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HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
ARCHITECTURAL TERM
PEDIMENT

- In classical Architecture, the triangular gable end of the roof


- above the horizontal cornice, often filled with sculpture. Also
called a Fronton when used to crown a subordinate feature, as a
window.
- In later work, a surface used ornamentally over doors or
windows.

PARTS:
EPITHEDES
RANKING CORNICE
TYMPANUM, TYMPAN

- The upper member of the cornice of an entablature.


- A cornice following the slope of a gable, pediment, or roof
- The triangular or segmental space enclosed by a pediment or Architecture.
- Any space similarly marked off or bounded, as above a window, or between the
lintel of a door 7 the Arch above.

ACROTERION, ACROTER
ACROTERIUM
- Strictly a pedestal at corners or peak of a roof to support an ornament itself.
CAVETTO, GORGE, HOLLOW,
THROAT, TRACHILUS
- A hollow member or round concave molding containing at least the quadrant
of a circle, used in cornices & between the tori of bases, etc. erroneously called
scotta, which has a noncircular curvature.
ENTABLATURE
- In classical Architecture, the elaborated beam member carried by the columns,
Horizontally divided into architrave (below), freeze, and cornice (above). The
proportions & detailing are different for each other, & strictly prescribed.
- A similar feature as the crown of a wall.

PARTS:
CORNICE

FRIEZE

ARCHITRAVE

- The third or uppermost division of an entablature, resting on the freeze.


- Any molded projection which crowns or finishes the part to which it is fixed.
- A ornamental molding, usually of wood or plaster, running round the walls of a
room just the ceiling.
-The middle horizontal member of a classical entablature, above the
architrave & below the cornice.
- A similar decorative band in a stringcourse, or near the top of an interior wall
below the cornice.
- in classical orders, the lowest member of the entablature; the beam that spans
from column to column, resting directly upon their capitals.

PARTS OF CORNICE:
MUTULE
REGLET

- A sloping flat block on the soffit of the Doric cornice, usually decorated with
Rows of six guttae each; occurs over each triglyph & each me tope of the frieze.
- A fillet or small flat-faced projection, as used in a fret molding or to cover a joint
between two boards.

TOP OF TRIGLYPH:
CYMA RECTA,
DORIC CYMA
CYMA REVERSA,
LESBIAN CYMA

- A molding of double curvature which is concave at the outer edge & convex at
the inner edge.
- A molding of double curvature which is convex at the outer edge and concave at
the inner edge.

PARTS OF FRIEZE:
ASTRGAL

METOPE
SHANK
TRIGLYPH

- A bead, usually half-round, with a fillet on one or both sides. It may be explain,
But the term is more correctly used to describe the classical molding consisting
of a string of beads or bead-and-reel shapes.
- A plain bead molding (serves much the same purpose as the fillet). Also called
roundel, baguette, or chaplet.
- The panel between the triglyphs in the Doric frieze, often carved.
- One of the plain spaces between the channels of a triglyph in a Doric frieze.
- The characteristic ornament of the Doric frieze, consisting of slightly raised
blocks of three vertical bands separated by V-shaped grooves. The triglyphs
alternate with plain or sculpture panels called metopes.

PARTS OF TRIGLYPH:
GLYPH
REVELLED CHANNEL

- A sculpture pictograph.
- A groove or channel, usually vertical, intended as an ornament.
- A decorative groove angled to its surface.

PARTS OF ARCHITRAVE
TAENIA, TENIA
REGULA, REGULAE
GUTTA, GUTTAE

DENTIL

FASCIA

DIVIDED INTO:

- A narrow raised band or fillet, particularly the topmost member of the Doric
Architrave.
- In the Doric entablature, one of a series of short fillets beneath the taenia,
each corresponding to a triglyph above.
- One of series of pendant ornaments, generally in the form of the frustum of a
cone, but sometimes cylindrical; usually found on the underside of the mutules
& regulate of Doric entablatures.
- One of a band of small, square, tooth like blocks forming part of the
characteristic ornamentation of the ionic, Corinthian, & composite orders, &
sometimes the Doric.
- Any flat horizontal member or molding with little projection, as the bands into
which the architraves of ionic & Corinthian entablatures are divided.
- Are relatively narrow vertical surface ( but broader than a fillet) which is
projected or cantilevered or supported on columns or element other than a wall
below.
upper fascia&
Lower fascia

COLUMN

- In classical Architecture, a cylindrical support consisting of a base (except in


- Greek Doric), shaft, and capital; either monolithic or built up of drums the full
diameter of the shaft.
- In structures, a relatively long, slender structural compression member such as a
post, pillar, or strut; usually vertical, supporting a load which acts in (or near) the
direction of its longitudinal axis.

