You are on page 1of 22

PROGRAM DIDIK CEMERLANG AKADEMIK

SPM

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS
FORM 5

MODULE 2
PROGRESSIONS
(Geometric Progression)
ORGANISED BY:

JABATAN PELAJARAN NEGERI PULAU PINANG

CHAPTER 2 : GEOMETRIC PROGRESSIONS


Contents

Page

2.1

CONCEPT MAP (GEOMETRIC PROGRESSIONS)

2.2

IDENTIFY CHARACTERISTICS OF GEOMETRIC


PROGRESSIONS

2.3

DETERMINE WHETHER A GIVEN SEQUENCE IS A


GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION

2.4

DETERMINE BY USING FORMULA

3
4
6

a) specific terms in geometric progressions


b) The number of terms in geometric progressions
2.5

FIND
a) The sum of the first n terms of of geometric
Progressions
b) The sum of a specific number of consecutive terms
of geometric Progressions
c) The value of n ,given the sum of the first n terms
of geometric Progressions

2.6

FIND
a) The sum to infinty of geometric progressions
b) The first term or common ratio, given the sum to
infinity

2.7

SOLVE PROBLEMS INVOLING GEOMETRIC PROGRESSIONS

11

14
SPM Questions

15
18

Assessment test
Answers

20

CHAPTER 2 : GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION


2.1 CONCEPT MAP

PROGRESSION

GEOMETRIC
PROGRESSION

ARITHMETIC
PROGRESSION

THE n th TERM

Tn

Tn = arn-1
.a = first term
.r = Common ratio
.n = number of terms

SUM OF THE FIRST n TERMS


Sn =

a ( r n 1)
,
r 1

r >1

Sn =

a (1 r n )
,
1 r

r <1

THE r th TERM

OR

T r = S r - S r 1

SUM OF INFINITY
Sn =

a
1 r

, -1 < r < 1

Tr

PROGRESSIONS
( Geometric Progression)
GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION

The sum of the first n term:


Sn = ______________

The nth term :


Tn = ___________

or
Sn = ______________

or
Tn = ___________

a = _______________
r = _______________
l = _______________
n = _______________

2.2

Fill in the
blank

Identify characteristics of geometric progression:

EXERCISE 1:
Complete each of the sequence below when give a (fist term ) and r (common ratio) .
A

.r

the first four terms of geometric progression,

Example:
a)
-3

.b)

-2

.c)

.d)

-6

-2

.e)

1
2

1
3

.f)

1
y
3

4
y
3

2.3

-3, (-3)(2)1 = - 6, (-3)(2)2 = -12,

(-3)(2)3 = -24

Determine whether a given sequence is an geometric


progression
3

EXERCISE 2 :
2.3.1

Determine whether a given sequence below is an geometric progression.

Example :

.r = common ratio

a) -8, 4, -2,

.r =

4
1
2
1
=
,
=
8
2
4
2

b) 5, 11, 17, 23,

c) 16, -8, 4,..

d) -20, -50, -30, -35,..

e)

1
2
4
x,
x,
x
3
9
27

f)

a 5,

g)

h)

a4 b,

a3 b 2

1
1
1
,
,
,.
4
12
36

1
1
1
,
,
,
27
9
3

EXERCISE 3 :
2.3.2 Given that the first three terms of a geometric progression are below.
Find the value of x
4

(true)

Geometric progression
Example :
a) .x, x + 4, 2x + 2,

x 4 2x 2
=
x
x4

Value x

(x + 4)2 = x(2x + 2)
.x2 + 8x + 16 = 2x2 + 2x
0 = x2 6x 19
0 = (x 8)(x + 2)
.x 8 = 0 @ x + 2 = 0
Hence x = 8 @ x = -2
b) x, x + 2 ,

x + 3

c) x + 3, 5x - 3, 7x + 3

e) x 6, x, 2x + 16

2.4

Determine by using formula:

Tn = arn-1
5

EXERCISE 4:
2.4.1 specific terms in arithmetic progressions
Example :
1. Find the 7 th term of the geometric
progression.
- 8, 4 , -2 , ..
Solution:
a=-8
T7 = (-8)(
=

3.

1
8

r=

1 7-1
)
2

4
1
=
8
2

For the geometric progression

4 2
,
, 1 , .. ,find the 9 th term .
9 3

5.

2. Find the 8 th term of the geometric


progression.
16, -8, 4,

Find the 10 th term of geometric


progression a5, a4 b, a3 b2

4.

Find the 3 th term of the geometric


progression
50, 40, 32.

6.

Given that geometric progression


5.6, 1.4, 0.35,
Find the 10th term.

