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# ME-203

Fluid Mechanics-I

## Why Study Fluid Mechanics

The world is full of fluid

Kannan Iyer
Kiyer@me.iitb.ac.in

## Water and air are indispensable for human

existence
No technology can survive without fluids
It is one of the most widely used subject in
Engineering

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay

technology

## Fluid Mechanics and Technology

Aerospace
Agriculture

- Aircrafts, Rockets
- Pumps, Irrigation networks

Chemical
Civil
Elect/CS

- Reactors, Distillation
- Dams, Rivers, Canals
- Packaging for cooling

Mechanical

Metallurgy

Pharmacy

Power

TURBULENT JET

## Wright Brothers - 1903

Dam construction in
order to hold large
body of water

GEAR PUMP

## A GENERAL PIPE NETWORK

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

PELTON TURBINE

What is a Fluid
Matter can be divided into Solid and Fluid

## AIRCRAFT PROPULSION SYSTEM

Solid

Fluid

Resists Deformation

Deforms Easily

## Strong Cohesive Force

(can resist shear)

## Weak Cohesive Force

(cannot resist shear)

Retains Shape

## Liquid and Gas

Fluids can be divided into Liquid and Gas

How to Study

Liquid

Gas

Retains volume

## Cannot retain volume

What is continuum?

## Keeping track of a large number of

molecules is difficult and impractical

## Continuous representation instead of

discreteness
Average properties defined
Empirical closure defined
This course will emphasize this aspect

Validity of Continuum
Molecular mean free path small
It can be expressed in terms of Knudsen Number
Knudsen Number, Kn =

## Mean free path

______________
System Length Scale
Refer

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kinetic/menfre.html#c1
Concept of a fluid particle

## For continuum to be valid

Kn 0.01

Consequences of Continuum

Analysis by Continuum
Can be very detailed

## Most important are

1. All parameters vary continuously
2. So Taylor series can be applied

u
2u
x 2
( x, y, z) x + 2 ( x, y, z)
+ ...
x
x
2

u ( x + x, y, z) = u ( x, y, z) +

uv ( x + x , y, z) = uv ( x , y, z ) +

uv
uv
x
( x , y, z)x +
( x , y, z)
+ ...
x
x 2
2

## We shall use this concept extensively

Lagrangian vs Eulerian
Lagrangian
This is control mass analysis
The equation are generated for the
fixed mass
When mass moves, then you move
with the mass

## Called Differential analysis

Results in Partial Differential Equation
Mostly needs computers except for simple cases
This becomes the basis for CFD

Can be overall

## Called Integral analysis

Details of flow distribution not important
Only system analysis is resorted to
Results in Algebraic equations

## Dimensions and Units

Systems of Dimensions
[M], [L], [t], and [T]
[F], [L], [t], and [T]
[F],[M], [L], [t], and [T]

Eulerian
This is control volume analysis
The equations are generated for the
volume
The volume may or may not move
We shall follow this approach

Systems of Units
MLtT

## Dimensions and Units

Preferred Systems of Units
SI (kg, m, s, K)

SI (kg, m, s, K)

FLtT
British Gravitational (lbf, ft, s, oR)

## British Gravitational (lbf, ft, s, oR)

FMLtT
English Engineering (lbf, lbm, ft, s, oR)

Principle of Dimensional
Homogenity
All additive terms in a physical equation must
have same dimensions

## Mannings Equation for open

channel flow
V (ft/s)=Average velocity, R=Hydraulic Radius (ft), S=slope
3

V(ft / s)

[R (ft )]2 3

= 1.49
2

## Experimentalists sometimes derive empirical

equations that are not dimensionally consistent
2

## Let us look at the dimensions of the constant 1.49

V = 1.49 R

V 2
p+
+ gH = cons tan t
2

V = 1.49 R

Principle of Dimensional
Homogenity

## Therefore if you measure in another system of Units

say SI, the value of 1.49 would not be the same. If we
convert into SI, 1.49 (ft1/3/s) becomes 1.00(m1/3/s)

## Scalar, Vector and Tensor - I

Certain propoerties like mass, temperature
have only magnitude and they are called
scalars

## Scalar, Vector and Tensor - II

A tensor has magnitude
and two or more directions
associated with it

## Certain other characteristics, such as

velocity, Force, etc., have directional effects.
Hence we need to specify magnitude and
direction. The parameter can be decomposed
into its components V = Vx i + Vy j + Vz k

Velocity
Velocity
is a vectorField
quantity-

## Since velocity can continuously vary it is

called a velocity field
V=ui+vj+wk
where i, j and k are the unit vectors in x, y
and z directions.

Velocity Field - II
In stationary Eulerian context, Steady state
implies that local velocity does not change
with time or V (x,y,z)
Mathematically

V
=0
t

In general V (x,y,z,t)

Dimensionality of a problem
The number of dimensions required to
specify the variations of properties of a
system is the dimensionality
The dimensionality can be reduced by
intelligently choosing a coordinate system
Examples to be discussed

## Time, Path, Stream and Streak Lines

Path line is the path traced by a fluid
particle in a flow field
Streak line is the locus of all the particles
that have passed through a given point
Stream line is line whose tangent at a point
defines the velocity direction at that point
Time line is the locus of all points that
originated from a line
Examples to be discussed

Property Review
Density( ) =

dM
d d0

Velocity(V) =
Pressure(p) =

dS
dt dt 0

## For ideal gas =

p
where, T (K), R = Ru/M
RT

R = cp - cv
Ru = 8314 J/k-mol-K (Universal Gas Constant)

Force
Area

cp

For ideal gas =

## Equations for Ideal Gas

p
where, T (K), R = Ru/M
RT

Concept of Distortion - I

cv

= 1.67

= 1.4

## For gases having more = 1.33

than two atoms

Concept of Distortion - II

Fluid Distortion

t1

Tan =

## As the top plate is

moved, the top layer
moves with plate and
the time line looks
like what has been
shown

to

Strain Rate

t2

FLUID
t2 > t1 > to

a
b

a = U t

=
& =

U t
b

Lt

t 0

& =

Newtonian Fluid

## For one dimensional flow

or

du
dy

U du
=
b
dy

Non-Newtonian Fluids

## Many fluids follow a linear relationship between

shear stress and strain rate

&

du
dy

Non-Newtonian Fluids
Special fluids (e.g., most biological fluids,
toothpaste, some paints, etc.)
Non-linear fluids

Dynamic Viscosity
SI Unit

: Pa-s or N-s/m2

## CGS Unit : dyne-s/cm2 (called Poise) = 0.1 Pa.s

Behavior of Fluids

## Viscosity Decreases with

temperature for liquids
This is because force of
cohesion decreases
Viscosity increases with
temperature for gases
This is because force of
molecular kinetic energy
increases

Kinematic Viscosity
Kinematic viscosity = =

Surface Tension -I

## In the interface surface tension

arises due to

Free surface

SI Unit

: m2/s

CGS Unit :

cm2/s

C
(called Stoke) = 0.0001

m2/s

## Cohesion - force of attraction

between molecules of a liquid

## Adhesion force of attraction

between two unlike molecules

Liquid
A

2 R = p R2

p = pi pe =

2
R

pi > pe

## Force balance implies

R 2 hg = 2R cos

h=

Contact Angle
Gives indication of
Wettability (ability to
stick to surfaces)
Fully-wetting
=0
Absolutely Non- = 180
wetting

2 cos
gR

Error Analysis

F = ma

F = F(m, a )

2
2
F
F
F =
m + a
a
m

1/ 2

## This procedure can be applied to any functional form

Hydrostatics
Study of Fluids at rest

Nature of Forces
Body Force

Dams

## Tanks or storage vessels

Moving with no relative motion

Gravity force
Centrifugal Force

## Uniformly accelerating tank

Inertial Force

Rotating cylinders

Electromagnetic force

## No Shear stresses in the fluid field

Nature of Forces
Surface Force

Pascals Law - I
The pressure at a point in a shear stress free
fluid is independent
of direction
z
ps x s

Pressure Force
Viscous Force

py x z
y

## Surface tension Force

pz x y

x y z
g
2

Pascals Law - II
Vertical Force Balance

x y z
2
gz
As s cos = y, p z = p s +
2
Horizontal Force Balance
p z x y = ps x s cos + g

p y x z = p s x s sin

## Governing Equation for Pressure Field - I

p

p + z + HoT x y
z

x y zg z

p x z

As s sin = z, p y = p s
When we shrink the element to a point, z tends to zero,
Hence pz = py = ps

p
p + y + HoT x z
y

z
y

p y z

x
x

p x y

p + x + HoT y z

## Governing Equation for Pressure Field - II

Z-direction Force Balance

## Governing Equation for Pressure Field - III

Similar Force Balance in x and y directions would yield

p x y p + z + HoT z 2+ x y x y zg = 0
z

+ g + HoT(z + ) xy z = 0

## In the limit of shrinking the volume to a point after

dividing the LHS by the volume

p
+ g = 0
z

Some Observations
1. The weight acts downwards, whereas positive z is
upwards, so we can write g = -gz
2. The final equations were force per unit volume = 0
3. In general, we can write the three equations as

p
+ g x = 0
x

p
p
=0
= 0 and
y
x

p
+ g y = 0
y

p
+ g z = 0
z

## This is because there was body force only in z direction

We shall generalize in the next slide after making some
observations

r
p + g = 0
p
r
g

## Is the net surface force (due to pressure) per unit

volume of fluid in the positive direction (in terms of
the components)
Is the net body force per unit volume of fluid in the
positive direction

equation as

r
p + g = 0

## Evaluation of pressure distribution

If gravity was the only body force involved, then we
had concluded that there will be pressure variation
only in vertical direction

Manometry
1. In a constant density fluid, pressure at a given
elevation from datum is same
2. This is exploited in measurement of pressure
using manometers

r
p + g = 0

p z

z
g

p
+ (g) = 0
z
p

or

prerf zref

pref
If is constant
then

dp = gdz
zref

## Pressure decreases with

increase in elevation

= g

## Measurement of atmospheric pressure

p atm = p vap + h
1. Standard sea level = 760
mm of Hg
2. This is about 10 m of
water column

Toricilli Barometer

U-Tube Manometer

U-Tube Manometer

p 3 = p ref + 2 h 2

p 2 = p3
p A = p 2 1h1
Pref = 0

p A = p ref + 2 h 2 1h1

## Capillarity effects are

negligible for large bore
tube ie., diameters
greater than 30 mm

## Inclined Tube Manometer

p A + 1h 1 2 h 2 3 h 3 = p B

Pressure Gauges

p A + 1 h 1 2 l 2 sin 3 h 3 = p B
Magnification is

1
sin

Inclination up to 10o Ok

## Below this angle

miniscis error becomes
large

## There are other type of transducers.

You may learn about them in Instrumentation
course

Hydraulic press

## Pressure distribution in compressible fluid - I

Gases are compressible and hence density is
not constant
p2

dp
=
dz

z2

z2

z1

z1

dp = g dz =

p1

RT g dz

z2

ln
F2 = (A2/A1)F1

## If A1 << A2 then F1 << F2

If T = cons tan t = T0
ln

## Temperature Variation in atmosphere

p2
g dz
=
p1
R z1 T

In general T = T (z)

