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PACHAIYAPPAS HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL,


KANCHIPURAM - 631501.

PHYSICS PRACTICAL HANDBOOK


HIGHER SECONDARY SECOND YEAR

Prepared by
B.ELANGOVAN. M.Sc., M.Ed., M.Phil.,
(Tamilnadu Dr.Radhakrishnan Best Teacher Award recipient - 2011)

P.G.Teacher in Physics,
PACHAIYAPPAS HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL,
KANCHIPURAM - 631501.

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PHYSICS PRACTICAL
HIGHER SECONDARY - SECOND YEAR

S.NO

DATE

NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT

Spectrometer - Prism

Spectrometer - Grating

Metre Bridge

Potentiometer

Tangent Galvanometer

Sonometer

PN - junction diode and Zener Diode

NPN Transistor - Part-1

NPN Transistor - Part-2

10

Operational Amplifier - Inverting

11

Operational Amplifier - Non-inverting

12

Integrated Circuits- Logic gates

PAGE

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1. SPECTROMETER - OF A SOLID PRISM

FORMULA REQUIRED:
Refractive index of the material of the given prism is

Where,

AD
2
A
sin
2

sin

A is the angle of the prism


D is the angle of minimum deviation
Unit of refractive index =no unit.

DIAGRAM:
To find the angle of Prism

To find the angle of minimum


deviation

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1. SPECTROMETER - OF A SOLID PRISM


AIM :
To determine the angle of a given prism and its angle of minimum deviation and
hence to calculate its refractive index.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :
Spectrometer, solid Prism, sodium vapour lamp and reading lens.

PROCEDURE :
1) ANGLE OF THE PRISM
i)

After making initial adjustments, the prism is placed on the prism table.

ii)

The slit is illuminated by a sodium vapour lamp.

iii)

The telescope is rotated until the image of the slit formed by reflection at the
face AB is made to coincide with the vertical cross wire of the telescope in the
position T1. The reading of the verniers are noted.

iv)

The telescope is then rotated to the position T 2 .The image of the slit formed by
reflection at the face AC coincides with the vertical cross wire. The readings
corresponding to the verniers are again noted.

v)

The difference between these two reading gives twice the angle of the prism.
Half of this gives the angle of the prism.

2) ANGLE OF MINIMUM DEVIATION


i)

The prism is placed on the prism table so that light from the collimator falls on
one refracting face. The refracted image is observed through the telescope.

ii)

The prism table is now rotated so that the refracted image moves towards the
direct ray. If necessary the telescope is rotated so as to follow the image.

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iii)

It will be found that, the image moves towards the direct ray upto a point and
then turns back. The position of the image where it turns back is the minimum
deviation position and the prism table is fixed in this position.

iv)

The telescope is now adjusted so that its vertical cross wire coincides with the
image and reading of the verniers are noted.

v)

Now the prism is removed and the telescope is turned to receive the direct ray
and vertical cross wire is adjusted to coincide with the image. The reading of the
verniers are noted.

vi)

The difference between the two readings give the angle of minimum deviation (D).

vii)

The refractive idex of the material of the prism is calculated using the formula

A D
2
A
sin
2

sin

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CALCULATIONS:
To find A
2A

= R1 R2 = 227o20 - 127o16

2A

= 120o4

2A = R1 R2 = 407o20 - 287o16
2A

A = 60o2

= 120o4

A = 60o2
Average A = 60o2

To find D
D = R3 R4 = 39o44 - 0o0

D = R3 R4 = 219o44 - 180o0

D = 39o44

D = 39o44
Average D = 39o44

To find

+
602 +
3944

2
2
=
602

2
2

=
=

9946
2
602
2

4953
301

0.7647
0.5003

1.528 ( no unit )

RESULT:
i) The angle of the prism

= 60o 2

ii) The angle of minimum deviation

= 39o44

iii) Refractive index of the material of the given prism = 1.528 (no unit)

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2. SPECTROMETER GRATING WAVELENGTH OF COMPOSITE LIGHT


FORMULA REQUIRED :
The wavelength () of a spectral line using the grating is given by

sin
mN

Where,
is the angle of diffraction
m is the order
N is the number of lines per unit length drawn on the grating

Determination of angle of diffraction :

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2. SPECTROMETER GRATING WAVELENGTH OF COMPOSITE LIGHT


AIM:
To determine the wavelength of the composite light using a diffraction grating and
a spectrometer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :
Spectrometer, solid Prism, sodium vapour lamp and reading lens.

