You are on page 1of 11

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2007) 34:878888

DOI 10.1007/s00170-006-0659-3

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

A formability index for the deep drawing of stainless steel


rectangular cups
Fuh-Kuo Chen & Shih-Yu Lin

Received: 9 February 2006 / Accepted: 9 May 2006 / Published online: 26 August 2006
# Springer-Verlag London Limited 2006

Abstract The effects of process parameters on the formability of the deep drawing of rectangular cups made of
SUS304 stainless steel were investigated by both the finite
element analysis method and the experimental approach. A
statistical analysis was employed to construct an orthogonal
chart which reflects the effects of the process parameters
and their interactions on the formability of rectangular cup
drawing. The material properties and the forming limit
diagram (FLD) of SUS304 stainless steel were obtained
from the experiments conducted in the present study and
were employed by the finite element simulations. In the
finite element analysis, the strain path that led to fracture in
the drawing process was examined and the failure modes
caused by different process parameters were also identified.
With the help of statistical analysis, a formability index for
the deep drawing of SUS304 stainless steel rectangular
cups was constructed and the critical value of the
formability index was determined from the finite element
simulation results. The actual drawing processes of rectangular cups were also performed in the present study. The
validity of the finite element simulations and the formability index were confirmed by the good agreement between
the simulation results and the experimental data. The
formability index proposed in the present study provides a
convenient design rule for the deep drawing of SUS304
stainless steel rectangular cups.
Keywords Rectangular cup drawing . Process parameters .
Finite element analysis . Statistical analysis . Formability
index
F.-K. Chen (*) : S.-Y. Lin
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National Taiwan University,
Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
e-mail: fkchen@ntu.edu.tw

1 Introduction
Recently, deeply drawn rectangular cups have been widely
applied to the electronics industry, such as for lithium
battery cases. Different materials have been selected for the
applications. Among them, stainless steel is most often used
due to its superior corrosion resistance property, though the
formability of stainless steel is not so preferable to other
metals. Although the geometry of a rectangular cup is
simple, the material flow pattern during the drawing
process is quite complicated. There are many process
parameters that may affect the material flow in the
rectangular cup drawing, such as material properties and
the geometry of the sheet blank, punch radius and die
corner radius etc. For some deeply drawn cups, more than
one drawing process to produce the parts may be needed.
Hence, in the process design of a rectangular cup with
given dimensions, a formability index which can predict
whether the cup can be successfully formed by one single
drawing process is always desired.
A lot of research effort has been made to investigate the
deep drawing of rectangular cups. Kuwabara et al. [1]
examined the effects of the cup geometries on the
formability of the deep drawing of square cups. They
analysed the failure modes and suggested an optimum
design to prevent to drawn cup from fracture. Mori and
Marumo [2] investigated the material flow pattern in the
square cup drawing process with different lubrication
conditions and cup geometries. Danckert [3] performed
different experiments to measure the strain distribution in a
square cup drawing process. Since the finite element
method was widely applied to the analysis of metal-forming
processes in 1980s [4], the material flow in the forming
process could be predicted easily from computer simulations. Chung et al. [5] analysed the effect of planar

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2007) 34:878888

2 Mechanical properties tests


Tensile tests were performed to determine the stressstrain
curve and hemi-spherical punch drawing tests were conducted to construct the FLD for SUS304 stainless steel. In
the tensile tests, the specimens made of 0.61-mm-thick
SUS304 sheet were prepared according to the ASTM
standards. The specimens were cut along planes coinciding
with the rolling direction (0) and at angles of 45 and 90
to the rolling direction. The cut edges were polished to
avoid fracture occurring at an undesired location of the
specimen. The average flow stress A calculated according
to A A0 2A45 A90 =4 was used to establish the
stressstrain relations, where 0, 45 and 90 are the stresses
obtained from the specimens cut in the rolling, 45 and 90
directions, respectively. Since true stresses and true strains
are used in the finite element simulations, the measured
stresses and strains were converted to true stresses and true
strains, the relations being plotted in Fig. 1.
Since Keeler and Backofen [7] introduced the concept of
FLD in 1963, it has been a widely adopted criterion for
fracture prediction in sheet-metal forming. To determine an
FLD, stretching tests were performed for sheet specimens
with different widths ranging from 20 mm to 140 mm in
increments of 20 mm, using a semi-spherical punch of

