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You are on page 1of 16

nothing but a dozen eggs (44 g each). A quick measurement shows that the

inside of the refrigerator is 1 m by 0.6 m by 0.75 m. Is the weight of the air in

your refrigerator (i) much less than, (ii) about the same as, or (iii) much more

than the weight of the eggs?

Discussion At first it might seem that the "thin air" in the refrigerator weighs

practically nothing compared with a carton full of eggs. A brief calculation

shows this is not the case. For the eggs, we have

meggs = 12(44 g ) = 0. 528 kg

For the air,

Thus, the air, at 1.28 lb, actually weighs slightly more than the eggs, at 1.17 lb!

Answer: (ii) The air and the eggs weigh about the same.

Example 1 Kaboom

Find the pressure exerted on the skin of a balloon if you press with a force of 2.1 N using (a) your finger or (b) a needle.

Assume the area of your fingertip is 104 m2, and the area of the needle tip is 2.5 x 107 m2. (c) Find the minimum force

necessary to pop the balloon with the needle, given that the balloon pops with a pressure of 3 x 105 N/m2.

Picture the Problem The same force is applied in either

case. The difference is the area over which the force is

spread.

Strategy (a), (b) Equation 16-2 can be used to find the

pressure, given the force and area.

(c) Use Equation 16-2 to solve for the force corresponding to

a given pressure and area.

part (a)

1. Calculate the pressure exerted by the finger:

P=

F

2.1 N

= 4 2 = 2.10 10 4 N / m2

A 10 m

part (b)

2. Calculate the pressure exerted by the needle:

P=

F

2.1 N

=

= 8. 40 106 N / m2

A 2.5 107 m2

part (c)

3. Solve Equation 16-2 for the force:

F = PA

4.

F = (3 10 N / m

)(2. 5 10

) = 0. 075N

Remarks Note that the pressure exerted by the needle in part (b) is about 400 times the pressure due to the finger in part

(a).

Practice Problem Find the area that a force of 2.1 N would have to act on to produce a pressure of 3 x 105 N/m2?

[A = 7 x 106 m2] Some related homework problems

Exercise 1 Find the force exerted on the palm of your hand by atmospheric

pressure. Assume your palm measures 8 cm by 10 cm.

Solution Applying Equations 16-3 and 16-2 we find

5

F = P at A = (1.01 10 Pa )(0.08 m)(0.1 m)= 808 N

Thus, the atmosphere pushes on the palm of your hand with a force of

approximately 182 pounds! Of course, it also pushes on the back of your

hand with essentially the same force, but in the opposite direction.

Estimate the gauge pressure in a basketball by pushing down on it and noting the area of contact it makes with the surface

on which it rests.

Picture the Problem Our sketch shows the basketball being

pushed downward and flattening out on the bottom. The area

of contact is a circle of diameter d.

estimates of the force applied to the ball and the area of

contact.

Suppose, for example, that we push down with a moderate

force of 22 N (about 5 lb). The circular area of contact will

probably have a diameter of about 2 centimeters. This can

be verified by carrying out the experiment. Thus, given F =

22 N and A = (d/2)2 we can find the gauge pressure.

1.

pressure, Pg:

estimates,

calculate

the

gauge

Pg =

F

=

A

22 N

4

2 = 7 10 Pa

0.02 m

Remarks Given that 1.01 x 105 Pa = 14.7 lb/in2 it follows that Pg = 7 x 104 Pa = 10 lb/in2. Thus, a basketball will typically

have a gauge pressure in the neighborhood of 10 lb/in2, and hence a total pressure inside the ball of about 24.7 lb/in2.

Practice Problem What is the diameter of the circular area of contact if a basketball with a 10 lb/in2 gauge pressure is

pushed down with a force of 44 N (about 10 lb)?

[d = 2.85 cm] Some related homework problems

Exercise 2 The Titanic was found in 1985 lying on the bottom of the North

Atlantic at a depth of 2.5 miles. What is the pressure at this depth?

Solution Applying Equation 16-7 with = 1,025 kg/m3 we have

P = Pat + gh = 1.01 105 Pa +

m

(1025 kg / m )(9. 81m / s )(2. 5 mi ) 1609

= 4. 05 10

1 mi

3

Pa

A cubical box 0.2 m on a side is completely immersed in a fluid. At the top of the box the pressure is 105 kPa; at the bottom

the pressure is 106.8 kPa. What is the density of the fluid?

