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PRC

YEARBOOK

Board of Architecture

2000
Republic Act No. 545*
An Act to Regulate the Practice of Architecture
in the Philippines
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:
Article I
ORGANIZATION
Section 1. Creation and Composition of a Board of
Examiners for Architects. Within thirty days after the approval of this Act, there shall be created a Board of Examiners for Architects1 to be composed of a chairman and two
members to be appointed by the Secretary of Public Works
and Communications.2
Section 2. Powers Vested in Board. The Board of
Examiners for Architects3 shall administer the provisions of
this Act; issue, suspend or revoke certificates of registration for the practice of architecture; and administer oaths
in connection with such certificates of registration.
In carrying into effect the provisions of this Act, the
Board may, under the hand of its chairman and the seal of
the Board, subpoena witnesses, compel their attendance,
and require the production of books, documents, and similar evidence in any case involving violation of any of the
provisions of this Act. Any member of the Board may administer oaths or affirmations to witnesses appearing before it. If any person shall refuse to obey any subpoena so
issued, or shall refuse to testify or produce any book document, etc., the Board may present its petition to the Court
of First Instance, setting forth the facts, and thereupon such
court shall, in a proper case, issue its subpoena to such
person, requiring his appearance before such court and
there to testify or produce such books, papers, documents,
etc., as may be deemed necessary and pertinent by the
Board. Any person failing or refusing to obey the subpoena
or order of the said court may be proceeded against in the
same manner as for refusal to obey any other subpoena or
order of the court.
The Board shall, from time to time look into conditions affecting the practice of architecture in the Philippines
and, whenever necessary, recommend to the Secretary of
Public Works and Communications4 the adoption of such

*As amended by RA 1581.


1
Now Board of Architecture.
2
Now President of the Philippines. See RA 2032.
3
Now Board of Architecture.
4
Now Professional Regulation Commission.

184

measures as may be deemed proper for the maintenance


of good ethics and standards in the practice of architecture
in the Philippines and for the protection of public welfare,
life, health, and property.
Section 3. Qualifications of Board Members. Each
member of the Board shall, at the time of his appointment:
1.
Be a citizen of the Philippines and a resident thereof;
2.
Hold the degree of B.S. Arch., B., in Arch., M.S. Arch.,
M. in Arch., or the equivalent thereof conferred by an
architectural school or college legally chartered and
of good standing;
3.
Be legally qualified to practice architecture for at least
ten years and actually in active practice on the date
of his appointment;
4.
Not be a member of the faculty of any school, college or university where a regular course in architecture is taught, nor have pecuniary interest in such
institution. No former member of the faculty of any
school, institute or university where architecture is
taught can become a member of the Board unless he
had stopped teaching for at least three consecutive
years.5
Section 4. Terms of Office. The members of the
Board shall hold office for a term of three years after appointment or until their successors shall have been appointed and shall have duly qualified. The members of the
Board first appointed under this Act shall hold office for the
following terms: One member for one year; one member
for two years; and one member for three years. Each member of the Board shall qualify by taking the proper oath prior
to entering upon the performance of his duties.
Section 5.6
Section 6. Vacancy and Removal of Board Members. Any vacancy occurring in the membership of said
Board before the expiration of the term of office of the member separated therefrom shall be filled for the unexpired

See RA 2032
Superseded by PD 223, promulgated June 22, 1973.

Professional Regulation Commission

Board of Architecture

PRC
YEARBOOK

2000
term by appointment by the Secretary of Public Works and
Communications.7 The Secretary of Public Works and Communications8 may remove any member of the Board for
continued neglect of duty or incompetency, or for unprofessional or dishonorable conduct, after having given the
member concerned an opportunity to defend himself in the
proper administrative investigation.
Section 7. Compensation of Board. The member
of the Board shall each receive as compensation the sum
of five pesos for each applicant examined or registered.9
Any architect in the service of the Government of the Republic appointed as member of the Board shall receive the
compensation herein provided, in addition to his salary. All
fees shall be received by the disbursing officer of the Bureau of Civil Service,10 and such officer shall pay all authorized expenditures of the Board, including the compensation provided for by this Act for the members of the Board.
Section 8. Rules and Regulations. The Board may,
with the approval of the Secretary of Public Works and Communications,11 adopt such rules and regulations as may be
necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act into effect.
Penal provisions may be included in said regulations, the
violation of which shall be punishable by a fine of not less
than five hundred pesos nor more than one thousand pesos or by imprisonment for not less than six months, nor
more than one year, or both, in the discretion of the Court.
Section 9. Annual Report. The Board shall submit
an annual report to the Secretary of Public Works and Communications12 after the close of each fiscal year giving a
detailed account of its proceedings during the year and
making such recommendations as it may deem proper.13
Section 10. Roster of Architects. A roster showing
the names and place of business of all registered professional architects shall be prepared by the Commissioner
of Civil Service14 during the month of July of every year,
commencing one year after the date this Act becomes effective. Copies of this roster shall be mailed to each person so registered and placed on file with the Secretary of
Public Works and Communications15 and, copies thereof

shall be furnished to all department heads, to the mayors of


all chartered cities, to the Director of Public Works, to the
Collector of Customs, to such other Bureaus or government
agencies and provincial and municipal authorities as may
be deemed necessary and to the public upon request.
Article II
REGISTRATION AND EXAMINATION
Section 11. Certificate and Registration. Whenever
the provisions and requirements for registration under the
provisions of this Act have been fully complied with and
fulfilled by an applicant, the Board16 shall issue a certificate
of registration of said successful applicant as registered
architect. Said certificate shall authorize the person to
whom it is issued to practice architecture in this country,
subject to the provisions of this Act and the Rules and Regulations of the Board.17
Section 12. Registration of Architects Required. In
order to safeguard life, health and property, no person shall
practice architecture in this country, or engage in preparing plans, specifications or preliminary data for the erection or alteration of any building located within the boundaries of this country, except in this last case when he is a
duly registered civil engineer, or use the title Architect,
or display or use any title, sign, card, advertisement, or other
device to indicate that such person shall have secured from
the examining body a certificate of registration in the manner hereinafter provided, and shall thereafter comply with
the provisions of the laws of the Philippines governing the
registration and licensing of architects.
Section 13. Inhibition Against the Practice of Architecture. Unless exempt from registration, no person shall
practice or offer to practice architecture in the Philippines
without having previously obtained a certificate of registration from the Board of Examiners for Architects.18
It shall be unlawful for any architect, or any person
practicing architecture, to seek to avoid the provisions of
this Act by the use of any other than the title Architect,
and no such persons shall practice or offer to practice, architecture in this country, or present themselves as qualified for such practice, unless and until they have qualified
and been registered as provided in this Act.