1200

true stress (MPa)

anisotropy on the deep drawing of circular and square cups


using the finite element method. Chen and Chuang [6]
performed finite element simulations to study the blank
design for the deep drawing of square cups. However, very
few literature is found regarding the formability index
mentioned above and, to date, such a formability index has
not been well defined either theoretically or empirically.
In the present study, the three-dimensional finite element
method and the experimental analysis were conducted to
study the effects of process parameters on the formability of
the deep drawing of rectangular cups made of SUS304
stainless steel. In order to facilitate the study, the material
properties and the forming limit diagram (FLD) of SUS304
stainless steel were obtained from experiments and were
then employed by the finite element simulations to study
the material flow and failure modes in a rectangular cup
drawing process. A statistical analysis was also employed
to establish the interactive relationships among these
process parameters and to construct an empirical formability index for the deep drawing of rectangular cups made of
SUS304 stainless steel. In addition, the actual drawing
processes of rectangular cups were performed to validate
the finite element simulations and the formability index,
and the experimental data were compared with the
finite element simulation results both qualitatively and
quantitatively.

879

1000
800
600
400
200
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

true strain
Fig. 1 Stressstrain relation for SUS 304 stainless steel

78 mm in diameter. The specimens were first electrochemically etched with circular grids that would be deformed
into ellipses after being stretched. The engineering strains
measured in the major and minor axes of the ellipse are
termed the major strain and minor strain, respectively.
They are also the principal strains on the planes where the
strains are measured. The major and minor strains measured
in the location closest to the fracture for each specimen
were recorded and were then plotted against one another
with the major strain as the ordinate. The curve fitted to the
strain points was defined as the forming limit curve, also
termed the failure curve. Considering the safety factor for
the design purpose, a 10% off-set downward of the failure
curve is adopted as the design curve. For the finite element
simulation purpose, the engineering major and minor
strains were converted to true major and minor strains,
and both the failure curve and the design curve are plotted
in Fig. 2. The design curve was used as the failure criterion
for the prediction of the occurrence of fracture in the finite
element analysis.

3 Finite element analysis


In the present study, the tooling geometries were constructed by the CAD program PRO/Engineer and were then
converted into the finite element mesh, as shown in Fig. 3,
using the program DeltaMESH. The material properties and
FLD obtained from the previous tests, a punch velocity of
5 m/s and coefficient of Coulomb friction of 0.1 were
adopted in the finite element simulations, the blank-holder
force being varied depending on the blank size. The finite
element software PAM_STAMP was employed to perform
the analysis and the four-node shell element was used in the
simulations.
The three-dimensional finite element simulations were
first performed to examine the effects of process parameters
on the formability of the deep drawing of rectangular cups

880

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2007) 34:878888

Fig. 2 Forming limit diagram


(FLD) for SUS 304 stainless
steel (t=0.61 mm)

1.2

major strain

1
0.8

Failure Curve
0.6

0.4

Design Curve

0.2
0
-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0.1

0.2

minor strain
and the major process parameters that affect the formability
the most were identified. The process parameters analysed
in the present study include punch radius (Rp), die radius
(Rd), die corner radius (Rc), die gap (c) and the length-towidth ratio (a/b), as shown in Fig. 4. One process parameter
was analysed at a time while the other process parameters
remained the same. In each simulation, the rectangular cup
was drawn to the presence of fracture according to the FLD
constructed in the previous experiments, and the drawn
depth (H) was used as the index for comparison. In
addition, the low-level and high-level values of each
process parameter to be used in the statistical analysis were
also determined from the finite element analysis. Based on
both the statistical analysis and the finite element simulation results, a formability index was proposed for the deep
drawing of rectangular cups made of SUS304 stainless
steel.
The relationships between the punch radius and the
drawn depth obtained from the finite element simulations

are shown in Fig. 5, with the punch radius and drawn depth
being normalised by the sheet thickness (t). As expected, a
smaller punch radius induces an early fracture and results in
a smaller drawn depth. The low-level and high-level values
of 3t and 15t, respectively, were chosen for the statistical
analysis according to Fig. 5. To examine the failure mode,
the major strain and minor strain paths tracing the fracture
points in the drawing process using punches with radii of
2.01 mm and 8.04 mm are shown in Fig. 6a,b, respectively.
It is seen in both figures that the fracture of the sheet is due
to biaxial stretching, since both the major and minor strains
are positive. It is also noted in both figures that both the

