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Biyani's Think Tank

Concept based notes

Abstract Algebra
(B.Sc)

Dr. Radhika
Lecturer
Deptt. of Science
Biyani Girls College, Jaipur

Published by :

Think Tanks
Biyani Group of Colleges

Concept & Copyright :

Biyani Shikshan Samiti


Sector-3, Vidhyadhar Nagar,
Jaipur-302 023 (Rajasthan)
Ph : 0141-2338371, 2338591-95 Fax : 0141-2338007
E-mail : acad@biyanicolleges.org
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Edition: 2015
Price:

While every effort is taken to avoid errors or omissions in this Publication,


any mistake or omission that may have crept in is not intentional. It may
be taken note of that neither the publisher nor the author will be
responsible for any damage or loss of any kind arising to anyone in any
manner on account of such errors and omissions.
Leaser Type Setted by :
Biyani College Printing Department

Preface

am glad to present this book, especially designed to serve the needs of the students.

The book has been written keeping in mind the general weakness in understanding the
fundamental concepts of the topics. The book is self-explanatory and adopts the Teach
Yourself style. It is based on question-answer pattern. The language of book is quite easy and
understandable based on scientific approach.
Any further improvement in the contents of the book by making corrections, omission and
inclusion is keen to be achieved based on suggestions from the readers for which the author
shall be obliged.
I acknowledge special thanks to Mr. Rajeev Biyani, Chairman & Dr. Sanjay Biyani, Director
(Acad.) Biyani Group of Colleges, who are the backbones and main concept provider and also
have been constant source of motivation throughout this Endeavour. They played an active role
in coordinating the various stages of this Endeavour and spearheaded the publishing work.
I look forward to receiving valuable suggestions from professors of various educational
institutions, other faculty members and students for improvement of the quality of the book. The
reader may feel free to send in their comments and suggestions to the under mentioned
address.
Author

Unit-I

Group and Subgroup


1

The set of all real numbers under the usual multiplication operation is not a group
since
a)
b)
c)
d)

multiplication is not a binary operation


multiplication is not associative
identity element does not exist
zero has no inverse

Ans.
2

1
If (G, ) is a group s.t. (ab)
=

a)
b)
c)
d)

a1

b1 ,

a, b

G then G is

commutative semi group


abelian group
non-abelian group
None of these

Ans.
3

d)

b)

The inverse of -i in the multiplicative group {1, -1, i , - i } is


a) 1
b) -1
c) i
d) - i
Ans.

c)

2
If (G, ) is a group s.t. a = e, a G then G is

a) semi group
c) non-abelian group
Ans.
5

b) abelian group
d) none of these

b)

The set of integers Z with the binary operation a b = a+b+1, a ,b


group. The identity element of this group is

Z is a

a)
0
c)
-1
`Ans. c)
6

1
1
In the group (G, ) the value of (a b)
is

a)
Ans.
7

b) 1
d) 12

ab

b) b

c) a

d)

ba

b)

Let G denotes the set of all n n singular matrices with rational numbers as
entries. Then under multiplication G is

a)

Subgroup

b)

finite abelian group

c)

infinite non abelian group

d)

infinite abelian group

Ans.

c)

If a, b are positive integers, define as a b = a where a b = a (modulo 7) then


inverse of 3 in G = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} is

10

a)

Ans.

c)

b) 1

c) 5

d) 4

In the group G = {2, 4, 6, 8} under multiplication modulo 10 the identity element is


a)

Ans.

a)

The set of all n

b) 8

th

d) 4

d) 2

root of unity under multiplication of complex numbers form

a)
b)
c)
d)

Semi group with unity


commutative semi group with unity
group
abelian group

Ans.

d)

Q .1

Define order of an element of a group and prove that order of every element of a
finite group is finite and less than or equal to the order of the group.

Ans.

Order of an element of a group Let a be an element of a group G if n is a least positive integer s.t.
an

= e, where e is identity of G then n is called order of a . And it is

denoted by
O( a )=n
Statement of Theorem Order of every element of a finite group is finite and less than or equal to the order of the
group.
Proof - Let (G, * ) be a finite group whose order is n.
2
G then a a = a

Let a

a2
n

So on a

a = a3

a = e, a , a2 -------- an are elements of G


r

But G has only n elements. So there exist two elements a


ar

s.t.

s
= a ,r<s
r 1

ar . (a )

r 1

s
= a . (a )

e = a sr where s - r 0

and a

= e where k 0

O( a )

(1)

now since k = s - r n
k n

(2)

from (1) & (2)


O( a ) k n
O ( a ) O (G)

O (G) = n

Hence proved that order of every element of a finite group is finite and less than or equal
to the order of the group.
Q.2

Give the definition of cyclic group with example and prove that every infinite cyclic
group has two and only two generators

Ans.

Cyclic group Let G be a group then G is called cyclic group of G if there exist a element a in such
a way that every element of G can be written as some integral power of a
n
or G = { a /nZ }.

Then a is called generator of group G.


Example Set {1, -1, i , - i } is a multiplicative group. This is cyclic group because it has two
generators i and -i.
4
2
1
3
1 = i , -1 = i , i = i , - i = i
4
2
3
1
1 = (i) , -1 = (i) , i = (i) , - i = (i)

Statement of Theorem Every infinite cyclic group has two and only two generators.
proof

Let G be a cyclic group and a be its generator i.e. G = [a].

Now let x G then m

s.t.

m
x= a

x = (a1 )m
x can also be written as some integral power of a1
a1 is also generator of G.

so

If possible

1
Let a = a

a . a = a1 . a

a2 = e

O( a )=2
O (G) = 2

But this contradict that G is infinite so a

a1 .

Now we prove that there does not exist any other generator.
m
Let if possible a , m

So for a

1 is also generator of G.

G, n

a = (am )n

a . a1

mn
1
= a . a

s.t.

e = amn1
O ( a ) mn-1
O (G) mn-1

which is contradiction
1
Hence a and a
are only two generators of Z.

Hence proved that every infinite cyclic group has two and only two generators.
Q.3

Pn

Prove that set

of n! permutations on n symbols is a finite group under the

operation of permutation multiplication.


x1

Proof Let S = {

x2

-----

xn

} be a finite set of n elements. Let f, g

Pn

two permutations defined on S. Since we know that permutation is one - one on - to


mapping so fog is also
one - one and on - to mapping. fog

Pn

permutation multiplication is closed under

Pn

1 Associativity We know that one - one and on - to function satisfy associative property.
i.e. fo (goh) = (fog) oh
so permutation multiplication is associative in

Pn

2 Existence of identity element Pn

Since I
(foI) (

xi

) = f [I(
=f(

xi

so
xi
]

)]

xi

S, f

Pn

be

(Iof) (

xi

) = I [f(
xi

=f(

xi

xi

S, f

Pn

Hence I is identity
3 Existence of inverse Pn

Let f

1
. Since f is one - one and on - to so inverse of f i.e. f

1
also one - one and on - to on S so f

Pn

fof 1 (x) = f[ f 1 (x)] = x = I (x)

Now

exist which is

Of

(x) = f

[f (x)] = x = I (x)

fof 1 = I = f 1 Of

Every permutation has its inverse permutation in


Hence

Pn

Pn

set of n! permutation is a finite group under the operation of permutation

multiplication.
This is called "Symmetric Group".
Q.4

Define cyclic Permutation and order of a cycle with example.

Ans

Cyclic Permutation Let S = {

x1

x2

------

xn

} be a finite set then permutation f defined on S is called

cyclic permutation if
f(

xi

)=

x i+1

f(

xk

)=

x1

and f (

xj

)=

, i = 1, 2, 3-----k - 1, k n

xj

, j 1, 2, 3,------k

Example - f = (1 2 4 6)

S7

is cyclic permutation of length 4 s.t.

f(1) = 2, f (2) = 4, f(4) = 6, f(6) = 1


f(3) = 3, f (5) = 5, f (7) = 7
Thus f = (1 2 4 6) =

(12 234 346 55 6717)

Order of a cycle n
If f is cycle of length n then f I, where n is least positive integer then n is called order of

cycle f.
Example
Let f = (1 2 5 7)

(12 2353 44 57 676 1)

f=

(15 237 344 51 676 2)

(17 231 344 52 676 5)

f4 =

(11 2323 44 55 6767)

f3

S7

Hence order of a cycle is equal to length of a cycle.


Transposition -Any cycle permutation whose length is 2 is called transposition.
Even and odd Permutation -We know that every permutation can be expressesd as a
composite of transpositions so if in this expression number of transpositions is even then
permutation is even and if number of transposition is odd then permutation is called odd.
permutation.
Ex.

f=

(12 234 3 41 58 67 76 89 95)

= (1 2 4) (5 8 9) (6 7)
= (1 4) (1 2) (5 9) (5 8) (6 7)
Here number of transposition is 5 which is odd so permutation f is odd permutation
Q.5

An

Prove that the set

of all even permutations of degree n is a group of order

n!
2
Proof We know that multiplication of two even permutation is even so set

An

is closed for

multiplication.
1

Associativity - We know that function satisfy associative property. Since even


An
permutation are also function so multiplication is associative in
.

Existence of Identity - Identity permutation is even permutation i.e. I


An

So I is identity of multiplication in
3

An

Existence of inverse - Since inverse of even permutation is also a even


An
permutation so every even permutation has its inverse in
.
Hence Set

An

of all even permutation is a group.

Now we have to prove that order of this group

Let Set

Sn

has

e1

e2

Or

odd permutations then

Sn

={

e1

e2

,------

--------

em

em

O1

An

is

n!
2

even permutation and

O2

------

Or

O1

O2

,------

m + r = n! ----------Now let

(1)
e1

be any transposition then

e2

--------

em

are

odd permutations and


O1

O2

Or

--------

are even permutation because transposition is

odd permutation.
e1

Now since

e2

of odd permutation is r in

Sn

--------

em

are odd permutations but number

so

m r ---------------(2)
O1

similarly

even permutation is

m in

O2
Sn

-------

Or

are even permutation but number of

so

r m ----------------------(3)
By (2)

& (3)

m=r
Now from (1)
n!
2

m=r=

Order of

Q. 6

If

An

(set of even permutation) is

= (1 7 2 6 3 5 8 4)

(12 235 443 58 677 6 81)

then prove that

n
2 !