Now President of the Philippines


Id.
9
See RA 465.
10
Now Professional Regulation Commission.
11
Id.
12
Id.
13
See PD 223, promulgated June 22, 1973.
14
Now Professional Regulation Commission.
15
Id.
8

Professional Regulation Commission

16

Id.
Id.
18
Now Board of Architecture.
17

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a.

b.

c.

d.

Section 14. Definition of Terms.


An architect defined An architect is: A person who
is technically and legally qualified to practice architecture.
Who may be known as an architect or practice architecture Only those who have qualified and received
a certificate of registration issued by the Board19 shall
be permitted to practice architecture within the Republic of the Philippines, or to use the title of Architect or any words, letter, figures, signs, cards, or
other means to indicate that the one using them is an
architect, or to advertise or indicate in any manner
whatever that they are qualified to perform the work
of an architect.20
General practice of architecture The practice of architecture is hereby defined to be: The act of planning, architectural and structural designing, specifying, supervising, and giving general administration
and responsible direction to the erection, enlargement or alterations of buildings and architectural
design of engineering structures or any part thereof,
the scientific, aesthetic and orderly coordination of
all the processes which enter into the production of
a complete building or structure performed through
the medium of unbiased preliminary studies of plans,
consultations, specifications, conferences, evaluations, investigations, contract documents and oral
advice and directions regardless of whether the persons engaged in such practice are residents of the
Philippines or have their principal office or place of
business in this or another country, and regardless
of whether such persons are performing one or all of
these duties, or whether such duties are performed
in person or as the directing head of an office or organization performing them.
Authorship defined The author or authors of a set of
plans or specifications are those in responsible
charge of their preparation, whether made by them
personally or under their immediate supervision.

Certificates of registration held by such persons in


good standing shall have the same force and effect as
though issued after the passage of this Act.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Section 15. Architects Registered when this Law is


Passed. All architects registered at the time this law takes
effect shall automatically be registered under the provisions
hereof, subject, however, to the provisions herein set forth
as to future requirements.

5.
19

Id.
See PD 657 promulgated February 4, 1975, allowing a certain class of
foreigners to practice in the Philippines without taking board examinations.

Section 16. Exemption from Registration.


Any person residing in the Philippines may make plans
and specifications for any of the following:
a. Any building in chartered cities or in municipalities with building ordinances, not exceeding the
space requirement specified therein, as requiring
the services of an architect.
b. Any building enlargement or alteration which is to
be used for farm purpose only and costing not more
than ten thousand pesos.
c. Provided, however, That nothing herein contained
shall prevent any person from designing or directing the designing of buildings that are to be constructed for his own personal use or for that of his
family, unless such buildings are intended for public employment, assembly or other occupancy by
the public, in which case an architect shall be employed for the purpose: And provided, further, That
such person does not use the title architect or any
title derived therefrom.
Nor shall anything in this Act prevent draftsmen, students, clerk-of-work, superintendents and other employees of those lawfully engaged in the practice of
architecture under the provisions of this Act, from acting under the instruction, control or supervision of their
employer.
Nor shall anything in this Act prevent professional civil,
mechanical, electrical, mining and chemical engineers
duly licensed or registered to practice their profession:
Provided, however, Such persons do not use the designation Architect.
Nor shall anything in this Act prevent persons, who prior
to the approval of this Act, have been lawfully engaged
in the practice of Maestro de Obras to continue as
such, provided they shall not undertake the making of
plans and supervision for the following classes of work:
a. Building of concrete whether reinforced or not.
b. Building of more than two stories.
c. Building with frames of structural steel.
d. Building of structures intended for public gathering or assemblies such as theaters, cinematographs, stadia, churches, or the structures of like
nature.
Officers and enlisted men of the Armed Forces of the
United States and the Philippines, and civilian officials
and employees of the Government of the United States

20

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6.

stationed in the Philippines, while engaged in the practice of architecture for the United States and/or the Philippines.
Architects employed by or under contract with the Government as experts, advisers or consultants, shall be
given temporary license after submitting the necessary
credentials and subject to the approval of the Board,
for a period not to exceed six months, subject to renewals for a like period until his contract with the Government expires. Architects, shall not be allowed, if licensed in such capacity, to dedicate themselves to the
private practice of architecture nor charge fees for services rendered except those received from the Government.

Section 17. Examination Required. Except as otherwise specifically allowed, all applicants for registration
for the practice of architecture shall be required to undergo
a technical examination as provided in this Act.21
Section 18. Qualifications of Applicants for Examination. Any person applying for examination and for a
certificate of registration as architect shall, prior to admission to examination, establish to the satisfaction of the Board:
a.
That he is at least twenty-one years of age;
b.
That he is of good reputation and moral character;
c.
That he has completed the high school course or its
equivalent;
d.
That he is a graduate of a four-year course in architecture or its equivalent of a school, college, academy, or institute duly recognized by the Government
and in addition has a specific record of at least two
years of diversified experience as architectural
draftsman, clerk-of-work, specification writer or superintendent: Provided, however, That an applicant
holding a Masters degree in Architecture from a
school, college, university or institute recognized by
the Government or the state in which it is established,
shall be credited one year in his practical experience.
Section 19. Fraudulent Applications. The Board
may refuse to renew, or may suspend or revoke, any certificate of registration obtained by false swearing or any misrepresentations made in applying for registration or examination and may refuse to renew or grant registration to any
applicant whose application contains such false evidence
or information.

