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Conceptual Checkpoint 1 One day you look in your refrigerator and find

nothing but a dozen eggs (44 g each). A quick measurement shows that the
inside of the refrigerator is 1 m by 0.6 m by 0.75 m. Is the weight of the air in
your refrigerator (i) much less than, (ii) about the same as, or (iii) much more
than the weight of the eggs?
Discussion At first it might seem that the "thin air" in the refrigerator weighs
practically nothing compared with a carton full of eggs. A brief calculation
shows this is not the case. For the eggs, we have
meggs = 12(44 g ) = 0. 528 kg
For the air,

mair = V = (1. 29kg / m3 )(1m 0. 6m 0.75m) = 0. 581kg


Thus, the air, at 1.28 lb, actually weighs slightly more than the eggs, at 1.17 lb!
Answer: (ii) The air and the eggs weigh about the same.

Example 1 Kaboom
Find the pressure exerted on the skin of a balloon if you press with a force of 2.1 N using (a) your finger or (b) a needle.
Assume the area of your fingertip is 104 m2, and the area of the needle tip is 2.5 x 107 m2. (c) Find the minimum force
necessary to pop the balloon with the needle, given that the balloon pops with a pressure of 3 x 105 N/m2.
Picture the Problem The same force is applied in either
case. The difference is the area over which the force is
spread.
Strategy (a), (b) Equation 16-2 can be used to find the
pressure, given the force and area.
(c) Use Equation 16-2 to solve for the force corresponding to
a given pressure and area.

part (a)
1. Calculate the pressure exerted by the finger:

P=

F
2.1 N
= 4 2 = 2.10 10 4 N / m2
A 10 m

part (b)
2. Calculate the pressure exerted by the needle:

P=

F
2.1 N
=
= 8. 40 106 N / m2
A 2.5 107 m2

part (c)
3. Solve Equation 16-2 for the force:

F = PA

4.

F = (3 10 N / m

Substitute numerical values:

)(2. 5 10

) = 0. 075N

Remarks Note that the pressure exerted by the needle in part (b) is about 400 times the pressure due to the finger in part
(a).
Practice Problem Find the area that a force of 2.1 N would have to act on to produce a pressure of 3 x 105 N/m2?
[A = 7 x 106 m2] Some related homework problems

Exercise 1 Find the force exerted on the palm of your hand by atmospheric
pressure. Assume your palm measures 8 cm by 10 cm.
Solution Applying Equations 16-3 and 16-2 we find
5
F = P at A = (1.01 10 Pa )(0.08 m)(0.1 m)= 808 N

Thus, the atmosphere pushes on the palm of your hand with a force of
approximately 182 pounds! Of course, it also pushes on the back of your
hand with essentially the same force, but in the opposite direction.

Example 2 Squish the Ball


Estimate the gauge pressure in a basketball by pushing down on it and noting the area of contact it makes with the surface
on which it rests.
Picture the Problem Our sketch shows the basketball being
pushed downward and flattening out on the bottom. The area
of contact is a circle of diameter d.

Strategy To solve this problem, we have to make reasonable


estimates of the force applied to the ball and the area of
contact.
Suppose, for example, that we push down with a moderate
force of 22 N (about 5 lb). The circular area of contact will
probably have a diameter of about 2 centimeters. This can
be verified by carrying out the experiment. Thus, given F =
22 N and A = (d/2)2 we can find the gauge pressure.
1.

Using the above


pressure, Pg:

estimates,

calculate

the

gauge

Pg =

F
=
A

22 N
4
2 = 7 10 Pa
0.02 m

Remarks Given that 1.01 x 105 Pa = 14.7 lb/in2 it follows that Pg = 7 x 104 Pa = 10 lb/in2. Thus, a basketball will typically
have a gauge pressure in the neighborhood of 10 lb/in2, and hence a total pressure inside the ball of about 24.7 lb/in2.
Practice Problem What is the diameter of the circular area of contact if a basketball with a 10 lb/in2 gauge pressure is
pushed down with a force of 44 N (about 10 lb)?
[d = 2.85 cm] Some related homework problems

Exercise 2 The Titanic was found in 1985 lying on the bottom of the North
Atlantic at a depth of 2.5 miles. What is the pressure at this depth?
Solution Applying Equation 16-7 with = 1,025 kg/m3 we have
P = Pat + gh = 1.01 105 Pa +

m
(1025 kg / m )(9. 81m / s )(2. 5 mi ) 1609
= 4. 05 10
1 mi
3

This is about 400 atmospheres.

Pa

Example 3 Popeye's girl


A cubical box 0.2 m on a side is completely immersed in a fluid. At the top of the box the pressure is 105 kPa; at the bottom
the pressure is 106.8 kPa. What is the density of the fluid?
Picture the Problem Our sketch shows the box at an
unknown depth d below the surface of the fluid. The
important dimension for this problem is the height of the box,
which is 0.2 m.

d
P
1

Strategy The pressures at the top and bottom of the box are
related by P2 = P1 + gh. Since the pressures and the height
of the box are given, this relation can be solved for the
unknown density, .