= ( (1) (7) (2) (6) (3) (5) (8) (4))

Also express
Find whether

is a product of disjoint cycles

is an even or odd permutation

Also give its order


= (1 7 2 6 3 5 8 4)

Ans

(17 236 541853672 48)


=

(12 235 443 58 677 6 81)

(17 236 541853672 48)


=

(16 237 842 51 674 5 83)

1 =

(21 523443 85 7676 18)

(18 231 443 52 677 6 85)

Now
( )

1 =

(16 237 842 51 674 5 83)

(18 231 443 52 677 6 85)

(13 236 248755674 81)

= (1 3 2 6 5 7 4 8)
= (2 6 5 7 4 8 1 3)
= ( (1) (7) (2) (6) (3) (5) (8) (4))
Now
=

(12 235 443 58 677 6 81)

= (1 2 5 8) (3 4) (6 7)
= (1 8) (1 5) (1 2) (3 4) (6 7)
number of transposition is 5 so
Q .7

Define Subgroup of a group with example and prove that necessary and sufficient
condition for a non-empty subset H of a group G to be a subgroup is a H, b

Ans

is odd.

ab1

Subgroup A non-empty subset H of a group G is said to be a subgroup of G if


i) H is closed for the composition defined on G.
ii) H itself is a group for the composition induced by G.
Ex.

i) Set of integers (Z, +) is subgroup of rational numbers (Q, +)


ii) Set ({1, -1}, ) is subgroup of set ({1, -1, i, -i}, )

Now proof of the Statement


Necessary condition Let H be a subgroup of G and a , b

b H

Now

b H
1
H and b H

ab1 H

condition is necessary
Sufficient condition H, b H

Let a

ab H

Then we have to prove that H is a subgroup of G.


since H is non-empty set there exist at least one element (say a ) in H.
Now a

H, a

aa1 H

H has identity element


Now Let b be any arbitrary element of H then e

H, b

eb1 H

b H

since b is any arbitrary element of H so every element of H has its inverse in H.


a

Now

H, b

a(b1)1 H

a b

H, b H

thus H is closed for the composition of G.

Lastly

a , b, c

a (bc) = ( a b) c

a , b, c G

H is associative
Hence H is subgroup
Thus condition is sufficient
Q .8

The union of two subgroups of a group G is a subgroup iff one is contained in the
other.

Proof

Necessary condition Let

H1

Let

H1

H2

H1
Since

H1

be any two subgroup of G.


H2

H2

H2

H1

or

or

then

H1

-----------------(1)

and

H2

are subgroup so by

H2

is also a subgroup of G.

H1

(1)

H2

and

Sufficient condition H1

Let

and

H2

are two subgroup of G and


H2

H1

then we have to prove that either

H1
or

U
H2

H2

is also a subgroup of G

H1

Now by contradiction let us suppose that


H 2

H1
Now

H1 H2
H 1

H2
a

but

and

a b

a H 1

H1

H 1

H2

and a

b H 2

and

H2

and b

H1

H2

H2

b H1

H1
H1

U
U

H2
H2

is subgroup)

H1

a b

H1

Now if a b
a

H1

H2

or a b

H1

and a b

a1

H1

and a b

H1
1

eb

H1

( a b)
H1
H1

which is contradiction
H2

Now if a b
a b

H2

and b

H2

( a b) b1

a e

a b

H2

and b

H2

H2

H2
H2

which is contradiction
Our assumption is wrong

H1

H2

or

H2 H1

Q.9

Define cosets and find all the cosets of H = {0,4} in the group G = (

Ans

Coset

Z8

+8
).

Let H be any subgroup of G and a

G then set

a H = { ah/h H }

is called left coset of H in G


and
H a = { ha/h

H}

is called right coset of H in G


Now
(

Z8

+8
)=

({0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7},

+8
}

Here G = {0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
H = {0, 4}
Here H is subgroup of G for

+8
and it is commutative so all left cosets are equal to

right cosets.
Now
0

G and0 + H = H +0
= {0

G and
= {1

G and

+8
+8
0,
0

4} = {0,4} = H
1+ H = H + 1
+8
+8
0, 1 4} = {1,5}
2+ H = H + 2

+8
+8
0, 2 4} = {2,6}

= {2
3

G and

3+ H = H + 3
+8
+8
0, 3 4} = {3,7}

= {3
4

G and

4+ H = H + 4
+8
+8
0,
4

4} = {4,0} = H

= {4
5

G and

5+ H = H + 5
+8
+8
0,
5

= {5
6

G and

6+ H = H + 6
+8
+8
0,
6

= {6
7

G and

4} = {5,1} = H+1

4} = {6,2} = H+2

7+ H = H + 7
= {7

+8
+8
0, 7 4} = {7,3} = H+3

Hence there are only 4 different cosests which are


H, H+1, H+2, H+3
Q.10

State and prove Lagrange's theorem.

Ans

Statement Order of each subgroup of a finite group is a divisor of the order of the
group.
Proof Let G be a finite group of order n and H be a subgroup of order m.

i.e. O(G) = n, O(H) = n --------------(1)


Now let us define a mapping f: H
s.t.

f(h) = a h

a H

This mapping is one-one and on-to mapping so


O(H) = O( a H) = O(H a )
U
We know that G = a G a H
But we know that all the left cosets are not distinct so let H has only k different cosets
a1

H,

a2

G=

a1

HU

O(G) = O(

a1 H

so

H, -----a2

ak

H
ak

H) + O(

a3

H U------U

) + O(

a2

H)------O(

ak

H)

= O(H) + O(H) +-------+ O(H) k times using (1)


= kO(H)
n = km
order of H is a divisor of the order of the group.

Q. 11 Prove that every group of prime order is a cyclic group.


Ans

Let G be a group of prime order p then we have to prove that G is cyclic since p is prime
p >1 i.e. O(G) > 1 G has at least two elements. So there exist an element a s.t.
a

e.

Now

let

O( a ) = m

so

O( a ) 2

then let H = [ a ] be a cyclic subgroup of G and


O(H) = O( a ) = m
since H is subgroup of G by Lagrange's theorem m is divisor of p but p is prime so m = 1
or p. But O(H) > 1 so m = p i.e.
O(H) = O(G) H = G
H is cyclic so G is cyclic group.
Q.12 If H is a subgroup of G and (G: H) = 2 prove that a H = H a ,

G.

Proof

Given that (G: H) = 2 i.e. H has two different right coset or left costs in G. We know
that H is left and right coset of itself. So
G=HUH a

H H a =

and G = H U bH

H bH =

so H a = bH
Now
a

aH, a

H a , H a = bH

bH bH = a H

Since two left coset are either identical or disjoint


H a =bH= a H
H a = a

**********************

bH

Unit-II

Homomorphism, Normal Subgroup and


Quotient Subgroup
'
Q. 1 Define Homomorphism. If f is a homomorphism of a group G into a group G ,

then

prove that
i) H is a subgroup of G
f(H) is a subgroup of G'
ii)

H ' is a subgroup of G'

f 1 ( H ' ) = {x G / + (x)

'
Proof i) Since f is homomorphism from G to G and

H is any subset of G so f(H)


f(H) is non-empty set because
e
Now
then

,
H s.t. f(e) = e

'
'
Let a , b

f(H)

f(H)

a , b H s.t.

G' .

H ' } is a subgroup of group G.

'

f( a ) =
a

Now

'

a and f(b) = b
'

' 1

1
= f( a ) of (b)

1
= f(a) Of ( b )

= f( a b

) ---------(1)

{f is homomorphism}

Since H is subgroup so if
a

H b H

a b H

f( a b1 )

'

'1

b
1

Thus if a

, b

f(H)

f(H) from ---------(1)


f(H)

11

f(H)

1
'
ii> We have to prove f
( H ) is subgroup of G where

Now f

'

( H ) is non-empty set

'
because e

H ' s.t. f(e) = e '


e f 1 ( H ' )

Now let a , b
f(a)

f 1 ( H ' )

H ' , f(b)

H'

1
1
f( a b ) = f( a ) O f( b )

1
= f( a ) O [f (b)]
-------------(2)

f( a )

H 1 f(b)

H'

H'

H ' is subgroup of

G'

f( a ) O [f (b)]1

H'

Thus from (1)


1
f( a b )

a b

Thus a

H'

'

( H )

f 1 ( H ' ), b

f 1 ( H ' )

a a b1

f 1 (

H' )
Hence f
Q .2

'

( H ) is subgroup of G.

Define Kernel of Homomorphism and show that A homomorphism of a group G


into a group G is a monomorphism iff Kernel of f = {e}, where e is the identity
in G.

Ans

Kernel of homomorphism '

Let (G, + ) and ( G , o) be two groups and f is homomorphism defined from G to


G' then Kernel of f is denoted by K and it is defined as
'
K = { x / f(x) = e , x

1
'
G and e is identity element of G }

Proof of Statement
Let f be a monomorphism i.e. f is one-one homomorphism there we have to prove that
Kernel of f ={e}.
Let K be Kernel of f and x K
f(x) = e '

We know that f(e) = e

'

so f(x) = f(e) x = e { f is one-one)

so K = {e}
Conversely
Let K = {e} then we have to prove that f is one-one
Let x, y

G s.t.

f(x) = f(y)

1
1
f(x) o [f ( y )]
= f(y) o [f ( y )]

1
1
f(x) o f( y ) = f(y) o f( y )

1
1
f (x y
) = f (y y
)

1
f (x y
) = f (e)

1
'
f (x y
)= e

1
x y

But

K = {e}

so

1
x y
=e

x=y

Thus f is one-one homomorphism

Q.3

Define Normal subgroup.


Prove that a subgroup N of a group (G, o) is normal iff for every n

gn

G,
g1

N.

N and every g

Ans

Normal subgroup
Let G be a group then a subgroup N of G is called normal subgroup of G if Ng = gN
g

G.

Proof of statement Let N be a normal subgroup of G.


then by definition of normal subgroup
Ng = gN ,

let n N,

Now
gn

g G
( Ng = gN)

gN gn Ng.
gn Ng.

n1

gn =

n1

s.t.

gn

g1 = n1 g

gn

gn

g1

n1

g1

Conversely - Let N be a subgroup of G s.t. g n

g1

N then we have to prove that

N is normal.
Let
Now

G then g n

n g NG

g1

n N

n g = (g

)ng

1
=g( g
n g)

Ng gN
Now
n1

-------------------------(1)

n1

=g

n1

) g.