Fig. 3 Finite element meshes for a rectangular cup drawing process

Fig. 4 Geometric parameters of a rectangular cup drawing process

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2007) 34:878888

881

Fig. 5 Relation between punch


radius (Rp) and drawn depth (H)

35

30

H/t (mm/mm)

25

20

15

10

0
0

10

12

14

16

Rp/t (mm/mm)

1.5

major strain

1.2
0.9

Rp=2. 01

0.6

Rp=8. 04
rupture point

0.3
0.0
0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

time (sec)
(a) major-strain path
0.30
0.25

minor strain

Fig. 6a, b Major strain and


minor strain paths for the drawings with different punch radii.
a Major strain path. b Minor
strain path

0.20

Rp=2. 01
Rp=8. 04 mm
rupture point

0.15
0.10
0.0 5
0.00
0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

time (sec)
(b) minor-strain path

4.0

5.0

882

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2007) 34:878888


35

H/t (mm/mm)

30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0

10

12

14

16

Rd/t (mm/mm)
Fig. 7 Relation between die radius (Rd) and drawing depth (H)

major and minor strains increase more rapidly with a


smaller punch radius than those with a larger punch radius.
This implies that the smaller punch profile restrains the
material from being stretched in both directions, resulting in
higher strains.
The effect of die radius on the formability of rectangular
cup drawing is shown in Fig. 7. Compared with Fig. 5, the
effect of the die radius is less significant than that of the
punch radius. It is also noted that the drawn depth varies
insignificantly for die radii larger than 7.5t. The low-level
and high-level values for the statistical analysis are chosen
to be 3t and 12t, respectively.
Unlike the monotonically increasing curves shown in
Figs. 6 and 7, the relations between the die corner radius
and the drawn depth have a reflection point, as shown in
Fig. 8, with the die corner radius and drawn depth being
normalised by the cup width (b). It implies that there exists
an optimum die corner radius for the drawing of rectangular
cups. The locations of fracture for different die corner radii
are also varied, as indicated in the finite element simulation
results. For the die corner radius of 0.5 mm, the fracture
point is located at the punch corner, as shown in Fig. 9a,
indicating a stretch failure mode, while the fracture point
moves to the side of the punch, as shown in Fig. 9b, for the

Fig. 9a, b Location of fracture points for different die corner radii
(Rc). aRc=0.5 mm. bRc=8 mm

die corner radius of 8 mm, representing a change from the


stretch failure mode to the plane strain failure mode. Since
the relationships between the die corner radius and the
drawn depth are not represented by a monotonically
increasing curve, the statistical analysis should be performed for the increasing region and the decreasing region
separately. According to Fig. 8, the curve can be separated
into two regions of 0.05 to 0.18 and 0.18 to 0.32 in the Rc/b
axis. However, only the region of 0.05 to 0.18 is discussed
in this paper, since this region is more favourable in the
process design, though the method of analysis is similar for
the other region.
The effect of the die gap on the formability of the deep
drawing of rectangular cups is not significant, as shown in
Fig. 10. The strain paths of the fracture point are also
almost identical in the drawing processes with various die
32

0.34

31

H/t (mm/mm)

H/b (mm/mm)

0.32
0.3
0.28
0.26

30
29
28
27
26
25

0.24

24

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

R c/b (mm/mm)

Fig. 8 Relation between die corner radius (Rc) and drawn depth (H)

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

c/t (mm/mm)
Fig. 10 Relation between die gap (c) and drawn depth (H)

1.7

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2007) 34:878888

883

Fig. 11 Relation between


length-to-width ratio (a/b) and
drawn depth (H)

