Optimization
(B.Sc)
Megha Sharma
Lecturer
Deptt. of Science
Biyani Girls College, Jaipur
Published by :
Think Tanks
Biyani Group of Colleges
Edition: 2015
Price:
Preface
the students. The book has been written keeping in mind the general weakness in
understanding the fundamental concepts of the topics. The book is selfexplanatory and adopts the Teach Yourself style. It is based on questionanswer
pattern. The language of book is quite easy and understandable based on
scientific approach.
Any further improvement in the contents of the book by making corrections,
omission and inclusion is keen to be achieved based on suggestions from the
readers for which the author shall be obliged.
I acknowledge special thanks to Mr. Rajeev Biyani, Chairman & Dr. Sanjay
Biyani, Director (Acad.) Biyani Group of Colleges, who are the backbones and
main concept provider and also have been constant source of motivation
throughout this Endeavour. They played an active role in coordinating the various
stages of this Endeavour and spearheaded the publishing work.
I look forward to receiving valuable suggestions from professors of various
educational institutions, other faculty members and students for improvement of
the quality of the book. The reader may feel free to send in their comments and
suggestions to the under mentioned address.
Author
Linear
Programming
The
word
'linear'
implies
'proportional'
i.e.
stated as follows :
BXB =b or XB = B1 b
Thus a solution in which the vectors associated to m variables (basic) are L.I.
and the remaining (nm) variables (non basic) are zero, is called a basic
solution
The number of the Basic solution will be at the most
ncm
n!
m! ( nm ) !
Convex Set
Convex combination
The convex combination of a finite number of points x 1, x2 ......., xn is defined
as a point
X= 1x1 + 2 x2 + .......+ n xn
Where i is real and O i and
i =
the convex combination
i =1
of two points x1 and x2 is given by
X= 1x1 + 2 x2 ; 2 x2 ; 1, 2 O and 1 + 2=
It can also be written as
X = X1+(1) X2; O
This show that the segment of the two points X 1 and X2 is the set of all
possible convex combinations of the two points X1 and X2
Convex Polyhedron :
Definition : The set of all convex combinations of a finite number of points
is called the convex polyhedron spanned by these points.
Example The set of all the points of the area of a triangle is a convex
polyhedron generated by its vertices. The vertices are also the extreme
points.
Simplex : Definition :
An n dimensional convex polyhedron having exactly (n+1) vertices is called
a Simplex.
Example A point is a simplex in zero dimension . A line is a simplex in one
dimension.
Slace and surplus variables :
We know that the constraints of a linear programming problem (L.P.P.) may
involve any of the three sign , =, . In case the constraints are inequalities
they can be changed to equations by adding or subtracting the left hand side
of each such constraint by nonnegative variables. These new variables, if
they are Added, are called slace variables and in case when they are
subtracted, they are called Surplus variables.
Example  If we have the constraints
21 32 7
51 + 2 5
Now we can changed them into the form of equations by introducing
two new
Q.1
Old hens can be bought at Rs. 2 each and young ones at Rs. 5
each. The old hens lay 3 eggs per week and young ones lay 5
eggs per week, each egg being worth 30 paisa. A hen costs Rs.
1 per week to be fed there are only 80 available to spend on
purchasing the hens and it is not possible to house more than
20 hens at a time. Formulate the lineur programming problem
and solve it by the graphical method to find how many of each
kind of hens should be bought in order to have a maximum
profit per week.
Sol.
Cost
Productio
Fed
Max. quantity
Max.
of
n of egg
Expenditu
of
space
re
expenditure
1 Rs.
1 Rs.
80 Rs.
each
hens
Old
2 Rs.
Young 5 Rs.
cost
30
of
each
paisa
3
5
available
20
egg
Let the person buy 1 young hens and 2 old hens.
Then total cost 2 1 + 52
Since only 80 Rs. available to spend on purchasing the hens therefore
constrained
21 +52 80
again house available 20 for hens at a time. therefore const. 1 + 2 20
and 10 ,
2 0
.30
100
30
100
.30
x 3 1 + 100
x 51 ( 1+ 2)
Z = .11 + .52
Hence the mathematical formulation of the given L.P.P. is as follows
Max. Z =  .1 1+.5 2 (objective function)
subject to 21 +5280 (constraints
1+ 220
1, 220
and 1, 20
graphical solution
2 1 +5 2 =80 or
x1
40
x2
16
=1  (1)
1+ 2 =20 or
x1
20
x2
20
=1  (2)
1=0 (3)
2 = 0 (4)
Rs.
20
3 ,
40
3 ) ; C (0,16)
2
B (20/3, 40/3)
Z =0.1 X 20/3+0.5X40/3 = 6
C (0, 16)
Z = 0.1X0+ 0.5X16 =8
0 (0,0)
Z = 0.1X0 +0.5X0 =0
Z= 1+ 2
2 1+ 2 12
5 1 + 8 274
1+6 2 24
and 1 , x2 0
graphical solution :
21+ 2 = 12 or
51+ 82 = 74 or
1+ 62 = 24 or
x1
x2
+
6
12 =1
x1
x2
14.8 + 9.25 =1 
x1
x2
+
24
4 =1
(1)
(2)
(3)
1 = 0 (4) 2 = 0
First we draw these lines in two dimensional space. Now on considering
the solution space for each of given inequalities we obtained their
common solution space is the unbounded shaded area ABCD as its
corner points. From diagram we find that corner points are
A (24,0) ; B (
126
23
,
12
11 ); C (2,8) ; D (0,12)
at A (24,0)
126 23
at B ( 12 , 11 )
Z= 24+0 =24
126
23
Z = 12 + 11
at C (2,8)
Z= 2+8 =10
at D (0,12)
Z = 0+12 =12
= 13.5
Therefore the optimal solution of given problem is 1=2, 2=8 and minz
=10
It means the patient should take 2 pills of A size and 8 pills of B size for
immediate relief.
Q.3
21+42 300
morevoer the voltage stablizer which is required for item B is restricted
to 65, So
we have
2 65
Hence the given problem is to find 1 and 2 , which minimize
Z= 201 +30 2
x1
x2
70 + 105
= 1 (1)
21 +4 2 = 300 or
x1
x2
150 + 75
= 1 (2)
2 =65 (3)
1 =0 (4)
2 =0 (5)
on considering the solution space for each constraint, we find that the shaded
area OABCD in their common solution space.
Further we find that the vertices of this polygon OABCD are
0 (0,0); A (70,0); B(30,60); C (20,65); D (0,65)
The value of the objective function at these corner points are given by
at A (70,0)
Z= 20 70+30 0 = 1400
at B (30,60)
at C (20,65)
at D (0,65)
Z= 20 0+30 65 = 1950
=30 and
to Rs. 2400.