PARTS:
CAPITAL
SHAFT
BASE

- The topmost member, usually decorated, of a column, pilaster, anta, etc. It may
Carry an architrave or an arcade or be surmounted by an impost block (dosseret).
- The portion of a column, colonette, or pilaster between the base & the capital.
- lower part of a column or pier, wider than the shaft, & resting on a plinth,
pedestal, podium, or stylobate.
- The lowest (and often widest) visible part of a building, often distinctively
treated. A base is distinguished from a foundation or footing in being visible
rather than buried.

PARTS OF A CAPITAL:
ABACUS
ECHINUS

ANNULET

NECKING

TRACHELIUM,
TRACHELION
HYPOTRACHELIUM,HYPOTRACHELION, GORGERIN
CHANNEL
VOLUTE
SCROLL

EGG & DART


FLEURON
HELIX
CAULICULUS, CAULICOLE
CAULIS

- The uppermost member of the capital of a column; often a plain square slab,
but sometimes molded or otherwise enriched.
- The convex projecting molding of eccentric curve supporting the abacus of
the Doric capital. Hence the corresponding feature in capitals of other orders,
which often had egg & dart ornamentation; any molding of similar profile or
decoration .
- Also see avolo, bowtell.
- A small molding, usually circular in plan & square or angular in section;
especially one of the fillets encircling the lower part of the Doric capital
above the necking.
- A molding or group of moldings between a column & capital.
- Any ornamental band at the lower part of capital; a hypotrachelium.
- In classical orders, the space between the bottom of the capital & the top of the
shaft, which is marked by a sink age or a ring of moldings.
- In classical Architecture, any member (usually part of the necking) which comes
between the hypotrachelium & the capital.
- In some columns, that part of the capital between the termination of the shaft
& The annulet if the echinus, or the space between two neck moldings.
- A decorative groove, in carpentry or masonry.
- A spiral scroll, as on ionic, Corinthian, or composite capital s or oncconsoles,
etc.
- An ornament consisting of a spirally wound band, either as a running ornament
or as a terminal, like the volutes of the ionic capital or the scrolls on consoles
& modillions.
- An egg-shaped ornament alternating with a dart-like ornament, used to enriched
ovolo and echinus moldings & also on bands.
- The small flower at the center of each side of Corinthian abacus.
- Any small flower like ornament in general. (usually acanthus plant).
- Any spiral, particularly a small volute or twist under the abacus of the Corinthian
capital. The volute of an ionic capital.
- Any one of the ornamental stalks rising between the leaves of a Corinthian
capital from which the volutes spring.
- One of the main stalks of leaves which spring from between the acanthus leaves

FILLET

of the second row on each side of the typical Corinthian capita, & which are
carried up to support the volutes at the angles.
- A molding consisting of a narrow flat band, often square in section ; the term is
loosely applied to almost any rectangular molding; usually used in conjunction
with or to separate other moldings or ornaments, as the stria between the flutes
of columns.
- A carved ornament representing a flowing band or ribbon.

DIFFERENT MOLDING ON A SHAFT:


APOPHYGE

HYPOPHYGE
ARRIS, ARIS

FLUTE

SURBASE
TORUS
PEDESTAL

DADO, DIE
CINCTURE, GIRDLE
CAP

PLINTH

- That part of a column which is molded into a concave sweep where the shaft
springs from the base or terminates in the capital. Also called scape or conge.
- The hollow or Scotia beneath the echinus of some archaic Doric capitals.
- A depression of curved profile beneath some feature, such as the hollow molding
beneath some archaic Doric capitals.
- An external angular intersection between two planar faces (an edge), or two
curved faces , as in moldings or between two flutes on a Doric column or
between a flute & the fillet on an ionic or a Corinthian column.
- The sharp edge of a brick.
- A groove or channel, especially one of many such parallel grooves, usually
semi-circular or semi elliptical in section; used decoratively, as along the shaft
of a column. Fluting a series of flutes.
- the crowning moldings or cornice of pedestal.
- A border or molding above a base or dado.
- A bold projecting molding, convex in shape, generally forming the lowest
Member of a base over thee plinth.
- A support for a column, statue, urn, etc., consisting in classical Architecture
of a base, dado, or die & a cornice, surbase, or cap; in modern design often plain
unornamented block.
- An upright compression member the height of which does not exceed three times
its least lateral dimension.
- The middle portion of a pedestal between the base (or the plinth) & the surbase
(or the cornice, cap, or entablement).
- A ring of moldings around the top or bottom of the shaft of a column, separating
the shaft from the capital or base; a fillet around a post. Also see necking.
-Usually, the topmost member of any vertical Architectural element, often
projecting, with a drip as protection from the weather, e.g., the coping of a wall,
top of pedestal or buttress, etc.
- The upper member of a column, pilaster, molding & the like.
- A square or rectangular base for column, pilaster, or door framing.
- A solid monumental base, often ornamented with moldings, bas reliefs, or
inscriptions, to support a statue or memorial.
- A recognizable base of an external wall, or the base courses of a bldg.
collectively, if so a platform.

GREEK TEMPLES:
PARTS:

CREPIDOMA

- The base courses (3stepped platform) of a classical ( esp. Greek) temple.

PARTS:
STYLOBATE

- Strictly, the single top course of the 3 steps of the crepidoma upon which the

columns rest directly.


- Any continuous base, plinth, or pedestal, upon which a row of columns is set.
STEREOBATE

ANTA

PRONAOS
NAOS, CELLA
EPINAOS, POSTICUM,
OPISTHODOMOS
HYPAETHRAL
PTEROMA, PTERON
PORTICO

- The substructure, foundation or solid platform upon which a building is erected.


In a columnar building, it includes the stylobate (the uppermost step or platform
of the foundation upon which the columns stand). The lowest step on a
crepidoma.
- A pier or pilaster formed by a thickening at the end of a wall; its capital & base
Differ from those of the columns forming part of the same order. Antae often occur
in pairs on either side of a doorway or beyond the face of the end walls.
- The inner portico in front of the naos, or cella, of a classical temple.
- The sanctuary of a classical temple , containing the cult statue of the God.
- A chamber at the rear of the cella of a classical temple, corresponding to the
pronaos in front.
- A building which is open, or partly open, to the sky. (An open court or enclosure);
a place or part of a building that is roofless is HYPAETHRON. (see atrium)
- The passageway between the walls of the cella of a classical temple & the columns
Of the peristyle.
- A porch or covered walk consisting of a roof supported by columns; a colonnaded
(continuous row of columns) porch.
- A free standing roofed colonnade; a stoa.

GREEK THEATERS:
PARTS:
SCENA, SCENE

PARASCENIUM
CAVEA
DIAZOMA
ORCHESTRA
STAGE

- A temporary building or booth for players behind the acting area in the ancient
Theatre ; later the permanent back building of the theatre. (skene, scaena-Greek &
Latin term respectively).
- A projecting wall with wing at the end of the skene.
- The semi-circular, tiered seating area of an ancient (especially roman) theatre.
(Auditoriums)
- The wide horizontal walkway between the lower & upper tiers of seats in a Greek
Theatre.
- Stage of concrete circles & elevated with an altar in dedication to their Gods.
- A floor area or platform for dramatic, musical, other types of performance

ROMAN ARCH:
PARTS:
STRINGCOURSE,
BELT COURSE

KEYSTONE
ARCHIVOLT

ARCH STONE, VOUSSOIR

- A horizontal band of masonry; generally narrower than other courses, extending


across the facade of a structure & in some instances encircling such decorative
features as pillars or engaged columns; may be flush or projecting, & flat surfaced,
molded, or richly carved; a bond course.
- In masonry the central, often embellished, voussoir or an Architecture until the
keystone is in place, no true ARCH action is incurred.
- An architrave modified by being carried around a curved opening instead of
of a rectangular one; An ornamental molding or band of molding on the face of an
Archtecture following the contour of the extrados.
- A wedge-shaped masonry unit in an Arch or vault whose converging sides are
cut as radii of one of the centers of the Arch or vault

