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# Lab 6.

## SIMULATION OF FEEDBACK ANALOG - DIGITAL

CONVERTERS
The first step in designing an electronic circuit uses models for the
used electronic devices. Mathematical functions describe their behavior and
they allow global estimation of the whole circuit function. The used model
is closer to the real circuit behavior (but also more difficult to use) when the
used mathematical equations are more numerous (more parameters
considered) and complex (better approximation of real dependencies).
Obviously, simple models are used in first steps of the design
process. Subsequently, the design needs to be verified and validated,
making sure that it is close enough to the desired behavior. There are two
possible ways to check that:
Experimental model - is a real circuit built in lab conditions, but trying
to reflect as close as possible the real technology to use by final (series)
production process. The designer uses a set of components to build a small
number of products (sometimes a single one). The method is expensive,
time consuming and assumes some risk (malfunction can lead to component
damage or other unwanted effects).
On the other hand, the measured results represent the behavior of a
particular set of used components. The effect of parameter spreading (in the
range allowed by the component specifications) is hard to emphasize. For
book specifies an offset error in the range +/- 5mV. The particular used OA
exhibits +2mV offset. How would the circuit behave using a -4mV or +5mV
offset OA? To find that, such AO should be looked for and tested in the
experimental model.
Simulation of an electronic circuit computes the behavior functions
using mathematical models. As many as possible parameters are considered,
approximated by as close as possible mathematical functions. For complex
devices, the implied calculus is laborious requiring the computer speed and
power. The programming time could be large, but the method is much
cheaper. It reduces the component and assembly costs, allows simple
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## Data Conversion and Acquisition Systems - Lab Manual

changing the parameter values, to emphasize the effect of each one on the
overall circuit behavior. The risk is significantly reduced and theoretical
aspects can be easily studied.
On the other hand, even the best component models are not perfect.
Simulation is an efficient analysis method, but it doesnt replace the
experimental model at all.
THE LAB PURPOSE
The lab intends to help students in understanding the behavior basics
of several feedback analog-to-digital circuit types, previously discussed at
class: counter, tracking and Successive Approximation Register (SAR)
ones. All of them are studied in both voltage- and current-comparison
versions.
A dedicated program simulates the ADCs, emphasizing several nonideal parameters of the used components also (slew rate, setting time, etc.).
The parameter values can be set in specific ranges.
THE LAB FLOW
The students perform steps similar to building and testing of an
experimental model:
- choosing a converter type,
- designing it (setting values for devices parameters),
- setting supply voltage and clock frequency,
- applying the input analog signal,
- analyzing the circuit behavior based on simulated time diagrams,
- understanding the (dis)advantages of each studied conversion
principle,
- emphasizing the error sources, modifying the circuit to improve it.
CHOOSING A CONVERTER TYPE
Three command logic types are available:
2

## Simulation of feedback analog-digital converters

G
tact

As the name shows, the
V bit
Sta rt/Stop
command logic is build around a nonreversible binary counter. PP (main
AO
gate) allows the clock pulses to reach
Logica
R
Reset
the counter input when Vbit=1, meaning
the voltage drop across R is less than the
instantaneous value of Vin. Each active
R
Ck
slope of the clock signal increments the
CNA
counter content, increasing the voltage
Bipola r
Numarator
drop across R by VLSB (the voltage
corresponding to the least significant
...
bit) The process continues until bringing
Iref
a1 a2
an
the actual voltage drop across R slightly
Rref
{A }
greater than the instantaneous value of
Vin. At this moment, Vbit (comparators
V ref
Fig. 1 Counter ADC voltage output) falls to logical 0 and closes PP.
comparison. Block diagram.
The conversion is done; its result is the
current counter content. It is held a
G
R
tact
while to be read by subsequent
COMP
V in
+
circuits, then the counter is reset.
V bit
Sta rt/Sto p
The voltage drop across R is zero,
basically less than Vin, Vbit rises
Logica
to logical 1, pointing a new
Reset
conversion begin. The conversion
R
Ck
period is proportional to the
CNA
instantaneous value of Vin, i.e.
Bipola r
Numarator
changes from a conversion to
another. The worst case happens
...
when
Vin=VFS;
then
the
Iref
a1 a2
an
conversion takes 2n-1 tact periods.
COMP

V in

PP

Io

Io

...

Io

Io

...

Rref

{A }

V ref

## Fig. 2 Counter ADC current

comparison. Block diagram.
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## Data Conversion and Acquisition Systems - Lab Manual

COMP

V in

G
tact

This time, the binary
counter is reversible. PPU (UP
AO
PPD
main gate) allows the clock
R
pulses to reach up-count input,
while Vbit=1 (voltage drop
across R less than instantaneous
CD
CU
value of Vin). PPD (DOWN main
CNA
gate) allows the clock pulses to
Bipola r
Numarator
reach down-count input, while
...
Vbit=0 (voltage drop across R
greater than instantaneous value
Iref
a1 a2
an
of Vin). The counter content
Rref
{A }
increases or decreases 1LSB at
each clock active slope, such a
V ref
Fig. 3 Tracking ADC voltage way to lead to a voltage drop
across R as close as possible to
comparison. Block diagram.
the current value of Vin
G
tact
(approximating it with either
R
COMP
PPU
positive or negative error).
V in
+
V bit
Anyhow, the approximation
error module is less than VLSB.
PPD
The
counter
content
represents at any time the
conversion result. To keep the
CD
CU
converter able to track Vin,
CNA
this one is not allowed to
Bipola r
Numarator
change faster then the R
...
voltage drop maximum speed:
Iref
a1 a2
an
|dVin/dt| < VLSB/Ttact
+

V bit

PPU

Io

Io

...