LPP.
How
many
units
of
each
product
should
be
Resources
Products
P1
2
2
4
2
A
B
C
Profit per Unit
Available Units
P2
4
2
0
3
10
12
16
Mathematical formulation
Let
be
= 2 x +3y
Since one unit of the first product P 1 requires 2,2 and 4 units, one unit of
the
and
the
respectively so
we have the
following constraints
2 x +4y 20 or
x +2y 10
2 x +2y 12 or
x +y 6
4 x +0y 16 or
and
x 4
 (1)
 (2)
 (3)
x 0 , y 0
maximize
subject to
x +2y 10
x +y 6
x 4
and
(constraints)
x 0, and
y 0,
x +y = 6;
= 4;
= 0; y =0
that the feasible region, i.e. their common solution space is given
by the shaded
of the vertices of the area OABCD. coordinates of the four vertices are :
A(4,0) ; B(4,2); C(2,4) ; D(0,5)
So we find that
at A
Z= 24+30
=8
at B
Z= 24+32
=14
at C
Z= 22+34
=16
at D
Z= 20+35
=15
method .
Max f( x ) = 2 x
2 x
S.t.
x
x
2 x
, x
+3 x
+3 x
 x
+6 x
7 x
, x
, x
+4 x
+4 x
4
+7 x
=8
= 3
Sol. Since we know that objective function attains its optimal value at one of
the extreme point and extreme points correspond to basic feasible
solutions. Therefore first we find all basic feasible solutions and then we
shall decide which of them gives the optimal solution.
The given system of equation can be expressed as
11 +22+33+44=b
Where 1=
4 =
(74 )
(21) ; = (23 )
2
and b=
; 3=
(16)
(38 )
XB1 =
[ ]
= B11b =
1
7
XB2 =
[ ]
x1
x3
1
= B21b = 13
XB3 =
( xx 14)
1
= B3 b = 18
XB4 =
( xx 32)
1
= B41b = 16
[ ] [ ] [
XB5 =
[ ]
x2
x4
1
= B51b = 13
XB6 =
[ ]
1
= B61b = 18
x1
x2
x3
x4
1
2 3
1 2
6 1
1 2
] [ ] []
8
3
1
2
] [ ] [
8
3
45/13
14 / 13
][ ] [ ]
7 4 8
1 2 3
6 1
2 3
8
3
22 /19
7 /9
45/16
7/16
] [ ] [
44 /13
7 /13
] [ ] [
7 4
2
3
7 4
6 1
8
3
8
3
44 /17
45/17
out of these six basic solution X B2, XB5 do not satisfy the nonnegative
restriction and hence they will not give the basic feasible solutions.
Thus basic feasible solutions are
X1= (1,2,0,0); X2 = (22/9,0,0, 7/9 );
f(X2) = 2
93
9
45
7
f(X3) = 20+3 16 +4 16 + 70=
163
16
44
45
f(X4) = 20+30+4 17 + 7 17 =
491
17
Since f(X4) gives the maximum value an optimal solution to the given
L.P.P.
x
=0,
=0,
44
= 17
45
17
491
17
Q. 6
, x
+5 x
+2 x
x
+3 x
15
10
Sol. First we write problem in standard form for simplex method by adding
x
3 x
+3 x
+5 x
and
0. x
+1. x
+ 0. x
+0. x
=15
5 x
and
+2 x
+0. x
+1. x
=10
x j 0, j=1,2,3,4
[ ]
3510
5201
A=
= ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 )
CB
O
B
3
XB
x
3
4
Cj
b
15
5
y1
3
3
y2
5
0
y3
1
0
y4
0
10
ZjCj
0
5 3
0
Since Z1C1, =5 is the most negative so 1 is the entering vector also
{ xyiBi1 , Yi 10}
min
= Min
{154 , 105 }
10
5 =
x B2
y 21
y21, i.e. , 5 is the key element and the departing vector is 2, i.e.
second vector of the
basic which is 4
Now using the usual transformations we obtain the next simplex table
as follows :
Second simplex table
CB
0
B
3
XB
x
Zj
Cj
3
1
Cj
b
9
5
y1
0
3
y2
19/5
0
y3
1
0
y4
3/5
2/5
1/5
1
min
x Bi
, Yi 20
yi 2
= Min
45 10
,
19 2
45
19 =
x B1
y 12
the key element is y12 = 19/5 and the departing vector is 1, i.e., first
vector of
B
2
XB
x
2
1
ZjCj
Cj
b
45/19
5
y1
0
3
y2
1
0
y5
5/19
0
y6
3/19
20/19
2/19
5/19
5/19
16/1
9
45
2 = 19 ,
20
19
1=
=0,
20
= 19 ,
45
= 19
20
And the maximum Z = 5 19
45
+ 3 19
St.
x
+4 x
+5 x
+2 x
+2 x
+7 x
+4 x
100
100
235
19
=0
+ x
and
+3 x
, x
100
, x
Sol. First we convert the problem in its standard form of simplex method by
adding
new form is
Max Z =
2 x
+5 x
+7 x
+0. x
+0. x
+0. x
3 x
+2 x
+4 x
+1. x
+0. x
+0. x
+4 x
+1. x
+2 x
+3 x
+0. x
+1. x
+0. x
+2 x
+0. x
+0. x
=100
=100
+1. x
=100
x j 0, j = 1,2,3,4,5,6
and
A=
3 2 41 0 0
1 4 20 1 0
1 1 30 0 1
= (1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5, 6 )
as follows :
XB
B
0
4
5
6
Cj
b
2
5
7
y1 y2 y3
0
y4
0
y5
0
y6
100
100
100
5
7
Zj Cj 2
Since Z3C3 =7 is the most negative, So 3 is the entering vector. Also
we find
that min
min
100
4 =
x B1
y 13
which occurs in the first row so i.e 4 is the departing vector and 4 is
the key
element.
as follows.
CB
Cj
b
XB
3
5
6
5
y2
7
y3
0
y4
0
y5
0
y
25
3/4
1/2
1/4
6
0
50
1/2
1/2
25
5/4
1/2
3/4
13/4
3/2
7/4
Zj Cj
2
y1
The B.F.S. given by second simplex table is not optimal so we proceed for a
new improved B.F.S. For preparing next simplex table we observe that 2 is
the entering vector, 5 is the departing vector and 3 is the key element. The
next table is as follows :
Third Simplex Table
CB
7
B
3
XB
x
3
2
Cj
b
50/3
2
y1
5/6
5
y2
0
7
y3
1
0
y4
1/3
0
y5
1/6
0
y6
0
50/3
1/6
1/6
1/3
100/3
Zj Cj
4/3
5/6
1/6
3/2
1/2
Since all the value of ZjCj 0 So the solution given by this table is optimal
x
and it is given by
=0,
=50/3,
=50/3,
=0,
=0,
=100/3
Hence for the original problem the optimal
50
2 =,
3 ,
50
3
solution is
=0,
50
3=
3
50
3 =200
+7
=3 x
S.t.