Isothermal condition

g (z 2 z1 )
p2
= exp

p1
R To

p2
g (z 2 z1 )
=
p1
R To

## Pressure distribution in compressible fluid - II

Linear Temperature Variation

T = 150 C (288.15 K)

ln

= 1.225 kg/m3
= 12.014 N/m3

Airplanes

In Troposphere T
varies Linearly

T = To m z
= 0.0065 K / m

p2
g z 2 dz
=
p1
R z1 T

ln

ln

p2
g z2
dz
=
p1
R z1 To m z

p2
g 1 (T m z 2 )
= ln o
p1
R m (To m z1 )
g

T m z2
p
ln 2 = ln o

p1
To m z1

mR

T m z2
p2
= o

p1
To m z1

mR

## Determination of Hydrostatic forces is

important for the design of storage tanks,
pools, dams, ships and other hydraulic
structures
For fluids at rest
The force must be perpendicular to the surface
since there are no shearing stresses present.
The pressure will vary linearly with depth if the
fluid is incompressible.
FR = hA

Free Surface

## Pressure distribution on plane surface -III

O - origin
A

yC
yR

dF

FR

FR = p dA = (p o + h ) dA = p o A + y sin dA

hc h

= p o A + sin y dA = p o A + sin y c A
A

1
y dA y-coordinate of centroid
AA

Note

yc =

As

h c = y c sin

FR = p o A + A h c

dA
xR

Centroid, c
Location of resultant force
(center of pressure, CP)

xC

## Pressure distribution on plane surface -IV

Since atmospheric pressure
would cancel it is not being
carried around

## hc is the vertical distance between free surface and centroid

Note that there will also be a force poA that will act in the
opposite direction of FR from the other side of the plate.
Hence in the net force, atmospheric pressure will cancel

yR = yc +

## Moment of the resultant force = Moment of the distributed force

FR y R = y dF = y [ h dA ]=
A

y [ y sin dA ]

= sin y dA = sin I xx

= sin I xx c + Ayc

sin I xx c
FR

xR = xc +

sin I xy c
FR

## Resultant force does not pass through the centroid but

is always below it

## = sin I xx c + h c Ayc = sin I xx c + FR y c

Summary
MAGNITUDE OF THE RESULTANT FORCE

FR = A h c
LOCATION OF THE RESULTANT FORCE

yR = yc +
The values of second
moment of area for
some shapes. The
nomenclature is a bit
different but easy to
grasp

xR = xc +

sin I xx c
FR
sin I xy c
FR

Buoyancy Force

FH = F2

FV = F1 + W

## When a body is completely submerged in a fluid, or

floating so that it is only partially submerged, the
resultant upward force acting on the body due to
pressure on the surfaces is called buoyancy force
The line of action of the buoyant force passes through
the centroid of the displaced volume. The centroid is
called the Center of buoyancy
Buoyancy force on the body = Weight of the fluid
displaced by the body

## Archimedes Principle Greek Scientist (287 BC 212 B.C)

Buoyancy Force - II

## Buoyancy Force - III

General interpretation

A simple case

FB = (P2 P1 )(l b )
p2

p1

z1

z2

z2

But P2 P1 = dp = dz

P1

z1

FB = (l b ) dz = (l b ) dz
z
z
1
2
z2

z1

P2

g dm fluid = m fluid g

domain

## Consider an imaginary water lump ABCD

The vertical force on the top surface ABC will be
equal to the weight of the liquid above it
Similarly, the vertical force on the
bottom surface ADC will be equal to
the weight of the liquid above it
Thus the net vertical force on the
lump will be equal to the weight of
liquid lump
If a body replaces the lump, the force
field will not change

Buoyancy Force - IV
Archimedes Principle holds good
for bodies of any general shape
for both gases and liquids
does not require density to be constant

Liquid (f)

Principle of Hydrometer
Hydrometer is used to
find the specific gravity
of liquids

W = water g Vs

## When immersed in an unknown SG fluid

W = SG water g ( Vs m A h )
SG =

Vs

( Vs m A h )
A

## For naval vehicles

Ah
1 m

Vs

Ah
Vs

Stem can be
calibrated to read SG

A
Original
level

Vs
Water (water)

Vs
Other liquid

Buoyancy

## The problem of determining stability is complex as the

centre of Buoyancy shifts when the object is tilted

object is stable

## Stability of Floating Objects-III

Tall slender bodies are generally unstable

## Pressure variation in fluids with rigid

body motion
Even though a fluid may be in motion, if it moves as a
rigid body there will be no shearing stresses present
An acceleration of a particle sets up an inertial force in
the direction opposite to the acceleration (called
d'Alemberts force
The general governing equation for fluid in a
gravitational and accelerational field can be stated as
r r
r r
p + (g a) = 0 or p = (g a)
p
= (g x a x )
x

## Pressure variation in a tank subjected to

rectilinear uniform acceleration-I
z

z
ay
g

p
= 0,
x

y
x

ax = az = gx = gy = 0, ay = a, gz = -g
p
= a
y

p
= g
z

p
= (g z a z )
z

## Pressure variation in a tank subjected to

rectilinear uniform acceleration-I
The equation for a constant pressure line shall be

y
x

p
= (g y a y )
y

## P is only a function of y and z

p
= a p = ay + f (z) + c
y
p
= g p = gz + f ( y) + c p = (gz + ay) + c
similarly
z

p = (gz + ay) + c = C

(gz + ay) = C

z = C

a
y
g

Choosing the origin such that the free surface left hand
side is the origin, then C = 0 for the free surface
Therefore, the equation of the free surface is
z=

a
y
g

## Assuming the fluid to be incompressible, the mid-point

of free surface is unaffected

## The case of rotating cylinder-I

In cylindrical coordinates the governing equation can be
stated as follows
p
= (g r a r )
r

1 p
= (g a )
r

p
= (g z a z )
z

p
= 2 r
r
p
= 2 r
r
similarly

1 p
=0
r

p=

p
= g
z

p is only a function of r
and z

2 r 2
+ f (z) + c
2

2
p
= g p = gz + f (r ) + c p = (gz + r ) + c
z
2

## The equation for a constant pressure line shall be

p = (gz

a = az = gr = g = 0,

ar = -2r, gz = -g

r 2
r 2
r 2
) + c = C (gz
) = C z = C+
2
2g
2

## The case of rotating cylinder-III

Choosing the origin such that the free surface centre is
the origin, then C = 0 (z=0, r=0)
z=

r 2
2g

## Integral Analysis for Control

Volumes-I
Governing Equations in mechanics, thermodynamics, etc.,
are derived for constant mass systems
In fluid mechanics, often, the interest is not of the moving
fluid but its action on the structures through which it
passes
Pressure drop in a pipe

## Integral Analysis for Control

Volumes-II
There is a need to convert the laws for a fixed mass to
laws for a fixed or moving (having relative velocity with
the fluid) volume.
This is accomplished by the Reynolds transport theorem
Before we derive it let us have a quick look at laws for the
fixed mass

## Forces on pipe bends

Temperature of fuel elements in a reactor

Fixed Mass-I

## Governing Equations for

Fixed Mass-II
Conservation of Angular Momentum

Conservation of Mass

dM sys

= 0;

dt

where M sys =

dm =

d
sys

M sys

dt

dt

= T;

= F;

where Psys =

Vdm =

Vd

e dm =
M sys

V2
+ gz
2
kinetic

Shaft
Torque

Fixed Mass-IV
e d

sys

components

Internal

Due to body
forces

## Second law of thermodynamics

where E sys =

e=u+

r g dm + Texternal

Due to
surface forces

sys

= Q W;

r Vd
sys

M sys

Fixed Mass-III

dt

r Vdm =
M sys

T = r Fs +
M sys

dE sys

where H sys =

dPsys

dH sys

potential

dSsys
dt

Q
+ Sp
T

where Ssys =

s dm =

N sys =

dm =
M sys

d
sys

s d
sys

M sys

Conservation

Mass

M 1

Lin. Mom

P V

Ang. Mom

I-law-Thermo

E e

II-law-Thermo

S s

r V

## This theorem converts conservation laws from

Control Mass system to Control Volume System .

## Initially at time t, control mass

and control volume coincide

## After t, the control mass (Msys)

has moved partially out

## Then we shall generalize and apply to other conservation

laws

M sys ( t ) = M CV ( t )

apply them
dt

M CV
m in + m out
t

d + V.dA + V.dA
t CV
CSin
CSout

## Note that V.dA

dM sys
dt

in

mout

M sys ( t + t ) = M CV ( t + t ) m in + m out
dM sys

M ( t + t ) M CV ( t ) m in + m out
M CV ( t + t ) m in + m out M CV ( t )
= CV
t
t
t 0

min

M sys ( t + t ) M sys ( t )
t

=
t 0

M CV ( t + t ) m in + m out M CV ( t )
t
t 0

## Reynolds Transport Theorem-IV

dM sys
t 0

dt

d + V.dA
t CV
CS

Conservation of Mass

dM sys

A
V

## is negative by vector convention

d + V.dA
t CV
CS

dt

d = V.dA = 0
t CV
CS
Rate of increase of mass
in control volume

Application-I
Seawater flows steadily through a simple conical-shaped nozzle at
the end of a fire hose as illustrated in Fig. If the nozzle exit velocity
must be at least 20 m/s. determine the minimum pumping capacity
required in m3/s.

d + V.dA = 0
t CV
CS

=0

## Net rate of influx of mass

through control surface

Application-II

dV + V.dA = 0
t cv
cs

V.dA = m 2 m1 = 0

## Zero flow is steady

cs

If Density is constant Q1 - Q2 = 0
Or, Q1 = Q2 = Q = V2A2

Q = 20

40 10 3
4

= 0.0251 m 3 / s

Application-III

Application-IV

Moist air (a mixture of dry air and water vapor) enters a dehumidifier at the
rate of 324 kg/hr. Liquid water drains out of the dehumidifier at a rate of 7.3
kg/hr Determine the mass flow rate of the dry air and the water vapor leaving
the dehumidifier. A simplified sketch of the process is provided in Fig.

dV + V.dA = 0
t cv
cs
Zero flow is

## m 2 = m1 m 3 = 324 7.3 = 316.7 kg / hr

m3 = ?

m 1 = 324 kg / hr

V.dA = m1 + m 2 + m 3 = 0
cs

## Now if we take the whole system as control volume

m1 m 2 m 3 + m 4 m 5 = 0
m 4 = m5
m 3 = 7.3 kg / hr

## Reynolds Transport Theorem-V

Conservation of Momentum
Newtons Second Law

Generalization

dN sys
dt

d + V.dA
t CV
CS

## Rate of increase of a general

property in control volume

dPsys
dt

## Net rate of outflux of the property

through control surface

Conservation

Mass

M 1

Lin. Mom

P V

Ang. Mom

I-law-Thermo

E e

II-law-Thermo

S s

= F;

of momentum

V d + V V.dA = F
t CV
CS

r V

Application-V

FA

## Determine the anchoring force

required to hold in place a conical
nozzle attached to the end of a
laboratory sink faucet shown in Fig.
when the water flowrate is 0.6 liters.
The nozzle mass is 0.1 kg. The nozzle
inlet and exit diameters are 16 mm
and 5 mm, respectively.
The nozzle axis is vertical and the
axial distance between sections (1)
and (2) is 30 mm. The pressure at
section (1) is 464 kPa.