PROCEDURE:
The preliminary adjustments of the spectrometer are made. The slit is illuminated
by white light from mercury vapour lamp. The grating is mounted on the prism table. The
direct image (white) of the slit is adjusted to coincide with the vertical cross wire. The
direct reading RI is measured using the verniers.
Now the telescope is released to get the first order (n= 1) diffracted image of the
slit in the left side. It is adjusted so that the vertical cross wire coincides with violet
spectral line. Readings corresponding to both the verniers are taken as R 2. The angle of
diffraction for violet is found as R1 R2. The experiment is repeated for green and
yellow spectral lines also.
The number of lines per unit length of the grating is N. Wavelength of the
spectral line is calculated from the formula

sin
mN

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CALCULATIONS :
TO FIND THE

RAY

RD1 R1

RD2 R2

BLUE

13o 34- 0o0 = 13o34

193o34- 180o0 = 13o34

B = 13o34

GREEN

15o 45- 0o0 = 15o45

195o45- 180o0 = 15o45

G = 15o45

YELLOW

16o 42- 0o0 = 16o42

196o42- 180o0 = 16o42

Y = 16o42

m = 1 and N = 5 105 lines/m

The wavelength of the Blue spectral line :

sin B sin( 13o34' )


0.2346
B

mN
1 5 105
5 105

0.04692 105 m

B = 4692 Ao
The wavelength of the Green spectral line :

sinG sin(15o 45' )


0.2714
G

0.05429 105 m
5
5
mN
1 5 10
5 10
G = 5429 Ao
The wavelength of the Yellow spectral line :

sinY sin(16o 42' )


0.2874
Y

0.05748 10 5 m
5
5
mN
1 5 10
5 10
Y = 5748 Ao

RESULT :
B = 4692 Ao

i)

Wavelength of blue colour

ii)

Wavelength of green colour G = 5429 Ao

iii)

Wavelength of yellow colour Y = 5748 Ao

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3. METRE BRIDGE
FORMULA REQUIRED :

1) When the known resistance Q is in the right gap,


Resistance of the wire P Q

l1
ohm
l2

2) When the known resistance Q is in the left gap,


Resistance of the wire P Q

l2
ohm
l1

Specific resistance of the material of the wire


Where,

r2P

Q is known resistance

l1 is the balancing length of P


l 2 is the balancing length of Q
r is the radius of the wire

l is the length of the wire

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :

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3. METRE BRIDGE
AIM :
To determine the resistance of the given coil of wire using a meter bridge and to
calculate the specific resistance of the material of the wire.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :
The metre bridge, battery, key, galvanometer, known and unknown resistances,
high resistance and connecting wires.

PROCEDURE :
The connections are made as in the circuit diagram. The jockey J is pressed near
the ends A and C and if the deflections in the galvanometer are in the opposite directions,
then the circuit is correct. Now the jockey is moved over the wire and its position J is
found when there is no deflection in the galvanometer. The balancing lengths AJ = 1
and JC =2 are measured. The experiment is repeated four more times by increasing the
value of Q in steps of 1 ohm.
When the known resistance Q is in the right gap G2, the resistance of the wire
unknown resistance P Q

l1
.
l2

Then the resistances Q and P are interchanged in the gaps G1 and G2. The
unknown resistance P is calculated from the formula P Q

l2
.
l1

The length () of the coil is measured using scale and radius(r) of the coil is
measured using screw gauge. The specific resistance of the coil is calculated using the
formula

r2P
l

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CALCULATIONS :

RESULT :
1) Resistance of the wire

P = 4.569

2) Specific resistance of the material of the wire

= 1.39 x 10 -6 m

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4.