3 x
2 x
+4 x
12
4 x
+3 x
+8 x
and
 x
+3 x
+2 x
10
or
+3 x
2 x
+3 x
2 x
where Z =Z1
= 
+3 x
2 x
+0. x
+0. x
+0. x
3 x
 x
+3 x
+1.
+0. x
2 x
+4 x
+0. x
+0.
4 x
+3 x
+8. x
+0.
+0. x
+0. x
+0. x
=7
+1. x
+0.
+0. x
+1.
=12
4
=10
and xj0, j = 1,2,3,4,5,6
for this, system of constraints is
A=
3 1 3 1 0 0
2 4 0 0 1 0
4 3 8 0 0 1
(1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5, 6 )
follows.
B
0
XB
x
Cj
b
2
y1
5
y2
7
y3
0
y4
0
y5
0
y6
1
3
2
4
12
10
4
Zj Cj
{ xyiBi2 , Yi 20}
=min
{124 , 103 }
12
4 ,
x B2
,
y 22
The departing vector is 2 , i.e. the second vector of the base which 5. Now
we construct the second simplex table using the usual transformation.
B
4
XB
x
4
2
6
Cj
b
10
2
y1
5/2
5
y2
0
7
y3
3
0
y4
1
0
y5
1/4
0
y6
0
1/2
1/4
5/2
3/4
1/2
3/4
Zj Cj
From this table we find that the basic feasible solution B.F.S. given by it
is not optimal. so we proceed for a new improved B.F.S.ZjCj = 1/2 is the most
10
{5/2
} =4 which occur in first
row, 4 is the departing vector and 5/2 is the key element. The next simplex
table is as follow :
B
1
XB
x
1
2
6
ZjCj
Cj
b
4
1
y1
1
3
y2
0
2
y3
6/5
0
y4
2/5
0
y5
1/10
0
y6
0
3/5
1/5
6/20
11
11
1/2
13/5
1/5
16/20
=4 , x
=5, , x
=11 , x
=0,
=0,
=11
x
=4,
=5,
=0
min z=
2 xx
S.t.
xx
+ xx
+ xx
+ x7 x
xx
and
xx
Sol. First we convert the problem to the maximization problem by taking the
objective
function Z* = Z =
xx
and
following equations :
+
xx
+7
xx
xx
 xx
xx
=4
=7
Here we cannot get the initial B.F.S. So introduce the artificial variables
x
and
and
+ 0. x x
M x x
 M xx
xx
+0. x x
2 xx
xx
xx
+7 x x
 xx
+0. x x
+0. x x
3
+ 0. x x
 1. x x
+ xx
+0. x x
+0. x x
+ xx
=4
=7
And x
given by
A=
2 1 1 0 1 0
1 7 0 1 0 1
=(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)
Taking the initial base B = (5, 6) and we construct the first simplex
table as
follows :
CB
M
B
5
XB
x
1
1
y1
13/7
1
y2
0
0
y3
1
0
y4
1/7
M
y5
1
1/7
1/7
13
6
M+
7
7
ZjCj
Cj
b
3
1
7 M+
1
7
B
5
XB
x
M
ZjCj
5
6
Cj
b
4
1
y1
2
1
y2
1
0
y3
1
0
y4
0
M
y5
1
M
y6
0
1
3M+1 8M+1
Since the initial B.F.S. is not optimal, so we proceed for a new improved B.F.S.
Now Z2C2 = 8M+1 is the most negative ,
So K=2 and as such 2 is the entering vector. Also we find that
min
{ xyiBi2 , Yi 20}
= Min
{41 , 77 }
7
7 =
x B2
y 22
So the departing vector is 2, i.e. 6 which is the second vector of the base
and the key element is y22=7 we now prepare the next simplex table with
usual transformation deleting the outgoing artificial vector 6
Second Simplex table
Again the basic feasible solution given by this table is not optimal
proceeding again we find that
min
{ xyiBi1 , Yi 10}
= Min
{13/73 , 1/71 }
21
13
1 is the entering vector, 5 us the departing vector and 13/7 is the key
element.
simplex Table
Third
CB
1
B
5
XB
x
1
ZjCj
1
2
Cj
b
21/13
1
y1
1
1
y2
0
0
y3
7/13
0
y4
1/13
10/13
1/13
2/13
6/13
1/13
10
13
21
= 13 ,
min Z = Max Z* = 
21 10
,
13 13
31
min Z = 13
S.t.
2 x
x
and
+ x
 x
1
 x
x
10
2
40
x
2 x
max. Z= 2 x
S.t
+ x
 x
 x
+ x
+0. x
3
+0. x
+0. x
+0. x
=10
+1. x
=40
and j0 j=1,2,3,4
Taking the initial Base B = ( 3, 4) the first initial B.F.S., we construct
the first
CB
0
B
3
XB
x
3
4
ZjCj
Cj
b
10
2
y1
1
1
y2
1
0
y3(1)
1
0
y4(2)
0
40
1
2
1
After observe this table we find that there is a vector 2 such that 2 A
but 2 B
and for this vector ZjCj = Z2C2= 1<0 and all the components of
y2 are negative.
3 x
+2 x
S.t.
2 x
+ x
3 x
+4 x
and
0,
12
in the
given
surplus variable
3,
constraints;
the
given
and artificial
problem
can
be
expressed as
Max. Z =
3 x
+2 x
S.t.
2 x
+ x
3 x
+4 x
+0 x
+1. x
+0. x
+ 0. x
+0. x
+0. x
 x
M x
+1. x
=2
=12
x j 0, j=1,2,3,4,5
and
Here A =
211 0 0
3 4 0 1 1
=(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
Taking the initial base B= (3, 5) for the initial B.F.S., we prepare the
initial
CB
0
B
3
XB
x
M
3
5
ZjCj
Cj
b
2
3
y1
2
2
y2
1
0
y3
1
0
y4
0
M
y5
0
12
1
3M3 4M2
The basic feasible solution of this table is not optimal proceeding for a new
B.F.S. we find that 2 is the entering vector and 3 is the departing vector
with usual transformations the new simplex table is constructed as follows :
Second simplex Table
CB
2
B
2
XB
x
M
ZjCj
2
5
Cj
b
2
3
y1
2
2
y2
1
0
y3
1
0
y4
0
M
y5
0
5
4
1
5M+1
4M+2
=2,
=0,
=0, x
=4
+ x
+3 x
+2 x
and
=3
4
2
After introducing
5
1,
 x
a slack variable
S.t.