0.2 m
P
2

1.

Solve P2 = P1 + gh for the density:

P2 P1
gh

2.

Substitute numerical values:

1. 068 10 Pa 1. 05 10 Pa
3
= 917.4 kg / m
(9.81m / s2 )(0.2 m)

Remarks Comparing with Table 16-xx, it appears that the fluid in question is probably olive oil.
Practice Problem Given the density obtained above, what is the depth d at the top of the box?
[d = 0.444 m] Some related homework problems

Conceptual Checkpoint 2 One day while swimming below the surface of the
ocean you let out a small bubble of air. As the bubble rises toward the
surface, does its diameter (i) increase, (ii) decrease, or (iii) stay the same?
What happens to the size of the bubble?

Discussion As the bubble rises the pressure in the surrounding water


decreases. This allows the air in the bubble to expand and occupy a larger
volume.
Answer: (i) The diameter of the bubble increases.

Example 4 Oil and water don't mix


A U-shaped tube is filled mostly with water, but a small amount of vegetable oil has been added to one side, as shown in the
sketch. The density of the water is 1000 kg/m3, and the density of the vegetable oil is 920 kg/m3. If the depth of the oil is 5
cm, what is the difference in level h between the top of the oil on one side of the U and the top of the water on the other
side?
Picture the Problem The U-shaped tube and the relevant
dimensions are shown in the sketch. Note that the tube is
open to the atmosphere. In addition, the points A and B
indicate the top level of water on the oil side of the U.

oil
h
5 cm

Strategy For the system to be in equilibrium, it is necessary


that the pressure be the same at the bottom of each side of
the U; that is, at points C and D. If the pressure is the same
at C and D, then, it will remain equal as one moves up
through the water to the points A and B. Above this point the
pressures will differ because of the presence of the oil.

B
water

To find the depth at point A, we set the pressure there equal


to the pressure at point B. The difference between the depth
at B and the depth at A gives h.
1.

Find the pressure at point A. Let the depth of water at


that point be h1:

2.

Find the pressure at point B. The depth of the oil is h2 =


5 cm:

3.

Set PA equal to PB:

4.

Solve for the depth of the water, h1, and substitute


numerical values:

5.

Calculate the difference in levels between the water and


oil sides of the U:

PA = P at + water gh1
PB = P at + oil gh2
Pat + water gh1 = Pat + oil gh2

920 kg / m3
4.6 cm
h1 = h2 oil = (5 cm)
3 =
water
1000 kg / m
h = h2 h1 = 5 cm 4.6 cm = 0. 4 cm

Remarks Note that the value of atmospheric pressure doesn't matter in this problem. What does matter is the increased
pressure due to being submerged to a given depth in water or in oil.
Practice Problem Find the pressure at points A and B.
[PA = PB = Pat + 451 Pa] Some related homework problems

Exercise 3 To inspect a 14,500 N car, it is raised with a hydraulic lift. If the


radius of the small piston in Figure 16-8 is 4 cm, and the radius of the large
piston is 17 cm, find the force that must be exerted on the small piston to lift
the car.
Solution Solving Equation 16-11 for F1, and noting that the area is r2, we
find
(0. 04m)2
A1
F1 = F 2
2 = 803 N
= (14, 500 N )
(0.17 m)
A2

Conceptual Checkpoint 3 A flask of water rests on a scale. If you dip your


finger into the water, without touching the flask, does the reading on the scale
(i) increase, (ii) decrease, or (iii) stay the same?
Does dipping a finger change the scale reading?

Discussion Your finger experiences an upward buoyant force when it is


dipped into the water. By Newton's third law, the water experiences an equal
and opposite reaction force acting downward. This downward force is
transmitted to the scale, which in turn gives a higher reading.
Another way to look at this result is to note that when you dip your finger
into the water, its depth increases. This results in a greater pressure at the
bottom of the flask, and hence a greater downward force on the flask. The
scale reads this increased downward force.
Answer: (i) The reading on the scale increases.

Example 5 A weighty matter

A 104 m3 metal block with a mass of 0.786 kg hangs from a fish scale. A 0.1 kg flask holding 4.4 kg of water rests on a
kitchen scale. What are the readings on the two scales when the block is fully immersed in the water?
Picture the Problem The two scales, flask, water, and block
are shown in the sketch. We expect the upper scale to read
less than the weight of the block, and the lower scale to read
more than the weight of the flask + water.
Strategy As in Conceptual Checkpoint 3, the water exerts an
upward buoyant force on the block, and a reaction force acts
downward on the flask and water. Thus, we start by
calculating the buoyant force exerted on the block this is
just the weight of an equivalent volume of water. As we can
see from the free-body diagrams, the buoyant force is
subtracted from the weight of the block, and added to the
weight of the flask and water.