## The anchoring force sought is the reaction force

between the faucet and nozzle threads. To evaluate
this force, control volume selected includes the
nozzle and the water contained in the nozzle

Wn
p1A1
w1

Application-VI
FA anchoring force that holds the
nozzle in place
Wn weight of the nozzle
Ww weight of the water in the nozzle
P1 gage pressure at section (1)
A1 cross section area at section (1)
P2 gage pressure at section (2)
A2 cross section area at section (2)

Ww

## w1 z direction velocity at the control

volume entrance (assumed uniform)
w2 z direction velocity at the control
volume exit (assumed uniform)

p2A2
w2

## The action of atmospheric

pressure cancels out in every
direction and is not shown

Application-VII

Application-VIII

V d + V V.dA = F
t CV
CS

## m = A1 w 1 = Q = 1000 0.6 10 3 = 0.6 kg / s

V V.dA = ( w 1 )(m1 ) + ( w 2 )m 2

Zero flow is

CS

F = FS + FB = FA p1A1 + p 2 A 2 Wn Ww

m1w 1 m 2 w 2 = FA p1A1 + p 2 A 2 Wn Ww
Conservation of mass
0

## (D1 )2 = 16 103 2 = 2.011104 m 2

4
4
2

2
A 2 = (D 2 ) = (5 10 3 ) = 1.964 10 5 m 2
4
4

dV + V.dA = 0
t cv
cs

m1 m 2 = 0 or m1 = m 2 = m

Application-IX
h 2
Ww = Vw g =
D1 + D 22 + D1 D 2 g
12

W1 =

Q
0.6 10 3
=
= 2.98 m / s
A1 2.011 10 4

W2 =

Q
0.6 10 3
=
= 30.6 m / s
A 2 1.964 10 5

## For Moving Control Volumes

(with constant velocity)

(0.03)
(0.016)2 + (0.004)2 + (0.016)(0.004) 9.81 = 0.0278 N
Ww = 1000
12

Atmospheric pressure

dN sys
dt

p2 = 0

FA = m (w 1 w 2 ) + p1A1 p 2 A 2 + Wn + Ww

A1 =

d + Vrel .dA = 0
t CV
CS

Mass Balance

## FA = 16.572 + 0.981 + 93.3104 + 0.0278 0

d + Vrel .dA
t CV
CS

Momentum Balance

FA = 77.75 N

Application-X
An airplane moves forward at a speed of 971 kmph as shown in Fig. The
frontal intake area of the jet engine is 0.8m2 and the entering air density
is 0.736 kg/m3. A stationary observer determines that relative to the
earth, the jet engine exhaust gases move away from the engine with a
speed of 1050 kmph. The engine exhaust area is 0.558 m2 and the
exhaust gas density is 0.515kg/m3. Estimate the mass flow rate of fuel
into the engine.

t CV
CS

Application-XI

d + Vrel .dA = 0
t CV
CS
0

## Vrel .dA = m air out m air in m fuel in All relative to moving

control Volume

CS

m fuel in = 2 A 2 W2 1A1W1

= 2.5278 kg / s

## A vane on wheels moves with constant velocity Vo when a stream of

water having a nozzle exit velocity of V1 is turned 45o by the vane as
indicated in Fig. Determine the magnitude and direction of the force,
F, exerted by the stream of water on the vane surface. The speed of
the water jet leaving the nozzle is 33 m/s, and the vane is moving to
the right with a constant speed of 6 m/s.

x-direction

cs

z-direction

Application-XII

A1 = 5.6 10-4 m2

CS

## Vrel d + Vrel Vrel .dA = F

t CV
CS
0

Rz

Conservation of mass;

## m rel 1 = 1 A1 Vrel 1 ; m rel 2 = 2 A 2 Vrel 2 ;

Water flow is frictionless and that the change in water elevation
across the vane is negligible. Therefore, Vrel is constant

0.3 m

Rx

## The relative veloicty of the stream of water entering the control

volume Vrel-1 = V1 Vo = 33- 6 = 27 m/s = Vrel-2

dH sys

R x = 119.6 N

dt

T = r Fs +

1.65

Due to
surface forces

= 67.6

Due to body
forces

Shaft
Torque

## R 2x + R 2z = 119.6 2 + 290.32 = 314 N

R
290.3
= Tan 1 z = Tan 1
= 2.43
Rx
119.6

r g dm + Texternal
M sys

R z = 290.3 N
R=

r V d + r V V.dA = T
t CV
CS

= T;

## W = g A1 l = 1000 9.81 5.6 10 4 0.3 = 1.65 N

(15.12)(+ 27 Cos45) = R z

m rel 1 = m rel 2 = m

## We will do it for a fixed control volume as rotating

control volume needs many more terms that are beyond
the scope of this first course

Application-I

Application-II
y

## The mass balance can be applied even to accelerating

control volume using

Neglect
tip length

d + Vrel .dA = 0
t CV
CS

CS

## Since the density is constant

Given: Geometry, flow rate
through sprinkler, rotational
speed and pressure at inlet

Q water in

moving CV

= Q water out

moving CV

## To Find: jet speed relative to

each nozzle, frictional torque

Application-III

Application-IV

Note that at inlet, the volume flow rate for moving control volume
is same as that for fixed control volume, which is known

Q water in
Vrel =

moving CV

= Q water out

moving CV

= Q water in

## We know that T has three components

T = r Fs +

stationary CV

r g dm + Texternal
M sys

Q
2A jet

r Fs = 0

## To get the frictional torque, we need to solve the angular

momentum equation

1.

2.

## At inlet the resultant passes through r = 0

r g dm = 0

r V d + r V V.dA = T
t CV
CS

## The moment on one arm is balanced by the other arm

M sys

T = Texternal = Tfriction = Tk

## This is a vector equation; but we need only the Z component

Note that we refer to fixed CV

Application-V
Computation of transient term

r V d
t CV

Application-VI

## V = ( Vrel cos i + Vrel sin j) + (r sin i + r cos j )

r V = ( Vrel r sin cos + r sin ) k +
(Vrel r sin cos r 2 sin 2 )( k ) = r 2k
2

CV

R 3
A k
3

Conservation of Momentum in
Accelerating Frame-I
dPsys
dt

= F;

## Valid only for Inertial Frame

(non-accelerating)

## For problems like a rocket taking off, we need

accelerating frame analysis
For simplicity only rectilinear accelerating frames
would be considered

R
V
Re l
i

r = ( R cos i + R sin j )

R A
r V d =
k =0
t CV
t
3
3

CS

## At inlet r = 0; hence no contribution

r = ( r cos i + r sin j)

r V d = r 2Adr k =

r V V.dA

## V = (Vrel R ) sin i ( Vrel R ) cos j

r V = R cos i ((Vrel R ) cos ) j + R sin j (Vrel R ) sin i

= ( Vrel R )Rk

V.dA = Q
A

Even if friction is 0,
maximum = Vrel/R

T = (Vrel R )R kQ

## Accounts for both jets

Conservation of Momentum in
Accelerating Frame-II
In the discussion XYZ frame is inertial frame and
PQR would be non inertial

Conservation
of momentum

## dVXYZ dVPQR dVRe l

=
+
dt
dt
dt

d VXYZ d
sys

dt

d ( VPQR + VRe l )d
= FXYZ =

sys

dt
d VRe l d

d VPQR d

## An example would illustrate application

FXYZ = FPQR =

sys

dt

sys

dt

Conservation of Momentum in
Accelerating Frame-III
d VRe l d
FPQR

sys

dt

d VPQR d
=

sys

dt

d VPQR d
FPQR

FPQR

a Re ld =

sys

a Re ld =

sys

sys

dt

## VPQR d + VPQR V.dA

t CV
CS

Application

Given
Initial Mass = 400 kg
Fuel consumption rate = 5 kg/s
Exhaust Velocity = 3500 m/s
Find
Initial acceleration

Ve

## Atmospheric pressure all around and air

resistance neglected
0

-400 X 9.81

400 X ay

FS PQR + FB PQR a Re ld =
sys

-3500 X 5

t CV
CS

## VPQR= const, M ~ Const.

Differential Analysis

## Control volume approach is very practical and useful,

where a detailed knowledge of the fluid properties
(pressure, velocity, etc.) within the control volume are
not required
It cannot provide answers when variation of
properties in the fluid domain is desired

equipment

## Here the control volume is shrunk to a point

so that we get differential equations

## In control volume the inside

is treated as black box. Only
forces on the contol volume
are solved for

Conservation of Mass-I

## In differential analysis the

information is obtained for
every point in the interior,
given boundary conditions
out side

Conservation of Mass-II

## We had seen that for a control volume the mass

conservation was written as

(w )
w +
z xy
z

r r

dV + V.dA = 0
t cv
cs

u y z

## Let us do the same for the infinitesimal cuboid

of size x , y, z

v
v +
y x z
y

(xyz )
dV
t
t cv

v x z

z
y

Conservation of Mass-III
r r
V.dA = uyz + ( vxy) + ( wxz) +
(u )
(v )
uy z +
xy z + v x z +
xy z +
x
y
(w )
w x y +
x y z
z
r r

dV + V.dA = 0
t cv
cs

(u ) (v ) (w )

xyz = 0
xyz +
+
+
t
y
z
x
(u ) (v ) (w )
+
+
+
=0
t
x
y
z

CS

w xy

x y z
u +
x

Conservation of Mass-IV
(u ) (v ) (w )
+
+
+
= 0 Can be written in vectorial form as
t
x
y
z

+ . V = 0
t

( )

r
.V = 0

r
. V = 0

( )

Vector operation

## In Cartesian System (rectangular coordinates)

r r r
= ex
+ ey
+ ez
z
x
y

Translation

r r
r
r
V = ex u + e y v + ez w

## If all points in the element

have the same velocity then
the element will simply
TRANSLATE from one
position to another.

## This is true if there are no

r u v w
.V =
+ +
x y z
In Cylindrical coordinate system

r
r
r
r
V = Vr e r + V e + Vz e z

r r 1 r
= er + e
+ ez
r
z
r
r 1 (rVr ) 1 V Vz
.V =
+
+
r r
r
z

## Kinematics of Fluid Flow-II

Linear Deformation

## Kinematics of Fluid Flow-III

Linear Deformation for 3-D

Consider 1-D

For 3-D

u v w
+ +
x y z

## For volume to remain constant or incompressibility. Hence, the

volumetric strain rate should be zero

u v w
+ +
=0
x y z
The left edge moves less and the right
moves more

u
Stretching = x t
x

Strain rate =

u
x

## Kinematics of Fluid Flow-IV

Angular Deformation

## Kinematics of Fluid Flow-V

Angular velocity of OA

oA =

Lim
t 0 t

(v x ) x t = v t

Tan =

## OA and OB will rotate through angles and to the new

positions OA and OB

oA =

v
t v

x
=x
t

Lim

t 0

- counterclockwise
- positive

oB =

## Rotation z of the element about the z-axis is defined as the

average of the angular velocities oA and oB of the two
mutually perpendicular lines OA and OB.