Picture the Problem Our sketch shows the box at an

unknown depth d below the surface of the fluid. The

important dimension for this problem is the height of the box,

which is 0.2 m.

d

P

1

Strategy The pressures at the top and bottom of the box are

related by P2 = P1 + gh. Since the pressures and the height

of the box are given, this relation can be solved for the

unknown density, .

0.2 m

P

2

1.

P2 P1

gh

2.

1. 068 10 Pa 1. 05 10 Pa

3

= 917.4 kg / m

(9.81m / s2 )(0.2 m)

Remarks Comparing with Table 16-xx, it appears that the fluid in question is probably olive oil.

Practice Problem Given the density obtained above, what is the depth d at the top of the box?

[d = 0.444 m] Some related homework problems

Conceptual Checkpoint 2 One day while swimming below the surface of the

ocean you let out a small bubble of air. As the bubble rises toward the

surface, does its diameter (i) increase, (ii) decrease, or (iii) stay the same?

What happens to the size of the bubble?

decreases. This allows the air in the bubble to expand and occupy a larger

volume.

Answer: (i) The diameter of the bubble increases.

A U-shaped tube is filled mostly with water, but a small amount of vegetable oil has been added to one side, as shown in the

sketch. The density of the water is 1000 kg/m3, and the density of the vegetable oil is 920 kg/m3. If the depth of the oil is 5

cm, what is the difference in level h between the top of the oil on one side of the U and the top of the water on the other

side?

Picture the Problem The U-shaped tube and the relevant

dimensions are shown in the sketch. Note that the tube is

open to the atmosphere. In addition, the points A and B

indicate the top level of water on the oil side of the U.

oil

h

5 cm

that the pressure be the same at the bottom of each side of

the U; that is, at points C and D. If the pressure is the same

at C and D, then, it will remain equal as one moves up

through the water to the points A and B. Above this point the

pressures will differ because of the presence of the oil.

B

water

to the pressure at point B. The difference between the depth

at B and the depth at A gives h.

1.

that point be h1:

2.

5 cm:

3.

4.

numerical values:

5.

oil sides of the U:

PA = P at + water gh1

PB = P at + oil gh2

Pat + water gh1 = Pat + oil gh2

920 kg / m3

4.6 cm

h1 = h2 oil = (5 cm)

3 =

water

1000 kg / m

h = h2 h1 = 5 cm 4.6 cm = 0. 4 cm

Remarks Note that the value of atmospheric pressure doesn't matter in this problem. What does matter is the increased

pressure due to being submerged to a given depth in water or in oil.

Practice Problem Find the pressure at points A and B.

[PA = PB = Pat + 451 Pa] Some related homework problems

radius of the small piston in Figure 16-8 is 4 cm, and the radius of the large

piston is 17 cm, find the force that must be exerted on the small piston to lift

the car.

Solution Solving Equation 16-11 for F1, and noting that the area is r2, we

find

(0. 04m)2

A1

F1 = F 2

2 = 803 N

= (14, 500 N )

(0.17 m)

A2

finger into the water, without touching the flask, does the reading on the scale

(i) increase, (ii) decrease, or (iii) stay the same?

Does dipping a finger change the scale reading?

dipped into the water. By Newton's third law, the water experiences an equal

and opposite reaction force acting downward. This downward force is

transmitted to the scale, which in turn gives a higher reading.

Another way to look at this result is to note that when you dip your finger

into the water, its depth increases. This results in a greater pressure at the

bottom of the flask, and hence a greater downward force on the flask. The

scale reads this increased downward force.

Answer: (i) The reading on the scale increases.

A 104 m3 metal block with a mass of 0.786 kg hangs from a fish scale. A 0.1 kg flask holding 4.4 kg of water rests on a

kitchen scale. What are the readings on the two scales when the block is fully immersed in the water?

Picture the Problem The two scales, flask, water, and block

are shown in the sketch. We expect the upper scale to read

less than the weight of the block, and the lower scale to read

more than the weight of the flask + water.

