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Form 5 Additional Maths Chapter 1

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SPM

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS

FORM 5

MODULE 2

PROGRESSIONS

(Geometric Progression)

ORGANISED BY:

Contents

Page

2.1

2.2

PROGRESSIONS

2.3

GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION

2.4

3

4

6

b) The number of terms in geometric progressions

2.5

FIND

a) The sum of the first n terms of of geometric

Progressions

b) The sum of a specific number of consecutive terms

of geometric Progressions

c) The value of n ,given the sum of the first n terms

of geometric Progressions

2.6

FIND

a) The sum to infinty of geometric progressions

b) The first term or common ratio, given the sum to

infinity

2.7

11

14

SPM Questions

15

18

Assessment test

Answers

20

2.1 CONCEPT MAP

PROGRESSION

GEOMETRIC

PROGRESSION

ARITHMETIC

PROGRESSION

THE n th TERM

Tn

Tn = arn-1

.a = first term

.r = Common ratio

.n = number of terms

Sn =

a ( r n 1)

,

r 1

r >1

Sn =

a (1 r n )

,

1 r

r <1

THE r th TERM

OR

T r = S r - S r 1

SUM OF INFINITY

Sn =

a

1 r

, -1 < r < 1

Tr

PROGRESSIONS

( Geometric Progression)

GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION

Sn = ______________

Tn = ___________

or

Sn = ______________

or

Tn = ___________

a = _______________

r = _______________

l = _______________

n = _______________

2.2

Fill in the

blank

EXERCISE 1:

Complete each of the sequence below when give a (fist term ) and r (common ratio) .

A

.r

Example:

a)

-3

.b)

-2

.c)

.d)

-6

-2

.e)

1

2

1

3

.f)

1

y

3

4

y

3

2.3

(-3)(2)3 = -24

progression

3

EXERCISE 2 :

2.3.1

Example :

.r = common ratio

a) -8, 4, -2,

.r =

4

1

2

1

=

,

=

8

2

4

2

e)

1

2

4

x,

x,

x

3

9

27

f)

a 5,

g)

h)

a4 b,

a3 b 2

1

1

1

,

,

,.

4

12

36

1

1

1

,

,

,

27

9

3

EXERCISE 3 :

2.3.2 Given that the first three terms of a geometric progression are below.

Find the value of x

4

(true)

Geometric progression

Example :

a) .x, x + 4, 2x + 2,

x 4 2x 2

=

x

x4

Value x

(x + 4)2 = x(2x + 2)

.x2 + 8x + 16 = 2x2 + 2x

0 = x2 6x 19

0 = (x 8)(x + 2)

.x 8 = 0 @ x + 2 = 0

Hence x = 8 @ x = -2

b) x, x + 2 ,

x + 3

c) x + 3, 5x - 3, 7x + 3

e) x 6, x, 2x + 16

2.4

Tn = arn-1

5

EXERCISE 4:

2.4.1 specific terms in arithmetic progressions

Example :

1. Find the 7 th term of the geometric

progression.

- 8, 4 , -2 , ..

Solution:

a=-8

T7 = (-8)(

=

3.

1

8

r=

1 7-1

)

2

4

1

=

8

2

4 2

,

, 1 , .. ,find the 9 th term .

9 3

5.

progression.

16, -8, 4,

progression a5, a4 b, a3 b2

4.

progression

50, 40, 32.

6.

5.6, 1.4, 0.35,

Find the 10th term.

EXERCISE 5:

6

Example :

a) 64, - 32, 16,.-

b) 2,

1

8

1

1

a = 64, r = 8

2

1

1

n 1

64

=2

8

1 n 1

1 1

=

2

64 8

1 n 1 1 6 1

=

2

2

2

1 n 1 1 9

=

2

2

-4, 8, 512

Tn = -

.n - 1 = 9

.n = 10

5

27

.d)

4

2

81

,

, 1..

,

9

3

16

2.5 Find

a) The sum of the first n terms of geometric progressions

b) The sum of a specific number of consecutive terms of

geometric progressions

7

geometric progressions.

EXERCISE 6:

geometric progressions

Example :

.a) 2, - 4, 8,

.a = 2

b) 5, 10, 20..

c) 12, -6, 3

d)

S7

4

r=

= -2

2

1

2

4

x,

x,

x,.

3

9

27

2(1 ( 2) 7 )

1 ( 2)

= 86

S8

S9

S6

progressions

EXERCISE 7:

8

geometric progressions

Example 1

.a = 4

r=

1

64

1

n 1

=

64

1 1

n 1

=

4 64

1 2 1

n 1

=

2

2

Tn

1

.a) 4, 2, 1,

64

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

=

4

2

.n 1 = 8

.n = 9

S9

c) 24,

4 1 1 / 2

=

1 1 / 2

= 7 63

64

1, 3, 9,. 2187.

12, 6,

3

4

2.5.3 The value of n , given the sum of the first n terms of geometric

progressions.

EXERCISE 8 :

Example :

.a)

1

27

and

.

2

128

Solution :

T4 =

27

128

1 3

27

(r ) =

2

128

(r 3 ) =

(r 3 ) =

27 2

128 1

27

3

, Hence r =

64

4

1

1

and 607 .

2

2

c)

Find the value of a

2

22

and 7

.

3

27

2.4 Find :

a) the sum to infinity of geometric progressions

b) the first term or common ratio, given the sum

infinity of geometric progressions.

10

to

S sum to infinity

a

S

1 r

a = first term

r = common ratio

EXERCISE 9:

1.

2.

81, -27,9, ..

geomertric progression below:

Example:

2 2

6, 2, , ,.......