Lim
t 0 t

## For small angles

oB

u t
y u
=
= Lim
t
y
t 0

1 v u
Note the negative sign

## assigned to the second term

2 x y
Similarly rotation around x and y axis may be written as
z =

u y t
y
u

Tan =
=
t
y
y

x =
- clockwise
- negative

y =

1u w

2 z
x

## Hence angular velocity vector may be written as

r
r
r
= x i + y j + z k

Fluid acceleration-I

1w v

2 y
z

1
1
curl V = V
2
2

## Vorticity is defined as the vector that is

twice the angular velocity vector
Flow is irrotational when V = 0
Fluid element will rotate about the z
axis as an undeformed block when
oA= oB or when u = v
y

## When following fluid particle acceleration is defined as

r
r dV
a=
dt
r
Applying chain rule as V( x, y, z, t ) we can write
r
r
r
r
r V
V
V
V
dV =
dt +
dx +
dy +
dz
t
x
y
z
r
r
r
r
r
dV V V dx V dy V dz

=
+
+
+
dt
t x dt y dt z dt
dx
dy
dz
By definition
= u,
= v, and
=w
dt
dt
dt

Fluid acceleration-II
r
r
r
r
r
dV V V
V
V
=
+
u+
v+
w
dt
t x
y
z
r
r
r
r
r
dV V
V
V
V
or
=
+u
+v
+w
dt
t
x
y
z

Fluid acceleration-III

## The subsequent three terms are the accelerations components

by virtue of motions in x, y and z directions

## Consider a steady one dimensional incompressible

velocity field in a converging conical section
1

## From control volume analysis we had shown that

& in = m
& out 1A1V1 = 2 A 2 V2
m
As 1 = 2 A1V1 = A 2 V2

## By conveniently choosing 2 to be at a arbitrary distance

x from inlet, we can state that
A V Velocity increases
V(x ) = 1 1
A1V1 = A ( x )V ( x )
A ( x ) as area decreases

## Thus we note that though temporal acceleration is zero,

fluid accelerates as it changes its position

Fluid acceleration-IV

Fluid acceleration-IV

## This derivative also arises in Eulerian analysis, which

will be shown shortly.

r r r
= ex
+ ey
+ ez
x
y
z

dX X
X
X
X
=
+u
+v
+w
dt
t
x
y
z
or

## We know that the gradient operator is given by

Velocity is given by

Hence

r r
r
r
V = ex u + ey v + ez w

d( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
=
+u
+v
+w
dt
t
x
y
z

## This derivative is also called material derivative as it arises

when we follow the material and material derivative
operator is denoted by

V. = u
+v u
y z
x
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) r
+u
+v
+w
=
+ V.( )
t
x
y
z
t

D( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
=
+u
+v
+w
Dt
t
x
y
z

or

Conservation of Momentum-I

operator

(uw )
uw +
z xy
z

uu y z

z

r r

## u dV + uV.dA = FSx + FBx

t cv
cs

uv x z

z
y
x

uw xy

Conservation of Momentum-III

r r
uV.dA = uuyz + ( uvxy) + ( uwxz) +

(uu )
(uv )
xy z + v x z +
xy z +
x
y
(uw )
uw x y +
x y z
z
(uu ) (uv) (uw )
xyz
=
+
+
y
z
x
uuy z +

## (u ) (uu ) (uv ) (uw )

xyz
=
+
+
+
x
y
z
t

()
(u )
(u )
(v )
(u )
+u
+u
+ u
+u
+

t
t
x
x
y

=
(w )
(u )
(u )
v y + u z + w z

xyz

r r

u dV + uV.dA
t cv
cs

uv
uv +
y x z
y

(uxyz)
u dV
t cv
t

CS

( )

Conservation of Momentum-II

## Recollect that the momentum equation for fixed control

volume as

r r r
r
r
V dV + VV.dA = F
t cv
cs

D( ) ( ) r
=
+ V. ( )
Dt
t

uu

x y z
uu +
x

Conservation of Momentum-IV
(u )
(u )
(u )
(u )
+ u
+ v
+ w
+

t
x
y
z

=
(u )
(v )
(w )
( )
u t + u x + u y + u z

xyz

(u )
(u )
(u )
(u )
xyz
=
+ u
+ v
+ w
x
y
z
t
(u )
(u )
(u )
(u )
xyz
=
+u
+v
+w
x
y
z
t
r r
(u ) r

+ V. ( u ) xyz
u dV + uV.dA =

t
t cv

cs

( )

Conservation of Momentum-V
Similar exercise in y and z directions will give

r r
(v ) r

v dV + vV.dA =
+ V. ( v) xyz

t cv
cs
t

( )

r r
(w ) r

w dV + wV.dA = t + V. (w ) xyz
t cv
cs

( )

Forces-I

reduced to zero

zz

zy
yz

zx

yy

In general

y yx

r
r r r
r
r
V
r

V
d
V
V
V
.
d
A

t + V. ( V) xyz
t cv
cs

( ) ( )

x
x

Forces-II

Forces-III

## Let us just do in x- direction as we did earlier

zx + zx z x y
z

yx + yx y x z
y

yx x z

xx y z

zx x y

xx + xx x y z
x

Conservation of Momentum-VI

r r

## u dV + uV.dA = FSx + FBx

t cv
cs
(u ) r

( xx ) ( yx ) ( zx )

+ V. (u ) xyz = g x +
xyz
+
+
x
y
z

( )

(u ) r

( xx ) ( yx ) ( zx )

+
+

+ V. ( u ) = g x +
x
y
z
t

## The final form of y and z-momentum can now be arrived as

( xy ) ( yy ) ( zy )
(v ) r

+ V. ( v) = g y +
+
+
x
y
z

( )

( )

(w ) r

( xz ) ( yz ) ( zz )

+ V. ( w ) = g z +
+
+
x
y
z
t

( )

## FSx = xx yz + ( zx xy) + ( yx xz) +

( yx )
( xx )
xx yz +
xy z + yx x z +
yx z +
x
y
( zx )
zx x y +
zx y
z
( xx ) ( yx ) ( zx )
xyz
=
+
+
y
z
x

x
x

## Body Force is x-direction can be written as

FBx = g x xyz

Constitutive Equations-I
Till now we have derived two equations
The mass balance equation is a scalar equation
It is also called Continuity Equation
(u ) (v ) (w )
+
+
+
=0
t
x
y
z

## x, y, z and t are independent variables and known

u, v, w and are dependent variables and unknown
In incompressible flow density is known and
specified
Thus mass balance has 3/4 unknowns

Constitutive Equations-II

Constitutive Equations-III

## The momentum balance equation is a vector

equation and it represents 3 equations
(u )

+
t
(v )

+
t

(V. ) (u )
r

( xx )
= g x +
+
x

( xy )

= g y +
+
x

V. ( v)

(w ) r

( xz )

+ V. ( w ) = g z +
+
x

( )

( )

( yx )

## To solve this problem additional equations have to

be generated so that number of equations balance
the number of unknowns

(zx )

z
( yy ) ( zy )

+
y
z
( yz ) ( zz )

+
y
z
y

## Mathematically, this is called closure

The equations for closure includes expressions for
stresses. These are empirical models
We shall accept them and proceed. These will be
derived in the next level course.

stresses.

## We have many unknowns and only 4 equations

Stress-Strain relations
r
u 2
.V
x 3
r
v 2
yy = p + 2
.V
y 3
r
w 2
zz = p + 2
.V
z
3
xx = p + 2

Navier-Stokes Equations-I
Substitution of stresses in the momentum balance
equation gives the following

( )

( )

Normal stresses

( )

u v
xy = yx = +
y x
v w
yz = zy = +

z y

w u
zx = xz =
+
x z

r u v
Du
p u 2
u w
=
+
2
.V +
+ g x
+ +
+
Dt
x x x 3
y y x z z x

( )

yx

xx

u u u
p
u v w
+ 2 + 2 + 2 +
+
+
x
y
z x x y z
x
2

Shear stresses

## We have all stresses in terms

of pressure and velocities

zx
r
2
.V + g x
3

( )

2u 2 u 2 u
Du
p
r
=
+ 2 + 2 + 2 +
.V + g x
Dt
x
y
z x 3

( )

Navier-Stokes Equations-II

Navier-Stokes Equations-III

## For incompressible liquids

r
.V = 0
The resulting equations are called Navier-Stokes Eqs.

2v 2v 2v
Dv
p
r
=
+ 2 + 2 + 2 +
.V + g y
Dt
y

y 3

( )

2w 2w 2w
Dw
p
r

=
+ 2 +
+
+
.V + g z
2
2
Dt
z

z 3

( )

## In a compact for the set of three equations can be

written as

r
r
r
r
DV

= P + 2 V + .V + g
Dt
3
The only assumption is the equation for stresses,
which is the generalized law for Newtonian Fluids

( )

2u 2u 2u
u
u
u
u
p
+ u
+ v + w =
+ 2 + 2 + 2 + g x

x
y
z

x
2v 2v 2v
v
v
v
v
p
+ u
+ v + w =
+ 2 + 2 + 2 + g y
x
y
z
y
y
z
t
x
2w 2w 2w
w
w
w
w
p
=

+u
+v
+w
+ 2 +
+
+ g z

z
y 2
z 2

In Vector form we
can write as

r
r
r
r
V
r

+ ( V. )V = p + 2 V + g

## The case of the falling Film

Flow of a film of water on an inclined plane
No variations assumed perpendicular to paper (2-D)

Continuity Eq.

u v
+
=0
x y

gc
o s

## Flow fully developed (u not function of x)

Flow incompressible
x

gs

## This is true for all viscous flows

Therefore, v = 0 everywhere.

## Under several assumptions we can get analytical

solution for velocity distribution
1.
2.

Assumption-1

Application-III

gs

in

2v 2v
v
v
v
p
+ u
+ v =
+ 2 + 2 + g y
x
y
y
y
t
x
p
p
=

gy
cos
+ C( x )
or
0 =
+ ( g cos )
y

## p = 0 (reference pressure) on the surface of

the film everywhere
Y-momentum Eq.

in

gc
o s

Application-II

Application-I

## Using Boundary condition p (x,h) = 0

p = g ( h y) cos

C(x ) = gh cos

p
=0
x

Navier-Stokes Equations-IV
For incompressible liquids in cylindrical coordinates

X-momentum Eq.