3 x
+ x
4 x
+3 x
+0 x
+2 x
+ x
+0. x
+0. x
+0. x
+ x
+0. x
+ x
+ x
+0. x
+0. x
5
+0. x
=3
=6
=4
the
and
max. Z = 2 x
+0. x
+0. x
M x
M x
CB
M
B
5
XB
x
M
5
6
4
ZjCj
Cj
b
3
2
y1
3
1
y2
1
0
y3
0
0
y4
0
M
y5
1
M
y6
0
1
7M+2
4M+1
The B.F.S. of this table is not optimal. Proceeding for an improved B.F.S.,
we find
because min
{33 , 64 , 41 }
3
= 3
B
1
XB
x
M
1
6
4
ZjCj
Cj
b
1
y1
1
y2
1/3
y3
0
y4
0
y6
0
5/3
1
5/3
5
3
M+
1
3
Again the B.F.S is not optimal proceeding further for a new B.F.S. we find that
2 is the entering vector and 6 is the departing vector.
Third Simplex Table
CB
2
B
1
XB
x
1
1
2
4
Cj
b
3/5
2
y1
1
1
y2
0
0
y3
1/5
0
y4
0
6/5
3/5
(ZjCj )
1/15
Third simplex table shows that ZjCj 0 for all values of j hence it gives the
optimal solution which is given by
x
=3/5,
=6/5
6
and max. Z = 2 5
6
5
12
5
+ c (z)2=0
Enveloping cone
Definition The locus of tangent lines drawn from a given point to a given
surface is called an enveloping cone or tangent cone.
Equation of the enveloping cone of the sphere
2 +y2 +2 =a2 with vertex at the point (,,) are given by SS1 =T2
i.e. (2 +y2 +2 a2) (2+2+2a2) = (+ y+ za2)
Cylinder
Definition A Cylinder is a surface generated by a variable straight line
which moves in such a way that it is always parallel to a fixed line and which
fulfills one more condition e.g. It may intersect a given curve or touch a given
surface or may be at a constant distance from a fixed straight line.
The fixed line is called axis or guiding line, The given curve or the surface is
called the guiding curve or the guiding surface and the variable line which
generates the surface of the cylinder is called the generator of the cylinder.
Equation of a cylinder whose generators are parallel to line
x
=
l
y
m
z
n
l2 +m2 + n2
x
l
l ( x ) + m ( y ) +n(z )
y
=
m
z
n
2 +y2 +2
here u =
3
7
3
7
, v=
3
centre ( 7
y3
14
3
14
2
7 z=0
, w=
1
, 7
1
7
d=0
) and radius =
or a2 +b2 +c2=4r2
(2)
( ax )
( by )
( cz )
=1
(3)
Equation of perpendicular line on plane (3) from origin will be
x
1 /a
y
= 1 /b
z
1 /c
= k (suppose)
(4)
on line (4) coordinates of any point will be
( ka , kb , kc ,)
and if we
assume
coordinates of the feet of the perpendicular are
(f,g,h) then f=
k
a , g=
k
b , h=
k
c
(5)
k
+ g
k
h
= 4r
K2(f2+g2+h2) =4r2
(6)
f g h
+ + =1
k k k
or
1
k
Q.3
plane.
3+2y+z+4 =0
1 3+2 2+3 1+ 4
1+ 4+ 9d
9+4 +1
3 + 4+3 +4
14
14 =
14d
14d
14
taking square both side
14 14 = 14d or 14 = 14d
d=0
14
Putting the value of d in equation
2 +y2 +2 2 4y +6 =0
(1)
1+ 4+ 9
14
1.1 +2.1+3.1
1+1+1
6
3
Radius =
length from
( 14)(6 / 3)
Q.4
r p
1412
Sol.
x+ y=5
x2 z=7
( x2 z7 =0
x 1+ ) +y 2 z (5+7 =0
radius of sphere.
Centre of sphere = (0,0,0)
radius
16
16
( 5+7 )
1+ +2 +1+ 4
(5+7 )
5 +2 + 2
(5+7 =
16
16
16
5 +2 +2
7 )2 = 16 ( 5 + 2+2 )
or 25+49 +70
= 80 +32 +32
or 31 38 +7 =0
( 1) (31 7 =0
we obtain 2
in equation (1)
x +y2z12=0
or 38 x +31y14z204 =0
Q.5
Sol.
3 (y+2)+1 =0
x +2y2z+ x +13y6+1=0
2 x y2z4 =0
Equation of sphere
(2 +y2 +2 +2 6y +1 ) +
(2 x y2z4) =0
(1)
(34)
Q.6
Sol.
(0,b,0) C (0,0,c)
Equation of plane will be
Point of
x y z
+ + =1
a b c
1
R=
1 1 1
+ + .
a b c
1
r
1
a
1
+ b
1
+ c
a=
1
r
Q.7
x ,
b=y, c=z
1
x
10,0,0
1
+ y
1
+ z
(a)
2 +y2 + 2
Sol.
S+ P =0
(2+3y+4z 5) =0
(1)
(2+6+125) =0
5+15 =0
= 1/3
2 +y2 +2 =1 , +2y+3z =4
(0,0,0)
(+2y+3z 4) =0
(1)
its passing through the points (0,0,0)
1 +
(4) =0
= 1/4
1
4
(+2y+3z 4) =0
4(2+y2+z21) 2y3z+4=0
4(2+y2+z2) 2y3z=0
Q.8
Sol
z =0
(1)
0+0+
2
+4
4
radius of circle =
9=
9=
r p
r p
+4 
5=
5
36
=36
Q.9
= 6
in Eq in
(1)
6z =0
circle. also find the radius and centre of the great circle.
Sol.
(1)
3
2
9
18 =7
2
2
49
=7
2
= 2/7
(23y+6z 7)=0
2
+y +z
1
7
point of centre (
(46y+12z )14= 0
2 3 6
,
,
7 7 7 )
2
7
radius of sphere =
=
4 9 36
+ + +14
49 49 49
15
2
3
6
2+ 3+ 6 7
7
7
P= 7
4 +9+36
radius of circle =
=0
r p = 150
15
x +3 /7
3
x6/7
6
= r (let)
Q.10
Sol.
y 1
m
z0
n
 (1)
1
m
z
= n
l
m ,
( 1
n
m
o,
l
2
m ) +
n
m
=4
 (2)
z
( y1)
x1
2
y 1 ) +
=4
x
l
y
m
z y
n
intersect the
y
m
z y
n
(1)
x
l
y
m
l
n
my
, 0 )
n
a( 
l
2
n ) +b (
my
2
n ) =1
+by2=1 then
y
n
Sol.
a x +by2+cz2 =1
x + y2 =2
(1)
x + y2 =2
x
2
y
+ 2 =1 (2)
2( a x + b y2+cz2 )=
Q.13
x
2
y
+ 2 =1
x + y2 =2 Ans.