Section 20. Holding of Examination. Examination


for candidates desiring to practice architecture in the Philippines, shall be given twice a year in the City of Manila
and other places where conditions may warrant, on the
second Mondays, Tuesdays, and Wednesdays of January
and July, provided such days do not fall on a holiday, in
which case the working day following will be the day of
examination. Written or printed notice of such examination
shall be mailed to each applicant who has filed his name
and address with the Secretary of the Board22 at least thirty
days prior to the first day of examination.
Section 21. Subjects of Examination. The subjects
in which applicants for architects certificate shall be examined are:
1. Architectural Design.
2. History and Theory of Architecture.
3. Architectural Engineering:
a. Structural Design.
b Mechanical and Electrical equipment.
c. Plumbing.
4. Architectural Practice and Materials:
a. Building Laws, legal and ethical knowledge and
responsibilities.
b. Business and professional functions of the architect.
c. Specifications.
5. Building Materials and Methods of Construction.
Section 22. Report of Ratings. The Board of Examiners for Architects23 shall, within one hundred and twenty
days after the date of completion of the examination, report
the rating by each candidate to the Commissioner of Civil
Service, who shall submit such ratings to the Secretary of
Public Works and Communications24 for approval.
Section 23. Reexamination. An applicant who for
the third time fails to pass the examination for the same
grade shall not be allowed to take another until at least one
year has elapsed after his last examination.
Section 24. Issuance of Certificates. The Secretary of Public Works and Communications25 shall, upon recommendation of the Board, issue a certificate of registration upon payment of the registration fee as provided in

22

Now Professional Regulation Commission.


Now Board of Architecture.
24
Reports of rating are now submitted to the Professional Regulation Commission (PD 223).
25
Now Professional Regulation Commission. See RA 465.
23

21

Id.

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this Act to any applicant who, in the opinion of the Board
and after approval by the Secretary of Public Works and
Communications,26 has satisfactorily met all the requirements specified in this Act.
All certificates of registration shall show the full name
of the registrant, shall have a serial number, and shall be
signed by all the members of the Board, the Secretary of
Public Works and Communications27 and the Commissioner
of Civil Service, and shall be attested by the official seal of
the same Board.
The issuance of a certificate of registration by the
Board,28 to a registrant shall be evidence that the person
named therein is entitled to all the rights and privileges of a
registered architect, while said certificate remains unrevoked and unsuspended.

1.

2.

3.

Section 25. Seal and Use of Seal.


Each registrant hereunder shall, upon registration,
obtain a seal of such design as the examining body
shall authorize and direct. Plans and specifications
prepared by, or under the direct supervision of a registered architect shall be stamped with said seal during the life of the registrants certificate, and it shall
be unlawful for any one to stamp or seal any documents with said seal after the certificate of the registrant named thereon has expired or has been revoked, unless said certificate shall have been renewed or reissued.
No officer or employee of this Republic, chartered
cities; provinces and municipalities, now or hereafter charged with the enforcement of laws, ordinances
or regulations relating to the construction or alteration of buildings, shall accept or approve any plans
or specifications which have not been prepared and
submitted in full accord with all the provisions of this
Act. Nor shall any payment be approved by any such
officer for any work, the plans and specifications for
which have not been so prepared and signed and
sealed by the author.
Signing of plans specifications and other documents.
It shall be unlawful for any architect to sign his name,
affix his seal, or use any other method of signature
on plans, specifications or other documents made
under another architects supervision, unless the
same is made in such manner as to clearly indicate
the part or parts of such work actually performed by

4.

the former; and it shall be unlawful for any person,


except the architect in charge, to sign for any branch
of the work, or any function or architectural practice,
not actually performed by him. The architect in
charge, shall be fully responsible for all plans, specifications, and other documents issued under his seal
or authorized signature.
The Board shall make all necessary rules and regulations relating to signing and sealing of drawings,
specifications, reports, and other documents registered by architects.
Drawings and specifications duly signed, stamped
or sealed, as instruments of service, are the property
and documents of the Architect, whether the object
for which they are made is executed or not. It shall
be unlawful for any person, without the written consent of the architect or author of said documents, to
duplicate or to make copies of said documents for
use in the repetition of and for other projects or buildings, whether executed partly or in whole.

Section 26. Fees for Examination and Registration.


For the purpose of defraying the expenses of said Board for
carrying out the provisions of this Act, the following fees
shall be paid to the Secretary of the Board29:
a.
By an applicant to an examination, forty pesos.
b.
By an applicant for a Certificate of Registration as a
registered architect, ten pesos.
c.
By an applicant for reinstatement or restoration of registration that has been voluntarily surrender, revoked
or suspended, or for replacement of lost certificate,
ten pesos.
All of the above fees shall accompany the application, and no part of said fee shall be refunded.
Section 27. Refusal to Issue Certificate. The Board
of Examiners for Architects30 shall refuse to issue or renew
a certificate of registration to any person convicted by a
court of competent jurisdiction of any criminal offense involving moral turpitude or to any person guilty of immoral
or dishonorable conduct or to any person of unsound mind.
In the event of refusal to issue certificates for any reason,
the Board shall give the applicant a written statement setting forth the reasons for such action, which statement shall
be incorporated in the record of the Board.

26

Id.
Now Professional Regulation Commission. See PD 223, section 5(e),
promulgated June 22, 1973.
28
Id.
27

188

29

Id. See RA 465.


Now Board of Architecture. See PD 223, promulgated June 22, 1973.