POTENTIOMETER COMPARISON OF EMFS OF TWO CELLS

FORMULA REQUIRED :

The ratio of the emfs of the two cells is


E1 l1

E2 l2

( NO UNIT )

E1 emf of primary cell 1 (Leclanche cell)


E 2 emf of primary cell 2 (Daniel cell)
l1 is the balancing length for cell 1
l 2 is the balancing length for cell 2

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Here,
Bt = Battery, K = Key, Rh = Rheostat, G = Galvanometer, HR = High resistance
J = Jockey

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4.

POTENTIOMETER COMPARISON OF EMFS OF TWO CELLS

AIM:
To compare the emfs of two primary cells using a potentiometer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :
Potentiometer, Battery, Key, Rheostat, Galvanometer, High resistance,
the two given cells, Jockey and connecting wires.

PROCEDURE :
i)

The connections are made according to the circuit diagram. The jockey
J i s p r e s s e d in the first and the last wire and the opposite side
deflections in the galvanometer shows that the connections are
correct.

ii)

Leclanche cell is included in the circuit using the DPDT switch.


The jockey is moved over the potentiometer wire to get zero deflection in
the galvanometer. The balancing length AJ is measured as 1.

iii)

Daniel cell is included in the circuit using the DPDT switch, and
the balancing length is measured as 2.

iv)

The experiment is repeated for six times by moving rheostat in one


direction for changing the current in the circuit.

v)

The ratio of the emf of the two cells is found from the formula
E1 l1

E2 l2

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CALCULATIONS:

RESULT :
The mean ratio of emf of the two cells using the Potentiometer =

1.344 (no unit)

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5. TANGENT GALVANOMETER Determination of BH


AIM :
To determine the value of the horizontal component of earths magnetic field (B H)
using the Tangent Galvanometer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :
Tangent galvanometer, key, Rheostat, ammeter, commutator
and connecting wires.

FORMULA REQUIRED :

Horizontal component of earths magnetic field =

0 permeability of free space


n number of turns
I

current

a radius of coil
mean deflection produced in TG

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Here,
Bt = battery,

K = key

A = ammeter,

C = commutator

TG = Tangent galvanometer,

Rh = rheostat

tesla

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5. TANGENT GALVANOMETER Determination of BH


AIM :
To determine the value of the horizontal component of earths magnetic field (BH)
using the Tangent Galvanometer

FORMULA :

Horizontal component of earths magnetic field =


0
n
I
a

tesla

permeability of free space


number of turns
current
radius of coil
mean deflection produced in TG

PROCEDURE:
The battery, rheostat, ammeter and tangent galvanometer are connected as in
the circuit diagram. The coil in the tangent galvanometer is adjusted to be along the
magnetic meridian. Then the compass box alone is rotated so that the aluminum pointer
read 00 00.
The current I is passed through the circuit and the deflections of the needle are
noted as 1 and 2 . By reversing the current, the deflection are noted as 3 and 4.
The average deflection is found out.
The experiment is repeated by varying the current.
The average value of

is found out. The radius a of the coil is found out by

measuring its circumference. The number of turn n of the coil is noted.


The Horizontal component of earths magnetic induction is calculated by the
formula
=

tesla.

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CALCULATIONS :
Radius (r) =

7.5 102 m

. : 2

. : 1

0.7
0.6
=
=
tan
41
0.7536

0.6
0.6
=
=
tan
37
0.7536

= 0.8052

= 0.7961
. : 3

. : 4

0.8
0.6
=
=
tan
46
1.0355

0.9
0.9
=
=
tan
50
1.1918

= 0.7725
Mean

= 0.7555

0.7961+0.8052+0.7725+0.7555
4

= 0.7823

To calculate the horizontal component of earths magnetic field (BH)

=
=
=

4 10 7 5 0.7823
2 7.5 10 2
49.12844
105 = 3.28 105
15

RESULT :
The horizontal component of earths magnetic field (BH) = 3.28 X 10 - 5 Tesla

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6. SONOMETER FREQUENCY OF AC
AIM:
To determine the frequency of the ac main using a sonometer.

FORMULA REQUIRED:
The frequency of the ac main

where, T is the tension of the sonometer wire


is the resonating length
m is the linear density of the wire

DIAGRAM :

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6. SONOMETER FREQUENCY OF AC
AIM:
To determine the frequency of the ac main using a sonometer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :
The sonometer, 6V AC power supply, Different loads, bar magnets, knife
edges and connecting wires.