H/b (mm/mm)

0. 8

0. 7

0. 6

0. 5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

a/b (mm/mm)

gaps according to the finite element simulation results. The


effect of the length-to-width ratio (a/b) on the formability is
also insignificant, as shown in Fig. 11. Similar strain paths
of the fracture point were also observed in the drawing
processes with different values of a/b.
According to the finite element analysis, the punch
radius and the die corner radius are the major process
parameters in a rectangular cup drawing process. The lowlevel and high-level values for each process parameter
suggested by the finite element simulation results will be
used in the following statistical analysis.

of each process parameter and a combination of them based


on the finite element simulation results. The coefficient of
each term in the linear equation represents the weight of
that term affecting the result. The larger the coefficient, the
more significant the effect that term has on the result. The
linear equation generated by the software is given by:

4 Statistical analysis

The coefficients of the omitted terms in Eq. 1 are all much


smaller than 0.1. Hence, it can be determined from Eq. 1 that
the most important process parameters are B(=Rc/b) and C
(=Rp/t), and the interactive effects of the combination of
process parameters on the formability of rectangular cup
drawing can be ignored. The parameters Rc/b and Rp/t as

The process parameters considered in the statistical analysis


are normalised by suitable dimensions and are denoted by:
A=a/b, B=Rc/b, C=Rp/t, D=Rd/t and E=c/t. The low-level
and high-level values of each process parameter chosen for
the statistical analysis are summarised in Table 1, as
suggested by the finite element analysis. In order to
understand how the process parameters and their interactions affect the formability of the deep drawing of
rectangular cups, an orthogonal chart based on the lowlevel and high-level values was established as listed in
Table 2 to perform the finite element simulations in a
systematic way. According to Table 2, there are 16
simulations to be performed. In each simulation, the lowlevel and high-level values of each process parameter listed
in Table 1 were used as the input data, and the maximum
drawn depth (H) without the occurrence of fracture was
recorded. The statistical analysis software Design-Ease
2.0.11 was employed to generate a linear equation in terms
Table 1 Low-level and high-level values of the process parameters

Low
High

a/b

Rc/b

Rp/t

Rd/t

c/t

1
3

0.05
0.18

3
15

3
12

1.05
1.5

H
0:4515 0:0044A 0:1059B 0:3006C
b
0:0333D 0:0137E0:0528AB . . .
0:0006ABC . . . 0:0051ABCD . . .

 0:0046ABCDE

Table 2 Orthogonal array of five factors


Run

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

: low level
+: high level

884

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2007) 34:878888

Fig. 12 Values of K versus die


corner radius (Rc)

16
14
12

10
8
6
4
2
0
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

Rc/b

to be =2, =1 and =0.25, and the proposed formability index has the form:
s
t
H2
K4
3
Rp Rc  b

well as H/b are then selected to construct the formability


index. Since the software can only provide a linear equation
to illustrate the weight of effect of the process parameters, it
is not sufficient for constructing the formability index, which
may be a nonlinear function. An iterative approach was then
adopted to develop the formability index. To start the
iteration, a power form consisting of the selected process
parameters was proposed for the formability index (K), as
given by:
     
Rp
H
Rc
K
2
b
t
b

Figure 12 shows the values of K calculated from Eq. 3


with Rc/b as the abscissa, using the finite element
simulation results as the base data. It is seen in Fig. 12
that the values of K are in the range from 0.9 to 2.5, except
those with Rc/b<0.1. The values of K calculated from Eq. 3
with Rp/t as the abscissa are also plotted and shown in
Fig. 13. It is noted that most values are in the range from
1.0 to 2.2, except those with Rc/b<0.1, which give much
higher values. It suggests that the critical value of K for the
deep drawing of SUS304 stainless steel rectangular cups
may be chosen as 2.2 for Rc/b>0.1. That is, for a SUS304
rectangular cup, if its dimensions result in a value of K
being larger than 2.2 according to Eq. 3, it may not be
successfully formed by one drawing process. The proposed
formability index will be validated by the experiments
described below.

