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# JOINING FORCES KS3 RESOURCES

## Joining Forces is a collaborative partnership between three UK science

centres - INTECH in Winchester, Techniquest in Cardiff, and Hands On
in Oxford. The partnership has been funded by the DfES.

This booklet is for the KS3 session. It includes pre- and post- visit
activities based on some of the forces concepts covered in the Joining
Forces show. The project was developed to help pupils and teachers
with the transition from primary to secondary schools by developing a
linked experience. With this in mind the activities that have been
developed, particularly in the pre-show material, use materials that
would be used in primary schools or at home. The idea is to introduce
the topic through fun, interesting and thought provoking activities. This
should break down any fears that science at secondary school is any
different to that in primary schools. It is a good way to get pupils thinking
about forces, finding out what they know and any misconceptions that
they may have.
The layout for each activity includes a short introduction and links to
curriculum, details of what you will need, and how to do the activity.
At the back of the booklet there are several pages of additional
resources. This includes a page of spellings and definitions of the major
words linked to unit 7K. There is also a revision sheet, a page of starter
activities and a list of recommended websites.

## JOINING FORCES KS3 RESOURCES

Contents
Pre Show Activities
Space speeder

## 1)Stick to the ruler

2)Resistance is futile

## 3)Control the stopper

3)Acrobatic cards

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## Post Show Activities

Electromagnetic game sheet 1

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## Bed of pins with jelly

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Balloon Rocket

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Additional Resources
Spellings

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Revision notes

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Starter activities

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Websites

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Space Speeder
Science Concept:

Sc4 2c, d

## That friction is a force which opposes

motion.
Describe some ways of reducing friction
between an object and a solid surface
and some situations in which friction is
useful.
Describe situations in which forces are
unbalanced and use this idea to explain a
change in shape of an object and a
change in the direction of a moving
object.

## Friction can be reduced between surfaces.

The space speeder also shows that
unbalanced forces change the speed or
direction of movement of a object; This
activity can lead to discussions of Newtons
Laws.

## You will need:

An old or damaged CD
A bottle cap from a water bottle
A normal balloon
Glue

## To make the speeder

Glue the bottle top over the centre hole of the CD.
Let the glue dry.
Blow up the balloon and hold the neck tightly. Put the blown up
balloon over the bottle top, without letting the air out.
Put the CD face down on a smooth surface, like a tabletop.
Let the speeder go.

1.

2.

3.

4.

## What happens if you stop pushing your speeder?

5.

One example of high friction is pushing a toy car on a carpet. How is the
movement of your speeder different?

Science Concept:

## Curriculum Links: Unit 7K

Sc4 2a, b, c, d, g

## Thinking and learning about forces

through fun and thought provoking
activities.
Assessing pupils understanding of forces.

## Unit 4e, unit 6e as a way of assessing prior

knowledge. Use questions 1 20.
Unit 7k if using as revision. Use all the
questions.
Questions can easily be adapted to the
level of the group or the purpose of the
activity. This activity can be used for any
topic.

## You will need:

Coloured card 10 cm square in red, yellow or orange, and green enough for each
child to have one of each colour.

## Running the activity

Red means FALSE
Green means TRUE
Yellow or orange means IM NOT SURE

## The game follows this sequence;

Read the question.
Allow a short period of time for pupils to consider their answer.
Count 1,2,3 Show your cards!
Pupils all hold up one of their cards at the same time.

Adaptations
If you take the yellow card away you can play the game so there is one winner.
Pupils have to sit down if they get it wrong; the last pupil standing is the winner.
Play the games in teams.
Use electronic voting if available.
Use at the beginning of the topic to assess prior knowledge or as revision at the
end of the topic.
Develop your own questions for any topic.

## Forces traffic light game question sheet 1

1)
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30)