2 u 2u
u
u
u
p
+ u
+ v =
+ 2 + 2 + g x
x
y
x
y
t
x
d 2 u gSin
d 2u
=
+ gSin
2
dy 2

dy
gSin y 2
u=
+ c1y + c 2

r-component

0=

Continuity
r 1 (rVr ) 1 V Vz
.V =
+
+
=0
r r
r
z

Note u = u(y)

## u = 0 at y = 0 (No slip Boundary Condition)

du
= 0 at y = h (free shear boundary Condition)
dy
gSin
y2
hy
u=

2

Navier-Stokes Equations-V
-component

V V V Vr V
V
V
+ Vr +
+
+ Vz =
r
r
r
z
t
1 (rV ) 1 2 V 2 V 2 V
1 p

g
+
+
+
+ 2
2
z 2 r 2
r
r r r r
z-component

V V Vz
V
V
z + Vr z +
+ Vz z =
r
r
z
t
1 rVz 1 2 Vz 2 Vz
p

g z +
+

+ 2
2
z
z 2
r r r r

2
V
V V Vr V
V
r + Vr r +

+ Vz r =
r
r
r
z
t
1 (rVr ) 1 2 Vr 2 Vr 2 V
p

g r +
+

+ 2
2
r
z 2 r 2
r r r r

Euler Equations
If viscosity can be neglected, or for inviscid flows, the
viscous term drops out of momentum equations and
the resulting equations are called Euler Equations
u
u
u
u
p
+ u
+ v + w =
+ g x
x
y
z
x
t

v
v
v
v
p
+ u
+ v + w =
+ g y
x
y
z
y
t
w
w
w
w
p
=

+u
+v
+w
+ g z
x
y
z
z
t

r
r
r
r
DV

= P + 2 V + .V + g
Dt
3

( )

Note that
incompressible
assumption is
not invoked.
Hence valid for
compressible
flows

## When we deal with two dimensional flows, it is useful

to define a function called Stream Function
It is defined in such a way that the Continuity
Equation is automatically satisfied

## We will now show that is constant along a stream line

We had seen that the equation of a stream line could
be obtained by solving for
dy v
= ,
dx u

= u,
=v
y
x

udy vdx = 0

dy
dx = 0 d = 0
y
x

u v

, +
= 0

+
=
x y x y
y x

Continuity
automatically
satisfied

## We shall now interpret that the difference of

between the two stream lines represents the flow per
unit width perpendicular to the this slide

= 2

## 2- 1 = flow rate per unit

length perpendicular to slide

= 1

y
r r
dy dx
dQ = (V.n )dA = ( u i + v j). i
ds
ds

r r
dy dx
= (V.n )dA = (u i + v j). i
ds
ds

j ds(1)

dA = ds(1)
ds

= d

xV = 0

r
n

In 2-d flow

dx
dy dx
dy
= u
v ds =

ds
ds
ds
y ds x ds

r
V

+ d

j ds

flow

xV =

v u

=0

x y x x y y

2 = 0

Hence proved

## Given: Incompressible Air flows into space between closely spaced

parallel discs through a porous surface at a velocity Vo
Find:

## (a) If Vr can be assumed uniform, show for a control volume

enclosing the gap that Vr = Vor/(2h)
(b) Find an expression for Vz
(c) Find the acceleration of fluid particle in gap

Assumptions
Flow is axi-symmetric and steady
r r

dV + V.dA = 0
t cv
cs
Flow in = Flow out
0

Control
Volume

Continuity Equation
1 (rVr ) 1 V Vz
+
+
=0
r r
r
z
0
V
1 ( rVr )
1 r 2 V0
1 rV
V

= 0= 0
z =
=
z
r r
r r 2h
r h
h

Vz
V
Vz
= 0 Vz = 0 + f ( r )
z
h
h

r 2 V0 = 2rhVr

Vz = V0

Vr
V V Vr
V
+ Vr r +
+ Vz r
t
r
r
z
0
0
0
2
V r V V r
a r = 0 0 = 0
2
h
2
h
2
h

ar =

az =

p
= g s

## Since the coordinate system directions are arbitrary, let

us choose r direction aligned with stream line at a local
point

stream line

## No velocity normal to stream line

V
p Subscript r changed to s to
Vs s = g s
s
s indicate stream direction

z
r

in

s
s
g
g g co

Bernoullis Equation-III
The conditions that have been used in deriving
Bernoullis Equation are:

## If density is taken as constant

Vs

s 2

Bernoullis Equation-I

Bernoullis Equation-II
Vs

s 2

V0 z
h

2
V
V V Vr V
V
p
r + Vr r +

+ Vz r = g r

r
r

z
r

Vz
V V Vz
V
+ Vr z +
+ Vz z
t
r
r
z
0
0
0

2
z V V z
a z = V0 1 0 = 0 1
h h h h

Vz ( z = h ) = 0 0 = V0 + f (r ) f ( r ) = V0

Boundary condition

V0
rV
0 = Vr
2h

## 2. Viscous effects are neglected

p
Vs
H p
= g sin

or

2 = g s s

H
2

V
= sin
Note
p + s + gH = 0
s

s
2

3. Density is constant
4. Valid along a stream line

## Thus along stream line

p+

V 2
+ gH = cons tan t
2

Bernoullis Equation

Pressure-I

Pressure-II

## Static Pressure: Local thermodynamic pressure measured

without changing its state
Stagnation Pressure: It is the hypothetical pressure that will
be measured, if the fluid is brought to rest in a frictionless
manner at the same elevation

## The relationship between static and stagnation pressure can be

obtained by Bernoullis equation
0
2
2
V1
V2
p1 +
+ gH1 = p 2 +
+ gH 2
2
2
H1 = H2
2
p stagnation = p static +

The term

V
2

V 2
is called dynamic pressure
2

Pitot Tube

## Local fluid velocity can be estimated, if static and

stagnation pressures can be measured.

For liquids
V2
h=
2g

## Energy and Hydraulic Grade Lines

For gases

P3 = P1 +
This can be done by using Pitot-static tube

P4 = P1

1
V 2
2

## Given: Air ( 20oC) flow makes 30 mm deflection in Hg manometer

To Find: The velocity at center

360 cm
5 cm ID

Air Flow
2

Hg

h = 30 mm

60 cm

Hg
(=13600 kg/m3)

h = 15 cm

## Estimate velocity and

discharge rate from pipe

## Application of Bernoullis Eqn.-III

D

Dimensional Analysis-I

Horizontal Elbow

p= ?
d

## Often the knowledge is incomplete and yet we need the technology

to roll on so that applications can move forward

However, the costs of these complex systems can be very high and
so costly mistakes have to be avoided

## Hence a combination of analysis and experimental model studies

(small scale system) is resorted to

## The main question is how to do it? What are the principles?

We shall see a highly simplified picture to get a feel for the subject

patm

Given: D, V, d, patm,
To find: p

Dimensional Analysis-II

## Let us look at steady flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid

through a long, smooth-walled, horizontal, circular pipe

## This is an applied problem of interest to engineers. The objective is

to find pressure drop due to friction for a given flow rate.

## From the knowledge acquired till now leads to intuition higher

shear stress on wall would result in higher pressure drop and so
average velocity and diameter would influence it

## Similarly, Bernoullis equation has suggested that the pressure drop

would also be determined by the density of fluid

## Finally, it is common sense to expect higher pressure drop due to

friction if the pipe is long

Dimensional Analysis-III

P
= f (D, , , V )
L

## We shall at this point assume that we have no knowledge of viscous

flows (which is true)

## Let us also assume that we have found a sponsor to support an

experimental program on this study and a graduate student to carry
out the experiments

## We need experiments to be carried for the variation of pressure

gradient for each of the parameter, while holding others constant

Dimensional Analysis-IV
P

## This leads us to believe intuitively that

Dimensional Analysis-V

## Using the results obtained we can fit a regression equation

P
= c1D n1 n 2 n 3 V n 4
L

This is the best outcome we would have come out and the resulting
equation is our design equation for estimating pressure drop

## Note that we carried 20 experiments, but it will be an ordeal to find

Newtonian fluids of same density but with varying viscosity, same
viscosity but with varying density (probably impossible)

Let us say that using the same experiments (four graphs) the
graduate student got curious (He was actually forced by his
professor to come out with more interesting result with the data) and
he plotted all kinds of combinations till he got a stunning result

Dimensional Analysis-VI

## Both x and y axes are dimensionless!

Dimensional Analysis-VII

## The above case study raises our curiosity to see if there is a

systematic way of doing this business

Such a thing reveals that there are only two combination of system
variables that are important and so experiments can be cut short and
so costs can be reduced

## Let us drop our intuition that pressure drop is proportional to length

and take L also as a variable

P D
V 2 L

Buckingham PI Theorem-Steps
1. List all the variables that are involved in the problem.
2. Express each of the variables in terms of basic dimensions
(MLtT)
3. Select a set of r repeating variables that includes all
dimensions
4. Form a term by multiplying one of the non-repeating
variables by the product of repeating variables each raised to
an exponent that will make the combination dimensionless.
and repeat it for each of the remaining non-repeating
variables
5. Get the final non-dimensional functional form

Application-I
Step 1: List all the variables that are involved in the problem

P = f (L, D, , , V )

N=6

P ML1t 2
L L
D L
ML3
ML1t 1
V Lt 1

Application-II

Application-III

## Step 3: Select a set of r repeating variables that includes all dimensions

We choose , V, D

Only has M

2 = L a V b D c

a = 0, b = 0, c = -1
This would
L
2 =
have come by
D
inspection

r=3

Only V has t
Step 4: Formation of Pi groups
1 = P a V b D c

Number of = N r = 6 3 = 3

## M 0 L0 t 0 = ML1 t 2 (ML3 ) a (Lt 1 ) b Lc

a = -1, b = -2, c = 0
1 =

P
V 2

M 0 L0 t 0 = (L )(ML3 ) a (Lt 1 ) b Lc

3 = a V b D c

## M 0 L0 t 0 = ML1t 1 (ML3 ) a (Lt 1 ) b Lc

a = -1, b = -1, c = -1
3 =

VD

Application-IV

Application-IV

1 = f ( 2 , 3 )

L
P
= f ,

V 2
D VD

## Many of these bear names to honor scientists who

contributed significantly in the related area

1 =

P
V 2

2 =

L
D

P
L
= c
V 2
D

n1

VD

n1

## If we look at the y-axis of the student, he was lucky as the

power of L/D is usually 1.

Euler Number
Non-dimensional length

VD
1
=
3

Reynolds Number

## The Governing Equation Route-I

We have seen one way of identifying the non-dimensional
groups viz., Buckingham Pi Theorem

## It works ok once we identify the parameters that

influences a system

## The thrust of this method is based on the fact that if

the differential equation and the boundary conditions
are same for two systems, then the solutions would
be identical for both

route

## Therefore, the objective is to get the same equations

and boundary conditions for two systems

similar problem

equations.