The results of the finite element simulations performed


for the statistical analysis were used as the base data to
determine the values of , and . Based on the weights of
the process parameters in affecting the formability, initial
values of , and were tested to fit the above-mentioned
data according to Eq. 2. The errors were then estimated and
a new set of values was assigned to , and for a
subsequent trial. This trial-and-error method was repeated
until an optimum set of values for , and was
determined. In the present study, these values were found
Fig. 13 Values of K versus
punch radius (Rp)

16

K from Rp/b
Rc/b <0.1

14
12

10
8
6
4
2
0
0

R p /t

10

12

14

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2007) 34:878888

Fig. 14 Punches used in the drawing tests

5 Experimental validations
In order to validate the finite element analysis and the
proposed formability index, six sets of tooling were manufactured to conduct the rectangular cup drawing tests. The
dimensions of the tooling geometries were selected to be the
same as those adopted in the finite element simulations and
within the range between the low-level and high-level values
sets for the statistical analysis. The punches used in the
drawing tests are shown in Fig. 14. The SUS304 stainless
steel sheets, of 0.61 mm and 0.72 mm in thickness, were cut
to the designed blank sizes and lubricated with oil for the

Fig. 15a, b Comparison


of drawn cup geometries
obtained by experiment and
simulation. a Drawn-cup shapes.
b Projections

885

drawing tests. The experimental results of the drawn-cup


shape, locations of fracture, major and minor strains,
thickness distribution and the K values were compared with
those obtained from the finite element simulations for all six
sets of tooling. Since the comparison of the finite element
results and the experimental data shows a consistent trend
for all six sets of tooling, only the test results of the selected
tooling are demonstrated in this paper.
The drawn-cup shapes and their projections of a
rectangular cup obtained from the experiments and the
finite element simulations are shown in Fig. 15a,b,
respectively. It is seen in Fig. 15a that both drawn-cup
shapes are in a good agreement with each other and so are
the projections shown in Fig. 15b. In addition, both the
experimental and the finite element simulation results
indicate that the fracture occurs at the punch corner for a
smaller punch radius. The major and minor strains of the
drawn rectangular cup are compared in Fig. 16a,b,
respectively. Both strains are measured along the diagonal
from the centre of the drawn cup. As seen in both figures,
the finite element simulation results agree well with the
experimental data both in trend and in magnitude, though
an insignificant difference in magnitude is noted. In order to
measure the thickness of a drawn cup, a 3-mm-wide strip
was wire-cut along the diagonal of the cup and the
thickness was measured with a micrometer. The measured
thickness distribution of a square cup (a/b=1) was com-

886

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2007) 34:878888

Fig. 16a, b Major and minor strains measured from experiments and simulations. a Major strain. b Minor strain

pared with that obtained from the finite element simulation,


as shown in Fig. 17. Both the experimental data and the
finite element simulation results indicate that the thinnest
portion is at the punch corner and the sheet at the flange is
thickened. The thickness distribution predicted by the finite

element simulation is found consistent with that obtained in


the experiment, as shown in Fig. 17.
The above comparisons have demonstrated the accuracy
of the finite element analysis performed for the deep
drawing processes of rectangular cups. The experimental

0.8

thickness (mm)

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3

simulation
experiment

0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

50.0

60.0

distance from square cup center point (mm)


Fig. 17 Thickness distribution along the diagonal of the drawn cup

70.0

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2007) 34:878888

887

demonstrated the usefulness of the formability index


proposed in the present study. The major process parameters affecting the formability of the deep drawing of
rectangular cups are identified to be the punch radius and
the die corner radius, according to the finite element
simulations results and the statistical analysis. The statistical analysis also indicates that the interaction of the process
parameters has an insignificant effect on the formability of
the deep drawing of rectangular cups.
The finite element analysis reveals that there exists an
optimum die corner radius for the rectangular cup drawing
process. The formability is improved with the increase of
die corner radius up to an optimum value and then becomes
worse when the die corner radius increases further. The
failure mode analysis shows that the fracture point moves
from the punch corner to the side of punch for a die corner
radius larger than the optimum value, representing a change
from the stretch failure mode to the plane strain failure
mode, which is more prone to fracture. Hence, a favourable
process design for the rectangular cup drawing should
avoid a die corner radius larger than the optimum value.