PROCEDURE:
The ac mains voltage is brought down to 6 V by means of step down
transformer. The secondary of the transformer is connected to the ends of the
sonometer wire. A bar magnet is held below the sonometer wire at the centre. The
magnetic field is horizontal and at right angles to the length of the wire.

With 250 gms (M) added to the weight hanger, the a.c. current is passed through
the wire. Now the wire is set into forced vibrations. The length between the two
knife edges is adjusted so that it vibrates in one segment. The length between the
knife edges is measured as 1. The same procedure is repeated and 2 is measured. The
average 1 and 2 is . The experiment is repeated for the loads 500gm, 750 gm and
1000 gm.

The radius of the wire r is measured using screw gauge. The linear density of the wire
is m = r2, where is its density.

The frequency of the a.c. mains is calculated from the formula


=

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CALCUATIONS :
Diameter of the wire d =
Radius of the wire r =

Density of the steel wire () = 7800kgm3


Linear density m = 2 =
= ( 1.72 X10-3 ) = 4.147 X 10 -2

S.No: 1
T = 0.250 9.8 = 2.45

= 1.565

= 0.332 m

1.565
=
= 4.714

0.332

= 2.214

= 0.455 m

2.214
=
= 4.863

0.455

= 2.711

= 0.559

2.711
=
= 4.849

0.559

= 3.130

= 0.644

3.13
=
= 4.860

0.644

S.No: 2
T = 0.500 9.8 =4.90
S.No: 3
T = 0.750 9.8 =7.35
S.No: 4
T = 1.000 9.8 =9.80

Mean

4.714+4.863+4.849+4.860
4

= 4.8215

1 4.8215
2 4.147 10 2

= 58.13 Hz

RESULT :
The frequency of the ac main n =

58.13 Hz

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7. JUNCTION DIODE AND ZENER DIODE


FORMULA REQUIRED :
Forward resistance of the PN junction diode
Here,

V is the forward voltage


is the forward current.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
PN - JUNCTION DIODE - forward bias

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
ZENER DIODE reverse bias

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7. JUNCTION DIODE AND ZENER DIODE


AIM :
a)

To study the forward bias characteristics of a PN junction diode and to determine


the forward resistance of the diode.

b)

To study the reverse breakdown characteristics of the zener diode.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :
PN-junction diode, zener diode, variable voltage source, milliammeter, voltmeter
and connecting wires.

PROCEDURE :
1) Forward Characteristic Curve of a PN junction diode:i)

The circuit connections are made as in the diagram.

ii)

The forward voltage Vf is increased from zero in steps of 0.1 V upto 1V.

iii)

The corresponding values of If are noted. A graph is drawn with Vf along Xaxis and If along Y-axis. This is called forward characteristic curve.

iv)

The reciprocal of the slope of this curve above the knee point is found as
forward resistance of the Diode.

v)

Forward resistance =

2) Reverse breakdown characteristics of the zener diode:i)

The circuit is wired as in the diagram.

ii)

The voltage VO is increased from zero in steps of 1V upto 8V. The


corresponding values of IZ are noted.

iii)

A graph is drawn with VO along X-axis and IZ along Y-axis. This is called
reverse characteristic curve.

iv)

At particular voltage, the current increases enormously, this voltage is called


zener voltage (VZ)

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CALCULATIONS :

RESULT :
i)

The forward resistance of the PN-junction diode = 33.33 ohm.

ii)

The zener breakdown voltage =

7.3 volt.

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8. COMMOMN EMITTER NPN TRANSISTOR - PART-I


AIM :
To study the characteristics of a common Emitter NPN transistor and to determine
its input impedance and output impedance.

FORMULA REQURIED :
(i)

Input impedance =

(ii)

Output impedance =

Here,
is the change in base emitter voltage

is the change in base current

is the change in collector emitter voltage

is the change in collector current

Input characteristics curve

Output characteristics curve

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8. COMMOMN EMITTER NPN TRANSISTOR - PART-I


AIM :
To study the characteristics of a common Emitter NPN transistor and to determine
its input impedance and output impedance.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :
NPN transistor, milliammeter, microammeter, voltmeters, variable voltage sources
and connecting wires

PROCEDURE :
The circuit connections are made as in the diagram.