Sol.
+ z
+ z
)=
y 0
m
z0
n
=r (let)
 (1)
point on line (1) is (lr, mr, nr). if its point are situated on
y
+ z
l r + m r + n r +24lr+2vmr+2wnr+d =0
2
l
m2 + n2 )+2 r
+
r
(ul+vm+wn) +d=0
x +
B 4AC=0
l
m2 + n2 ).d=0
+
4 (ul+vm+wn) 4
2
(ul+vm+wn) =
l
m 2 + n2 ).d
+
+ z
).d
Ans
+ cz
y
m
z
n
=r (suppose)
=1
) is
 (1)
a x + b y
+ cz
=1 then
lr+
mr+ +c ( nr + )2=1
a )+b (
r 2 ( al +bm +cn + 2r ( a l +bm +cn )
+ a +b +c 1 =0
Since line touches the sphere therefore
4(a l +bm + cn )4 ( al +bm+cn)
B 4 AC=0
a +b +c 1
)=0
[ a(x ) +b ( y ) +c ( z ) ]
=
( a + b + c 1=0
ax+ by+ cz
= ( a x + b y2+cz2)
Q.15
a + b + c
=1)
Sol.
+26 x 2y+2z17=0
+26 xt
2yt+2zt17t=0
( xf )
t=1
=0
( fy )
t=1
=0
4y +10 x2= 0
 (2)
( fz )
t=1
=0
4 z 10 x +2 =0
(3)
( ft )
t=1
=0
26 x2 y+ 2 z34 =0
(4)
the value of
the
given
represent
cone
whose
vertex
is
(1,2,2)
Q.16
a yz+bz x +c xy =0 is
2 if a+b+c =0
x+
(b)
Sol.
if 1/
a +1/b +1/c =0
x+ y+z=0
Equation of plane is
Equation of cone is
(1)
a yz+bz x +c xy =0
(2)
is
y 0
m
z0
n
=r
point on line (lr, mr, nr) if this point situated on cone and plane
then
l+m+n =0
 (3)
a mn+bln+clm=0
 (4)
l
m
( ml )
l
m
+ a
l
l
)
+b
(
m
m ) c
+b (
l
m
=0
l
+ m ( a +bc)+a=0
l
m
l m +l m
mm
( cac )
b
l m+l m
( cac )
l l
a
( a+b+ c)
b
m m
=K
b
mm
=
b
n n
c
=K
l
m
l
m
a
b
(i)
cos
cos
0=
(ii)
a k+bk+ck
a +b+c
(l ml m)
= l l+mm +n n
tan
tan
l l +m m+ n n
II
3
( lm +l m )24 l l mm
K ( cab ) 4 akbk
3 [a 2+ b2 +c 22 ab2bc2ca ]
a+ b+c
( a+b +c )2
a +b + c 2 ab2 bc2 ca
4 ab+4 bc+ 4 ca =0
a b+bc +c a
a bc
=0
1
1
1
c + a + b
=0
Q.17 If
x
1
y
= 2
z
3
y
= 2
z
3
is
1 x +2 y +3 z =0
(1)
=0
 (2)
x
l
y
= m
z
n
r
If its line situated on cone and plane then
l+ 2 m+3 n =0
5mn8nl3lm =0
(3)
(4)
30mn+24n +6m =0
m +5mn+4n =0
(m+4n) (m+n) =0
m= 4n ; m= n
l 5n =0
l =5n
(3)
l
5
m
= 4
n
1
y
= 4
(5)
l ,m , n
Now Eliminate
x
5
z
1
we can write
(6)
l
1
m
= 1
x
1
or
y
= 1
n
1
z
1
(7)
If
y
= 2
z
3
(8)
Eqin (7)
12+3 =0 Ans.
Q.18 Find the angle between the lines of section of the plane
3 x+ y +5 z=0
6 yz2 zx +5 xy =0
3 x+ y +5 z=0
6 yz2 zx +5 xy =0
(1)
(2)
x
l
y
= m
z
n
=r
(4)
(5)
2n l+ 5l
( 3 l5 n =0
18n l  30 n 2n l
15 l 25 l n
=0
l +3 l n +2n=0
l = n,
l = 2n
l =  n in Eqin
Now put
3n +m+5n =0
m = 2n
l
1
m
= 2
(4)
m+2n =0
n
1
(6)
3(2n)+m+5n =0
mn=0
l
2
m
= 1
m=n
n
1
(7)
Cos
(1 )(2 ) + (2 )( 1 ) +1(1)
1+ 4+ 1 1+4 +1
32+ 1
6 6
1
6
0=
cos1
1
( 6
(3)
lx+my+ nz
in perpendicular lines if
Equation of cone
( b+ c ) l + ( c +a ) m + ( a+b ) n =0
l x +my+ nz =0
 (1)
ax +by +cz =0
 (2)
ax +by +cz =0
y
= v
z
w
=0
au + bv + cw
(3)
=0
(4)
( lumv
)
n
au + bv +c
(au + bv )n + c
( uv )
(l u +m v +2 lmuv) =0
u
(an + cl ) + 2
v
u
v
u
= v
=0
( l mc+ bn +cm =0
bn cm
an + cl
( lunw
)
m
+cw=0
(l u +n w +2l nuw ) =0
=K
( wu ) m +am
( wu ) (6 m + b n )
2
w
u
w
u
uu
6 n +cm
w
w
+b l +bn u +2l bn u =0
w
+2 u
( l nb +am +b l =0
am+ b l
bn +cm
v v
an +cl
ww
am+ bl
=K
u1u2 +v1v2+w1w2=0
(bn2+cm2) + (an2+cl2) + (bl2+am2) =0
(b+c) l2+ (c+ a ) m2 + ( a +b)n2=0
Q.20
y
= 2
Sol.: Let P ( , ,
z
3 , ellipse
+2y2 =1 z=0
generator
through ( , ,
x
1
y
2
are
Z
3
y
2
i.e. (
2
3
, 0)
( 3 )
,+2
( + 23 )
=1
9 x
=1
Q.21
line
y
z
= m = n
x +y2 +2g x
+2fy+c=0, z=0
Sol.