2.4.2 Find the number of terms of the arithmetic progression


EXERCISE 5:
6

Example :
a) 64, - 32, 16,.-

b) 2,

1
8

1
1
a = 64, r = 8
2

1
1

n 1

64
=2
8

1 n 1
1 1

=
2
64 8
1 n 1 1 6 1

=
2
2
2
1 n 1 1 9

=
2
2

-4, 8, 512

Tn = -

.n - 1 = 9
.n = 10

. c) 405, - 135, 45, -

5
27

.d)

4
2
81
,
, 1..
,
9
3
16

2.5 Find
a) The sum of the first n terms of geometric progressions
b) The sum of a specific number of consecutive terms of
geometric progressions
7

c) The value of n , given the sum of the first n terms of


geometric progressions.

2.5.1 Find the sum of the first n terms of geometric progressions


EXERCISE 6:

geometric progressions

Find the sum of the first n term

Example :
.a) 2, - 4, 8,
.a = 2

b) 5, 10, 20..

c) 12, -6, 3

d)

S7

4
r=
= -2
2

1
2
4
x,
x,
x,.
3
9
27

2(1 ( 2) 7 )
1 ( 2)

= 86

S8

S9

S6

2.5.2 The sum of a specific number of consecutive terms of geometric


progressions
EXERCISE 7:
8

geometric progressions

Find the sum of the first n term

Example 1

.a = 4

r=

1
64
1
n 1
=
64
1 1
n 1

=
4 64
1 2 1
n 1


=
2
2

Tn

1
.a) 4, 2, 1,
64

2
1

2
1

2

1
2
=
4
2

.n 1 = 8
.n = 9

S9

c) 24,

4 1 1 / 2
=
1 1 / 2

= 7 63
64

1, 3, 9,. 2187.

12, 6,

3
4

2.5.3 The value of n , given the sum of the first n terms of geometric
progressions.
EXERCISE 8 :

Example :
.a)

The first and 4th tems of a geometric progression are

1
27
and
.
2
128

Find the value of r


Solution :
T4 =

27
128

1 3
27
(r ) =
2
128
(r 3 ) =

(r 3 ) =

27 2

128 1
27
3
, Hence r =
64
4

b) The first and 6th tems of a geometric progression are 2

1
1
and 607 .
2
2

Find the value of r

c)

The common ratio and 5th tems of a geometric progression are


Find the value of a

2
22
and 7
.
3
27

2.4 Find :
a) the sum to infinity of geometric progressions
b) the first term or common ratio, given the sum
infinity of geometric progressions.
10

to

S sum to infinity

a
S
1 r

a = first term
r = common ratio

EXERCISE 9:
1.

24, 3.6, 0.54, .

2.

81, -27,9, ..

Find the sum to infinity of a given


geomertric progression below:
Example:

2 2
6, 2, , ,.......
3 9
a=6

2
1
r

6
3
a
S
1 r
6
=
1
1- -
3
9
=
2

3.

1 1 1
, , ,....... ..
2 4 8

EXERCISE 10:
1.

The sum to infinity of a geometric


progression is 200. Given that the
first
term is 52. Find the common ratio.

2. Given that the common ratio of


geometric progression is
11

1
. The
25

sum of the first n terms,where n is


large enough such that r n 0 is 75.
Find
the first term.

Example:
The sum to infinity of a geometric
progression is 8. Given that the first
term is 2. Find
a) the common ratio
b) the third term

3.

Solution:
a)

S 8

a
8
1 r
2
8
1 r
3
r=
4
b)

Tn ar n 1
3
=2
4
9
=
8

31

12

The sum to infinity of a geometric


progression is 600 and the common
ratio is 0.4 . Find
a) the first term
b) the minimum number of
terms such that the sum of
terms to be more then 599.

4. Express each of the recurring decimal below as a fraction in its simplest form.
Example:

Example:

0.3

4.020202

0.3
1 0.1
0.3

0.9
1

4.020202... 4 0.02 0.0002 0.000002 ...


0.02
=4+
1-0.01
0.02
=4+
0.99
2
=4
99

a)

c)

1.121212..

d)

5.070707...

0.3= 0.3 + 0.03 + 0.003 + ..

b)

0.444.

0.232323

2.5 Solve problems involving geometric progressions:


13

EXERCISE 11:
Example:
A garderner has a task of cutting the
grass of a lawn with an area of 1000

m2 .
On the first day, he cut an area of 16m 2 .

On each successive day, he cuts an area


1.1 times the area that he cut the previous
day the task is completed. Find
a) the area that is cut on the 10th day.
b) The number of the days needed to
complete the task.
Solution:
a)
a=16 , r=1.1

Tn ar n 1
T10 16(1.1)9
= 37.73 m 2
b) S n 1000

1000

16 1.1n -1

1.1-1
160(1.1n 1) 1000
1.1n 1 6.25
1.1n > 7.25

log 1.1n log 7.25


n log1.1 log 7.25
log7.25
n >
log1.1
n >20.79
The smallest integer value of n is 21
hence,the number of the days needed to complete
the task is 21 days.