Gravity only happens on Earth? False. There is gravitational pull between all
objects.
Gravity attracts things towards the surface of the Earth. False. Gravity attracts
towards the centre of the Earth.
Your weight will vary depending on where you are in space. True. Weight is a
downward force due to gravity and the size of this force is dependant on the
size of the planet you are on.
Weight is measured in Kilograms. False. Weight is a force and forces are
measured in Newtons.
Far away from Earth objects have no mass. False. Mass is a measure of how
much matter is in an object.
Mass is measured in Kilograms. True
Gravity decreases when objects are further apart. True
Gravity keeps the planets orbiting the sun. True
The force that always acts opposite to the direction of the motion of an object
is called friction. True
Aluminium is attracted to a magnet? False. Only steel, iron, nickel and cobalt
are.
Friction is a force which acts between two surfaces. True
The opposite poles of a magnet repel each other. False. Opposite poles of a
magnet attract each other.
Mass is NOT a force. True
Friction can be reduced using a lubricant. True
On Earth an apple with a mass of 100g has a weight of 1Newton. True
You can jump higher on the moon than you can on Earth. True
Drag is another name for air resistance. True
The length of the arrow indicates the direction of the force acting. False. It
indicates the size of the force
When forces are concentrated in a small area the pressure is greater. True
Non-contact forces affect an object without touching it. True
Non-contact forces are pushes and pulls. False. Non contact forces are
gravity, magnetic and electromagnetic forces.
A force can not be put into or stored in an object. True
An object sinks because it is less dense than the water it is in. False. An object
sinks because it has a greater density than the liquid that it is in.
A parachute uses friction to slow the parachutist down. True
Friction can produce heat. True
The tendency for objects to stay put is called inertia. True
An object which floats will still show a weight reading on a Newton meter.
False. An object which floats shows a zero weight reading.
It is easier to float in sea water than in fresh water. True
The forces are unbalanced on a stationary object. False. The forces are in fact
balanced.
The speed of an object is calculated by dividing the distance the object travels
by the time taken. True

Science Concept:

Sc4 2a, c, d, g

## Thinking and learning about forces

through fun and thought provoking
activities.
Encourage pupils to predict outcomes,
carry out activities and ask why does
this happen?
This will encourage pupils to relate
science concepts to the real world and to
question what they see.

## The activities in the circus are a brief

introduction to the following topics:
Friction
Balanced and unbalanced forces
Floating
Density
Pressure

Activities:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

## Stick to the ruler

Resistance is futile
Control the stopping and acrobatic card
Balloon, buggies and magnets
Density and pressure
Floating and sinking

Set the activities up in stations so that pupils are able to rotate around the stations.
The object is to allow pupils to experience the effects of friction and to get them
thinking about the topic. Some of the activities could be done as demonstrations by
staff. A selection of these activities could be used.

Science Concept:

## This activity plays friction forces against

gravitational forces. The ruler was
practically all balanced on the inner finger,
so very little of its weight was taken by the
outer finger. Less weight means less
friction. So the friction-free outer finger can
move easily towards the middle, when it
started to share more weight with the other
finger.
The fingers always meet in the middle.

## That friction is a force which opposes

motion.

Activity:
Pupils place the ruler so that their fingers are at the end of the ruler, and it is
balanced. They then need to move their fingers towards the centre.
Can they explain what happens?
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Science Concept:

Sc4 2d

## Students learn about friction.

Students observe, predict and record an
object's motion over smooth, slippery and
rough surfaces.

## That friction is a force which opposes

motion.
Describe some ways of reducing friction
between an object and a solid surface
and some situations in which friction is
useful.

a) Marble drop
You will need:
3 Marbles
A smooth surface (example, a tile floor or a large smooth tabletop)
Piece of very rough sandpaper (15cm X 15cm or larger)
Drop a few marbles, a short distance above the smooth surface.
What did you observe?
Is there much friction between the marbles and the smooth surface?
What do you think will happen when the marbles are dropped on the piece of rough
sandpaper?
Try to drop the marbles onto the sandpaper from the same height as you did for the
smooth surface.
What happened?

b) Shove halfpenny
You will need:
3 coins
A wooden surface (cutting board or desk top)
A carpeted surface or a piece of carpeting
A baking sheet
Water
Access to a freezer
Piece of plywood or very sturdy cardboard
What do you think will happen when you flick a coin across the following surfaces:
wood, carpet, ice, sandpaper?
Which will have the most friction?
Which will have the least friction?
Flick the coins across each surface. Try to use the same amount of force each time.
What happens if you use more force to flick the coin across the surfaces?

Science Concept:

Sc4 2d

## Pulling the thread straight rubs it against

the foil, increasing the friction and
preventing gravity from having its way.
Sometimes we want to reduce friction. To
do this we use a lubricant such as oil. This
is demonstrated by the card trick.

## That friction is a force which opposes

motion.
Describe some ways of reducing friction
between an object and a solid surface
and some situations in which friction is
useful.