1.INPUT CHARACTERISTIC CURVE :i)

The collector emitter voltage V CE is kept at a constant value(2 V).

ii)

The base emitter voltage VBE is increased from zero in steps of 0.1 V
upto 1V. The corresponding values of IB are noted.

iii)

A graph is drawn with VBE along X-axis and IB along Y-axis. This is called
input characteristic curve.

iv)

The reciprocal of the slope of this curve above the knee point is found as
input impedance of the transistor.

v)

The Input impedance =

2. OUTPUT CHARACTERISTIC CURVE :i)

The base current IB is kept at a constant value.

ii)

VCE is increased in steps of 0.5 V from Zero. The corresponding values of I C


are noted.

iii)

A graph is drawn with VCE along X-axis and IC along Y-axis. This is called
output characteristic curve.
iv)

The reciprocal of the slope of the output characteristic curve near

horizontal part gives the output impedance (r0).


Output impedance =

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RESULT :
i)

The static characteristic curves of the transistor in CE configuration are drawn.

ii)

The input impedance ri

iii)

The output impedance r0 =

2 k
700

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9. COMMOMN EMITTER NPN TRANSISTOR - PART-II


FORMULA REQUIRED :
i)

Output impedance =

ii)

Current gain

(No unit)

Here,
is the change in base emitter voltage

is the change in base current

is the change in collector emitter voltage

is the change in collector current.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Output characteristics curve

Transfer characteristics curve

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9. COMMOMN EMITTER NPN TRANSISTOR - PART-II


AIM :
To study the characteristics of a common Emitter NPN transistor and to
determine its output impedance and the current gain.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :
NPN transistor, milliammeter, microammeter, voltmeters, variable voltage
sources and connecting wires.

PROCEDURE:

1. OUTPUT CHARACTERISTIC CURVE :i)

The base current IB is kept at a constant value.

ii)

VCE is increased in steps of 0.5 V from Zero. The corresponding values of I C


are noted.

iii)

A graph is drawn with VCE along X-axis and IC along Y-axis. This is called
output characteristic curve.

iv)

The reciprocal of the slope of the output characteristic curve near


horizontal part gives the output impedance (r0).
Output impedance =

2. TRANSFER CHARACTERISTIC CURVE :i)

The collector emitter voltage VCE is kept at a constant value (2V).

ii)

IB is increased in steps of 25 A from 25 A to 100A. The corresponding


values of IC are noted.

iii)

A graph is drawn with IB along X-axis and Ic along Y-axis. This is called
transfer characteristic curve.

iv)

The slope of this curve gives the current gain of the transistor.
Current gain =

(no unit)

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CALCULATIONS:

RESULT :
I)

The static characteristic curves of the transistor in CE configuration are drawn.

II)

The output impedance r0 =

III)

The current gain

700
100 ( no unit )

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10. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER - Inverting amplifier


FORMULA REQUIRED :

Voltage gain of the inverting amplifier, =

ii)

The output voltage of the inverting summing amplifier, V0 = (V1 +V2) volt

Here,

V0 output voltage
Vin, V1 and V2 are the input voltages
Rf and Rs are the external resistances

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS :
INVERTING AMPLIFIER :

SUMMING AMPLIFIER :

i)

(no unit)

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10. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER - Inverting amplifier


AIM :
To construct the following basic amplifiers using OP-AMP IC741.
i)

Inverting amplifier

ii)

Summing amplifier

APPARATUS REQUIRED :
Operational amplifier(IC-741), dual power supply, 10K, 22K, 33K resistors, digital
voltmeter and connecting wires.

PROCEDURE :
INVERTING AMPLIFIER:i)

The circuit connections are made as shown in the diagram.

ii)

RS is kept as 10 K and RF as 22 K.

iii)

The input voltage Vin is kept as 1V and output voltage Vo is measured


from the digital voltmeter.

iv)

Then the experiment is repeated for input values V in = 1.5 V, 2V and


2.5 V.

v)

Experimental gain is found as =

vi)

Theoretical gain is found from =

vii)

Both the AV values are compared and found to be equal.