Ng

Ng ----------------(2)

gN

From

gN

1
( g
g)

= (g n1 g

gN

(1)

& (2)

Ng = g N.

N is normal in G.
Q.4
Proof

A subgroup N of a group G is normal subgroup iff g N

g1 = N,

Let N is normal is normal subgroup of G


Let x
gx

g1

gN

N, g

G, then we know that

N
N ------------------------------ (1)

g1

this is true for all element of G


so this is also true for
i.e.
g

g1

g1 N g N
g1 N g

--------------------(2)

g1

gN

g1

N gN

g1

G.

from (1) & (2)


g1

N=gN

Q .5
Proof

Conversely -

Let g N

gN

g1

gx

=N

G, x

The intersection of any two normal subgroups of a group is normal subgroup.


Let
N2

N1

and

N2

N1

are two normal subgroup of G then we know that


N1

is subgroup of G. Now we have to prove that

N2

is normal

subgroup of G.
N1

N2

Let

Let

then

g G, n

N1

and n

N2

G
N1

gn

N1

N1

is

N2

gn

g1

N2

N2

is

normal}
g

G, n

normal}
gn

Q.6

N1

g1
N1

N2

N2
is normal in G.

If H is subgroup of G and N is a normal subgroup of G. then H N is a normal


subgroup of H. Where H N need not be normal in G.

Proof

Let H be a subgroup of G and N is normal subgroup of G. then H N is subgroup of


G we want to prove that H N is normal subgroup of H.

Firstly we will prove that H N is subgroup of H.


H N and h

Let

x H and x

N, h

H, h

1
H hx h

N, h

1
H hx h

h x h1

{ N is normal}

H N

H N is normal in H.

Q .7

Prove that the Kernel of a homomorphism f of a group G to a group G is a normal


subgroup of G.

Proof Let f be a homomorphism defined from G to G

'

and K is Kernel of f then we have to

prove that K is normal in G.


K = {x

'
'
'
G / f(x) = e } where e is identity of G

'
since f(e) = e

e K so K

a , b K then f( a ) = e ' , f(b) = e '

Let
Now

1
1
f ( ab ) = f( a ) f( b )

f (b)
= f( a ) ( 1
'

= e . e
= e

'

'1

{ f is homomorphism}

K is subgroup of G.

Now let a
f (x a

K and x G

x1 ) = f(x) f( a ) f( x1 )

'
= f(x) e

{f is homomorphism}

[f (x )]1

1
= f(x) [f (x )]

'
= e

x a

x1

K is normal in G.
Q.8

If H and K are two normal subgroups of G, then HK is also a normal subgroup


of G.

Solution

Let H and K are two normal subgroups of G then we have to prove that HK is
normal in G.
Firstly we will prove that HK is subgroup of G.
Let
k1

h1

k1

k2

Now
=

h1

h1

(
(

h2

h1

k2

k1

) (h2 k 2 )

) h2

k1

k2

k3

h21

h1

HK where

h1

k1

h2

( k2

k1

k 21 = k 3 (say)

h2

h1

1
k
( h2 h2 ) 3

1
h
= ( h1 h2 ) ( 2

h2

and

k3

h1

k3

k3

since

H,

h21 ) ----------------(1)
K,

h21
h2

h2

h2
K

h2

{ K is normal in G}
h1

h2

So from -----------(1)
1
h
( h1 h2 ) ( 2

k3

h21 ) HK

( h1 k 1 ) ( h2 k 21 )

HK

HK is subgroup of G
Let

hk

HK and x

h H, x G and k
xh
(x h

x1

x1 ) (x k

x h( x1 x) k

H and x K

K, x

x1

x1 ) H K
x1

HK

HK is normal subgroup of G.

Q.9

Define Quotient Group and cosets. Prove that the set of all cosets of a normal
subgroup H of a group G. is a group with respect to multiplication of cosets defined
as Ha H b = H ab a, b G

Ans

Coset -

Let G be a group and H be its normal subgroup then


Hx = {h x /

h H, x G}

is called right coset of H in G.


Set of all right (left) cosets of H in G is denoted by

G
H .

Quotient group or factor group


Let H be a normal subgroup of G.
then set of all right (left) cosets of H in G with operation
H a Hb=H a b
is called Quotient group it is denoted by

G
H .

Proof Let H be any normal subgroup of G and set of all right cosets of H in G is
G
H

= {H a /

Now we want to prove that


1

G
H

is group.

Closure -

Let H a, H b
because a b

G
H

where a , b

G then H a H b = H a b

2 Associativity Let H a , H b, H c
then

G
H

where a , b, c G

G
H

H a (H b H c) = H a H b c
= H a (b c)
= H ( a b) c
=H a bHc
= (H a H b) H c
3

Identity element
Let H x be identity element of

G
H

where x G then for H a

H a Hx=H a
H a x=H a

a x= a

x=e

Thus He = H is identity
4

Existence of inverse
Let H x be inverse element of Ha then
H a Hx=H
H a x = He

a x=e

x = a1 G

Thus H x =

Thus

G
H

Ha

is inverse element of H a in

is a group

G
H

G
H

G
H

Q .10 Find the quotient group

composition table of
Ans

when G = (Z, +) and H = (4Z, +). Also prepare the

G
H .

We know that (Z, +) is abelian group so every subgroup of it is normal subgroup. So H is


G
H

normal subgroup of G so

is quotient group whose element are all possible right

(left) cosets of H in G.
Cosets of H in G are
0+H = H+0 = {------ -8,-4, 0, 4, 8} = H
1+H = {------ -7, -3, 1, 5, 9------} = H+1
2+H = {------- -6, -2, 2, 6, 10 -----} = H+2
3+H = {------- -5, -1, 3, 7, 11 -------} = H+3
4+H = {-------- -4, 0, 4, 8, -------} = H+4 = H
Similarly 5+H = H+5 = H+1
-1 +H = {------ -9, -5, -1, 3, 7------} = 3+H
-2+H = {------ -10, -6, -2, 2, 6-----} = 2+H
and so.
So we can see here that distint cosets are
G
H

= {H, H+1, H+2, H+3}

Composition table of
+
H
H+
1
H+

G
H

H
H+1
H
H+1
H+1 H+2

H+2 H+3
H+2 H+3
H+3 H

H+2

H+3

H+1

2
H+
3

H+3

H+1 H+2

Q.11 Every group is homomorphic to its quotient group.


Proof

Let G be a group and N be its normal subgroup.


Let us define a mapping
:G

G
N

s.t.
(x) = N x,

For homomorphism
(x y) = Nxy
= Nx Ny
= (x) (y)

is homomorphism

For each Nx

G
x
N ,

G s.t.

(x) = Nx

Q.12

is on-to

is on-to homomorphism

If is a homomorphism of G on to
then the Kernel of f = N.

G
N

defined as f(x) = Nx,

G,

G
N

Let f: G

Proof

s.t. f(x) = Nx,

x G

then
Ker f = {x

G / f(x) = N}
G
N

N is identity of

= {x G / Nx = N}
= {x G / x

N}

=N
Ker f = N

Q.13

Fundamental Theorem of Homomorphism.


Prove that every homomorphic image of a group G is isomorphic to some quotient
group of G.

Proof

Let G be a group and f (G) be its homomorphic image. Let K be Kernel of f then K is
normal subgroup of K so we can define quotient group
that
G
K

f (G)

Let us define a mapping


:

f (G)
K

G
K . then we have to prove

s.t.

(K x) = f(x)

For well defined


Let Ka = K b

ab

f ( ab1 ) = e '

K
{ where e is identity of f(G)}

f ( a ) f ( b1 ) = e '

f ( a ) [f (b)]1 = e '
f ( a ) = f (b)

(K a ) = (Kb)

is well-defined

For homomorphism
(K a b) = f ( a b)

= f ( a ) f (b)
= (K a ) (Kb)

is homomorphic

For one-one.
Let

(K a ) = (Kb)

f ( a ) = f (b)
f ( a ) [f (b)]1 = e '
f ( a ) f ( b1 ) = e '

{f is homomorphic}

f ( ab1 ) = e '

a b1

K a =Kb

is one-one

Now For on-to:Let b

f (G) then x G

s.t.

b = f (x) = [K x]

is on-to

Thus is isomorphic
i.e

G
K

f (G)

Q .14 Show that the mapping f: G

G'

s.t. f(x) = 2x,

x G is an

'
isomorphism where G is the additive group of integers and G is the additive

group of even integers including zero.


Proof

G' or f: (Z, +) (2Z, +)

Here f: G
s.t.

f (x) = 2x,

x Z

We have to prove that f is isomorphism. For this we will prove that f is well-defined,
homomrphic, one-one and on-to.
For well defined
Let

x1

x2

2 x1 = 2 x2

f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 )

f is well defined
For homomorphic:x1

f(

x2

x1

) = 2(

=2

x1

+2

=f(

x1

)+f(

x2

x2
x2

f is homomorphic
For one-one:Let

f(

x1

)=f(
x1

x1

x2

x2

=2
=

x2

f is one-one

For on-to:'
for each element y of G , x

s.t.

G.

y = 2x = f(x)

f is on-to
Hence f is isomorphism.

************************

Unit-III

Ring and Field


Q .1

Define ring and type of rings.