Let P ( , ,
generator through
x
l
P are
y
m
z
n
= r
(let) (1)
y
m
l
i.e. ( n
m
n , 0)
l
+(m/n) + 2g ( n
),+2f(
m
+ c =0
n
(nxl z)
(nymz) .n+cn2 =0
x
l
y
z
= m = n
y
m
z
n
(let) (1)
( l r + ) 2 +b (m r + ) 2 +c (n r + ) 2 =1
al
+ c
+bm2+ cn
) r
+2 r
( a l +bm + cn )
+a
+b
1=0 (2)
line (1) touches the concoid if B24Ac=0
4
al
1)=0
Hence the locus of P ( , , is
a x
2
2
+by +cz 1)
al
+bm2+ cn
)= ( a l x +bmy+ cnz
Q.23 Find the equation of a right circular cylinder whose axis and
radius are
x1
2
y 2
3
Sol. Let P ( x , y , z
from
z3
6
=
be
right
N
1,2,3
(xyz) 2
2
( x1 + ( y2 ) +(z3)
9 x 2 x
OPM
PN=PM+MN
=4+
;2
( x1 ) .2+ ( y2 ) .1+ ( z 3 ) .2
4+ 1+ 4
+y24y +z26z+1+4+9)
= 36+ (2 x +y+2z10)
9 x 18 x
+9y236y +9z254z+126
= 36+4 x +y2+4z240z+100+4 xy
40 x +8 xz+4 yz 20 y
=0
x y + z=3
r=3
O10,0,0
is given by
3
1+1+1
P
N
r 2 p
93 =
x y + z=3
6
will be the
y 0
1
z0
1
Take a point P ( x , y , z
(1) then PM=
(1)
OP =PM+MO
x +y2+z2=6,
1 ( x0 )1 ( y0 ) +1( z0)
1+1+1
x +y2+z2+ xy + yzzx9=0
Guiding circle
x +y2+z2 a x bycz=0
x
a
and
y
z
+ b + c
(1)
=1
(2)
The axis of the right circular cylinder will be perpendicular to the plane
of the circle
x
a
y
z
+ b + c
1
b ,
1
a
1
c
Let P (
, ,
y
1 /b
z
1/c
(say)
(3)
The coordinates of any point on this line are ( + r /a ,
+ r / b , ,
+r /c
Since every generator intersects the guiding curve for some value of
r
the coordinates of this point will satisfy the eqin of the circle
( + r /a
+(
+ r /b
a ( + r /a b ( + r /b
and
1
a
( + ra )
1
+ b
+ ( +r /c
c ( +r /c =0
( + rb )
1
+ c
( a1 + b1 + c1 )
+ 2r
( a + b + c 32 )
( + rc )
(4)
=1
(5)
( +
a b c )=0 
(6)
( a + b + c 1)/( a1 + b1 + c1 )
r =
Now eliminate
( a1 + b1 + c1 )
( +
( a + b + c =1)
x
a
a b c )
( a + b + c 2)
( a1 + b1 + c1 )
(7)
is
( x +y2+z2 a x bycz)
y
z
+ b + c 1
x
a
y
z
+ b + c 2
Let
the
the axes in
b
c
+ y + z
coordinates
=2
of
A,B,C
be
( ,0,0),
(0, ,0),
(0,0, )
y
z
+ +
=1
a b c
+ +
=1
(2)
(3)
We have 2u+
=0
u=
2v+
=0
v=
/2
2w+
=0
w=
/2
/2
x +y2+z2 x  y
(4)
Let (f,g,h) be the centre of (4) then
f=
2 , g=
2 , h=
b
c
+ y + z
=2
2
, ,
Unit2
x, y ,z
ax +by +cz +2 gzx +2 fyz+2 hxy +2 ux+2 vy+ 2 wz+d =0 is called a conicoid or
quadric.
The standard equation of the central conicoid
The surface represented by the equation
ax +by +cz =
(1) possesses
the property that all chords of the surface which pass through the origin are
bisected at the origin.
The conicoid represented by the equation (1) possesses a unique centre
(origin) that is, the origin is the only point which possesses this property. This
conicoid is therefore known as the central conicoid and the equation (1) is its
standard equation.
The equation (1) represents three different surface depending upon the signs
of the coefficients a,b,c. if a,b,c are all positive then the surface is an
ellipsoid, if one of them is negative the surface is the hyperboloid of one
sheet. In case all the three are negative the surface is imaginary.
Equation of the ellipsoid
x
a
y
z
+ b + c
=1
y
z
+ b  c
=1
y
z
+ b  c
=1
a x+by + cz =1
y
z
+ b  c
=1 is
x
a
y
z
+ b + c
=1
Condition of tangency
The condition that the plane
conicoid
l
a
ax +by +cz =1 is
m
n
+ b + c
=P
l
ap
m
n
, bp , cp
Director sphere :Definition The locus of the point of intersection of three mutually
perpendicular tangent planes to a central conicoid is a sphere, concentric
with the conicoid, called the Director sphere of the conicoid.
The locus of the point of intersection of three mutually perpendicular
tangent planes to a central conicoid
x + y + z =
1
a +
ax +by +cz =1
is
1 1
+
b c
y
z
+ b + c
=1
x + y + z =a + b +c
AR =
2 AP. AQ
AP+ AQ
Equation of the polar line The equation to the polar line of the given line
x
l
y
= m
z
= n
ax +b y +cz =1 is
a x+by + cz =1
a lx+bmy+ cnz =0
Enveloping cylinder
Definition The locus of the tangent lines to a conicoid parallel to any given
line is called the enveloping cylinder of the conicoid.
ax +by +cz
x
y z
=
=
l
m n
2
2
2
=( ax +by +cz 1 (a l + b m + c n )
Normal
Definition The normal PN at any point P of a surface is the straight line
passing through P and perpendicular to the tangent plane at P.
Equation of the normal
The Equation of the normal at the point P ( x , y , z of the ellipsoid
x y z
+ +
a b c
=1 is
( xx )
x
a2
Q.1
yy
y
=
b2
z z
z
=
c2
revolution
Sol
( x + a ) + y + z
2
( x + a ) + y + z
2
( xa)+ y + z
= 2k
x + y + z + 2 ax+ a =
4 ax4 k
(axk 2)
(xa) + y + z
4 k + x + y + z 2 ax +a 4k
4 k ( xa ) + y + z
=
=
= 2k
k (x 2 + y 2 + z 22 ax+ a2 )
a x +k 42 axk
x 2 ( a 2k 2 ) k y k z
x (a2k 2) k ( y 2 + z )
k (a2k 2 ) k ( a2k 2)
x y + z
+
1
k k a =
k x +k y +k z 2 ak x +a k
= a k k
=
( x a ) + y + z
Q.2
Sol.
y + z
=(1)
b
(given ellipsoid)
b + b
=1
(2)
l
m
z
n
= r
(let)
 (3)
on central conicoid
x
a
y + z
=(1) then
b
1
1
1
( l r + )2+ ( mr + )2 + 2 (n r + )
a
b
b
=1
l m n
l m n
+ +
+2 r
+
+
a b b
a b b
] [
+
+ + 1
a b b
l m n
l m n
+ +
+2 r
+
+
+11 =0 (from eq. ())
a b b
a b b
] [
r=0,r
] [
l m n
l m n
+ +
+2
+
+
a b b
a b b
=0
is
=0
l m n
+
+
=0
a b b
r =0,
l m n
+
+
a b b =0 (4)
New eliminate
( x ) ( y )
+
a
b
x y z
+ +
a b b
( z )
b
= 0
+ +
a b b
x y +z
+
=1
a
b
Which is the required equation of tangent plane?