SUMMING AMPLIFIER:i)

The circuit connections are made as shown in the diagram.

ii)

The values of R1, R2 and RF are kept as 10 K . The input voltages are kept
as VI = 1V and V2 =2.0V and the output voltage Vo is measured using the
digital voltmeter

iii)

Then the experiment is repeated for different sets of values for V 1 and V2.
Theoretical output v o l t a g e i s found from V0 = - (V1 + V2).

iv)

The theoretical and experimental output values are compared.

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CALCULATIONS :
1. Inverting amplifier

EXPERIMENTAL GAIN

S.No : 1

2.26
=
=
= 2.26

1.0

THEORETICAL GAIN

22
=
= 2.20

10

22
=
= 2.20

10

22
=
= 2.20

10

22
=
= 2.20

10

S.No: 2

3.42
=
=
= 2.28

1.5

S.No: 3

4.54
=
=
= 2.27

2.0

S.No: 4

5.73
=
=
= 2.29

2.5

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CALCULATIONS :
Summing amplifier

Theoretical output
S.No : 1
Experimental output Vo = - 3.08 volt

Vo = (V1 + V2) = - ( 1 + 2 )

= - 3.00 V

Theoretical output
S.No: 2
Experimental output Vo = - 4.05 volt

Vo = (V1 + V2) = - (1.5 + 2.5) = - 4.00 V

Theoretical output
S.No: 3
Experimental output Vo = - 5.09 volt

Vo = (V1 + V2) = - (2 + 3)

= - 5.00 V

Theoretical output
S.No: 4
Experimental output Vo = - 6.06 volt

Vo = (V1 + V2) = - (2.5 + 3.5) = - 6.00 V

RESULT :
i)

The inverting amplifier and summing amplifier are constructed using OP-AMP and
the experimental and the theoretical outputs are compared.

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11. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER -

Non-Inverting amplifier

FORMULA REQUIRED :

Voltage gain of the non-inverting amplifier, =

ii)

The output voltage of the inverting summing amplifier, V0 = (V1 +V2) volt

Here,

V0 output voltage
Vin, V1 and V2 are the input voltages
Rf and Rs are the external resistances

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS :
NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER :

SUMMING AMPLIFIER :

=1+

i)

(no unit)

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11. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER -

Non -inverting amplifier

AIM :
To construct the following basic amplifiers using OP-AMP IC741.
i)

Non-inverting amplifier

ii)

Summing amplifier

APPARATUS REQUIRED :
Operational amplifier(IC-741), dual power supply, 10K, 22K, 33K resistors, digital
voltmeter and connecting wires.

PROCEDURE :
1. NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER:I)

The circuit connections are made as shown in the diagram.

II)

RS is kept as 10 K and RF as 22 K.

III)

The input voltage Vin is kept as 1V and output voltage Vo is measured


from the digital voltmeter.

IV)

Then the experiment is repeated for input values V in = 1.5 V, 2V and


2.5 V.

V)

Experimental gain is found as =

VI)

Theoretical gain is found from =

VII)

Both the AV values are compared and found to be equal.

=1+

2. SUMMING AMPLIFIER:i)

The circuit connections are made as shown in the diagram.

ii)

The values of R1, R2 and RF are kept as 10 K . The input voltages are kept
as VI = 1V and V2 =2.0V and the output voltage Vo is measured using the
digital voltmeter

iii)

Then the experiment is repeated for different sets of values for V1 and V2.
Theoretical output v o l t a g e i s found from V0 = - (V1 + V2).

iv)

The theoretical and experimental output values are compared.