## The Governing Equation Route-III

The problem we choose is the flow between parallel
plates
The problem is identical except for the diameter of
the tube would be replaced the separation between
plates (H)
This has been done for convenience so that we can
stay in Cartesian System
H
L

## The Governing Equation Route-IV

Flow of two dimensional incompressible, Newtonian fluid,
the governing equations are:

u v
+
=0
x y
u
u
u
+ u
+v
x
y
t

v
v
v

+u
+v
x
y
t

2u 2u

P
=
+ 2 + 2
x
y

2v 2v

P
=
+ 2 + 2
y
y

## The purpose of taking transient term is only for illustration as

it is the steady state result we are interested in

## The Governing Equation Route-V

The non-dimensionalization starts with individual
variables as follows:
x* =

x * y *
t
;y = ;t =
L
H
L/V

u* =

u * v *
p
;v = ;p =
V
V
V 2

u * L v*
+
=0
x * H y*

Vu * Vv*
+
=0
L x * H y*

Vu *
Vu *
Vu *

+ Vu*
+ Vv*
*
*
(
L
/
V
)

t
L

x
Hy*

## These have been chosen from the characteristics of

the given problem

V 2 u *

V 2 P
V 2 u *
=
+
+
*
2
2
*2
L

x
H 2 y*

L x

u *
u * L u *
p *
H 2u* L 2u*
+
+ u * * + v* * = * +

*
t
x
H y
x VH L x *2 H y*2

## Typically the variables will go from 0 1

Let us substitute for x, y, t, u, v and w in the
differential equations

## The Governing Equation Route-VII

v
v
v

+u
+v
x
y
t

2v 2v

P
=
+ 2 + 2
y
y

Vv*
V 2v V 2v
V v*
V v*
V 2 p*
=

+ Vu *
+ Vv*
+ 2 2 + 2 2
*
*
*
(
L
/
V
)
t
L
x
H
y
H
y
H y

L x

v *
v* L v*
L p *
H 2 v* L 2 v*
+ u * * + v*
=
+
+

*
*
t
x
y
H
H y VH L x * 2 H y*2

## The Governing Equation Route-VIII

u * L v*
+
=0
x * H y*
u *
u * L u *
p *
H 2u* L 2u*
+ u * * + v* * = * +
+

*
t
x
H y
x VH L x * 2 H y* 2
v*
v* L v*
L p*
H 2 v* L 2 v*
+ u * * + v*
=
+
+

*
*
t
x
H
y
H y VH L x * 2 H y*2

H
L

## The Governing Equation Route-IX

Non-Dimensional parameters

## The Governing Equation Route-X

We have come to the same conclusion that the nondimensional pressure drop is only a function of Inverse of

Reynolds number
and non-dimensional length L
VH
H

## The method has laid the foundation for similarity of the

variables between model and prototype

## It has also introduced the scaling variables.

,
H VH
If

L
is same, i.e., the geometry is similar, and
is same
VH
H

## i.e., Reynolds number is same, the non-dimensional equations

for both the cases are identical
Further, if the boundary conditions are identical, which are:
1. Flow uniform at inlet, 2. Wall velocity = 0, and

p
V 2

=
mod el

p
V 2

For same
prototype

and L
VH
H

## 3. Fully developed at exit,

The solution of all variables will be identical

## The Governing Equation Route-XI

The method also gives physical interpretation for the nondimensional group

## Reynolds number was derived from

Vv*
V v*
V v*

+ Vu *
+ Vv*
*
L x *
H y
(L / V)t

V 2v V 2v
V 2 p*
=
+ 2 2 + 2 2
H y*
H y

L x

Inertia force/volume

Viscous force/volume
2

Re ynolds Number =

V / L VL
Inertia Force
=
=
V / L2

Viscous Force

## Flow Similarity and Model Studies-I

Geometric Similarity

## Flow Similarity and Model Studies-II

Example: Drag on a Sphere

## Model and prototype have same shape

Linear dimensions on model and prototype correspond
within constant scale factor

Kinematic Similarity
Velocities at corresponding points on model and prototype
differ only by a constant scale factor

Dynamic Similarity

and D

scale factor

## Flow Similarity and Model Studies-III

Example: Drag on a Sphere

## Flow Similarity and Model Studies-IV

Incomplete Similarity

## Sometimes complete similarity

cannot be obtained, as all the
numbers may not be matched
Still meaningful results may be
possible to obtain

then

FPr ototype
FModel

[V D ]
[V D ]
2

prototype
2
mod el

## Flow Similarity and Model Studies-V

The most common example cited is the
frictional resistance to ship movement in sea
It has viscous resistance and wave resistance

F
V 2 L2

= V
FrP = FrM
Lg
Lg

P
M

VP
=
VM

LP
LM

## Given VP,LM and LP, we get VM

VL
VL
Re P = Re M
=

P M

F = f (L, V, , , g )

## Flow Similarity and Model Studies-VI

Froude Number

VL V
= f (Re, Fr)
= f
,

Lg

M L M VM L M
=
=
P
L P VP L P

3/ 2

M
For typical LM/Lp = 1/100 = 1000
P

1. Froude Number
matched

No Fluid Available

1. Wave Resistance
estimated from
model study as a
function of
Froude Number

2. Total Resistance
obtained
3. Viscous
Resistance
Estimated
Theoretically

2. Viscous
Resistance
Estimated
theoretically

4. Hence Wave
resistance
obtained as a
function of
Froude Number
by subtraction

3. Hence total
resistance
obtained by

## Flow Similarity and Model Studies-VIII

Multiple parameters
If

then

## Example: Centrifugal Pump

Pump Power

Negligible
effect

Power Coefficient

## Laminar Vs Turbulent Flow

When velocity of flow is small, fluid flows in
layers. This is laminar flow
When velocity increases, the layered flow is
destroyed and several whirls are formed called
vortices

## Flow inside passages is the most common application of

Fluid Mechanics
Flow inside pipes, flow in between rods are the most
common application in Engineering

## This is called turbulent flow. In this case velocity

always fluctuates with time
The transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow
VD
is characterized by Reynolds number

## In the next few lectures we see extensive application of

Navier-Stokes Equations

## Fully Developed Laminar Flow

Between Parallel Plates-I

u
=0
x

Continuity Eq.

## It implies that the velocity profile does not change along

length
The non-dimensional entrance length (L/D) is ~ 0.06 Re
This length can be as long as 140 times the diameter

u v
+
=0
x y

## V = 0 on wall (No slip boundary condition)

Therefore, v = 0 everywhere

## Fully Developed Laminar Flow

Between Parallel Plates-II

## Fully Developed Laminar Flow

Between Parallel Plates-III
dp
d 2u
= 2
dx
dy

## We will first consider gravity free flow

Y-momentum Eq.

f(x)

v v
v
v
v
p
+ u
+ v =
+ 2 + 2 + g y
x
y
y
y
t
x
p dp
p
=
p is a function of x only
=0
x dx
y
2

X-momentum Eq.

2 u 2u
u
u
u
p
+ u
+ v =
+ 2 + 2
x
y
x
y
t
x

f(y)

## LHS = RHS = constant

1 dp y 2
+ C1 y + C 2
dx 2
a
Boundary conditions
u = 0 at y =
2
2
2
1 dp a
a
1 dp a
a
0=
+ C1 + C 2 and 0 =
C1 + C 2
dx 8
2
dx 8
2
1 dp a 2
C1 = 0 and C 2 =
dx 8

On integration with y

u=

## Fully Developed Laminar Flow

Between Parallel Plates-III
u=

2
a 2 dp y

1
8 d x a / 2

## Fully Developed Laminar Flow

Between Parallel Plates-IV
Average Velocity

Parabolic Distribution

u avg =

U=umax at y = 0

a /2

a 2 dp
8 d x
y 2
u = u max 1

a / 2

u max =

Or

u max
1 a /2
udy = a
a a / 2

u max
a

u
y 4y
= max
2

a
3
a

a / 2

y2
dy
1
(a / 2)2
a / 2
a/2

a a 4
2
2 2 3a

a 3 a 3

8 8

u max
8a 2
a
= u max
a
3 8 3

u avg =

2
u max
3

Or

## Fully Developed Laminar Flow

Between Parallel Plates-VI

## Fully Developed Laminar Flow

Between Parallel Plates-V

Pressure Drop

1.5u avg 8
dp
=
dx
a2

p =

12u avgL
a2

dp
u 8
= max2
and
dx
a

Shear Stress

## Fully Developed Laminar Flow

Between Parallel Plates-VII
Friction Factor

## To generalize the result a term called friction factor

is introduced
It is the non-dimensional wall shear stress defined by
w
0.5u avg

u v
4
du
= u max 2 2 y
xy = yx = + =
a

dy
y x

Constant

It is zero on centerline

w =

f=

a/2

Note u = u max 1

4u max
a

## Opposite to direction of motion

Couette Flow-I
We had seen flow between parallel plates when both the
plates were at zero velocity and fluid was flowing in
between
The characteristics were:

## Velocity distribution was parabolic

2

6u avg
4u max
From previous slide w =
=
a
a
6u avg
12
12
f =
=
=
2
0.5u avg a u avg a Re

f=

12
Re

## Now we shall see, what will change if we move one of

the plates with a velocity U
This flow is called Couette Flow

Couette Flow-III

Couette Flow-II
The first few steps are identical

## we choose y = 0 at the bottom

plate for convenience
y

dp
d 2u
= 2
dx
dy
f(x)

f(y)

u=

U
or

u=U

## LHS = RHS = constant

u=

On integration with y

1 dp y 2
+ C1 y + C 2
dx 2

Boundary conditions

u = 0 at y = 0

u = U at y = a

and

1 dp y 2 U 1 dp a
y
+
d x 2 a d x 2

U 1 dp a
1 dp a 2
0 = C 2 and U =

= C1
+ C1a or
a dx 2
dx 2

y 1 dp y 2 ay
+
a dx
2

## We now can make some general comments

If dp/dx = 0, then u is linear (This is what we assumed
when we defined viscosity
If U = 0, it will reduce to the previous distribution
Let us learn to put results in non-dimensional form

Couette Flow-IV

Couette Flow-IV
a dp

2 U dx
2

Rearranging

or

u * = y* +

u y
a 2 dp y y
= +
1
U a 2 U dx a a

a 2 dp *
*
*
*
*
*
y 1 y or u = y + y (1 y )
2U dx

Average Velocity

u avg =

y*

1a
U a y
y
y2
udy = + 2 dy

a0
a 0 a
a
a

U y 2 y 2 y 3
+
2
a 2a
2a
3a

u avg
u

Shear Stress

du
= 1 + 1(1 y* ) + y* ( 1)
dy*

+1
2

a 2 dp

2 U dx

u v
du U du *
U
xy = yx = + =
=
=
1 + (1 2 y* )
dy
a dy*
a
y x

## Note that for U 0, , y* 0.5

U
a 2 dp
y U a dp
y
1 +
+ (1 2 )
(1 2 ) =
a 2 U dx
a a
2 dx
a

1 + 1(1 y* ) + y* (1) = 1 + (1 2 y* ) = 0

y* =

## Note that uavg = 0 for = -3

Couette Flow-VI

du
du *
At point of maximum velocity
=0 * =0
dy
dy

U a a a
U 1
= +
=
a +
3
a 2 6
a 2 2

## Point of maximum Velocity

1
=U +
2 6

Couette Flow-V

u * = y * + y* 1 y*

y
y y
u = U + 1
a a
a

u * = y* + y* (1 y* )

yx =

U dp 1 y
+ a
a
dx 2 a

## Laminar Flow in Pipes-I

Pipes are the most common geometry in geometry
The solution for this case is just similar to the parallel
plates

## Laminar Flow in Pipes-II

Fully developed, axi-symmetric, incompressible, steady
flow
V = V(r,z)
Continuity Equation

## This is called Hagen-Poiseuille Flow

1 ( rVr ) Vz
+
=0
r r
z

rVr is independent of r
Since Vr at r = R is 0, Vr is 0 everywhere
Hence there is only Vz = Vz (r)

## Laminar Flow in Pipes-III

r - Momentum Equation

## Laminar Flow in Pipes-IV

z - Momentum Equation

1 (rVr )
V
V
p
2V
V
r + Vr r + + Vz r = +
+ + 2 r

r
r

r
z

p is only a function of z

1 Vz 2 Vz
V
V
p
V

z + Vr z + + Vz z = +
r
+
2
r
z
z
t
r r r z

p dp
=
z dz

p
1 Vz
=
r

z
r r r

f(z)

f(r)