Q.3
Sol.
Let P ( , ,
a +b +c =1
therefore
 (1)
y
z
= n
m
= r
(let)
a x +by +cz =1
a ( lr + ) +b (mr + ) +c (n r + ) =1
is
(2)
r 2 ( a l 2+ b m2 +c n2 ) +2 r ( al +bm+ cn ) + a +b +c 1
=0
r 2 ( a l 2+ b m2 +c n2 ) +2 r ( al +bm+ cn ) =0
r=0,r ( a l 2 +b m2 +c n2 ) +2 ( al+ bm+ cn ) =0
r
al +bm+ cn =0
if
r (a l 2 +b m 2 +c n2) =0
=0,
al+ bm+cn =0
a x +by +cz =1
(1)
lx+my+ nz
=P
=0 is given by
(2)
a x +by +cz =1 if
l m n
+ +
a b c =P
P=
l m n
+ +
a b c
l m n
lx+my+ nz =
+ +
a b
c
[from Eq. 2]
Q.5
x
l
y
z
=
m
n
x y z
+ +
a b c
should
=1 at the point (
y
z
=
m
n
= r
(let)
lr + , mr + , n r +
=1 then
(lr+ )
a
(1)
( al + mb + nc ) r +2 r ( la + mb + nc )
(mr + )
(nr + )
+
=1
b
c
=0
here one value of r is equal to zero. r=0 line (1) will be tangent line if
other value
( la + mb + nc )
=0
x y z
+ +
a b c
=1 is
=1 cuts off
a b c
+ +
to the cllipsoid
=1
1
1
1
xx + yy + zz =1
a
b
c
Equation (1) passes through point A ( , o , o , B ( o , ,o , C (
o,o,
therefore
x
a =1 ,
The point
( x , y , z )
therefore
a
b
c
, y = , z =
lie on ellipsoid
x y z
+
+
a b c
=1
x , y , z
=1
=1
x +5
z11
3 =y4 =
7
12 x 17 y + 7 z =7
x +5
y 4
=
3
1
z11
7
12 x 17 y + 7 z =7
(rlet)
r
[ 2+16+8 r ]+7
12 [ 9 r 2+ 25+30 r ] 17
2
=0
r=
651 47089
434
651 217
434
r=1,2
x
a
y
+
b
z
c
=1
a x +by +cz =1
(1) is
lx+my+ n=P
then
l m n
+ +
a b
c =P
(2)

(3)
x + y + z =1
(4)
(5)
(2) and (5) are the equations of the same plane therefore they must be
identical, on comparing the coefficients, we get
x
l
y
m
z
n
l=Px ,
Eliminating
P x
a
1
P
m=Py
Q.9
(6)
P y
b
y
b
P z
c
n=Pz
= P
(x , y , z )
z
c
=1
( , , )
1
/a + /b + 2 /c
is the perpendicular
( + Par , + Pb r , + Pc r )
if Q also lies on the ellipsoid then
( + Par ) + ( + Pb r ) + ( + Pc r ) =1
2
r P
r P
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
+
+
+2
rP
+
+
+
+ +
a 6 b6 c 6
a4 b4 c 4
a2 b 2 c2
) (
) (
)(
+ 6 + 6 +2 rP 4 + 4 + 4
6
a b c
a b c
=1
=0
r=0,
2 ( 2 /a )
P ( 2 /a 6)
and r=
2 lP
P ( 2 /a6 ) =
2
P ( 2 /a6 )
2
2
6
P ( / a )
Q.10 Prove that the feet of the six normal's drawn to the ellipsoid
x y z
+ +
a b c
intersection
of
ellipsoid
( , ,
and
b ( c 2a 2) c ( a 2b2 )
+
=0
y
z
Sol. Equation of the normal at (f,g,h) are
xf
f /a
y g
g/b
zh
= h/c
 (1)
then
the
cone
2 2
2
a ( b c )
x
f
f /a
g
g/b
h
h/ c = K (say)
are given
by
f=
a
a + K
k=
a
b
c
a ,k =
b , k=
c
f
g
h
,g=
b
b + K
c
, h= c + K
( b2 C2 ) , ( C 2a2 )
and
(a2 b2 )
0=
a2 ( b2c 2)
x
b ( c 2a2 ) c ( a2b 2 )
+
=0
y
z
Hence the feet of the six normals lie on the curve of intersection of the
ellipsoid and the cone (2)
Q. 11
is
( ax + by + cz 1) ( a + b + c 1)
( xa + yb + cz 1)
........... (1)
[SS=T]
Now z=0
( ax + by 1) ( a + b 1)
( xa + yb 1)
 (2)
+
+
ab c
x +
1
+ 1
b a c
section
x y z
+ + =1
a b c
of
y =0
=0
1 1
+
a b
=1
The locus of ( , ,
Q. 12The
( a1 + b1 )
+
+
a +b c
coefficient of
an
is
x + y z
+ =1
a +b c
enveloping
cone
of
the
ellipsoid
Sol.