You will need:

foil

## Baking foil ( a strip 8cm wide)

Thread
Pencil
thread

Activity
Screw up the foil into a ball. Then poke a V- shaped hole through the ball. Next
push the thread through. Hold the thread loosely and watch what happens. Then
gently pull the thread and watch what happens to the ball.
Think about what forces might be acting here.

## b) Acrobatic Cards ( good as a demonstration)

You will need:
An old pack of cards
Cooking oil
Wine glass ( the sort with a narrow, tapering bowl)
(Notes for demonstrator
You can perform this like a trick and have a script to go with it.)
The type of glass is important and test it before use. Bend the first card and push
into the glass and it should stay there, held by the friction against the side. If you put
a line of oil on either side of the glass then insert a card so the edges are touching
the oil. The card should jump up as the friction is now reduced.

Science Concept:

## Curriculum Links: unit 7K, 8J

Sc4 2a, c, d 3d
Describe situations in which forces are un
balanced and use this idea to explain a
change in shape of an object and a
change in the direction of a moving
object.
Identify magnetic materials and their
properties, including forces of attraction
and repulsion.

## Introduce magnetism and how magnets

behave.
Show that forces that are unbalanced
cause a change in shape, direction or
speed of an object.

a) Balloon Experiment
a) Blow up a balloon and ask the pupils what forces are acting
b) Let go of the balloon.
1) What happens?
2) What forces are acting on the balloon?

b) Buggy Racers
You will need:
1 steep slope
1 shallow slope
Buggy or car
Let the buggy go down each slope and answer the questions.
1) What forces are acting?
2) Why do they change speed or direction?

c) Powerful Magnets

Wooden Peg
magnets

Wooden base
Place a magnet on the peg and then place the second one on top.
1) What forces are acting?
2) What happens if you turn the top magnet over and place it back on the peg?
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Science Concept:
1)

2)
3)

Sc2 c

## Shaking the rice shows the motion of

particles in a liquid. The ball bearing
sinks because it is denser than the
rice around it. The polystyrene floats
because it is less dense then the rice.
Less dense gasses rise.
The difference in pressure allows the
tube to move up and down in the
bottle

## That when objects are immersed in water

there is an upthrust on them.
That upthrust is different in different
liquids.

## 1)Disappearing metal ball in rice

You will need:
A heavy ball bearing
A polystyrene ball
Container of rice
Place the balls in the rice and then gently shake the container.
1) What happens to the two balls?
2) Try and explain why this happens.

## 2)Blowing bubbles with helium ( demonstration)

You will need:
Helium balloon ( or supply)
Rubber tubing
Soap solution
Attach the rubber tube to the helium balloon and dip into the soap solution. Then
watch the bubbles form.
1) Why do the bubbles rise rapidly to the ceiling?

3)Cartesian Diver
You will need:
An inverted combustion tube in a sealed lemonade bottle (2l)
Gently squeeze the sides of the bottle and watch what happens.
1) Try to explain what is happening using your scientific knowledge.

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Science Concept:

Sc4 2c

## The bubbles form on the rough surface of

the raisins. As the bubbles form the
raisins will float to the surface of the
lemonade and then sink as the bubbles
escape.
The density of the liquids used will affect
whether an object floats or sinks.
The unpeeled lemon floats. There is air
inside the skin and makes it less dense
like armbands.

## That when objects are immersed in water

there is an upthrust on them.
That upthrust is different in different
liquids.

a) Raisins in lemonade
You will need:
Raisins
Glass of lemonade
Drop a few raisins in the lemonade and watch what happens.
Explain what is happening using your scientific knowledge.

## b) Floating and sinking in different liquids.

You will need:
A glass containing 4 liquids of different densities
E.g. immiscible liquids- golden syrup, coloured water, cooking oil
Drop small objects and see if they float or sink.
The different liquids have different densities. The densest liquid sinks to the bottom
of the glass. Use this information to help explain what happens to the objects that
are dropped into the glass.

## c) Does the skin of a lemon help it to sink or float?

You will need:
Two lemons, 1 peeled and 1 with the peel still on.
What will happen to the lemons if you put them into a jar of
water?

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## Post Show Activities

Electromagnetic Game
Science Concept:

Sc4 1e, 1f

## Identify magnetic materials and their

properties, including forces of
attraction and repulsion.
Use the idea of forces to describe the
patterns of magnetic fields produced
by electromagnets.

## Magnets have forces of attraction and

repulsion. A current in a coil produces a
magnetic field pattern similar to that of a
bar magnet. Electromagnets are able to
attract magnetic materials.