Strategy As in Conceptual Checkpoint 3, the water exerts an

upward buoyant force on the block, and a reaction force acts

downward on the flask and water. Thus, we start by

calculating the buoyant force exerted on the block this is

just the weight of an equivalent volume of water. As we can

see from the free-body diagrams, the buoyant force is

subtracted from the weight of the block, and added to the

weight of the flask and water.

1.

Fupper

lower

F

b

mg

F

b m

g

waterg

m

flask

Fb = waterV block g

)(

)(

2.

the reading of the upper scale:

Fupper + Fb mblock g = 0

Fupper = mblock g F b

3.

solve for the reading of the lower scale:

)+

Remarks Note that the sum of the readings on the two scales is the total weight of the block + water + flask, as expected.

Practice Problem Find the readings on the two scales if the block's volume is 2 x 104 m3.

[Fupper = 5.75 N, Flower = 46.1 N. In this case, the buoyant force supports more of the block's weight, and adds to the weight

supported by the lower scale.] Some related homework problems

A piece of wood with a density of 700 kg/m3 is tied with a string to the bottom of a

water-filled flask. The wood is completely immersed, and has a volume of 8 x 106

m3. What is the tension in the string?

F

b

T

mg

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Solve for the tension, T:

Calculate the weight of the wood:

Calculate the buoyant force:

Subtract to obtain the tension:

Fb T mg = 0

T = Fb mg

mg = 0.0549 N

Fb = 0.0785 N

T = 0.0235 N

Remarks Since the wood floats in water, its buoyant force when completely

immersed is greater than its weight.

How much water (density 1000 kg/m3) must be displaced to float a cubical block of

wood (density 650 kg/m3) that is 15 cm on a side?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Find the weight of the wood:

Write an expression for the weight of a volume of water:

Set the weight of water equal to the weight of the wood:

Solve for the volume of water:

Vwoodg = 21.5 N

Vwaterg

Vwaterg = 21.5 N

Vwater = 2.19 x 103 m3

Remarks As expected, only a fraction of the wood must be submerged in order for it

to float.

What percentage of a floating chunk of ice projects above the level of the water? Assume a density of 917 kg/m3 for the ice,

and 1000 kg/m3 for the water.

Picture the Problem Our sketch shows the ice, with density

s, floating in the water, with density f.

the fraction of the total volume of the ice, Vs, that is

submerged is Vsub/Vs = s/f. Hence the fraction that is

above the water is 1 Vsub/Vs = 1 s/f. Multiplying this

fraction by 100 yields the percentage above water.

1.

submerged:

V sub s

917 kg / m3

=

=

= 0. 917

f 1000kg / m3

Vs

2.

3.

100 1 s = 100(0. 083) = 8.3 /"

f

!

s

= 1 0. 917 = 0.083

f

Remarks Since we seek a percentage, it is not necessary to know the total volume of the ice.

Practice Problem What fraction of the ice is above water if it floats in sea water (density 1025 kg/m3)?

[10.5 %] Some related homework problems

floating ice cube. When the ice melts, which of the following occurs? (i) Water

overflows the cup, (ii) the water level decreases, or (iii) the water level

remains the same.

What happens to water level when the ice melts?

?

Discussion Since the ice cube floats, it displaces a volume of water equal to

its weight. But when it melts, it becomes water, and its weight is the same.

Hence, the melted water fills exactly the same volume that the ice cube

displaced when floating. As a result, the water level is unchanged.

Answer: (iii) The water level remains the same.

floating ice cube. Resting on top the ice cube is a small pebble. When the ice

melts, which of the following occurs? (i) Water overflows the cup, (ii) the

water level decreases, or (iii) the water level remains the same.

What happens to water level when the ice melts?

?

Discussion We know from the previous Conceptual Checkpoint that the ice

itself makes no difference to the water level. As for the pebble, when it floats

on the ice it displaces an amount of water equal to its weight. When the ice

melts the pebble drops to the bottom of the cup, where it displaces a volume

of water equal to its own volume. Since the volume of the pebble is less that

the volume of water with the same weight, we conclude that less water is

displaced after the ice melts. Hence, the water level decreases.

Answer: (ii) The water level decreases.

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