Ans

A non-empty set R with two binary operation (+) and (-) is called ring if it satisfy
following portulats.
i) Associativity of addition
a b, c

(a + b)+c = a + (b + c),

ii) Existence of identity

a +0 = a = 0 +a,

iii) Existence of inverse


for each b

a R s.t.

a +b = 0 = b +a
iv) Commutativity of addition
a +b = b +a,

a, b

v) Associativity of Multiplication
a. (b. c) = (a. b) .c,

a, b, c

vi)Distributivity of Multiplication over addition


a. (b +c) = a. b + a. c
(b +c) . a = b. a +c. a,

a, b, c

Types of Ring
i) Commutative ring
A ring Commutative for multiplication

i.e. a. b = b. a

a, b R

is called Commutative ring


ii) Ring with unity
A ring which have identity element for multiplication is called Ring with unity.
Here identity element is called unity, which is 1.
iii)Ring with zero divisor
A ring is called with zero divisor
if

a, b R s.t.
a 0, b 0 and a. b = 0

iv) Ring without zero divisor


A ring which not have any two element a, b. such that
a 0, b 0 and a. b = 0
is called ring without zero divisor
v) Integral domain
A commutative ring with unity and without zero divisor is called integral domain.
vi) Field
A Commutative ring R is field if it has unity element and every non-zero element has
its inverse in R.
vii) Division ring or skew field.
A ring is division ring if it has unity and inverse of each element
Q .2
Proof

Prove that a ring R without zero-divisor iff the cancellation laws hold in R
Necessary condition
Let R be a ring without zero-divisor
Let x, y, z R.

s.t.

x. y = x. z,

x. y +[- (x. z)] = x. z + [- (x. z)]


x. y + x. (-z) = 0
x. (y-z) = 0
R is ring without zero divisor and x 0
so

y-z = 0
y=z

R holds left cancellation law


similarly R holds right cancellation law
Sufficient Condition
Let R holds cancellation law
then if possible. let a, b R s.t.
a. b = 0

a 0, b 0

we know that a. 0 = 0
a. b = a. 0
b=0

{by cancellation law}

which is contradiction
so R is without zero divisor
Q .3
Prof

Prove that a finite commutative ring without zero divisor is a field.


Let R be a finite commutative ring without zero divisor.
Now we want to prove that this is a field for this we have to prove that R has unity
element and every element of R has its multiplicative inverse in R.

a1

Let R has

a2

an

------

n elements

Let x be any non-zero element of R


then

a1

a2

. x,

a3

. x,

. x------

an

.x R

There all elements are different


If possible
ai

let

ai

.x
aj

.x-

( ai

aj

ai

aj

.x=

).x=0

aj

.x=0

because x 0

=0

R is without zero divisor


ai

aj

all elements are different.

Thus R = {
y

If

am

y=

a1

a2

al

. x = x.

}={

al

R s.t.

al

Now
al

. y = y.

al

=(

am

. x) .

a1

R s.t.

am

and x R so
x=

am

R then

. x = x.

an

------

al

. x,

a2

. x ------

an

. x}

am

. (x.

al

al

is identity element of R.

)=

am

.x

=y

Now
al
s.t.

R so
al
ar

ar

ar

. x = x.

ar

is multiplicative inverse of x

here x is any arbitrary element of R so every element of R has its multiplicative inverse in
R.
Hence R is field.
Q .4 Define characteristic of a ring. Prove that the characteristic of an integral domain is
either zero or prime number.
Proof

Characteristic of a ring
Let (R, +, ) be a ring then a least positive integer n is called characteristic of R if
n a = 0,

a R

where 0 is additive identity.


Proof of Theorem
Let D be a integral domain at a

0 be any element of D then if 0 ( a ) = 0

then characteristic of D is zero if characteristic of D is non-zero say p then


O( a )=p
we have to prove that p is prime.
Let p is not prime then let p =

p1

p2

where
Now a

p1

p2

1,

1,

a . a

a2 0

p1

< p,

p2

< p.

a2

and

We know that order of two non-zero element of an integral domain is same so


2
0( a )=p 0( a )=p

p1

0 ( a2 ) =

p1

p2

p2

a2 = 0

( p1

a ) ( p2

either

p1

a )=0

p2

a = 0 or

a =0

{ D is without zero divisor


p1

but
p2

0. {

0 and

0 and

p2

p1

0}

which is contradiction
So our assumption that p is not prime is wrong.
Hence p is prime.
Q. 5

Prove that the set of all real numbers of the form m + n

2 , where m and n are

integers with ordinary addition and multiplication forms a ring. Is it field?


Proof

Let R = { m + n

2 / m, n Z}

Now let
m1

n1

2 ; m2 + n2

R.

where

m1

then (

m1

n1

n1

m2

n2

2 ) + ( m2 + n2

( m1 + n1 ), ( n1 + n2 )

(
m1

m1
n2

n1

+
+

n1

( m1

2 ) . ( m2 + n2
m2

m2

2 ) = ( m1 + n1 ) + ( n1 + n2

2 ) = ( m1

m2

n1

+2

n2

+(

2
+2

n1

n2

), (

m1

n2

n1

m2

We know that for addition and multiplication real number are associative here R is set of
real numbers so R is associative for addition and multiplication.
Now let

m+n

then (m + n

2 be any element of R

2 ) + (0 + 0 2 ) = (m +0) + (n + 0) 2
=m+n

0+0
(m + n

z is additive identity.

2 ) + [ - m + (-n) 2 ] = (m m) + (n n) 2
=0+0

m+n

2 have its additive inverse in R. m + n 2 is any arbitrary element of R so

every element of R has its additive inverse in R.


Since for real number distributive law for multiplication over addition is true so R has
distributive properly.
Hence R form a ring.
Now

2 ) . (1 + 0 2 ) = m + n 2

(m + n

1+0

R is identity for multiplication.

(m + n 2 ) . (m+n 2) = 1 + 0 2
1
m+n 2

1
m+n 2

m n 2
( m+ n 2 ) ( m+n 2)

m
m 2n 2

is multiplicative inverse of m + n

n
m 2n 2

m n 2
2
2
m 2n

this is element of R if
m
2
m 2n

n
2
m 2n

Z and

which is not necessary true.


because if
1
5+ 3 Z

m = 5, n = 3 then
=

5
7

3
7

R.

R is not a field.
Q. 6

For a ring R in which a

i> a + a = 0,
ii> a +b = 0

= a
a

a =b

iii> R is commutative ring

R prove that

Proof

i) Let

then a + a

{ R is ring

(a+ a)2 = ( a + a )

a2 = a

( a + a ). ( a +a) = a + a

a2 + a2 + a2 + a2 = a + a

a + a + a + a = a + a

( a + a )+( a + a )=( a + a )+0


{ by left cancellation law}

( a + a )=0
a ,b

ii) Let

a +b = 0

and

a +b = a + a

{from i)

b= a

ii) Let
so

a ,b

R then

a +b

(a+ b)2 = a +b
( a +b). ( a +b) = ( a +b)

a + a . b + b. a + b = a +b

a . b + b. a = 0

2
+ a . b + b. a + b = a +b

{by cancellation law}

a . b = b. a

{from ii)}

R is commutative ring
Q .7

Define subring. Let < R, +, . > be a ring and S be a non-empty subset of R. Prove
that S is a subring iff
i) a
ii)

Proof

S, b

S, b

a b S

a b S

Subring
Let R be a ring and S be any non empty subset of R then S is called subring of R if
S, b

i>

ii>
iii>

S, b S

a +b

a b

S is also a ring for induced composition by R.

Proof of Statement Firstly let S be a subring of ring R.


a ,b S

Let

a ,-b

a + (- b) S

a b

{S is a ring
{S is closed

S is closed for multiplication so


a

S, b

a b S

Conversely - Let S be any non-empty subset of R and


a ,b S

a b

Then we have to prove that S is subring

S and a . b

Now
S,

a a

0 S
0 a
- a

and

S
S

S, - b S

and

a ( - b)

a +b S

S, b S

a - b S

Thus S is closed for addition and multiplication. S has identity element for addition.
Every element in S has its additive inverse in S and since S c R so S is commutative
for addition, associative for addition and hold distributive law.
Hence S is subring of R.
Q.8

Ans

Define subfield and Prime-field. Prove that the necessary and sufficient conditions
for a non-empty subset K of a field F to be a subfield are
K, b

i>

ii>

a K, 0 b

a b K

a b1

Subfield
Let F be a field and K be its non-empty set then K is called subfield of F if
i>

K, b K

a +b

ii>

a b

iii>

K, b

K
K

K is also a field for induced composition by F.

Prime Field If a field does not have any proper subfield then field is called prime field.
Proof of Theorem
Necessary condition
Let K be a subfield of field F.
Let a

K, b K

a + ( - b) K

a b

K, 0 b K

K, - b K {K is field}

{K is closed}

K, b1 K {K is field }

b1 K

{K is closed}

Sufficient condition
Let K be a non-empty subset of field F
a

and

K, b

a b

1
K, a b K.

then
a

K, a

a a

0 K

K, a

K
- a

K, - b K

[additive identity]

0 a

[additive inverse]

a - ( - b) K

a +b K

[closed for addition]

K, a

1 K

1.

K. a

K, b1 K

[multiplicative identity]

1. a1

[multiplicative inverse]

(b1 )1

a b

[closed for multiplication]

And K F so K is commutative, associative for addition, associative for


multiplication and hold distributive law.
Hence K is subfield.
Q .9

1
Prove that the set S = { a + 2

b+ 4

13

c / a , b, c Q} is a subfield of

R.
Ans

Let

S and y S

where

x=

a + 21

y=

1
d+ 2

1
b+ 4

1
e+ 4

a , b, c Q

c,

d, e, f Q

f,

then
1
x y = ( a + 2

1
b+ 4

1
= ( a d) + 2

1
c) (d + 2

1
(b e) + 4

a d, b e, c f

Now if x 0 then inverse of x is

1
x

1
e+ 4

(c f)
Q

f)

1
x

x1 =

13

13

1
1
a+2 b+4 1 c

a +4 b + 2.2 c 2 a b 2 b c4 a c
1
1
a3 +2 b3 + 4 c 33 a . 2 b+4 c

13

13

13

13

13

1 3

13

1 3

( a22 b c ) +21 ( 2 c 2a b ) + 4 1 (b2a c)


3

a +(2 b) +( 4 c) ( a ) (2 b) (2 b)(4 c) a( 4 c )
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
a +(2 b) +(4 c) a(2 b) (2 b)(4 c) a (4 c)

a3 +2 b3 +4 c 36 a b c

Now
x

S, y S

then x. y = (a d + 2 b f + 2 c e) + 2
+

41

13

(a e + b d + 2 c f)
S

(a f + b e + c d)

so we already proved that if y

x S,

Now
x

S, y S

y1

Hence S is a Subfield of R.
Q.10 Define i) Ring homomorphism
ii) Embedding of Ring
Ans.

