3
5

The direction vectors

and

2
6
10

are parallel

In three dimensions, it is possible that lines are not parallel and also do not intersect. These are
called skew. You can find the angle between such lines by finding the angle between the direction
vectors.
Eg, a) show that these two lines are skew:

r1

()
2
1
4

()
5
1
6

and

r2

() ( )
5
4
2

12
6
3

You need to show they do not intersect by finding the values of and using a pair of
simultaneous equations and show they do not satisfy the third component.
x -> 2 + 5

= 5 + 12

solving simultaneously gives = 3, = 1

y -> 1 - = 4 - 6
check these values in z -> 4 + 6(3) = 2 +3(1)
22 = 5
no, therefore they do not intersect and are skew.
b) Calculate the angle between the two lines.

You need to calculate the angle between the direction vectors a

( )( )
5
12
.
1 6
6
3

a.b =

|a|

|b|
cos

and b

= (5 x 12) + (-1 x -6) + (6 x 3) = 84

5+(1 ) +6
2

12+(6 ) + 3
2

()
5
1
6

84
62 89

=
=

62
189

cos1

( 6284 189 )

= 39.1

()
12
6
3