## To make the electromagnet

You will need:
6v Battery
Bell wire or thin wire with plastic insulation(16-20 gauge)
Large nail Test the nail before hand as some nails will not work due to low iron
levels
Paper clips

## How to make it:

1.Start 10cm in from one end of the wire and coil it
around the nail until there is approximately 10cm left
on either side.
2.Strip back the plastic to expose 1cm of wiring at
each end.
3.Fold the wire over to make hooks.
4.Hook the ends to the battery pack. The metal
prongs and the exposed wiring will heat up during
this process. Do not allow students to touch this
area. To break the connection simply unhook the wire, remembering to touch only
plastic covered areas. Wait for the metal to cool before touching.
5.Move the nail to pick up the paper clips.

## To make electromagnetic shot putting game

You will need:
An electromagnet with switch
A large cereal box
2 strips of cardboard about 5cmx25cm
A sheet of paper the same size as the box
A pencil and ruler, scissors and sticky tape
Close the end of the box and stick down with tape. Cut out 1 side and lie the box
down flat.
Stick the strips of cardboard 1 either side of the box, at one end. Bend the tops until
they meet and stick them together with tape.
Hang the electromagnet over the arch, so it can swing easily, and stick the flex to
the top of the arch with tape. Tape the flex down 1 strip of the cardboard.
Draw lines across and down the piece of paper. Write a number in each section,
putting the higher numbers at the sides. Put the paper in the box.
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Science Concept:

Sc4 1e, 1f

## Identify magnetic materials and their

properties, including forces of
attraction and repulsion.
Use the idea of forces to describe the
patterns of magnetic fields produced
by electromagnets.

## Magnets have forces of attraction and

repulsion. A current in a coil produces a
magnetic field pattern similar to that of a
bar magnet. Electromagnets are able to
attract magnetic materials.

How to play
Switch on the electro-magnet and stick a small nail or paper clip to it. Pull the
electromagnet back and let it swing. Switch off and see which number the nail or
clip drops on. Keep the score for each player. If the nail or clip goes out of the box,
the player loses a point. The player with the highest score wins.
This activity could easily be adapted to allow pupils to design and make their own
game.

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Science Concept:

Sc4 2g

## Pressure is caused by a force over a

given area. The smaller the area the force
acts on the greater the pressure that
occurs.

## The quantitative relationship between

force, area and pressure and its
application.

## Bed of pins with Jelly

You will need:
3 boards with drawing pins spaced out.
Each board should have pins stuck with the points up.
There should be increasing more pins on each board per
given area.
Equal sizes of jelly cubes.

Place the jelly cubes on to the pins and watch what happens.
You now need to explain what happened using what you know about pressure.

pointing up

Board

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## Post Show Activities

Balloon Rocket
Curriculum Links: Unit 7K

Science Concept:

Sc4 2c

## Aerospace engineers apply Newtons

Third Law (to every action there is an
equal and opposite reaction) to take us
to the Moon and beyond. With this openended project, pupils become the
aerospace engineer, designing and
building a balloon rocket to transport your
cargo.

## That unbalanced forces change the

speed or direction of movement of
objects.

Balloon Rocket
You will need:
Tape

Clothes peg
Straw
Scissors
Scrap paper
Cereal box (or stiff paper)
Paper or plastic cup (optional)
Balloon (long skinny ones work best)
Long piece of fishing line (or smooth string)
Bottle cap or marble (to use as cargo)
Your Guidelines
1. The propulsion for your rocket will be an inflated balloon.
2. Build your cargo container from materials such as paper, a cereal box, or a
paper or plastic cup.
3. Your rocket will travel along a piece of fishing line, which is threaded through a
straw on your rocket. Remember to include the straw somewhere in your design.
4. It is up to you to find the best way to attach the cargo container to the straw and
the balloon.
Launching Your Rocket
1. Blow up your balloon and use the clothes peg to hold it closed.
2. Tape one end of the fishing line to a wall about chest high. Hold the other end
in your hand at approximately the same height.
3. Load your cargo (bottle cap, marble, or any other small, light object) into the
container.
4. Thread the fishing line through the straw attached to your balloon rocket.
5. Unclip your clothes peg and watch your rocket fly!

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## JOINING FORCES KS3 RESOURCES

Additional Resources

## Spellings and Definitions

Air resistance

Air resistance is the frictional force from air that slows down
moving objects. It is another name for drag.