14

Osman is allowed to spend an


allocation of RM1 million where
the maximum withdrawal each
day must not exceed twice the
amount withdrawn the day
before. If Osman withdraws
RM200 on the first day,
determine after how many days
the amount of money allocated
will all be used up.

SPM QUESTIONS:
1. 2003 (Paper 1: No.8)
In a geometric progression, the first term is 64 and the fourth term is 27. Caculate
(a) the common ratio
(b) the sum to infinity of the geometric progression.
[4 marks]

2. 2004(Paper 1: No.9)
Given a geometric progression

4
y , 2, , p,..... ,express p in terms of y.
y

3. 2004(Paper 1: No.12 )
Express the recurring decimal 0.969696as a fraction in its simplest form.
[4 marks]

4. 2004(Paper2: Section A: No.6)


15

Diagram 2 shows the arrangement of the first three of an infinite series of similar
triangles. The first triangle has a base of x cm and a height of y cm. The
measurements of the base and height of each subsequent triangle are half of
the measurements of its previous one.

y cm

xcm
Diagram 2
(a) Show that the areas of the triangles form a geometric progression and state
the common ratio.
[3
marks]
(b) Given that x= 80 cm and y= 40 cm,
(i)

determine which triangle has an area of

(ii) find the sum to infinity of the areas, in

1
cm 2 ,
4

cm 2 , of the triangles. [5 marks]

5. 2005 (Paper 1 : No.10)


The first three terms of a sequence are 2 , x , 8
Find the positive value of x so that the sequence is
(a) an arithmetic progression
16

(b) a geometric progression

[4 marks]

6. 2005 (Paper 1: No. 12)


The sum of the first n terms of the geometric progression 8,24,72,.is 8744.
Find
(a) the common ratio of the progression
(b) the value of n
[4 marks]

ASSESSMENT:
1.

The first three terms of a geometric progression are 2x + 3, x and x


2 with a common ratio r , where -1 < r < 1. Find
(a) the value of x
(b) the sum of the first n terms ,where n is large enough such
17

that

rn 0

2.

In the progression 5 , 10 , 20 , 40 , . Find the least number of


terms required such that their sum exceeds 1000.

3.

The third term and the sixth term of a geometric progression are
27 and 8 respectively. Find the second term.

4.

In a geometric progression, the sum of the first five terms is


Given that the common ratio is

1
. Find
2

31
.
8

(a) the first term


(b) the sum of all the terms from the fourth to the sixth term.
18

5.

The third term of a geometric progression exceeds the second term


by 6 while the fourth term exceeds the third term by 2. Find the
sum of the first 5 terms.

ANSWERS:
EXERCISE 1:
b) 3, 6, -12, 24
c) 4, 12, 36, 108
d) -6, 12, 124, 48

EXERCISE 2:
a) true
b) false
c) true
19

1 1 1
1
, , ,
2 6 18 54
y 4 y 2 16 y 3 64 y 4
f)
,
,
,
3
9
27
81
e)

EXERCISE 3:
b) x = -4
c) x = 3
d) x = -12 @ x = 8

EXERCISE 5:
b) n = 9
c) n = 8
d) n = 7

EXERCISE 7:
c) n = 8, S 8 = 3280
d) n = 9, S 9 = -1022
1
e) n = 6, S 6 = 47
4
EXERCISE 9:
1. 28.24
3
2. 60
4
3. 1

d) false
e) true
f) true
g) false
h) true
EXERCISE 4:
1
1. T 7 = 8
1
2. T 8 = 2
26344
3. T 9 =
2304
4. T 3 = 32
b9
5. T 10 = 4
a
6. T 10 = 0.000021
EXERCISE 6:
b) 275
1
c) 8
64
665
d)
729
EXERCISE 8:
b) r = 3
c)a = 3

EXERCISE 10:
2.
3.
4.

5.

20

r=0.74
a=72
a) 360 b) 7
4
a)
9
23
b)
99
4
c) 1
33
7
d) 5
99

EXERCISE 11:
13 days

SPM QUESTION:
3
1. a) r
b) S 256
4
8
2. p 2
y
32
3.
33
1
4. a) r
4
1
b)i. n=5 ii. 2133
3
5. a) x=5 b) x=4
6. a) r=3 b) n=7

ASSESSMENT:
1. a) x=3
2.

3.

40

27
2

1
2

4. a) -2
5.

b)

40

b)

7
16

1
3

21