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CALCULATIONS :
Non- Inverting amplifier

EXPERIMENTAL GAIN

S.No : 1

3.26
= = 1.0 = 3.26

THEORETICAL GAIN

= 1 +

S.No: 2

4.86
=
=
= 3.24

1.5

= 1 +

S.No: 3

6.56
=
=
= 3.28

2.0

= 1 +

S.No: 4

8.05
=
=
= 3.22

2.5

= 1 +

22

= 1 + 10 = 3.20

22

= 1 + 10 = 3.20

22

= 1 + 10 = 3.20

22

= 1 + 10 = 3.20

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CALCULATIONS :
Summing amplifier

Theoretical output
S.No : 1
Experimental output Vo = - 3.08 volt

Vo = (V1 + V2) = - ( 1 + 2 ) = - 3.00 V

Theoretical output
S.No: 2
Experimental output Vo = - 4.05 volt

Vo = (V1 + V2) = - (1.5 + 2.5) = - 4.00 V

Theoretical output
S.No: 3
Experimental output Vo = - 5.09 volt

Vo = (V1 + V2) = - (2 + 3) = - 5.00 V

Theoretical output
S.No: 4
Experimental output Vo = - 6.06 volt

Vo = (V1 + V2) = - (2.5 + 3.5) = - 6.00 V

RESULT :
The non-inverting amplifier and summing amplifier are constructed using OP-AMP
and the experimental and the theoretical outputs are compared.

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12. INTEGRATED LOGIC GATE CIRCUITS


AIM:
To study the Truth Table of integrated Logic Gates IC 7400(NAND), IC 7402
(NOR), IC 7404 (NOT), IC 7408(AND), IC 7432 (OR), and IC 7486 (EXOR)
1) For ICs 7400 (NAND), 7408(AND), 7432(OR) & 7486(EX-OR)

2) For IC 7402(NOR)

3) For NOT (7404)

FORMULA REQUIRED :

OR gate:

Boolean equation
Y =A + B

AND gate:

Boolean equation
Y = AB

NOT gate:

Boolean equation
Y=A

NOR gate:

Boolean equation
Y=A+B

NAND gate:

Boolean equation
Y=A B

EX-OR gate:

Boolean equation

Y = AB = AB + AB

Here, A, B = inputs
and

Y = output

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12. INTEGRATED LOGIC GATE CIRCUITS


AIM :
To study the Truth Table of integrated Logic Gates IC 7400(NAND), IC 7402
(NOR), IC 7404 (NOT), IC 7408(AND), IC 7432 (OR), and IC 7486 (EXOR)

APPARATUS REQUIRED :
Logic Gates IC 7400(NAND), IC 7402 (NOR), IC 7404 (NOT), IC 7408(AND), IC 7432
(OR), and IC 7486 (EXOR)

PROCEDURE :
For NAND gate, AND gate, OR gate and EXOR gate:i)

Power supply +5V is connected to pin 14 and ground to pin 7 of the IC.

ii)

Inputs A & B are connected to pins 1 & 2 of the IC.

iii)

Output pin 3 of the IC is connected to logic level indicator.

iv)

Inputs A & B are kept at 0 & 0 and output LED is observed. Then the
inputs are changed as 0 & 1, 1 & 0 and 1 & 1 and the outputs are
observed each time. The inputs and outputs are tabulated in the truth
table.

v)

Similarly, ICs 7408 (AND), 7432 (OR) and 7486 (EXOR) are placed on the
board and the same procedure is followed as for NAND gate and outputs
are tabulated in the truth table.
NOR gate :-

i)

IC 7402 is placed on the board. Power supply and ground are connected
as before.

ii)

The inputs are connected to pins 2 & 3 and the output to pin 1 of IC.
Then the same procedure is repeated and tabulation is done in the truth
table.
NOT gate :-

i)

IC 7404 is placed on the board. One input A is connected to pin 1 and


the output to pin 2 of IC. I

ii)

Input is kept at logic 1 and then at logic 0 and the outputs are
found and tabulated in the truth table.

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TABULAR COLUMN AND OBSERVATIONS :

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TABULAR COLUMN AND OBSERVATIONS :

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TABULAR COLUMN AND OBSERVATIONS :

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CALCULATIONS :

RESULT :
The performance of digital gates OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR and EX-OR gates
and their truth tables are verified using IC chips.

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Best wishes to get centum (200/200) in Physics

L
Prepared by

B.ELANGOVAN. M.Sc., M.Ed., M.Phil.,


(Tamilnadu Dr.Radhakrishnan Best Teacher Award recipient - 2011)

P.G.Teacher in Physics,
PACHAIYAPPAS HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL,
KANCHIPURAM - 631501.