Ring homomorphism
Let R and S be two ring and f be a function defined from R to S then f is called ring
homomorphism if

f (a +b) = f (a) + f(b)

f (a b) = f (a) f(b),

a, b R

Embedding of Ring
Let R and

'

be two ring then if there exist subring S of

monomorphic to R then R is embedded in

'

and

'

Let R be a ring and Z be a ring of integers.


Let

'

= Z R = {(m, a) / m Z, a R}

s. t . (m, a) + (n, b) = (m + n, a + b)
(m, a) (n, b) = (m n, n a + m b + a b)
where m, n Z, a, b R
Now we want to prove that
i)

R'

is a ring for these compositions.

Associative for addition


Let (p, a), (q, b), (r, c)
then

R'

[(p, a) + (q, b)] + (r, c) = (p + q, a +b) + (r, c)

= [(p + q) + r, (a + b) + c]
= (p + q + r, a +b + c)
= (p + (q + r), a + (b + c))
= (p, a) + [(q + r), (b +c)]
= (p, a) + [(q, b) + (r, c)]
ii) additive identity

such that S is

is Extension of R.

Q .11 Prove that every ring can be embedded in a ring with unity.
Ans

'

since
so
Now

0 Z and 0 R

'
(0, 0) R

Let (m, a) R

(0, 0) + (m, a) = (0 + m, 0 + a)
= (m, a)

(0, 0) is additive identity of

R .

iii)additive inverse
(m, a)

R'

m Z,

-m
(- m, - a)

Z,

-a

a R
R

Now
(m, a) + (- m, - a) = (m +(- m), a + (- a))
= (m m, a - a)
= (0, 0)
(- m, - a) is additive inverse of (m, a)
iv) commutative for addition
(m, a) + (n, b) = (m + n, a + b)
= (n + m, b + a)
= (n, b) + (m, a)
v)Associative for multiplication
[(p, a) (q, b)] (r, c) = (p q, q a + p b + a b) (r, c)
= [p q r, r (q a) + r (p b) + r (a b) + p g c + (q a + p b + a b) c] ---------(1)
(p, a ) [(q, b) (r, c)]

= (p, a) (q r, r b + q c + b c)
= (p (q r), (q r) a + p (r b + q c + b c) + a (r b + q c + b c))
= (p q r, r q a + r p b + p q c + p b c + r a b + q a c + a b c)--------------(2)
from (1) & (2)
[(p, a) (q, b)] (r, c) = (p, a) [(q, b) (r, c)]
vi)

Multiplicative identity
1

Z, 0

R'

R so (1, 0)
R'

Now let (m, a)

then (m, a) (1, 0) = (1. m, a. 1 + m. 0 + a. 0)


= (m, a)
(1, 0) is multiplicative identity
Hence

R'

is ring with unity

Let
S = {0} R = {(0, a) / a
R

Clearly S is a non-empty subset of


Now

Let

(0, a), (0, b)

then

(0, a) (0, b)

'

= (0, a) + (0, - b)
= (0, a - b)

and

R}

(0, a) (0, b) = (0.0, a. 0 + 0. b + a. b)


= (0, a b)

S is subring of

R' .

Let us define a mapping


:R S

s. t . (a) = (0, a),

a R

For homomorphism
(a + b) = (0, a + b)
= (0, a) + (0, b)
=

(a) + (b)

(a b) = (0, a b)

and

= (0, a) (0, b)
(a) (b)

is homomorphism
For one-one
Let

(a) = (b)

(0, a) = (0, b)
a=b

Thus.

is one-one

R'

has a subring S which is monomorphic to R so R is embedded in

R .

Q .12

Prove that the field < Q, +, > of rational numbers is a prime field.

Proof

We have to prove that field < Q, +, > of rational numbers is prime field. i.e. it has

no

any proper subfield. Let S be any subfield of Q.


then

S Q -------(1)
and 1 S

Now

1 S

1+1+1+-----m times = m

1+1+1-----n times = n
m
n

m
n

S
1
n

m S and

Q where m, n Z, n 0

m S and n

i.e.

1
n

m
n

S {S is subfield

m
n

Q S ------------(2)

from (1)

&

(2)

Q=S
S is not a proper subfield of Q
< Q, +, > is prime field.

Q .13

Field of quotient of an integral domain is the smallest field containing it.

Proof

Field of quotient
Let D be a integral domain with more than one element then (F, f) is called field of
quotient of D where F is a field and f is a monomorphism defined from D to F. Here

f ( x)
f ( y)

every element of a F can be represent as

where x, y D y 0.

Proof of statement
Let D be a integral domain and K be a field containing it.
Let

a, b

then

Let

D, b 0

1
a b K

a, b

D, b 0}

K 1 K . Now we have to prove that

K 1 is subfield of K and

where F is
quotient field of D.
Let x, y

K
D s. t .

a, b, c, d

b, d 0

1
1
x=a b ,y=c d

Now

1
1
xy= a b
-c d

1 1

=ad d b

-cb b d

1 1
= (a d c b) b d

(D is commutative

x y K1
Now

= (a b
1

= (a b

{ D K

{ K is a field

/ a, b

= {a b

K, b 0

(c d1)1

1 1
) [ (d )

K1

1
1
= (a b ) (d c )

1
1
= a ( b d) c

Hence

1 1
=ad( b c )

[D is commutative

1
= a d (c b)

a d, c b D

y1

K 1 is subfield of K.

Now we will prove that


F

K1

Let us define a mapping


K1 .

f: F

a
1
f( b )=a b

s. t .

For homomorphism
f

( ab + cd )

= f

( a db+cd b )

1
(a d + c b) (b d )

1 1
(a d + c b) ( d b )

=
=

1 1
1 1
ad d b
+cb d b

1
1
a b +c d

a
c
= f ( b )+f( d )

( ab . cd )

( ab dc )

=f

1
= (a c) (b d )

1 1
= (a c) ( d b )

1
1
= a (c d
) b

= (a b

) (c d

a
c
=f( b ).f( b )
f is homomorphism
For one-one
a
c
f( b ) = f( b )
a b1 = c d1
a b1

1
b= c d
b

a = c b d1
ad=cb
(a, b) = (c, d)
(a, b)

(c, d)

a
b

c
d

f is one-one.

For on - to
a
b

1
1
For each a b K

a
1
s. t . f ( b ) = a b
f is on to
1
F K

Hence
Now if

D is contained in a field K then F is also contained in K.

Hence, field of quotient of an integral domain is the smallest field containing it.

Unit-IV

Ideal and Vector Space


Q .1

Define ideal. Prove that if

I1

and

I2

a1

be two ideals of a ring R, then prove

that
I1

Ans

={

a1

containing both

I1

and

I2

a2

/
I2

I1

a2

Ideal
A non-empty subject I of a ring R is called ideal of R if

I2

} is an ideal

i>

I is a subgroup for addition operation induced by R.


a I, r R r. a I

ii>

and a. r

Proof of Theorem
Let

a1

x=

b1

and y =
a1

Now

b1

a2

I1

I1

b2

b2

a2

I2

a1

I1

b1

I1

b2

a2

I2

I1

I2

a1

b1

I1

I1

is ideal

a2

b2

I2

I2

is ideal

b2

I2

I2

Now
xy=(

a1

a2

)(

b1

=(

a1

b1

)+(

a2

I1

a1

r.
a1

and

a1

r(

a1
I1

I1

+r

a2

a2

I2

I2

I1

I, and r R,

I1

.r
a1

I1

I2

is a subgroup of R.

r R,

a
a
r R, x = 1 + 2

Now Let

Hence

I2

b2

and r.
a2

and

.r

I1

I1

is a ideal.

a2

I2
I2

a2

I2

.r+

a2

I2

I2
and
and (

a1
a1

a2

.r

) r

I1
I1

+
+

I2
I2

I1

Now we have to prove that


a1

Let

I1

I1

a2

similarly

Proof

I1

contains

a1

a1

I1
+0

I2

and
I1

both.
I2

I2

I2

I2

Theorem

I2

a2

I1

= 0+

a2

I1

I2

I2

Prove that a commutative ring with unity is a field if it has no proper ideal or if it
is a simple ring.
Let

R be a commutative ring with unity and it has no proper ideal.

Let Ra = {r a / r

R}, where a R

then this is an ideal.


But R is simple so
Ra = {0} or Ra = R
but

r=1

1. a = a

Ra

Ra {0}

Ra = R
For providing that R is a field we have to that R has multiplicative inverse of each of
its elements.
Since every element R can be expressed as ra where r
so for
1

R s. t .

R then since 1 R

xa=1

x= a R

every non-zero element has its inverse in R


R is a field

Q .2

Define Principal ideal and Principal ideal domain.


Prove that every ideal I in a ring Z of integers is a principal ideal or the ring Z of
integers is a principal ideal ring and principal ideal domain.

Proof

Principal ideal
An ideal I of a ring R is called principal ideal if it can be generate by a single element
i.e. if R has an element a s. t . I = [a].
Principal ideal domain
If every ideal of an integral domain is principal ideal then integral domain is called
principal ideal domain.
Proof of the theorem
Let
if

I be an ideal of Z then

I = {0} then

0 Z

s. t .

I = [0] then I is principal ideal


I {0} then

Let

if

I, m 0

m I -m

{ I is ideal

I has positive integer.

Let a be smallest integer of I and b be any other integer then by division algorithm
where 0 r < a

b=aq+r
Now a I, q

aq

{ I is ideal

I, a q

baq

r I

which is contradiction of being a smallest integer so r = 0

b=aq

so I = {a q / q Z}

I is a principal ideal

Z is a principal ring

since Z is commutative ring with unity


so Z is a principal integral domain.
Q .3

Define quotient ring. Prove that an ideal of a commutative ring R with unity is
prime iff

Ans

R
I

is an integral domain

Quotient ring Let R be a ring and I be its ideal. Since R is a ring so it is


commutative for addition. I is its a subgroup of R for addition so I is also
commutative subgroup of R. we know that every commutative subgroup is normal
subgroup so I is a normal subgroup of R. So we can define
R
I

= {I + a / a R} whose elements are cosets of I in R. This

R
I

is called

quotient ring.
Proof of the theorem
Let R be a commutative ring with unity and I be its prime ideal so

R
I

is also a

commutative ring with unity. Now we have to prove that

R
I

is an integral domain

for
this we will prove that R is without zero divisor.
Let I + a, I + b
s. .