Let P
is
( ax + by + cz 1)
( a + b + c 1)
( xa + yb + cz 1)
 (1)
[SS=T]
then the section of (1) by Z=0 plane is
( ax + by 1) ( a + b + c 1)
x
+ 1
a a b
( xa + yb 1)
y
+ 1
b a c
2
xy =0 (2)
ab
1
+ 1
a a b
1
+ 1
b a c
( c 1) ( a + b + c 1)
( cz 1) ( ax + by + cz 1)
z
1=0 ;
c
[ ab=n ]
=0
a b
is
=0
x y z
+ + 1
a b c
=0
vertex ( , ,
is
z
=1
c
z= C
Sol. Let P
( , , ) is
x + y +z
a x +by +cz =1
= 1
x + y 2 + z2=1
(1)
(1)
(2)
( af +bg +ch )
Q. 15Find the equation to the two planes which contain the line
given by 7 x+10 y 30 =0, 5 y3 z =0 and touches the ellipsoid
2
7 x +5 y +3 z =60
Sol. Equation of any plane through given line is
7 x+10 y 30+(5 y3 z)=0
7 x+ ( 10+5 ) y3 z30 =0
(1)
7
5
3
x +
y + z
60
60
60
7 x 2+5 y 2 +3 z =60
=1
(2)
7
1
1
x+ y + z
60
12
20
( , , )
( , , )
=1
is
(3)
(1)and (3) represents the same plane, then there they must be identical
, on comparing the coefficient, we get
1
60 = 12(10+ 5) = 20 (3 ) = 30
point
=2,
( , , )
2(10+5 )
5
= =2
7 + 5 2 +3 2=60
28+
20 ( 10+5 )2
+3 (2 )2=60
25
2
2 +5 +3
( +1 ) (2 + 3)
=0
=0
=1,3/2
equations of tangent
planes as
7 x+5 y +3 z30=0
and
14 x+ 5 y+ 9 z 60=0
( ax + by + cz =1)
meets the
x, y ,
( a l + b lm+ c n , 0,0)
etc
1
3
a
f
9al
= a l+ b m +c n
similarly
and
a l +b m +c n
+0+0
l
b
g
9bm
a l+ b m +c n
c
9c n
=
n
a l+b m +c n
a b c
+ +
x y z =9
Q. 17
Find
the
equations
to
the
hyperboloid
pass through the point (1,0,3)
Sol.
(1)
( y +2 )( z +3 ) + ( 2 z+ 3 y )( x1) =0
or
( y +2 )( z +3 ) ( 2 z +3 y ) (1x ) =0
y +2
2 z +3 y
or
and
1x
= z +3
y +2
1x
(say)
2 z +3 y
z +3
1
(1x )
y +2 = (2 z+3 y ) , z +3 =
or
1
y +2 = (1x ) , z +3 =
above are
and
(2 z +3 y )
and 2 =
(3)
(4)
(1+1) Or
(say)
(2)
=1
in (3) , we get z=3,
(5)
3 x+ z =0
x+ y+ 1 =0,
z+ 3 y
=3,
x +1
1
y
1 =
z3
3
(6)
(5) and (6) gives the Equations of generating lines of the given
hyperboloid which pass through the point (1,0,3)
y 3
m
z+4
n
= r
(say)
 (1)
or if r
(mr +3)
9
( l4 + m9 + n16 )
(nr4)
16
+2 r
=1
( 2l + m3 + n4 )
=0
(2)
Since the line (1) is the generator of the given hyperboloid, therefore
(2) will be true for all values of r i.e. an identity, hence
l m n
+ +
=0
(3)
4 9
16
and
l m n
+ +
2 3 4
=0
(4)
l m
l m
+ +
4 3
2 3
lm=0
=0
l=0 , or m=0
if l=0 then
m n
9 16
m n
+
3 4
=0 and
m n
=
3 4
i.e.
l
o =
=0
m
3
n
4
if m=0 then
l n
4 16
=0 and
l
n
=
1 2
l n
+
2 4
l
1 =
i.e.
=0
m
0
n
2
and
y 3
3
x2
1
z+4
4
y 3
0
z+4
2
)
Sol. Any point on the principal elliptic section of the hyperboloid is (a cos
, b sin 0 ) Let the equations of the generator through the point (a
cos , b sin ,0 ) be
xa cos
l
 (1)
y b sin
m
z0
n
= r(say)
1 2 2
lr+ acos
mr+ bsin
n r
+
=1
1
1
c
a
b
( al + mb nc )
or
r +2
 (2)
l cos m sin
+
=0
a
b
(4)
l cos m sin
=
a
b
l/a
m/b
=
sin cos
l
m
=
a sin b cos
l / a + m2 /b
sin + cos
n /c
1
from (3)
y b sin
b cos
z
C
values of
x z
+
a c
1
1
be
y
(1+ )
b
x z
+
a c
And
say
x z
a c
y
(1+ )
b
x z
a c
y
(1 ) (1)
b
=
1
2
y
(1 ) b
(2)
Subtracting first equations of (1) and (2), we get
y
(1+
) =0 y= b because 2
(
b
similarly subtracting second equations of (1) and (2) we
obtain
1
1
y
(1 )
b
=0
y=b because
y
(1+ )
b
x z
a c
y
(1 )
b
 (1)
x z
a c
y
(1+ )
b
 (2)
x z
+
a c
y
(1 )
b
( x, y ,z)
(1+ by )
(1 by )
or
y
b
1
1+
(3)
x z
+
a c
= ( 1+
and
x
a
x z
a c
= ( 1+
2
1+
and
z
c
1+
(4)
Hence both the generators intersect and the coordinates of the
point of their
a(+)
b(1 )
c( )
[ 1+
,
]
1+
1+
Property 3
The plane through two intersecting generators is the
tangent plane of the
hyperboloid of one sheet at their common
point.
Solution
generator is
({ ax + cz )(1+ by )}+ K {( xa cz )} 1 {1 by }
=0
+
= ( 1+
and
z
c
1+
 (1)
{( ) ( )} {( )} { }
x z
y
x z
1
y
1+
+K
+ 1
a c
b
a c
=0 (2)
K=
1
K'
x
a
= ( 1+
y
+ b
(3)
1
1+
z
c
( 1+
=1
But this is the equation of the tangent plane to the hyperboloid of
one sheet at the point of intersection of two generators one of
each system i.e.
a (+) b(1 ) c ()
,
,
1+
1+
1+
Property
Ans.
 (1)
system generators can be written as
x z
+
a c
x z
a c
(1+ by )
x
a
y
(1 )
b
x
+
a
( by )+ zc
y
z
b c

(2)
if l, m,n be the direction ratios of the generator then
l/ a
1
m/b
2
x y z
= , a + b+ c =
m/b
2
 (3)
l /a
1
n /c
+1
 (4)
generators then
n /c
+ 1
 (5)
'
ll +m m +nn '
=0
a 2 ( 21 ) ( 2 1 ) +4 b C2 ( 2+ 1 ) ( 2 +1) =0
(by using (2) and (4)
a 2 ( + ) +b ( 1 ) +C 2 ()
( a +b c )(1+ )
(a 1++ )
(b 1
1+ )
(c 1+
)
a + b c
system, Hsystem
( x + y z ) =
a + b c
known as
director sphere.
Hence the locus of the point of intersection of perpendicular
generator is the curve of intersection of director sphere and
hyperboloid of one sheet.
, of a
'
' ,
'
'
,c .
=+
, then
generator and
and
 generator
, b cos ( ,c