data were also employed to validate the proposed formability index. The maximum drawn depth, the sheet
thickness and the associated tooling dimensions of each
drawing process were substituted into Eq. 3 to calculate the
K value. The experimental K values are plotted in Fig. 18
with Rp/t as the abscissa. It is seen in Fig. 18 that all of the
K values are within the range from 1.1 to 2.1, which are
close to those predicted by the finite element simulations
but with a smaller maximum value of K. It indicates that the
formability index given by Eq. 3 is a valid form and the
critical K value can be set conservatively as 2.0 for the deep
drawing of SUS304 stainless steel rectangular cups. The
experimental results confirm the validity of both the finite
element simulations and the statistical analysis.

6 Concluding remarks
The experimental results have validated the finite element
simulations performed for the deep drawing of rectangular
cups made of SUS304 stainless steel and have also

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0

Rp/t
a/ b=1 ,Rc/b=0.1 ,Rp/t=8.2,Rd/t=8.2,c/t=1.31,t=0.61
a/b=1,Rc/b=0.1,R p/t=6.94,Rd/t =6. 94,c/ t=1.11, t=0.72
a/ b=1 ,Rc/b=0.2 ,Rp/t=8.2,Rd/t=8.2,c/t=1.31,t=0.61
a/b=1,Rc/b=0.2,R p/t=6.94,Rd/t =6. 94,c/ t=1.11, t=0.72
a/ b=1 ,Rc/b=0.2 ,Rp/t=4.1,Rd/t=8.2,c/t=1.31,t=0.61
a/b=1,Rc/b=0.2,R p/t=3.47,Rd/t =6. 94,c/ t=1.11, t=0.72
a/ b=2 ,Rc/b=0.2 ,Rp/t=8.2,Rd/t=8.2,c/t=1.31,t=0.61
Fig. 18 K values calculated from Eq. 3 using experimental data

888

The formability index (K) proposed in the present study


provides a convenient design rule for the deep drawing of
SUS304 stainless steel rectangular cups. If the value of K
calculated from Eq. 3 with the given rectangular cup
dimensions is larger than a critical value, fracture is likely
to occur before the cup is completely drawn, and multiple
drawings may be required to produce a sound rectangular
cup. The critical K value for SUS304 stainless steel has been
determined in the present study by both the finite element
analysis and the experimental approach. It should be noted
that both the form of the proposed formability index and the
critical value of K may be varied for other materials, since
the material properties are not considered in the proposed
form. However, the method of approaches to construct the
formability index can be applied to other drawing processes
with different materials. The formability index proposed in
the present study provides a convenient design rule for the
deep drawing of SUS304 stainless steel rectangular cups.
Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the National
Science Council of the Republic of China for financially supporting
this research under contract no. NSC 89-2212-E-002-147, which

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2007) 34:878888


makes the experimental work possible. They are also grateful to ESI in
running the PAM_STAMP program.

References
1. Kuwabara T, Akiyama K, Nakayama Y (1993) Square shell
drawing characteristics of aluminum alloy sheet A5182-O. J Mater
Process Technol 38(4):737749
2. Mori T, Marumo Y (1990) A systematic approach to improve
square shell drawability. Adv Technol Plastic 3:1532
3. Danckert J (1995) Experimental investigation of a square-cup deepdrawing process. J Mater Process Technol 50(1):375384
4. Toh CH, Shiau YC, Kobayashi S (1986) Analysis of a test method
of sheet metal formability using the finite element method. J Eng
IndTrans ASME 108:38
5. Chung WJ, Yang DY, Kim YJ (1990) Analysis of deep-drawing of
circular and square cups considering planer anisotropy. Adv
Technol Plastic 3:11351142
6. Chen FK, Chuang CK (1997) Blank design for the deep drawing of
a square cup. Bulletin of the College of Engineering, National
Taiwan University, Taiwan
7. Keeler SP, Backofen WA (1963) Plastic instability and fracture in
sheets stretched over rigid punches. Trans Am Soc Met 56(1):
2548