R
I

(I + a) + (I + b) = I

I+ab=I
ab

a I or b

{ I is prime

I + a = I or I + b = I
R
I

Conversely

is without zero divisor.


R
I

Let

is an integral domain then we have to prove that I is a prime

ideal
of R.
Now since

so
Let

R
I

R
I

is an integral domain

is without zero divisor.

ab

I then we have to prove

either a I or b
Now

ab I

I+ab=I

Q .4

(I + a) ( I + b) = I

I + a = I or I + b = I

I is prime ideal.

R
I

is without zero divisor

b I

I or

State and prove fundamental Theorem of ring homomorphism.


or
Prove that every homomorphic image of a ring R is isomorphic to some Quotient
ring.

Ans

Let R be a ring and f (R) be its homomorphic image. K be Kernel of f then K be ideal of
R
K

R. So we can define
R
K

which is quotient ring of R. We have to prove that

f (R)

Let us define a mapping


R
K

:
s. .

f (R)

(K + a) = f (a)

a R

For well-defined
Let

a, b

K + a = K + b,

ab

'
f (a b) = 0

'
{ 0

is identity of f (R)}

f (a) f (b) = 0

f (a) = f (b)

'

(K + a) =

is well-defined

(K + b)

For homomorphism
[(K + a) + (K + b)] =

[K + (a + b)]

= f (a + b)
= f (a) + f (b)
(K + a) + (K + b)

and [(K + a) (K + b)] =

[K + a b]

= f (a b)
= f (a) f (b)
(K + a) (K + b)

is homomorphism

For one-one
Let

(K + a) =

(K + b)

f (a) = f (b)
f (a) f (b) = 0'

f (a - b) = 0'
ab K

Ka=Kb

is one-one

For on-to

For each

s. t .

K+a

R
K

(K + a) = f (a)

R
K

f (R)

Prove that an ideal I of a commutative ring R with unit is maximal iff the quotient
ring

Ans

f (R),

is on-to

Hence
Q.5

f (a)

Let

R
I

is a field.

R be a commutative ring with unity and I be its maximal ideal, then we have to

prove that

Since

R
I

is a field.

where I is zero and I + e is unity. element of


Now

R
I

R is a commutative ring with unity so

if

I+a

R
I . where e is unity of I.

I+0=I

a I

We know that [a] is an ideal of R.


so I + [a] is also an ideal of R.
then

is also commutative with unity.

a I I I + [a] R

but

I + [a] is maximal ideal so


I + [a] = R
R = {i + r. a / i

since e

R so
i1

e=

r1

I, r R}

i1

.a

er1

I,

r1

r1

e-

I+ e = I +

r1

I+ e = (I +

r1

) (I + a)

every element of

R
I

.a I

If I + a is multiplicative inverse of I +

R
I

i1

.a=

R s. .

r1

has its multiplicative inverse in

R
I

is a field.

Conversely Let I be an ideal of commutative ring with unity and

R
I

is a field.

Then we have to prove that I is maximal ideal.


Let N be any ideal of R s. t . I N R
and I N then we have to prove that N = R for providing I is maximal ideal of R.
Since

I N so
I+a I

N s. t . a I

R
I

I+a

Now

and

R
I

is a field so

I + a has its multiplicative inverse say I + b i.e.


(I +a). (I + b) = I + e
I+ab=I+e
eab

eab

I N

a. b N

N N=R

I is maximal ideal

Q .6

Define vector space.


Prove that the matrix set

V=

{ }
( a0 0b)

a,b R

is a vector space over the field R of real numbers with respect to

matrix addition and matrix scalar multiplication.


Ans

Vector Space
An algebraic structure (V, ) where V is non-empty set is called vector space over

field
(F, , ) if
I) (V, ) is abelian group
II) if

F,v V

then

v1 v2
v1 v2
where
) =

III)

v1

and
2)
IV) ( 1

( 2 v1 )

where
VI) 1

v1

v1

F and

v1

( 1 2)

v1

1 v 1 + 2 v 4

where
V)

v1

v2

v1

F and

where

1 is identity for multiplication in F.

Here elements of V are called vectors and elements of F are called scalar.
Proof
I

v1

Let

where

(
a1

a1 0
0 b1
,

a2

v2

b1

b2

a2 0
0 b2

then
v1

since

v2

( a1 + a2 ) ,

a1 + a2
0
0
b1 +b 2

( b1 +b 2 )

V is closed for addition.


We know that matrix addition is commutative and associative so V is commutative and
associative.

Now

Since 0

R so

(00 00)
(a0 0b)

(a0 0b)

is identity for addition in V

(a0 0b)

s. t .

(a0 0b)

And for each

(a0 b0 )

(a0 b0 )

V,

(00 00)

every element of V has its additive inverse.

Hence
II

(00 00)

(00 00)

Let

then

(V, +) is commutative group.


v

.v

(a0 0b)

and

(a0 0b)

(a0 b0 )

V is closed for scalar multiplication in R

III

( v 1+ v 2 )

[( ) ( ) ]

a1 0
a 0
+ 2
0 b1
0 b2

a1 +a 2
0
0
b1 +b2

a1+ a2
0
0
b1 + b2

( 1+ 2 )

a1 0
0 b1

) (

( )

a1 0
0 b1

v1

IV

( a1 +a2 )
0
0
( b 1+ b2 )

)
)

a2 0
0 b2

( )
a2 0
0 b2

v2

( 1+ 2 )

(a0 0b)

( 1+ 2 ) a

0
( 1+ 2 ) b

1 a+ 2 a
0
0
1 b+ 2 b

1a 0
0 1b

1 v + 2 v

) (

(a0 0b)

2a 0
0 2b

( )

a 0
+ 2 0 b

V>

VI>

( 1 2)

1. v

= 1

(a0 0b)

1 2

1 2 a 0
0 b

1( 2 v )

1 2 a
0
0
1 2 b

2 a 0
0 2 b

{ ( )}

(a0 0b)

(1.0.1a 0b)

(a0 0b)

= v

Hence V is a vector space.


Q .7

Let V be the set of all positive real numbers and R be the field of real numbers.
We define the following operations for any positive real numbers x and y
x y = x. y
and a x =

xa ,

R.

Then prove that V(R) is a vector space with and as vector addition
and scalar multiplication respectively.

Poof

i) Let

x, y

so x and y are real positive integer


so

x y = x. y is also a positive integer

i.e. x y

V is closed for vector addition.

ii> For commutative x, y

x y = x. y
= y. x
=y x
V is commutative for addition.
iii)

For associative
Let x, y, z V
then
(x y) z

= (x. y) z

= (x. y). z
=

x. (y. z)

= x (y z)
iv)

For additive identity


1 is a real positive number so 1 V.
Now

1 x=

1. x = x

= x. 1 = x 1

v)

1 is additive identity of V.

For inverse element


We know that if x is a real positive integer then

1
x

is also real positive

integer.
if

s. t .

1
x

= x.

1
x

=1

1
x

every element of V has its additive inverse.

Hence (V, ) is an abelian group.

let r

II

R and x

then r x =

xr

because we know that the value of a real power of real positive


number is again a real positive number.
Hence V is closed for scalar multiplication
III

(x y) =

(x . y )

x .

( x ) ( y )

(x. y)

( + ) x =

IV

x +

x .

( x )

( x)

V>

( x)

( x )

( x )

( . ) x

1 x =

VI>

( + ) x

= x

Hence V is a vector space over R.


Q .8

If (V,

) be a vector space over the field (F, +, ) and 0 be the zero vector

of V and 0 be the additive identity in F, then


0 = 0,

i>

ii> 0 v =
iii> ( ) v
Proof

i>

Since

v V

= - ( v ) ,

0 is zero element so

0 0 = 0

F, v V

ii>

( 0 )

0 = 0

0 v

(0 v )

(0 0)

( 0 ) = ( 0 )

( 0 ) =

( 0 )

(0 v )

(0 v )

(0 v )

0v

= 0

[ + ( ) ]

0v

( v )

[ ( ) v ]

( v )

( )

( )

iii>

Q .9

( 0 0 ) =

Now

( v )

(0 v )

( v )

is inverse of ( v ) for

( )

= - ( v )

Define Vector Subspace.


Prove that the necessary and sufficient conditions for a non-empty subset W of a
vector space V(F) to be a subspace of V are
i>

w1

ii>

W,

w2

F, w W

w1

w W

w2

Ans

Let (V, ) be a vector space over a field (F, +, ) and W

V then W is called

vector
subspace of V if
i> W is a vector space over F under the operation of V.
Proof of theorem
Let W (F) be vector subspace of V (F) then (W, ) is abelian group
and W is closed for scalar multiplication.
w1

so

and

W,

w2

w1

w1

F, w

w1

( w2

w2

W, -

w2

Sufficient condition
Let W V, w

and i> and ii> are satisfied then we have to prove that W is

vector subspace of V.
Now

W, w

ww

W has identity for addition

Now

w,

-w

0w
W

every element of W has its additive inverse.

w1

Now

w2

W,

w1

w1

- (-

w2

w1

w2

W, -

w2

W is closed for addition.

Now since W

V so every element of W is element V. And V is vector space so V is

commutative and associative. Thus W is commutative and associative.


Hence (W, ) is abelian group.
ii) condition says that W is closed for scalar multiplication.
Since W

V elements of W satisfies all postulats.

Hence W is itself a vector space over F

W (F) is vector subspace of V (F).

Q .10 Prove that the union of two subspaces


subspace iff either
Proof
W2

Let

W1

and

W1
W2

W2

or

W1

and

W2

of a vector space V is a

W1

W1
be two subspaces of V s. t . either

W1
then

W 1 W 2

W 1 W 2

is vector subspace of V.