## Laminar Flow in Pipes-V

d dVz
1 dp
r
=r
dr dr
dz

dVz 1 dp r
=

dr dz 2

Integrating with r

1 dp r 2
+ C 2
Vz =
dz 4

dV 1 dp r 2
r z =
+ C1
dr dz 2

dVz 1 dp r 2
=
+ C1
dr dz 2

## Laminar Flow in Pipes-VI

Transposing r, we can write

dp
1 d dVz
=
r
= Cons tan t
dz
r dr dr

C1 = 0

dVz 1 dp r 2

=
dr dz 2

1 dp 2 2 R 2 dp
r2
1 dp R 2
Vz =
C 2 =

(R r ) =
1 2
4

dz
4

dz
R

dz
4

Vz =

R 2 dp
r2

1
4 dz R 2

Average Velocity

## Velocity distribution is parabolic

1 R
2 R
2 R
v 2r dr
v r dr = 2 v z r dr
2 z
2 z
R 0
R 0
R 0
2Vz (max) R
r2
2Vz (max) R
r3
Vz =
1 R 2 r dr = R 2 r R 2 dr
R2
0
0

2V (max) R 2 R 4
Vz = z 2

2
R
2 4R
Vz =

Vz = Vz (max) at r = 0

Vz (max) =

R 2 dp

4 dz

r2
Vz = Vz (max)1 2
R

=
R2
4
2
2
R dP
=
8 dz

Vz =

## Laminar Flow in Pipes-IX

r2
Vz = Vz (max)1 2
R

Shear Stress

v
v
2r
rz = rz = z + r = Vz (max) 2

Friction Factor

## Friction factor can be calculated as follows

R 2 dp 2 r
R 2 dp

Q Vz (max) =

4 dz R 2
4 dz
r dp
= Direction is Negative as dp/dz is negative
2 dz

f=

Force Balance

dz

p+dp

8 dz

## Refer two slides back

R dp
From previous slide
2 dz

(R / 2) /(dp / dz) = 8 = 16 = 16
0.5Vz R 2 / 8 (dp / dz ) Vz R Vz D Re

## Turbulent Flow in Pipes-I

We had seen that pressure drop varies linearly with
velocity

w =

w = r =R =

f =

## is implicitly assumed in force balance

Pressure Drop

2
Further Vz = R dp

and

r dp
2rdz + r dp = 0 =
2 dz
Note the answer is same, as direction of
p
2

w
0.5Vz

## However experiments show that as velocity is

increased, the variation becomes non-linear

R dp

2 dz

VA

) (

2
2
2
4
4 0.5Vz f
4 Vz f
4Vz 16
dp 2

= w = w =
=
=
R
D
D
2D
2D Vz D
dz
32Vz
=
D2
32Vz L
p =
Linear dependence with velocity
D2

Vavg

## Turbulent Flow in Pipes-III

Reynolds Experiment

u = u + u

## The Detailed analysis is quite complex

The fluctuating component creates agitation
This increases the shear stresses
The additional shear created by fluctuations are
called Reynolds stresses. The details of these
are generally taught in the next level course
Detailed solutions are possible only using
numerical solutions
We shall learn enough so that engineering
problems can be solved.

u
u

## is the mean component

is the fluctuating component

## Turbulent Flow in Pipes-V

It has been experimentally verified that the
velocity profile close to wall has been linear
In the bulk of the flow the profile is logarithmic
New variables have been defined for this
representation
The distance from the wall is denoted by y, and
the wall shear is denoted by w
The non-dimensionalization is carried as
follows
y
u

u+ =
; where u * = w and y + =
/ u*
u*

Shear velocity

## Turbulent Flow in Pipes-VII

Though the outer layer empirical equation does
not predict the profile near the wall, it is still
adequate to calculate average velocity

Viscous layer
or Wall layer

u + = y + ; for y + < 5

Outer layer

## u + = 2.5 ln y + + 5 ; for y + > 30

u
y
Rr
= 2.5 ln
+ 5 or u = u * 2.5 ln
+ 5
u*
/ u*

/
u

u* R
R r
V=
2.5 ln / u + 5 2rdr Integrate by parts
R 2 0
*

R
= u * 2.5 ln
+ 1.25

/
u
*

## Note that u* can be

computed if average velocity
is known but requires
solution of a non-linear
equation

## Turbulent Flow in Pipes-VIII

In laminar flow we had defined that

## Slowly everyone is using only Darcy-Weisbach

friction factor. So you have to be careful

Vz
= w
2

would be
2

## The friction factor defined above is called

Fanning friction factor
Independently in German literature, Weisbach
had derived the following relation

dp Vz f
=
2D
dz

u* =

w f Vz
=
4 2

u * = Vz

f
8

## We can rewrite the average velocity obtained

two slides before as

Darcy-Weisbach
friction factor

V=

R
f
V 2.5 ln
8

f
V + 1.25

1 2.5 Re f 1.25
+
=
ln
f 8 2 8
8

## Turbulent Flow in Pipes-XI

On simplifying, we get
Re f
1
= 0.88 ln
f
5.66

## We just derived the relationship for Darcys

friction factor for smooth pipes. To take into
roughness of pipes Colebrook derived the
following relation for Darcys friction factor

+ 0.44

## Changing the base of logarithm to 10, we get

1
= 2.05 log Re f log 5.66 + 0.44
f

## Using large experimental data this was modified as

1
= 2.0 log Re f 0.8
f

1
/ D 2.51
= 2.0 log
+

f
3.7 Re f

## This was plotted by Moody and is called the

Moody chart. One of the most popular figure

## Turbulent Flow in Pipes-XIII

Equivalent Roughness for New Pipes
Pipe

Moodys Chart

Riveted steel

0.99.0

Concrete

0.33.0

Wood stave

0.180.9

Cast iron

0.26

Galvanized iron

0.15

0.045

Drawn tubing

0.0015

Plastic, glass

0.0 (smooth)

## Turbulent Flow in Pipes-XIV

For computer calculations the following relations are
useful

f=

64
Re

/ D 1.11 6.9
1

= 1.8 log
+
3.7
f
Re

## Turbulent Flow in Pipes-XV

Before we conclude, sometimes the profile in a pipe is
approximated by
1

r n

R

## For such a profile, the relation between average and

maximum velocity can be obtained as

Re =

Vz (max)D

Vz
2n 2
=
Vz (max) (n + 1)(2n + 1)

## This profile cannot be used in the near wall region for

finding derivatives.

## Recollect that we had analyzed fluid along stream

lines using Bernoullis equation, where friction
effects were neglected

## The modified form of Bernoullis equation with

friction effect for a stream line can be written as
2

p1 V1
p
V
+
+ gH1 = 2 + 2 + gH 2 + gH loss

effects.

## Here 1 stands for upstream point and 2 stands

for downstream point

## These two concepts can be combined to analyze a

large number of practical problems

## Note that the order does not matter for

frictionless flows, where Hloss = 0

## The above equation can be modified for pipe

flows as shown in next slide

2

## The modified Bernoullis equation is rewritten by

dividing all the terms by g as

p1 1V1
p
V
+
+ gH1 = 2 + 2 2 + gH 2 + gH loss

p1 V12
p
V2
+
+ H1 = 2 + 2 + H 2 + H loss + (H gain )
g 2g
g 2g

## The parameter accounts for non-uniform flows

This can be derived from energy equation that we
shall do only at the end of the course
The parameter can be estimated from the equation

1
V 3dA
& V 2 A
m

## There will be Hgain if there is a pump in between

sections 1 and 2
Hloss is called the head loss due to friction
We had derived an expression for dp/dz as

mass flow rate

2
dp Vz f
=
dz
2
D

## For laminar flow = 2, but for turbulent flows it is

lies between 1.08 (n = 6) to 1.03 (n = 10) depending
on the profile. Hence is usually ignored

Or

p =

2
p fL Vz
=
= H loss
g
D 2g

Vz 2 fL
2 D

## This is the Darcy-Weisbach

equation for head loss

## Though derived for fully developed flow without body

force terms, it is valid for all fully developed flows be
it horizontal, vertical or inclined

pipes

fluid column

## Often this can be extended to other shapes by defining

equivalent diameter called the hydraulic diameter

## The friction factor can be estimated from Moodys

diagram or from the following relations
64
f=
For Re < 2300
Re
/ D 1.11 6.9
1

= 1.8 log
+
3.7
f
Re

Dh =

4 Area
Wetted Perimeter

L
B
L

## For Re > 2300

5 rods of radius = R

Dh =

4LB
2(L + B)

Dh =

4 L2 5R 2
4L + 5(2R )

Valves-I

## How to handle head loss for components like bends,

tees, contraction, expansion, etc.
These are done empirically through loss coefficients

## Valve is a variable resistance

element in a pipe circuit
These are used to regulate or
stop flow

V2
HL = KL
2g
These are listed in text books, hand books, etc.

Valves
Globe Valve
Gate valve
Ball Valve
Check Valve/Non
Return Valve

Valves-II

## Valves will have

variable K
This will be
determined by the
fraction of opening
Globe Valve

Loss
Coefficients

Gate Valve

Manufaturers specify
this, which is used to
select valves

## Pressure Drops in Internal Flows-IX

Alternately, the minor losses are accounted using the
equivalent length concept
The component is viewed as an additional equivalent
pipe length and is normally expressed as a factor times
the pipe diameter

## Problem Solutions in Pipe Flows-I

p1 V12
p
V2
+
+ H1 + H gain = 2 + 2 + H 2 + H loss min or + H loss major
g 2 g
g 2g
H loss major =

64
Re

fLVz 2
2gD

Component

Le/D

f=

Gate Valve

Globe Valve

340

90o

elbow

30

/ D
1
= 1.8 log
3.7
f

45o

elbow

16

## Treatment of Tee is complicated and messy.

Hence student is referred to hand books for its application

## For Re < 2300

1.11

H Loss min or = K L

V2
2g

6.9
Re

## For Re > 2300

Or
Moodys
Chart

KL empirically obtained

## Problem Solutions in Pipe Flows-I

Flow Measurement-I

## Find p for given L, D, Q

Find L for given p, D, Q
Find Q for given p L, D
Find D for given p L, Q

1
1
V12 = P2 + V22
2
2

P1 +

Types of Problems

A1V1 = A 2 V2

Can be directly
solved

Q th = A 2

Iterations
Required

2 ( P1P2 )
2

A
1 2

A1

Q act < Q th
Discharge C = Q act
Coefficient d
Q th

Flow Measurement-II
Q act = C d A t

2 (P1P2 )
= Cd A t
2

A t

1
Ap

2 (P1P2 )
4

where, =

(1 )

Flow Measurement-II
Dt
Dp

## There are other types of flow meters

These will be taught in the course on instrumentation

Cd is a function of Re,
Empirical correlations exist for Cd to aid the design of
orifices

## The motivation for this study stems from the

understanding of Aircrafts wings, Ship hull,
Submarines, etc.
The study becomes complicated as fully developed
flow does not exist in these cases
In fully developed flow we could reduce NavierStokes equations to ordinary differential equations
However, this is not possible in external flows and
hence partial differential equations need to be solved
Some clever simplifications exist and we shall see
these
We will start with flow over a flat plate

## In 1904 Prandtl introduced this concept and is

considered a big milestone in Fluid mechanics
The layer in which the velocity gradients are
confined is called the boundary layer

## Boundary Layer Flows-I

In boundary layer flows, the viscous effects are
important only inside the boundary layer

## The flow outside this layer is called free stream and

here the viscous effects are not important
Thus, for a uniform steady free stream flow over a flat
plate, the momentum equation can be simplified as
2u 2 u
u
u
u
p