INTRADOS
EXTRADOS
SPANDREL

HAUNCH
ARCHWAY
SPRING LINE
STILT, STILTING
IMPOST
ABUTMENT

- The inner curve or face of an Arch or vault forming the concave underside.
- The exterior curve or boundary of the visible face of the Arch.
- An area, roughly triangular in shape, included between the extradoses of two
adjoining Arches & line approximately connecting their crowns (or space
approximately equal to half this in the case of a single Arch); in medieval
Architecture, often ornamented with tracery, etc.
- The middle part between the crown & the springing of an Arch.
- A passage through or under an Arch, especially when long, as under a barrel
vault.
- The imaginary horizontal line at which an Arch or vault begins to curve; the
line in which the Springers rest on the imposts.
- A structural area or element lifting another such above its regular position.
- A member placed above or below another vertical member for additional height.
- A masonry unit or course, often distinctively profiled, which receives & distributes
the thrust at each end of an Architecture, also see springer.
- A masonry mass (or the like) which receives the thrust of an Arch, vault, or strut.

EARLY CHRISTIAN CHURCHES:


PARTS:
APSE
CATHEDRAL
NICHE
ALTAR

SANCTUARY
CHANCEL
CANCELLI
BALDOCHINO,
CIBORIUM
CIMBORIO
BEMA

CHOIR
CONFESSIO

PULPIT
LOGEION, LOGEUM

- A semicircular ( or nearly semicircular) or semi-polygonal space,


usually in a church, terminating an axis & intended to house an altar.
- The bishops throne, set at the end of the apse.
- A recess in wall, usually to contain sculpture or an urn; often
semi-circular in plan, surmounted by a half dome.
- An elevated table, slab, or structure, often of stone, rectangular round
for religious, rites, sacrifices, or offerings. The communion table in
certain churches.
- The immediate area around the principal altar. The sacred shrine of
divinity. (composed of chancel & choir).
- The sanctuary of a church, including the choir, reserved
for the clergy.
- bared screens in a Basilica, separating the clergy from the Laity.
- An ornamental canopy over an altar, usually supported on columns, or
a similar form over tomb or throne.
- A lantern or cupola above or nearly above the high altar in Spanish
Architecture.
- A transverse space in a church a few steps above the floor of the nave
& aisles, & separating them from the apse.
in a synagogue, a raised pulpit from which the torah (holy bible) is
read.
- that part of a church between the sanctuary & the nave reserved for
singers & clergy.
- The tomb of a martyr or confessor; if an altar was erected over the grave, the name
was also extended to the altar & to the subterranean chamber in which it stood;
In later times a basilica was sometimes erected over the chamber & the entire bldg.
was known as a confession. (A crypt below).
- An elevated enclosed stand in a church in which the preacher stands. (Speaking
place).
- The raised platform for the actors in the Hellenistic theatre, corresponding to the
modern stage.

NAVE

NAVE ARCADE
AISLE

NARTHEX
AMBULATORY
ATRIUM
EMBRASURE

CRENEL, CRENELLE
MERLON
BATTLEMENT,
EMBATTLEMENT

MACHICOLATION
BARTRAN
ARROW LOOP, LOOPHOLE
LOOPHOLE

- The middle aisle of a church.


- By extension, both middle & side aisles from the entrance to the crossing or
chancel.
- That part of the church intended primarily for the laity.
- The open arcade between the central & side aisles.
- The longitudinal passage between sections of seats in an auditorium or church.
- In a church, the space flanking & parallel to the nave; usually separated from it
by columns, intended primarily for circulation but sometimes containing seats.
- An enclosed porch or vestibule at the entrance to some early Christian churches.
- A passageway around the apse of a church, or for circumambulating a shrine.
- A covered walk of a cloister.
- The forecourt of an early Christian Basilica, with colonnades on all four sides, &
Usually a fountain for ablutions in the center.
- The crenels or intervals between the merlons of a battlement.
- An enlargement of a door or window opening, at the inside face of the wall by
means of splayed sides.
- An open space between the merlons of a battlement.
- In an embattled parapet, one of the solid alternates between the embrasures.
- A fortified parapet with alternate solid parts & openings, termed respectively
merlons & embrasures or crenels (hence crenellation). General for
defense, but employed also as a decorative motif.
- A roof or platform serving as battle post.
- On a fortified wall, a small overhanging structure with lookout holes & loops,
often at a corner or near an entrance gateway.
- A vertical slit for archers in medieval fortification walls, with jambs deeply
splayed toward the interior.
- Any opening in a parapet or wall to provide for vision, light, or air.