Conversely

W2

W2

or

W 1 W 2

W1

W2

or

W 1 W 2

Let
W2

is vector subspace then we have to prove that

W1

W1
W1

Let

W2
w1 W 1

W2

W1

w2 W 2

W1

Now since

w1 W 1 W 2

and

w2 W 1

-------------------(2)

is a subspace so

w2 W 1 W 2

w2 W 2

w2 W 1 W 2

W2

w1

w1

------------------(1)

w1 W 1 W 2

w1 W 1

if

then

w2 W 1 W 2

but

W2

w1 W 1 W 2

if

w1

and

w2 W 1
w1

w2 W 1

+
and

w1 W 1

)-

w1 W 1

w2

w1

or

w1

w2 W 1 W 2

+
+

w2 W 2

- w1 W 1

w2 W 1

which is contradiction.
if

w1

+
(

w 2 w2
w1

and
w2

w2 W 2

) + (-

w2

- w2 W 2

W2

W2

or

w1 W 2

which is again contradiction


So our assumption is wrong.
W1

W2

W2

or

W1

Q . 11 Show that the set


W = {(x, y, z) / x 3y + 4z = 0, x y, z
space

V3

R} of 3 tuples is a subspace of the vector

(R).

W = {(x, y, z) / x 3y + 4z = 0 , x, y, z

Ans

V3

then we have to prove that W (R) is subspace of


Let

w1

=(

x1 , y1 , z1

w2

=(

x 2 , y 2 , z2

x 13 y 1+ 4 z 1

then
and

x 23 y 2+ 4 z 2

Let

, , R

then

w1

w2

=
z2

(
-

4 z1

y1

(R).

) +
,

z1

(
)+

x 2 , y 2 , z2

3 y2

4 z2

y2

y2

)
3 y1
4 z1
y1
z1
3 y2
4 z2
= ( ,
,
)+( (
),

z2

R}

3 y 24 z2

x1 , y1 , z1

= {(x, y, z) / x, y, z

3 y 14 z 1

x2

=0

3 y1

x1

=0

V3

R} and

3 y1
4 z1
= ( +
z2

3 y2

4 z2

),

y1

y2

z1

)
=

(3 ( y 1+ y 2 )4 ( z 1 + z 2 ) , y 1 + y 2 , z 1+ z 2)

Now

y + y 2) 4 ( z 1 + z 2 )3 ( y 1+ y 2 ) +4 ( z 1+ z 2 )
3 ( 1

3 y 1 +3 y 24 z 14 z 23 y 13 y 2 +4 z 1+ 4 z 2
=0

Thus

w1+ w 2

W is vector subspace.
v1

Q .12 If V(F) is a vector space over the field F .


show that the set S = {
Ans

and

v 1+ v 2 / , F v 1

v2 V

V (F) is a vector space over F.


v 1+ v 2 / , F , v 1

S= {

v2 V

then we have to prove that S is a vector subspace of V.


Let

x, y

x=

1 v1 + 1 v2

, where

y=

2 v1 + 2 v 2

, where

Let
then

S then

, , F

x+ y

1 v 1 + 1 v 2+ ( 2 v 1 + 2 v 2)

v2

are fixed elements of V,


} is a subspace of V.

=(
here

, , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 F

a field so
and
from

v 1 +

1+ 2

v2

and F is

1+ 2

1+ 2

v 1 +

1+ 2
x+ y

(1)
(

1+ 2

1 + 2

S is a subspace of V over F.

v2

-------------------(1)

Unit V
Vector Space and Subspace
Q.1

Define Linear Combination of vectors. In vector space


- 2, 5) as a linear combination of the given vectors
v3

Ans

v1

V3

(R) express v

= (2, -1, 1),

= (1, 1, 1)

Linear Combination
Let V be a vector space over the field F. then if any element v V
v

1 v1

2 v2

+------+

1, 2, 3

-------

n F

where

v1 , v2

and

then

v1 , v2

of

vn

n vn

------

vn

= (1, - 2, 5)

is linear combination of
v

------

can be written as

is called linear combination

v1

Let

1 v1

(1, - 2, 5) =
=(

v2

= (1, 2, 3),

= (1,

v1 , v2 , v3

2 v2

(1, 2, 3) +

+2

3 v3

if
1, 2, 3 F

(2, - 1, 1) +

,2

3
+

------------------(1)

(-1, 1, 1)
3

,3

+2

= 1---------------------------(2)

= -2-------------------(3)

= 5 -----------------(4)

(1) - (2)

+3

= 3 ------------(5)

(2) - (3)

(5) - (6)

-2

= 10

from (5)

=3

from (2)

=-6

using values of
v

=3

v1

= - 7 -------------(6)

=2

in (1) , we get

+2

v2

-6

v3

which is Linear Combination of v .


Q.2

For which value of k will the vector


u = (5, k,7)
u2

Ans.

Let

V3

= (3, 2, 1).

(R), is a linear combination of

u1

= (1, -5, 3) and

u=

u1

u2

(5, k,7) =

---------(1)

(1, -5, 3) +

(3, 2, 1)

= ( , -5 , 3 ) + (3 , 2 ,

= ( +3 , -5 +2 , 3 + )

(5, k,7 )

+3

- 5 +2

= 5 ---------(2)
= k --------------(3)

3 + = 7 ------------------(4)
(2) - (3) (4)

from

-8

= - 16

=2

from (1)

=1

using values of

and

in (3)

- 10 + 2 = k

Q.3

k=-8

u is linear combination of

u1

and

u2

for k = - 8.

Define Linear span. Show that the following vectors span the vector space
u1

= (1, 2, 3),

Linear Span

u2

= (0, 1, 2),

u3

= (0,0,1)

V3

(R)

Ans.

v1

Let V (F) be a vector space over F and S = {

v2

-----

vn

} be its non-empty

subset then
collection of all possible linear combination of finite elements of S is called
linear Span L (S).
i.e.

n
i v i / i F , i=1, 2n
i=1

L (S) =

This is also called space generated by S.


Now we have to prove that L (S) =
where

u1

S={
u1

u2

= (1, 2, 3),

u2
V3

(x, y, z)

Let

u3

V3

(R)

}
u3

= (0, 1, 2),

= (0, 0, 1)

(R)

then
u1

(x, y, z) =
=

(1, 2, 3) +

=( ,2

(0, 1, 2) +

=x

3 +2

u2

+ , 3 +2

=y
+ =z

This is echelon.

u3

(0, 0, 1)
+

=x

= y 2x

= z 3x 2y

u1

u2

u3

V3

span

(R)

Q .4 Define Linear dependence and Linear independence of vectors in vector space.


Ans

Linear dependence
Let V be a vector space over the field F and S = {

v1

v2

-----

v1

v2

-----

vn

} be any subset

of V
then S is called linear dependent if there exist
1 v 1 + 2 v 2+

------+

vn

not all zero s. t .

=0

Linear independence
Let V be a vector space over the field F and S = {

------

vn

} be any subset

of V
then S is called linear independent if
1 v 1 + 2 v 2+

Th .1

------+
=

The set of non-zero vectors


dependent iff some
ones.

vK

v1

vn

------ =

v2

=0
n

=0

------

vn

of a vector space V(F) is linearly

, 2 K n is a linear combination of the preceding

Proof

Firstly let

v1

v2

------

vn

} is linearly dependent. Let K be the first integer

for which
v1

v2

where
vK

vK

vK

is linear dependent

1 v 1 + 2 v 2

i.e.

------

+-------+

vK

=0

2
K

v2

=-

1
K

v1

+-

+------+ -

K1
K

v K1

is linear combination of its preceding

Conversely-

Let any vector

vK

be linear combination of its preceding ones.

i.e.
vK

1 v 1 + 2 v 2

1 v 1 +

------+

+------+
K 1

K 1
v K1

v K1
+ (-1)

vK

=0

there exist one coefficient (-1) which is not zero so{

v1

v2

-----

vK

is linearly dependent.
1 v 1 +

vK

K 1

v K1

+------+

vn

=0

Since all coefficient are not zero so


{

Th

------+ (-1)

v1

v2

------

vn

} is linearly dependent.

If V (F) is a vector space and S = {

v1

v2

-----

vn

} is a subset of some non-zero

vectors of V, then S is L.D. iff some of elements of S can be expressed as a linear


combination of the others.

Proof
------

Firstly let us assume S = {

v1

v2

------

vn

} is L.D. so there exist

n
not all zero s. t .

1 v 1 + 2 v 2

Let

vK

vK

vK

vK

then

since coefficient of
v1

n
i

=
i=1 i K K

=0

vK

v2

S which is linear combination of others i.e.

1 v1 + 2 v 2 +

1 v1 +

-----

------+
vK
vn

------+
K 1 v K1

K 1 v K1 + K +1 v K+1 +
+ (-1)

vK

------+

K +1 v K +1

n vn

+------+

n vn

=0

is not zero
} is linearly dependent.

Prove that the four vectors

(1,1,1) in

n
i v i = 0

=0=
i=1

is linear combination of others

Conversely let

Q .5

vn

n
n
i v i + K v K
i v i =

i=1
i=1 i K

so {

+-------+

v1

= (1, 0, 0)

v2

= (0, 1, 0)

v3

= (0, 0, 1) and

v4

V 3 (C) form a L.D. set but any three of them are L.I.
Ans.

, , , C

Let

v 1+ v 2 + v 3 + v 4

s. t .
=0

(1, 0, 0) +

(0, 1, 0) +

(0, 0, 1) +

(1,1,1) = (0, 0, 0)

( + , + , + ) = (0, 0, 0)

=-

=-1

then

v 1+ v 2 + v 3 + v 4

=0

Let

v1

so

v2

v3

v4

= 1,

= 1,

= 1 s. t .

are L.D.

Now let
v 1+ v 2 + v 3

( , , ) = (0, 0, 0)

Q .6

=0

v1

(1, 0, 0) +

= 0,

v2

v3

(0, 1, 0) +

= 0,

(0, 0, 1) = (0, 0, 0)

=0

are L.I.

Define Basis and dimension of a vector space.


Prove that set S = {(1, 2, 1), (2, 1, 0) (1, -1, 2)} form a basis of

Ans

V3

(R).

Basis
Let V (F) be a vector space then a subset S of vectors of V is called basis of V if

i> S is Linearly independent


ii> S span V(F)
DimensionNumber of elements in the basis of a vector space V (F) is called dimension of V.
It is denoted by
dim V
Now Let S = {(1, 2, 1), (2, 1, 0), (1, -1, 2)}
then we have to prove that S is basis of V. For this we will prove that
V3

S is Li I and S pan
Since

Let

cV 3

(R)

(1, 2, 1) +

(2, 1, 0) +

(1, -1, 2) = (0, 0, 0)

( + 2 + ,2 + , +2 ) = (0, 0, 0)

+ 2 +
2 +

=0
=0

=-

S is L.I

Now let

=0

+2

then

(F).