1.

Calculate the buoyant force exerted on the block:

Fupper

lower

F
b

mg

F
b m
g
waterg
m
flask

Fb = waterV block g

)(

)(

= 1000 kg / m3 104 m3 9.81m / s2 = 0. 981 N


2.

Apply Newton's second law to the block, and solve for


the reading of the upper scale:

Fupper + Fb mblock g = 0
Fupper = mblock g F b

= (0.786 kg ) 9.81 m / s2 0. 981 N = 6.73 N


3.

Apply Newton's second law to the flask and water, and


solve for the reading of the lower scale:

Flower mwater g mflask g F b = 0

Flower = mwater g + m flask g + F b = (4. 4 kg ) 9. 81m / s

(0.1 kg )(9.81 m / s )+ 0. 981N = 45.1 N

)+

Remarks Note that the sum of the readings on the two scales is the total weight of the block + water + flask, as expected.
Practice Problem Find the readings on the two scales if the block's volume is 2 x 104 m3.
[Fupper = 5.75 N, Flower = 46.1 N. In this case, the buoyant force supports more of the block's weight, and adds to the weight
supported by the lower scale.] Some related homework problems

ActiveExample 1 Tied down

A piece of wood with a density of 700 kg/m3 is tied with a string to the bottom of a
water-filled flask. The wood is completely immersed, and has a volume of 8 x 106
m3. What is the tension in the string?
F
b

T
mg

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Apply Newton's second law to the wood:


Solve for the tension, T:
Calculate the weight of the wood:
Calculate the buoyant force:
Subtract to obtain the tension:

Fb T mg = 0
T = Fb mg
mg = 0.0549 N
Fb = 0.0785 N
T = 0.0235 N

Remarks Since the wood floats in water, its buoyant force when completely
immersed is greater than its weight.

ActiveExample 2 A block of wood

How much water (density 1000 kg/m3) must be displaced to float a cubical block of
wood (density 650 kg/m3) that is 15 cm on a side?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Calculate the volume of the wood:


Find the weight of the wood:
Write an expression for the weight of a volume of water:
Set the weight of water equal to the weight of the wood:
Solve for the volume of water:

Vwood = 3.38 x 103 m3


Vwoodg = 21.5 N
Vwaterg
Vwaterg = 21.5 N
Vwater = 2.19 x 103 m3

Remarks As expected, only a fraction of the wood must be submerged in order for it
to float.

Example 6 Tip top

What percentage of a floating chunk of ice projects above the level of the water? Assume a density of 917 kg/m3 for the ice,
and 1000 kg/m3 for the water.
Picture the Problem Our sketch shows the ice, with density
s, floating in the water, with density f.

Strategy We can apply Equation 16-14 to this system. First,


the fraction of the total volume of the ice, Vs, that is
submerged is Vsub/Vs = s/f. Hence the fraction that is
above the water is 1 Vsub/Vs = 1 s/f. Multiplying this
fraction by 100 yields the percentage above water.

1.

Calculate the fraction of the total volume of the ice that is


submerged:

V sub s
917 kg / m3
=
=
= 0. 917
f 1000kg / m3
Vs

2.

Calculate the fraction of the ice that is above water:

3.

Multiply by 100 to obtain a percentage:


100 1 s = 100(0. 083) = 8.3 /"
f
!

s
= 1 0. 917 = 0.083
f

Remarks Since we seek a percentage, it is not necessary to know the total volume of the ice.
Practice Problem What fraction of the ice is above water if it floats in sea water (density 1025 kg/m3)?
[10.5 %] Some related homework problems

Conceptual Checkpoint 5 A cup is filled to the brim with water and a


floating ice cube. When the ice melts, which of the following occurs? (i) Water
overflows the cup, (ii) the water level decreases, or (iii) the water level
remains the same.
What happens to water level when the ice melts?
?

Discussion Since the ice cube floats, it displaces a volume of water equal to
its weight. But when it melts, it becomes water, and its weight is the same.
Hence, the melted water fills exactly the same volume that the ice cube
displaced when floating. As a result, the water level is unchanged.
Answer: (iii) The water level remains the same.

Conceptual Checkpoint 6 A cup is filled to the brim with water and a


floating ice cube. Resting on top the ice cube is a small pebble. When the ice
melts, which of the following occurs? (i) Water overflows the cup, (ii) the
water level decreases, or (iii) the water level remains the same.
What happens to water level when the ice melts?
?

Discussion We know from the previous Conceptual Checkpoint that the ice
itself makes no difference to the water level. As for the pebble, when it floats
on the ice it displaces an amount of water equal to its weight. When the ice
melts the pebble drops to the bottom of the cup, where it displaces a volume
of water equal to its own volume. Since the volume of the pebble is less that
the volume of water with the same weight, we conclude that less water is
displaced after the ice melts. Hence, the water level decreases.
Answer: (ii) The water level decreases.