3 9

a=6

2

1

r

6

3

a

S

1 r

6

=

1

1- -

3

9

=

2

3.

1 1 1

, , ,....... ..

2 4 8

EXERCISE 10:

1.

progression is 200. Given that the

first

term is 52. Find the common ratio.

geometric progression is

11

1

. The

25

large enough such that r n 0 is 75.

Find

the first term.

Example:

The sum to infinity of a geometric

progression is 8. Given that the first

term is 2. Find

a) the common ratio

b) the third term

3.

Solution:

a)

S 8

a

8

1 r

2

8

1 r

3

r=

4

b)

Tn ar n 1

3

=2

4

9

=

8

31

12

progression is 600 and the common

ratio is 0.4 . Find

a) the first term

b) the minimum number of

terms such that the sum of

terms to be more then 599.

4. Express each of the recurring decimal below as a fraction in its simplest form.

Example:

Example:

0.3

4.020202

0.3

1 0.1

0.3

0.9

1

0.02

=4+

1-0.01

0.02

=4+

0.99

2

=4

99

a)

c)

1.121212..

d)

5.070707...

b)

0.444.

0.232323

13

EXERCISE 11:

Example:

A garderner has a task of cutting the

grass of a lawn with an area of 1000

m2 .

On the first day, he cut an area of 16m 2 .

1.1 times the area that he cut the previous

day the task is completed. Find

a) the area that is cut on the 10th day.

b) The number of the days needed to

complete the task.

Solution:

a)

a=16 , r=1.1

Tn ar n 1

T10 16(1.1)9

= 37.73 m 2

b) S n 1000

1000

16 1.1n -1

1.1-1

160(1.1n 1) 1000

1.1n 1 6.25

1.1n > 7.25

n log1.1 log 7.25

log7.25

n >

log1.1

n >20.79

The smallest integer value of n is 21

hence,the number of the days needed to complete

the task is 21 days.

14

allocation of RM1 million where

the maximum withdrawal each

day must not exceed twice the

amount withdrawn the day

before. If Osman withdraws

RM200 on the first day,

determine after how many days

the amount of money allocated

will all be used up.

SPM QUESTIONS:

1. 2003 (Paper 1: No.8)

In a geometric progression, the first term is 64 and the fourth term is 27. Caculate

(a) the common ratio

(b) the sum to infinity of the geometric progression.

[4 marks]

2. 2004(Paper 1: No.9)

Given a geometric progression

4

y , 2, , p,..... ,express p in terms of y.

y

3. 2004(Paper 1: No.12 )

Express the recurring decimal 0.969696as a fraction in its simplest form.

[4 marks]

15

Diagram 2 shows the arrangement of the first three of an infinite series of similar

triangles. The first triangle has a base of x cm and a height of y cm. The

measurements of the base and height of each subsequent triangle are half of

the measurements of its previous one.

y cm

xcm

Diagram 2

(a) Show that the areas of the triangles form a geometric progression and state

the common ratio.

[3

marks]

(b) Given that x= 80 cm and y= 40 cm,

(i)

1

cm 2 ,

4

The first three terms of a sequence are 2 , x , 8

Find the positive value of x so that the sequence is

(a) an arithmetic progression

16

[4 marks]

The sum of the first n terms of the geometric progression 8,24,72,.is 8744.

Find

(a) the common ratio of the progression

(b) the value of n

[4 marks]

ASSESSMENT:

1.

2 with a common ratio r , where -1 < r < 1. Find

(a) the value of x

(b) the sum of the first n terms ,where n is large enough such

17

that

rn 0

2.

terms required such that their sum exceeds 1000.

3.

The third term and the sixth term of a geometric progression are

27 and 8 respectively. Find the second term.

4.

Given that the common ratio is

1

. Find

2

31

.

8

(b) the sum of all the terms from the fourth to the sixth term.

18

5.

by 6 while the fourth term exceeds the third term by 2. Find the

sum of the first 5 terms.

ANSWERS:

EXERCISE 1:

b) 3, 6, -12, 24

c) 4, 12, 36, 108

d) -6, 12, 124, 48

EXERCISE 2:

a) true

b) false

c) true

19

1 1 1

1

, , ,

2 6 18 54

y 4 y 2 16 y 3 64 y 4

f)

,

,

,

3

9

27

81

e)

EXERCISE 3:

b) x = -4

c) x = 3

d) x = -12 @ x = 8

EXERCISE 5:

b) n = 9

c) n = 8

d) n = 7

EXERCISE 7:

c) n = 8, S 8 = 3280

d) n = 9, S 9 = -1022

1

e) n = 6, S 6 = 47

4

EXERCISE 9:

1. 28.24

3

2. 60

4

3. 1

d) false

e) true

f) true

g) false

h) true

EXERCISE 4:

1

1. T 7 = 8

1

2. T 8 = 2

26344

3. T 9 =

2304

4. T 3 = 32

b9

5. T 10 = 4

a

6. T 10 = 0.000021

EXERCISE 6:

b) 275

1

c) 8

64

665

d)

729

EXERCISE 8:

b) r = 3

c)a = 3

EXERCISE 10:

2.

3.

4.

5.

20

r=0.74

a=72

a) 360 b) 7

4

a)

9

23

b)

99

4

c) 1

33

7

d) 5

99

EXERCISE 11:

13 days

SPM QUESTION:

3

1. a) r

b) S 256

4

8

2. p 2

y

32

3.

33

1

4. a) r

4

1

b)i. n=5 ii. 2133

3

5. a) x=5 b) x=4

6. a) r=3 b) n=7

ASSESSMENT:

1. a) x=3

2.

3.

40

27

2

1

2

4. a) -2

5.

b)

40

b)

7

16

1

3

21

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