= 0,

=-

=0

= 0,

=0

V3
( , , )
(R)

( , , ) =

(1, 0, 0) +

(0, 1, 0) +

(0, 0, 1)

(1, 0, 0) = a (1, 2, 1) + b (2, 1, 0) + c (1, -1, 2)

(1, 0, 0) = (a + 2b +c, 2a + b c, a + 2c)

a + 2b + c = 1
2a + b c = 0
a + 2c = 0

a= -

2
9 ,b=

similarly (0, 1, 0) =

(0, 0, 1) =
so

Th.3
Proof

4
9

1
3

5
9 ,c=

(1, 2, 1) -

(1, 2, 1) -

1
3

1
9
1
9

2
9

(2, 1, 0) -

(2, 1, 0) +

1
3

(1, -2, 2)

(1, -1, 2)

( , , ) can be expressed as linear combination of vectors of S.


S is basis of

V3

(R)

Prove that every finite dimensional vector space has a basis.


Let V (F) be a finite dimensional vector space and S = {

v1

v2

----

vn

finite
subset of V s. t . L(S) = V.
Now either S is L.I or L.D.
If S is L.I then S is basis but if S is L.D. then there exist a vector
in such a way that it can be written as linear combination of its
previous vectors.
Now we exclude

vi

from S then

vi

} be a

vi

S{
S'

'
}= S

'
also generate V i.e. L ( S ) = V

let

V then

=
vi

but
v

= (

1 v1
=

1 v1

1 v1

1+ 1 1

2 v2

v1

i1 v i1

1 v1

+------+ (

i+1 v i+1

i1

+ -----+

is linear combination of vectors

v2

v1
Thus
Now
aj

-----

v i1 , v i+1

n vn

+-------+

+------+

+------+

has (n - 1) elements

------

+------+
+

i1 v i1

i i1

) +------+

n vn

v i1

n vn

vn

'
L( S )=V
'
if S

'
is L.I then S

is basis but if it is L.D. then there exist an element

which is linear combination of its previous vectors.


Excluding this from S

'

we get a new set S

''

of n 2 elements.

Repeating this process we can get a subset of S which is L.I and generate V.
Morever we get a subset of S which has a single element and this is not zero
element so this is L.I. and this span V.
so this is basis of V.

Th.4

If W is a subspace of a finite dimensional vector space V (F) then

i> dim W dim V


ii> W = V
Proof

dim V = dim W.

Let dim V = n and W be any subspace of V.


Since dim V = n so any set of (n +1) elements or more than (n +1) elements
is L.D. so if let S = {

v1

v2

-----

vm

} be greatest set of L.I. vectors where m

n.
Now we want to prove that S is basis of W. S is L.I. Since W is greatest L.I. set so
v , v 1 , v 2 ----- v m

v
v1

W is linear combination of
v2

-----

vm

L (S) = W

dim W = m where m n

ii>

is L.D.

dim W dim V
if W= V then W is subspace of V and V is subspace of W so
dim W dim V and dim V dim W

Th.5

dim V = dim W

If S and T are finite-dimensional subspace of a vector space, then


dim S + dim T = dim (S+T) + dim (S T).

Let dim (S T) = K

Proof

and W = {

1, 2

-----

} is basis of S T.

then W

S and W

Since W

S and W is L.I so W can be extended to basis of S let

1, 2

-----

T.

-----

be basis of S then dim S = m + K


Similarly W T and W is L.I so W can be extended to basis of S let
{

1, 2

,--- ---- K 1 ----- n } be basis of T then dim T = K + n

dim S + dim T dim (S T) =

Now

= (m + K) + (n + k) K
=m+n+K
Combining basis of S and T we get a
W1

set

={

1, 2

---

----

----

Now we will prove that this is basis of (S+T). For this we will prove that
W1

is L.I and L(

C 1 1+ C 2 2

Let

+------+

b1 1 +

n
bi i
i=1

-----+

W1

) = S+T.

CK K

bn n

=0

a1 1

+-----+

K
m
C

i i
= ai i
i=1
i=1

am

-----------------(1)

K
m
C

i
i
ai i
i=1
i=1

Now

n
bi i
i=1

and

n
bi i
i=1

{using (1)

n
bi i S T
i=1

n
bi i
i=1

so

K
d
= i i
i=1

b1 1 +b 2 2

but {

1, 2

b1

+-----+
n

-----

b1

----

bn

= ------- =

bn n

d1

d 1 1

b2

----- =

bn

+------+

CK K

a1 1

=0

} is L.I. so
d2

dK R

-----

= ------- =

dk

=0

=0

=0

using this in (1)


C 1 1+ C 2 2

so

Since {
C1

C2

= -----

----CK

a1

+-----+

, -----

a2

am

} is L.I

= ------- =

am

=0

1,

Hence {

Let

-----

K ,

-----

-----

} is L.I.

S + T then

= any element of S + any element of T

= linear combination of elements of basis


of S + linear combination of elements
of basis of T

but L (

= linear combination of elements of


W1

L(

S+T

W1

L(

W1

W1

L(

W1

S+T

)=S+T

thus dim (S + T) = K + m + n
Hence
dim S + dim T = dim (S + T) + dim (S T).

Th .6 A vector space V(F) of dimension n is isomorphic to


Proof

Let {
v

v1

v2

-----

1 v 1 + 2 v 2+

Let us define a mapping


f: V F

s. t .

vn

} be basis of V (F) then v

------+

n vn

where

i F

V can be expressed as

f ( v ) = ( 1 2 ----- n )
For homomorphism
Let u, v

n
u = ai v i , v
i=1

V then

f ( u + v ) = f

= f

n
n
ai v i+ i v i
i=1
i=1

n
( ai + i) v i
i=1

= (

a1 + 1

= (

a1 , a2

-----

a2 + 2
an

,-----

)+(

an + n

,-----

( a1 , a2 ----- an ) + ( 1 ,

n
n
a
v
+

i i
i vi
i=1
i=1
f (u) + f ( v )

For one-one
Let f (u) = f ( v )

f is homomorphic

n
= i v i
i=1

( )
n
ai v i
i=1

= f

( )
n
i vi
i=1

)
n

-----

a1 , a2

ai

n
ai v i
i=1

u= v

an

-----

) = (

1,

-----

n
i v i
i=1

f is one - one

For on-to

Since for (
v

then

a1 , a2

-----

an

n
) F

V s. .

a ,a
a
f ( v ) = ( 1 2 ----- n )

f is on-to

Hence f is isomorphism.

Th.7

Prove that if W (F) is any subspace of a vector space V (F), then the set
cosets W + v , v

v1

v2

) + (W +

)=W+(

v1

(W + v ) = W + v

Proof

We will prove that

of all

being an arbitrary element of V, is a vector space over the field F

for the addition and scalar multiplication compositions defined as follows


(W +

V
W

V
W

is vector space

v2

v , v1 , v2 V

i> Commutative for addition


(W + u) + (W + v ) = W + (u + v )
=W+( v

+ u)

{V is commutative

= (W + v ) + (W + v )
ii> Associative for addition
(W +u) +

[ ( W + v )+(W + w)]

= (W + u) + [W + ( v
= [W + (u + ( v

+ w)]

+ w))]

= W + (u + v ) + w
= (W + u + v ) + (W + w)
= [(W + u) + (W + v )] + (W + w)
iii> additive identity
0
Now

V so W + 0

V
W

(W + v ) + (W + 0)

= W+( v

+ 0) = W + v

W + 0 i.e. W is additive identity.


iv> additive inverse
v

-v

W + (- v )

Now
(W + v ) + (W + (- v )) = W + [ v
=W+0

+ (- v )]

V
W

additive inverse of W + v

V
( W

is W + (- v ) in

V
W

,+) is abelian group.

Now
i>

[(W + u) + (W + v )] =

[W + (u + v )]

= W+

(u + v )

= W+( u+ v )
= (W + u) + (W + v )
=
ii>

( + ) (W +u)

(W + u) +

(W + v )

= W + ( + ) u
= W + ( u + u)

iii>

( ) (W + u)

(W + u) + (W + u)

(W + u) +

= W+
=

(W +

(W + u)

u
u) =

(W + u)]

iv) 1. (W + u) = W + 1.u = W + u
Hence

Th.8

V
W

is a vector space. This is called quotient space.

If W (F) is a subspace of finite dimensional vector space V (F), then the quotient space

V
( W ) is also a finite dimensional and dim
Proof

V
W

= dim V dim W.

Since W (F) is a subspace of finite dimension so let dim W = n with


basis {

w1

w2

-----

wn

} since W is subspace of V so it can extened to basis of

w1

w2

-----

wn

V
v1

v2

vm

-----

dim V = n + m
so

any v
v

V can be expressed as
1w1

W+ v

vm

n wn

1 w 1+ 2 w 2

= W+(

1 v1

+-----+

+----+

n wn

= W+(

1w1

+-----+

n wn

)+W+(

= W+(

1 v1

+-----+

m vm

v1

+-----+

(W +

every element of

V
W

)+

(W +

v2

m vm
1 v1

+
1 v1

) +-----+

+-----+

+-----+

m vm

m vm

(W +

vm

can be expressed as linear combination of {W+

}
Now we will prove that this is L.I.
1

Let

(W+
W+(

v1

)+

1 v 1 + 2 v 2

1 v 1 + 2 v 2

(W+
+-----+

+-----+

v2

) +-------+

m vm

m vm

)=W
W

(W+

vm

)=W

)
v1

,-----W+

1 v 1 +

------+

m vm

1w1

1w1

+------+

n wn

+ (-

= ------ =

+
)

2w2

v 1 +

= ------ =

+-----+

------+ (-

= ------ =

=0

{W + v 1 , W + v 2 ,------W + v m } is L.I.

Hence

{W +

v1

dim

,W+

V
M

v2

+------ W +

vm

} is basis of

= m

= (m + n) n
dim

V
M

vm

=0

w
w
v
v
{ { 1 ----- n , 1 ----- m

n wn

= dim V dim W

********************

V
M

is L.I.}

=0