30

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Section 28. Suspension and Revocation of Certificates. The Board shall have the power, upon notice and
hearing, to suspend and revoke any certificate of registration of any registrant for any cause specified in the preceding section, or for the use or perpetration of any fraud or
deceit in obtaining a certificate of registration, or for gross
negligence or incompetency or for unprofessional or dishonorable conduct; Provided, however, That such action
of the Board shall be subject to appeal to the Secretary of
Public Works and Communications31 whose decision shall
be final.
It shall be sufficient ground for the revocation of a
certificate issued to a person under this Act for unprofessional or dishonorable conduct, if:
A.
He has signed, and affixed or permitted to be signed
or affixed his name or seal on any plans, designs,
specifications, drawings, technical reports, valuation,
estimate, or other similar documents or work not prepared by him, or not executed under his immediate
supervision, or
B.
Has paid money except the regular fees provided
for, to secure a certificate of registration; or
C.
Has falsely impersonated a practitioner, or former
practitioner of a like or different name, or has practiced under an assumed, fictitious or corporate name
other than that of the registered;
D.
Has aided or abetted in the practice of architecture
any person not duly authorized to practice architecture in the Philippines.
Any person, firm or association, may prefer charges
in accordance with the provisions of this section against
any registrant, or the Board may motu proprio investigate
and/or take cognizance of acts and practices constituting
sufficient cause for suspension or revocation of the certificate or registration by proper resolution or order. Such
charges shall be in writing and shall be sworn to by the
person making them and shall be filed with the Secretary
of the Board.
Section 29. Reissue of Revoked or Suspended Certificates and Replacement of Lost Certificates. The Board
may, after the expiration of one year from the date of revocation or suspension of a certificate for reasons it may deem
sufficient, entertain an applicant for a new certificate of registration from a person whose certificate has been revoked
or suspended, and, in doing so it may, in its discretion, exempt the applicant from the necessity of undergoing an

examination. It may also replace certificates which have


been lost.
Article III
SUNDRY PROVISIONS RELATIVE TO THE PRACTICE
OF ARCHITECTURE
Section 30. Prohibitions in the practice of architecture. Any person who shall practice or offer to practice
architecture in the Philippines without being registered or
exempted from registration in accordance with the provisions of this Act, or any person presenting or attempting to
use as his own the certificate of registration or seal of another, or any person who shall give any false or forged evidence of any kind to the Board or to any member thereof in
obtaining a certificate of registration, or any person who
shall falsely impersonate any registrant of like or different
name, or any person who shall attempt to use a revoked or
suspended certificate of registration, or any person who
shall use in connection with his name or otherwise assume,
use or advertise any title or description to convey the impression that he is an architect when he is not an architect,
or any person who shall violate any of the provisions of this
Act, shall be guilty of misdemeanor and shall, upon conviction, be sentenced to a fine of not less than five hundred
pesos nor more than one thousand pesos or to suffer imprisonment for a period not exceeding three months, or
both, in the discretion of the Court.
Section 31. Non-registered persons shall not claim
equivalent service. Persons not registered in the Republic of the Philippines as architects shall not claim nor represent either services or work as equivalent to those of a
duly qualified registered architect, or that they are qualified for any branch or function of architectural practice, even
though no form of the title Architect is used.
Section 32. Liability of representatives of non-registered persons. It shall be hereafter unlawful for any person or firm or corporation to seek to avoid the provisions of
this Act by having a representative or employee seek architectural work in their behalf, unless, and until, such persons have duly qualified and are duly registered; otherwise,
both those represented and the representative, the employer and the employee shall be deemed guilty of violation of this Act. Solicitation of architectural work shall be
construed as offering to practice architecture and it shall
be unlawful for any but registered architects to do so.

31

Now Professional Regulation Commission. See PD 223, section 5(e),


promulgated June 22, 1973.
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Section 33. Collection of Professional Fees. It shall
be unlawful for any unregistered person to collect a fee for
architectural services except as an employee collecting a
fee as representative of a Registered Architect.
Section 34. Corporations Cannot Register. The
practice of architecture is a professional service, admission to which shall be determined upon the basis of individual, personal qualifications. No firm, company, partnership, association or corporation may be registered or licensed as such for the practice of architecture: Provided,
however, That persons properly registered and licensed
as architects may, among themselves or with a person
or persons properly registered and licensed as civil engineers, form, and obtain registration of, a firm, partnership or association using the term Architects or
Architects and Engineers, but, nobody shall be a member or partner of such firm, partnership or association
unless he is a duly registered and licensed architect or
civil engineer, and the members who are architects shall
only render work and services proper for an architect
as defined in this Act, and members who are civil engineers shall also only render work and services which
are proper for a civil engineer as defined under the law
regulating the practice of civil engineering;32 individual
members of such firm, partnership or association shall
be responsible for their respective acts.33
Section 35. Reciprocity Requirements. No person
who is not a citizen of the Philippines at the time he applies
to take the examination shall be allowed to take it unless he
can prove in the manner provided by the Rules of Court
that, by specific provision of law, the country of which he is
a citizen, subject, or national either admits citizens of the
Philippines to the practice of the same profession without
restriction or allows them to practice it after an examination on terms of strict and absolute equality with citizens,

32

See RA 544.
Words in bold in the text above are amendments introduced by RA 1581,
section 1, approved June16, 1956.
Statutory History of section 34:
Original text
Sec. 34. Corporations cannot register. The practice of architecture is a professional service, admission to which shall be determined
upon the basis of individual, personal qualifications. No firm, company, partnership, association, or corporation may be registered or
licensed as such for the practice of architecture, [but this section shall
not be construed as preventing such combinations of individual persons from using the term Architect: Provided, That each member of
the partnership, firm or association is] properly registered and licensed.
Individual members of [a] partnership [are] responsible for [his own]
act. (Ed. Note: Words in brackets were deleted in RA 1581, supra.)
33