Io

Io

...

Rref

{A }

V ref

Block diagram.
4

COMP

V in

V bit

Io

Io

AO
R

...

CNA
Bipola r

RA S

...

Iref

an

G
tact

a1 a2

Rref

{A }

V ref

## Fig. 5 SAR ADC voltage

comparison. Block diagram.
R
COMP

V in

V bit

Io

Io

...

CNA

+
Rref

RA S

...
a1 a2

Iref

Bipola r

an

{A }

V ref

## Fig. 6 SAR ADC current

comparison. Block diagram.

G
tact

The command logic is now a SAR
(Successive Approximation Register) and
works based on halving principle. Prior
to a conversion begin, Vin is assumed to
belong to its definition range; for an
unipolar converter: Vin[0,VFS). That is
the initial search-range, which halves
each conversion step (at each active slope
of clock signal). To perform that, the
SAR delivers such a number to determine
(via DAC) a voltage drop on R to halve
the previous step search-range. The first
step considers the whole definition range,
halved by VFS/2. The SAR generated
number
is
{A}=1/2=0,100...02.,
a1=MSB=1, and ai=0,i=2...n
If Vbit=1, then Vin>VFS/2 belongs to
the upper half of its definition range:
Vin[VFS,VFS). This sub-range (current
search-range) is halved in the next step
by the VFS value. SAR generates the
number {A}=3/4=0,110...02, where the
final value of a1=1 is established (no
subsequent steps of same conversion
could change it).
Otherwise, Vbit=0 shows that
Vin[0, VFS). This sub-range (current
search-range) is halved in the next step
by the VFS value. SAR generates the
number {A}=1/4=0,010...02, where the
final value of a1=0 is established.
Similarly, the remaining bits are
determined step by step.
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## Data Conversion and Acquisition Systems - Lab Manual

SIMCAN PROGRAM PRESENTATION
The command menu includes the structure shown below:
C: Configuring
A: Supplies
- voltage supplies (0...+/-50V)
- clock frequency (0.001...10000kHz)
T: comparison Type 1 = voltage comparison
- slew rate AO (0.1...100V/s)
-open loop gain (1...1000000)
-resistance (0.1...100k)
2 = current comparison
- resistance (0.1...100K)
C: Converter

L: command Logic

## - Bit number (2...14)

- Reference current (0.001...10mA)
- DAC setting time (0...1000ns)
1: Tracking
2: Counter
3: Successive Approximation Register

G: signal Generator:

- Frequency (0...10000KHz)
- Offset (-50...+50V)
- Amplitude (0...50V)
- Shape
1 = Sinus
2 = Triangle
3 = Rectangle

O: Oscilloscope

- Time base

S: Simulate
X: eXit
6

1 = 1/3 tact/div
2 = 1 tact/div
3 = 3 tact/div
4 = 10 tact/div
5 = 100 tact/div
6 = 1000 tact/div

## Simulation of feedback analog-digital converters

The displayed signal set depends on the chosen time base (each time
the most relevant):
For time bases
1 and 2:
Vin, Vcmp, Vbit, Clk, {A}cmp
3 and 4:
Vin, Vcmp, Vbit, Clk, {A}
5 and 6:
Vin, V{A}
The above signal meaning is:
Vin input voltage (from signal generator).
Vcmp comparison voltage (feedback to the inverting compatator
input).
By voltage comparison, Vcmp is the operational amplifier output
voltage:
Vcmp Io R Iref {A}cmp R

(1)

where Iref is the reference current. Vcmp is proportional to the partial result
{A}cmp and is compared to Vin.
By current comparison, Vcmp is the voltage in the Io pin of DAC IC:
Vcmp Vin Io R Vin Iref {A}cmp R

(2)

It represents the difference between Vin and the voltage drop across
R and it is compared to zero. Obviously, the following comparisons are
logically equivalent:
Vcmp (7.1) Vin Vbit 1

(3)

(4)

## Vcmp (7.2) 0 Vbit 0

Consequently, the command logic circuit behaves identically for the two
comparison types.
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## Data Conversion and Acquisition Systems - Lab Manual

Vbit the comparator output signal.
Clk clock signal. Any state change of the command state machine can
only occur on the active (rising) slope of the Clk signal. Correspondingly,
the value of the input signal Vbit is relevant for the circuit behavior only at
these moments. For correct behavior, the Clk period should be greater than
the sum of setting times for all the components in the feedback loop:
command logic, DAC, comparator and, eventually, operational amplifier.
{A}cmp - partial result for the current conversion step. In step i, bits
a1...ai-1 are already determined (they already have the values they will have
in the final result also), bit ai is logical 1 (halves the current search-range of
Vin) and bits ai+1...an are logical 0 yet.
{A} - final digital result of the conversion. It is updated at the end of
each conversion and keeps its value during the whole next conversion.
V{A} graphic representation of binary number {A}. Could be seen as
Vin signal re-build, trough an analog-to-digital-to-analog conversion.