Arrow

Balanced

Density

## Number of particles in a particular space. It is measured in g/cm3.

Density = mass volume

Drag

Force

Friction

## Friction is a contact force that slows moving objects down and

makes it difficult to move stationary objects.

Gram

## Unit of mass that is 1/1000th of a kilogram.

Gravity

Is the force that pulls objects downwards towards the centre of the
Earth.

Kilogram

Lubricant

Mass

kilograms (kg).

Newton

Newton Meter

Speed

Stationary

Streamlined

Unbalanced

Upthrust

Weight

Newtons.
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## JOINING FORCES KS3 RESOURCES

Additional Resources

Revision notes
Contact forces
One object exerts a force on
another as long as they are
touching.

## A force can not be put into or stored in an object.

Non-contact forces
Identifying forces
Which forces are acting?
Where are the forces acting?
What are the size and direction
of these forces?

## Non-contact forces affect an

object without touching it. These
forces include gravity,
magnetism and
electromagnetism. These are
also known as field forces.

Where there are several forces acting, the overall forces is called the resultant force.
If an object is travelling in a straight line at a constant speed the overall resultant force is zero.
If an object is not moving then the resultant force is zero.

## This arrow shows the size

and direction of the force
exerted by the box on the
floor.

Box

## This arrow shows the size

and direction of the force
exerted by the floor on the
box.

Force arrows help to show the size and direction a particular force.
The length of the arrow indicates the size of the force
acting.
The direction of the arrow indicates the direction in
which the force is acting.

## Friction arises when two surface

move over each other. Air resistance and water resistance are friction forces that occur when an object moves through air or water.

Floor
Forces exerted by the floor on the box.
Friction tries to stop the box moving.
Pressure
Forces can be spread out over a large
area to reduce the pressure on the
surface.
When forces are concentrated in a small
area the pressure is bigger.

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## JOINING FORCES KS3 RESOURCES

Additional Resources

Starter Activities
Taboo
Pupils work in groups of 4. One member of the group is given a card with a word
which they have to define and under it, are the taboo words. The taboo words are
words that pupils are not allowed to use to define the word. The other members of
the group have to guess the word.

## Chain Questions Game

This is a timed activity. Each pupil has a card which has a question on one side and
an answer to another question on the back. The first child asks the question and
the class must look for the answer on their own card. The pupil with the answer
then reads it out. If this answer is correct then they ask the question on their card.
The game goes on until the first pupil has the last answer. Stop the time and tell the
class what their time is. This game came be repeated to see if they can beat their
time.

Pairs
Pupils have one card and definitions on the other cards. They must then choose the
correct definition in the fastest time. This game can be played in pairs/threes. It will
help pupils to develop discussion skills and peer learning.

Word puzzles
To aid the development of literacy skills and reinforce scientific vocabulary word
games are very beneficial. Anagrams, crosswords and missing vowels ( key words
with the vowels missing) are examples of these.

Quiz
Pupils can be divided into teams, pairs or take part individually. Develop a box/
boxes of questions that can be topic based or general science questions. At the
beginning of a topic, lesson or at the end of the topic/ lesson these boxes can be
used to have a fun quiz. They can be linked to house points or other awards or
used just to revise topics.

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## JOINING FORCES KS3 RESOURCES

Additional Resources

## Useful web sites

www.rafmuseum.org.uk/london/learning/
aeronauts

## Printable worksheets on forces and motion.

There are also other worksheets covering topics
at KS3.

www.racemath.info

## Go to KS3 and pupils can test their knowledge

of equations, watch a real life crash and read
basic information on forces. Not very interactive.

www.engineeringinteract.org

## Go to resource bank and either do module or

module questions. Very slow but possible use
with the less able.

www.bbc.co.uk/school/bitesize

## Useful general revision.

www.howstuffworks.com

## Excellent information on how things work. E.g.

How roller coasters work. Useful for all topics

www.physics.org

## A simple one stop shop for any question on

physics. Type in your question at the top of the
screen

www.skool.co.uk

## Interactive presentations on most topics covered

in Yr7-9. Make sure your computers
loudspeakers are turned on.

www.science-interactive.co.uk

## Produces power point presentations for schools

to use in the classroom.

www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/weight/index.html

## Type in mass and will calculate weight on each

planet.

http://www.scishop.org

## Select forces and their effects and it will link you

to numerous web sites. Good for pupils for
independent learning and research

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