190

subjects, or nationals of the country concerned, including


the unconditional recognition of degrees issued by institution of learning duly recognized for the purpose by the Government of the Philippines: Provided, That if he is not a citizen of the Philippines, and was admitted to the practice of a
profession in the Philippines after December 8, 1941, his active practice in that profession either in the Philippines or in
the state or country where he was practicing his profession,
shall not have been interrupted for a period of two years or
more prior to July 4, 1946, and that the country or state from
which he comes allows the citizens of the Philippines by specific provision of law, to practice the same profession without
restriction or on terms of strict and absolute equality with citizens, subjects or nationals of the country or state concerned.
Section 36. Enforcement of the Act by Officer of the
Law. It shall be the duty of all constituted officers of the
law of the National Government, of any provincial, city or
municipal government or of any political subdivision thereof
to prosecute any person violating the provisions of this Act.
The Secretary of Justice* or any assistant duly designated
by the former shall act as legal adviser of the Board and
render such legal assistance as may be necessary in carrying out the provisions of this Act.
Section 37. Act Not Affecting Other Professions.
This Act shall not be construed to affect or prevent the practice of any other legally recognized profession.
Section 38. Operation of Decisions in Judging Any
Part of the Act Invalid. If any clause, sentence, paragraph
or part of this Act shall be declared unconstitutional or invalid, such judgment shall not affect, invalidate or impair
any other part of said Act, but shall be confined in its operation to the clause, sentence, phrase, paragraph or part directly involved in the controversy in which such judgment
in rendered.
Section 39. All existing provisions of provincial, city
or municipal ordinances or regulations pertaining to examinations for architects, and all other laws, part of laws,
orders, ordinances or regulations in conflict with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed.
Section 40. This Act shall take effect upon its approval.
Approved, June 17, 1950.

*Now Secretary of Justice.


Professional Regulation Commission

Board of Architecture

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2000
Code of Ethics for Architects
THE ARCHITECTS RESPONSIBILITIES
IN RELATION TO THE PEOPLE
1.

STATEMENT: The Architect is engaged in a profession which carries with it civic responsibilities towards
the public, whether such responsibilities are the natural outcome of good citizenship or of his professional
pursuit or whether they partake of informative and educational matters or of his normal, good public relations.
1-a The Architect shall seek opportunities to be of constructive service in civic and urban affairs and to
the best of his ability advance the safety, health and
well-being of the people and the community as well
as the promotion, restoration or preservation of
the general amenities and other examples of historic and architectural heritage of the nation.
1-b The Architect shall promote the interest of his professional organization and do his full part of the
work to enhance the objectives and services of the
organization. He should share in the interchange
of technical information and experience with the
other design professions and the building industry.
1-c The Architect as a good citizen shall abide and
observe the laws and regulations of the government and comply with the standards of ethical conduct and practice of the profession in the Philippines. He shall at no time act in a manner detrimental to the best interest of the profession.
1-d The Architect shall not use paid advertisement nor
use self-laudatory, exaggerated or misleading publicity. However, the presentation of factual materials, verbal or visual, of the aims, standards and
progress of the profession through literature or by
industrious application of his work and services
which tend to dignify the professional or advance
public knowledge of the Architects function in society may be presented through any public communication media.
1-e The Architect shall not solicit nor permit to solicit
in his name, advertisements or other support towards the cost of any publication presenting his
work. He should refrain from taking part in paid
advertisement endorsing any materials of construction or building equipment.
1-f The Architect shall not mislead the public through
advertisements, signs or printed matter citing his
professional specializations unless such qualifications are well known facts or sanctioned by professional consensus and years of experience.

Professional Regulation Commission

THE ARCHITECTS RESPONSIBILITIES


IN RELATION TO HIS CLIENT
2.

STATEMENT: The Architects relation to his Client is


depended upon good faith. To insure the continued
existence of such state of good relationship, the
Architects position carries with it certain moral obligations to his Client and to himself.
2-a The Architect may introduce to a prospective Client the professional services he is able to perform
provided it is limited to presentation of examples
of his professional experience and does not entail
the offering of free preliminary sketches or other
services without the benefit of an agreement with
the Client for legitimate compensation.
2-b The Architect shall acquaint or ascertain from the
Client at the very inception of their business relationship, the exact nature and scope of his services
and the corresponding professional charges.
2-c The Architect shall advise a Client against proceeding with any project whose practicability may be
questionable due to financial, legal or arresting or
exigent conditions, even if such advice may
mean the loss of a prospective commission to
the Architect.
2-d The Architect shall explain the conditional character of estimates other than estimates submitted in
the form of actual proposals by contractors and in
no case shall be guarantee any estimates or cost
of the work. Neither shall he mislead his Client as
to probable cost of the work in order to secure a
commission.
2-e The Architect shall consider the needs and stipulation of his Client and the effects of his work upon
the life and well-being of the public and the community as a whole, and to endeavor to meet the
aesthetic and functional requirements of the project
commensurate with the Clients appropriation.
2-f The Architect shall charge his Client for services
rendered, a professional fee commensurate with
the work involved and with his professional standing and experience based upon the Basic Minimum
Fee prescribed under the Standards of Professional Practice of the Architects National Code.
2-g The Architect shall not undertake, under a fixed
contract sum agreement, the construction of any
project based on plans prepared by him. He may
in certain cases, undertake the construction of a
project even when the plans were prepared by him
provided it is undertaken in conformity with the

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conditions set forth under sections covering Construction Services Comprehensive Services or
Design-Build Services of the document on
STANDARDS OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE.
2-h The Architect shall be compensated for his services
solely through his professional fee charged directly
to the Client. He shall not accept nor ask for any
other returns in whatever form from any interested
source other than the Client.
2-i The Architect shall be free in his investments and
business relations outside of his profession from
any financial or personal interests which tend to
weaken and discredit his standing as an unprejudiced and honest adviser, free to act in his Clients
best interests. If the Architect has any business
interest which will relate to, or affect the interest of
his Client, he should inform his Client of such condition or situation.
2-j The Architect shall include in his agreement with
the Client a clause providing for arbitration as a
method for settlement of disputes.

3-e The Architect shall, upon request by the Contractor, promptly inspect each phase of the work completed and if found according to the terms of the
Contract Documents issue the corresponding Certificates of Payment and the Final Certificate of
Completion, respectively, to the Contractor.
THE ARCHITECTS RESPONSIBILITIES
IN RELATION TO MANUFACTURERS,
DEALERS, AND AGENTS.
4.

THE ARCHITECTS RESPONSIBILITIES


IN RELATION TO THE CONTRACTOR
3.

STATEMENT: The Contractor depends upon the Architect to safeguard fairly his interests as well as those
of the Client.
3-a The Architect shall give the Contractor every reasonable aid to enable him to fully understand the
contents of the Contract Documents by furnishing
clear, definite and consistent information in all pertinent contract documents to avoid unnecessary
mistakes that may involve extra costs to the Contractor.
3-b The Architect shall not knowingly call upon the
Contractor to correct or remedy oversights or errors in the Contract Documents to the Contractors
financial disadvantage.
3-c The Architect shall immediately upon his personal
knowledge and inspection, reject or condemn materials, equipment or workmanship which are not
in conformity with the Contract Documents in order not to cause unnecessary delay and additional
expense to the Contractor.
3-d The Architect shall not, at any time or circumstance,
accept free engineering services, or receive any
substantial aid, gifts, commissions, or favors from
any Contractor or subcontractor which will tend to
place him under any kind of moral obligation.

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STATEMENT: An exchange of technical information


between Architects and those who supply and handle
building materials or equipment is necessary and therefore encouraged and commended. However;
4-a The Architect shall not avail or make use of engineering or other technical services offered by
manufacturers, or suppliers of building materials
or equipment which may be accompanied by an
obligation detrimental to the best interest of the
Client or which may adversely affect the Architects
professional opinion.
4-b The Architect shall not at any time receive commissions, discounts, fees, gifts or favors from
agents or firms handling building materials or
equipment which may place him in a reciprocal
frame of mind. He may however, accept market discounts which shall be credited to the Client.
THE ARCHITECTS RESPONSIBILITIES
IN RELATION TO HIS COLLEAGUES
AND SUBORDINATES

5.

STATEMENT: The Architect has moral responsibilities


towards his profession, his colleagues and his subordinates.
5-a The Architect shall not render professional services, without compensation except for small civic
or charity project. He shall neither offer nor provide preliminary services on a conditional basis
prior to definite agreement with the Client for the
commission of the project.
5-b The Architect shall not knowingly compete with
other Architects on the basis of differences of professional charges, nor use donation as a device for
obtaining competitive advantage except for worthy civic or religious projects. Neither shall he
submit solicited or unsolicited sketches or drawings in competition with other Architects unless
such competitive arrangements are conducted
substantially under the terms of the UAP Architectural Competition Code.
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5-c The Architect shall not under any circumstances
nor through any means seek commissions already
known to him as previously endowed to another
Architect, whether such endowment has been definitely agreed upon or still in the process of negotiation.
5-d The Architect shall not, in any case, enter as a competitor in any Architectural Competition when he
has direct relations with the formulation of the Program thereof or when he has been engaged to act
as Professional Adviser or Juror for such competition. Neither shall the Architect accept and act as
professional adviser or juror in any architectural
competition when he has had any information or
has reviewed or assisted in the preparation of any
competition design entered. Nor shall an Architect, retained as professional adviser in a competition, accept employment as an Architect, retained
as professional adviser in a competition, accept
employment as an Architect for that competition
project except as Consulting Architect.
5-e The Architect shall not undertake a commission for
which he knows another Architect has been previously employed until he has notified such other Architect of the fact in writing and has conclusively
determined that the original employment has been
terminated and has been duly compensated for.
5-f The Architect shall not undertake a commission for
additions, rehabilitation or remodeling of any
erected structure undertaken previously by another
Architect without duly notifying him of the contemplated project even when the Owner is no longer
the same. When the greater mass, area or design
of the original structure is substantially maintained

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5-g

5-h

5-i

5-j

5-k

5-l.

the new Architect should limit his advertisement


or claim only to the extent of the work done to the
structure. Architects are enjoined to preserve or
restore as much as possible especially the few and
remaining historic examples of our architectural
heritage affecting his phase of practice.
The Architect shall not knowingly injure falsely or
maliciously, the professional reputation, prospects
or practice of another Architect.
The Architect shall refrain from associating himself with or allowing the use of his name by any
enterprise of doubtful character or integrity.
The Architect shall not affix his signature and seal
to any plans or professional documents prepared
by other persons or entities not done under his direct personal supervision.
The Architect shall inspire the loyalty of his employees and subordinates by providing them with
suitable working conditions, requiring them to render competent and efficient services and paying
them adequate and just compensation therefore.
He shall tutor and mentor the young aspirants towards the ideals, functions, duties and responsibilities of the profession.
The Architect shall unselfishly give his share in the
interchange of technical information and experience among his colleagues and young aspirants
and do his part in fostering unity in the fellowship
of the profession.
He shall unselfishly give his time and effort to the
advancement of the profession through his active
and personal commitment and involvement with the
accredited professional organization for architects.

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Promulgation of the Syllabi for the Subjects
in the Architecture Licensure Examination
WHEREAS R.A. No. 545, "An Act to Regulate the Practice of Architecture in the Philippines", requires the examination, certification, and registration of qualified applicants for the practice of the architectural profession;
WHEREAS the same R.A. No. 545 delineates the various subjects to be covered in the examination for licensure in
architecture;
WHEREAS the Professional Regulation Commission has issued policies and directives in licensure examinations:
(1) MEMORANDUM CIRCULAR NO. 8, Series of 1992, (2) Res. No. 265, Series of 1993, (3) MEMORANDUM CIRCULAR
NO. 93-03, Series of 1993, and (4) MEMORANDUM CIRCULAR NO. 93-04, Series of 1993, all of which provide for the
adoption of a syllabus for every subject in the licensure examinations;
WHEREAS every adopted syllabus, which contains the various concepts, principles, and application thereof, shall
be the basis for the examination questions that will be inputted into the test question bank;
WHEREAS after consultation with the various schools of architecture in the Philippines, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS), and the United Architects of the Philippines (UAP), the Board of Architecture formulated
a set of syllabi for the various examination subjects in architecture;
WHEREAS the Board of Architecture consulted the Council of Deans and the Heads of Architectural Schools of the
Philippines and the United Architects of the Philippines for the final adoption of the syllabi.
NOW, THEREFORE, pursuant to its quasi-legislative (rule-making) power under Sec. 8, Art. I of R.A No. 545, the
Board hereby RESOLVED, as it now so RESOLVES, to adopt the syllabi, of the subjects in the Architecture Licensure
Examination appearing in Annex A.
FURTHER RESOLVED, that this Resolution, upon its approval by the Commission, shall be effective after fifteen (15)
days following its publication in the Official Gazette or any newspaper of general circulation, whichever is earlier.
FINALLY, RESOLVED, that this Resolution be disseminated to all recognized schools offering the course of architecture and other concerned entities.
Done in the City of Manila, this 26th day of January 1995.
JOSE MACARIO B. DE LEON
Chairman
EDILBERTO F. FLORENTINO
Member

JOSEFINA M RAMOS
Member
Attested to:
CARLOS G. ALMELOR
Secretary, Regulatory Boards
Approved:
HERMOGENES P. POBRE
Commission Chairman

MARIANO A. MENDIETA
Associate Commissioner

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ARMANDO C. PASCUAL
Associate Commissioner
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Syllabi for the Architecture Licensure Examination
1.

2.

3.

4.

PREAMBLE
The following syllabi are intended to guide prospective candidates in preparation for the Architecture Licensure Examination. In general, they cover areas in
which examinees are expected to have knowledge, understanding, and competencies when they start to practice the architectural profession.
The general coverage of the examination is divided into
three major areas with their corresponding weights as
follows:
a. History and theory of architecture; principles of
planning; architectural practice
(30%)
b. Structural design; building materials and construction; utilities
(30%)
c. Architectural design and site planning
(40%)
Each major area is subdivided into specific subareas
or concerns, as well as their corresponding rationale
and description.
These syllabi shall be made available to all recognized
schools of architecture in the country, the United Architects of the Philippines, and other concerned entities.

Area A
HISTORY AND THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE;
PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING; AND ARCHITECTURAL
PRACTICE
Part I
HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
A. Rationale and Description
1. Analysis of architectural manifestations from the
beginning of civilization to contemporary periods
of development;
2. Analysis of the influences of environmental, historical, and sociocultural factors and their relevance
to the development of art, buildings, structures, as
well as of human settlements.
B. Scope
1. Introduction
a. History
b. History of architecture
c. Historic style of architecture
d. Origin of architecture
e. Factors affecting the style of architecture

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2.

3.

Pre-Historic Architecture
a. Centers of development
b. Dolmen, Menhir, Cromlech
Historic Styles of Architecture
a. Period/extent and centers of development
b. Factors that affect the development of architectural style (historical, environmental, and
sociocultural)
c. General characteristics (architectural, structural, decorative)
d. General contributions
e. Notable examples
3.1 Ancient architecture and the Western succession
a. Egyptian
b. West Asiatic
c. Greek
d. Roman
e. Early Christian
f. Byzantine
g. Romanesque Architecture in Europe
h. Gothic Architecture in Europe
i. Renaissance Architecture in Europe
j. Nineteenth and Twentieth Century in
Great Britain
k. Architecture of Africa, Australia, and
New Zealand
l. Nineteenth and Twentieth Century architecture in Continental Europe
m. Architecture of the Americas
3.2 Architecture in Asia and the Pacific Region
3.3 Architecture in the Philippines
a. Architectural legacies
b. Architectural preservation, conservation, and restoration
c. Pillars of Philippine Architecture
Part II
THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE

A. Rationale and Description


1. Understanding of the theories and principles of design and architectural design process;
2. Analysis of anthropometric, proxemic, and kinesthetic requirements of space in relation to architectural design;
3. Analysis of sociocultural and technological trends
which are contributory to the development of contemporary architecture

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B. Scope
1. Introduction
a. The nature of architecture
b. Architecture as art and science
c. Processes in architectural design
2. Elements of Architecture and Basic Principles of
Design
a. Need-specific elements
b. Structural, circulatory protective, and decorative elements
c. Influences in architectural design
d. Basic principles of design
3. Design Perception
a. Anthropometric basis of architectural design
b. Space articulation and territoriality
c. Visual and perceptual language
d. Psychology of space
e. Proxemics and culture
4. Tropical Architecture
a. Influences and elements of tropical architecture
b. Specific examples of tropical architecture
5. Masters of Architecture
a. Philosophies of Great Architects
b. Examples of great works
Part III
ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICE
A. Rationale and Description
1. Understanding of the role, legal rights and obligations, and responsibilities of the architect;
2. Analysis and application of the various statutes,
codes, and regulations affecting the practice of architecture in the Philippines;
3. Understanding of the various aspects of the professional practice of architecture, including tools
and techniques related to production, construction,
resource allocation, and project management, as
well as the efficient conduct of client and business
relations for building design and construction
projects.
B. Scope
1. Certification of Architects and Standards of Professional Practice
a. Statutes regulating the practice of architecture
in the Philippines
b. Professional organization of architects
c. Architects Code of Ethics
d. Rights and responsibilities of the profession
e. Spectrum of architectural services

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2.

3.

f. Architectural fees and charges


g. Architectural competitions
Building Standards, Laws, and Regulations
a. Architectural design standards, building and
construction-related laws
b. Laws on real estate and subdivisions
c. Laws on housing and human settlements
Aspects of Architectural Practice
a. Operating divisions of architectural practice,
development, production, administration, and
management (with emphasis on preparation
of contract documents)
b. Specifications writing and quantity surveying
c. Legal and business aspects of architectural
practice
Part IV
THEORY AND PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING

A. Rationale and Description


1. Analysis of the concepts and techniques in the general planning process, urban and regional planning, land use planning, and human settlements
planning;
2. Understanding of the art and science of site planning with emphasis on ecological, socio-psychological, aesthetic, and functional basis of site planning.
B. Scope
1. General Principles of Planning
a. Definitions and classification
b. History and scope of planning
c. General planning process
2. Urban and Regional Planning and Urban Design
a. History of the city and the region
b. Theories of urban and regional planning
c. Comprehensive planning
d. Land use planning
e. Urban design
f. Urbanization and urban social relationships
3. Housing and Human Settlements Planning
a. Definition and classification
b. Housing policies and programs
c. Housing finance, production, and practices
4. The Art and Science of Site Planning and Landscape Architecture
a. Site analysis and site development
b. Landscape design
c. Primary considerations in site planning and development (physical and aesthetic, ecological,
socio-psychological, management, and maintenance).
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Area B
STRUCTURAL DESIGN; BUILDING MATERIALS
AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION; AND UTILITIES

Part I
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
A. Rationale and Description
1. Understanding of the fundamentals of mechanics,
strength of materials, and theory of structures;
2. General design, principles, and analysis of the
structural elements of various types of construction materials and systems.
B. Scope
General application of structural design, including seismic analysis, in the following building materials and
construction systems:
a. Timber
b. Reinforced concrete
c. Structural steel
d. Composite structures
e. Advanced construction methods
Part II
BUILDING MATERIALS
AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION
A. Rationale and Description
1. Understanding of the properties of building construction and finishing materials; their application
and articulation; systems and methods of specifying and construction;
2. Application of the principles of design and construction methods of various types of materials used
in construction.
B. Scope
The design and specifications of materials and methods of construction for the following works:
a. Civil works
b. Carpentry and joinery
c. Concrete and masonry
d. Sheet metal and tinsmithry
e. Structural steel
f. Concrete and reinforced concrete
g. Waterproofing, damproofing, and insulation
h. Glass and glazing
i. Painting and varnishing
j. Fenestration
k. Hardware
l. Specialized works (bank vaults; signage; etc.)

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Part III
UTILITIES
A. Rationale and Description
1. Understanding of the basic practices, principles,
general design and installation, and/or construction of utilities required for a building or structure
and its premises;
2. Analysis of utility, facility, and equipment requirements in relation to aesthetics, function, and
strength of a building or structure and its premises.
B. Scope
Design and construction and/or installation of the following utilities systems:
1. Sanitary and Plumbing Systems and Equipment
a. Water source, storage, supply, and distribution
b. Plumbing roughing-in and fixtures
c. Drainage and sewerage systems
d. Waste disposal, treatment, and recycling
2. Mechanical Systems
a. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems
b. Conveyors and other building mechanical
equipment
3. Electrical and Other Power Systems
a. Electrical power and lighting supply, distribution, and fixtures
b. Electrical power source and alternative power
sources
4. Acoustics and Illumination
a. The psycho-physics of acoustics and lighting
b. Acoustical treatment and corrections
5. Disaster Prevention and Protection Systems; Security Systems
a. Building fire-fighting, prevention, and protection apparatus
b. Installation and/or construction
c. Materials and fixtures
d. Disaster prevention and mitigation systems
6. Communication Systems
a. Electronics system
b. Telephone, intercom, cable TV, audio/video facilities, PA system
7. High-tech Systems
a. Application in buildings and structures
b. Robotics
c. Intelligent buildings

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Area C
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
AND SITE PLANNING

4.

A. Rationale and Objectives


1. Application of logical approach to design and site
planning solutions to architectural problems with
emphasis on design methodology, qualitative and
quantitative aspects of space, circulation and interrelationships of space, structural and form envelopes, and building utilities and facilities.
2. Application of skills and ability to visualize architectural design problems and present solutions in
appropriate graphical language.
B. Scope
Architectural design and site planning problems involving the following types of buildings and structures and
their built environment;
1. Residential
a. Residential houses and subdivisions, apartment, housing for special groups (low-cost
housing, housing for the aged etc.)
b. Lodging houses, etc.
2. Commercial and Business
a. Business (office, bank, hotel, etc.)
b. Commercial (department store, market, retail
store, etc.)
c. Mixed business-commercial or mixed business-residential
3. Industrial and Agricultural
a. Large-scale industry (manufacturing, shipyard,
etc.)
b. Small-scale industry (factory, cinema studio,
etc.)
c. Mixed industrial-residential
d. Industrial estate/agro-industrial establishment

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5.

6.

Public and Government


a. Educational and cultural (schools, research
laboratory, public hall, library, museum, historical/monumental building/structures, etc.)
b. Health and medical (hospital/clinic, health fitness club, specialized medical center, etc.)
c. Governmental and quasi-public (national or
public building, police/fire stations, embassy/
consulate, penitentiary, etc.)
d. Parks and recreational (ecological/botanical
gardens, theater, cinema, casino, beach resort,
etc.)
e. Sports and athletics (sports plaza, stadium,
gymnasium, golf course, tennis/basketball
courts, billiard hall, etc.)
f. Religious and funerary (church, temple,
mosque, monastery, convent, seminary, crematorium, memorial park, cemetery, etc.)
Facilities
a. Transportation (airport, seaport, railway station, terminal, port facilities, pier, etc.)
b. Service (power station, water treatment/filtering plant, sewerage, crematory, slaughterhouse, TV-Radio-Telephone stations, newspaper plant, etc.)
c. Military (military camp, depot, etc.)
Complex Projects (involving a combination of several buildings and structures in a given site or area).

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