+u
+ v =
+ 2 + 2

t
x
y
x
y
x

U
p
=
x
x

+ g x

p
=0
x

## Boundary Layer Flows-IV

We can compute a value for Displacement Thickness
* as follows

Some Definitions

y + *

udy = udy

## It is customary to define boundary layer thickness

as the thickness when u = 0.99 U denoted by

At x = 0

(u U + U)dy

At x = x

Uy =

y+

*
(u U)dy + U ( y + )

U* =

Streamline if plate
not present
Boundary Layer

y + *

Uy =

Streamline with
plate present

Displacement Thickness

U
<0
x

U
=0
x

U
>0
x

y + *

y + *

(u U)dy
0

u
u
(1 )dy (1 )dy
U
U
0

## The limit is truncated at as

the value of integrand beyond
this is almost zero

## Momentum Integral Equation-I

Momentum Thickness

u
u
(1 )dy
U
U
0

x
1

r r

d + V.dA = 0
t CV
CS

d
udy x

dx
0
0

d
& 12 m
& 34 = udy x
=m

dx 0

& 34 = udy +
m
& 23
m

## Momentum Integral Equation-III

r r
u V.dA = FSx + FBx

## Momentum per unit width at 34

(M34)
Momentum per unit width at 23
(M23)

FSx = M12 + M 23 + M 34

= uudy = u 2 dy

d 2
d
u dy x U udy x
=

dx 0
dx

## Momentum Integral Equation-IV

p
x
x

4
1

w x

p
1 p
x )d F34 = (p +
x )( + d) F14 = w x
x
2 x
p
p
1 p

## F12 + F34 + F23 = p p + pd +

x +
xd + pd +
xd
x
x
2 x

F12 = p

d
u 2 dy x Sign positive by

our convention
dx 0

From
d

udy x
& 23 U = U
=m
previous

dx
slide
0

= u 2 dy +

p+

p
1

Evaluation of FSx
Sign negative by
our convention

CS

Momentum Equation

r r r r
r
V d + V V.dA = F
t CV
CS

& 12 = m
& 23 + m
& 34
m

## All mass flow

rates are per unit
width

& 12 = udy
m

## We shall see integral solution first

Continuity Equation

are approximate.

(M12)

Control Volume
is sketched as
1234

later

## The solution of Boundary layer flows using differential

equations is complex and involves numerical
computation and hence deferred for time being

F23 = (p +

FSx =

p
1 p
x
xd w x
x
2 x

p
1 p
d 2
d
u dy x U udy x
x
xd w x =

x
2 x
dx 0
dx

## Analysis for Flat Plate-I

For flat plate dp/dx = 0

p
1 p
d 2
d
u dy x U udy x
x
xd w x =

x
2 x
dx 0
dx 0

0

p
1 p
d 2
d
u dy U udy

d w =

x
2 x
dx 0
dx 0

p
d 2
d
u dy U

w =

udy
x
dx 0
dx

w = U

d 2
d
udy

dx u dy
dx 0

## Since U is constant, we can take U inside the integral

and rewrite the above equation as

d
u ( U u )dy
w =

dx 0

w = U 2

d u
u
(1 )dy

dx 0 U
U

w
1
U 2
2

=2

d u
u
(1 )dy = C f

dx 0 U
U

## For Evaluation of wall shear stress and hence the

drag, we need to know the velocity profile
Integral method assumes realistic profiles to get the

u = 2U

u
= 2 2
U
du
U
= 2
Further w =

dy y =0

U
d u
u
(1 )dy
= U 2

dx 0 U
U

2 U
d
2
2 1 2 2 d

U 2 dx 0

5.48
=
x
Re x

exact solution is

2 =

5.00
=
x
Re x

Re x
2U /
4
4 x
4
Cf =
=
=
=
=
1
1
U Ux Re x 5.48
2
2
U
U
2
2
w

Cf =

w = U 2

d u
u
(1 )dy

dx 0 U
U

y
d = dy

d 5
4
3
2

+4
5
+2
dx 5
4
3
2

15
dx
U

Or

2 15
=
dx
2
U

## Analysis for Flat Plate-VI

u
y y2
=2 2

U

Or

2 15
=
x+C
2
U
Using the condition = 0 at x = 0 C = 0

)]

d 1
4 + 43 5 2 + 2 d

dx 0

at y =

2 U 2 d
=
U 2 15 dx

d =

w = 2

at y =

u
y y2
=2 2

U

)[ (

u=U
du
=0
dy

y
y2
U 2

We shall use

conditions

at y = 0

## Assume a second order polynomial

u = a + by + cy 2

u=0

0.73
Re x

0.664
The exact solution for this case is C f =
Re x

30
x =
U

30

x =
U
x

30
Ux

=
x

30
Re x

## Analysis for Flat Plate-VII

Transition to turbulence
This occurs typically at Rex = 5 X 105

Note

Re x =

Ux

## To evaluate wall shear stress we use the empirical

concepts in pipe flow
We had assumed a velocity profile obtained from
experiments

u
y
= 2.5 ln
+5
u*
/ u*
Eventually we arrived at

1
/ D 2.51
= 2.0 log
+

f
3.7 Re f

## Analysis for Flat Plate-VIII

1
0.316
w = (0.817Vmax ) 2
0.25
8
(0.817 Vmax )2R

f=

0.316
0.316
=
Re 0.25 VD 0.25

2
w = 0.0233Vmax

manipulations

1
Vmax R

V
= 0.817
Vmax

f =

w
1
(0.817Vmax ) 2
8

w = 0.0233U 2

0.316
(0.817Vmax )2R

0.25

0.25

1
U

0.25

## Analysis for Flat Plate-X

Separating the variables we get

1
7

u y
= =
U

0.25d = 0.240

1
7

equation

d u
u
(1 )dy
w = U 2

dx 0 U
U

We get
1
7 d
0.0233 0.25
d 1/ 7
(1 1/ 7 )d =
=
72 dx
(U )0.25 dx 0

## Calculation of Frictional Drag-I

We have seen that Friction Coefficient Cf is of the form
Cf =

1
2

w
= C Re x n
U 2

## C = 0.664, n = 0.5 for laminar

C = 0.0594, n = 0.2 for laminar

## Since shear stress varies as position, we need to

integrate to compute the total drag (per unit width)

0.25

dx 0.25 d = 0.240

U
0
0

1.25

= 0.240

1.25
U

0.25

dx
1
5

0.25

4/5
x
= 0.382
U

= 0.382
x
Ux

0.382
=
x Re1x/ 5

get

0.0594
Cf = 1 w 2 =
Re 0x.2
2 U

FD =

1
2

1
2

U 2 LCU n L n 1
C
= 2 U 2 L
Re Ln
n (1 n )
1 n

FD
C
= CD =
Re Ln
U 2 L
1 n

## The parameter is called coefficient of drag

Total drag = CD X Area of plate X 0.5 U2

y
x

dx
n

Ux
= 12 U 2 C

L
2 n
2 n
n +1 L
U C n
U Cx
U 2 n CL n +1
FD = 12
x dx = 12 n
=1
n 0
( n + 1) 0 2 n (n + 1)
dFD = w dx = 12 U 2 C f

Differential Analysis-I

## In case of two-dimensional boundary layer flows over a

flat plate with no source terms, we can simplify the
equations as

## Boundary layer thickness increases as x increases

The friction coefficient Cf decreases as x increases

u
v
+
=0
x
y

## The boundary layer begins as laminar and then changes

over to turbulent
Turbulent boundary layer is thicker than laminar ones

2u
(u )
(u )
2u
=
u
+v
x 2 + y 2
x
y

## The solution of integral method for laminar case can be

improved by using higher order profiles

solution

## Empirical relations exist for CD that starts as laminar and

transforms to turbulent

0.0742 1740

Re 0L.2
Re L
0.455
1610
CD =

(log Re L ) 2.58 Re L
CD =

## This was facilitated by an ingenious transformation

introduced by Blasius

## 5 X 105 < ReL< 107

5 X 105 < ReL< 109

Differential Analysis-II

Differential Analysis-III
Now a similarity variable is defined as

## The definition of stream function and its relation with

velocity is exprressed as:

## The motivation for stating this way is that the stream

function would automatically satisfy the continuity equation
2

u

df
d 2f
d 2f
u
= u
=
= u
2 y
y
y
d
d
d 2

u

d 2f

=
u
y
y 2
d 2

u
= u
x

v =
=
x

df
+ f
u x
d 2 x

u x

u
1
=
x
2 x

follows
u =

df
u x
dn y

=
y

u d f
x d3

df
+ f
d x

u 1
1
=
x
2
2

v =

u
x

= u df

dn

u
x

u df
f

x d

1
2

## Substituting these in the momentum equation, we get

3

u
u d f
= u
x
x d3
1
u

2 x

u
x

df
u x
dn

Differential Analysis-V

df
d 2 f
d 2f
u
= u
= u
d
d 2 x
d 2 2 x

u
x

= f ( ) u x

Differential Analysis-IV

=
y

## The free stream velocity earlier denoted by U is also

commonly denoted by u and we shall use this

=
x
x

u 1 3/ 2
1 y
=
x
2
2 x

= y
x

u
v

+
=

= 0
x
y
xy xy

u
x

= y

v =
x

u =
y

df

f

d

df

d 2f
u
u
dn d 2 2 x

1
+
2

u
x

u
x

df

d

d 2f
f u
d
2

v
y

v
= u

Collecting
terms

u d 3f
x d 3

u
df d f

2 x d d 2
2

u
x

u
+

2x

df
d f

f
2
d
d
2

u
=
x

2u
y 2

d f
d3

Differential Analysis-VI

u 2 d 3f
d 2f u 2
f
=
2 2x
x d3
d
d 2f

+2

d 3f
d

solution
d 2f
d 3f
f

= 0

Blasius Equation
1 u df

v =

f
d

u = u , at y =
u = u , at x = 0

+2

= 0

d 3

## As the equation is third order ODE, it is usually split into

three first order differential equation
Let f = y 1 ,

df
= 0 , f = 0 at = 0
d

u = 0 , v = 0 at y = 0

d 2

df
= 1, at =
d
u = u

df
dn

df
= y2,
d
dy 1
= y2
d
dy 2
= y3
d

d 2f
d 2

= y3

y1 (0 ) = 0

y 2 (0 ) = 0

dy 3
y y
= 1 3
d
2

y 2 ( ) = 1

## Solution of Blasius Equation-III

Now if we apply it to the second equation

## There are many methods to solve. But we shall see the

simplest of all called Eulers method
This is not the most accurate method, but is easy to follow
From Taylor series, we can write

y 2 ( ) = y 2 (0) + y 3 (0)
Now if we apply it to the third equation

dy
y( + d) y() +

## Now if we apply it to a simple differential equation

dy 1
= y2
d

y1 (0 + ) y1 (0) +

dy 2
= y3
d

dy1
y1 () = y1 (0) + y 2 (0)
d 0

dy 3
y y
= 1 3
d
2

y1 (0) y 3 (0)

2
From the boundary conditions y1(0), y2(0) are known, But
y3(0) is not known, but y2() is what is known
y 3 ( ) = y 3 (0)

## The way to solve these is to assume y3(0), and proceed

forward and check whether y2() = 1. If not take another
guess and repeat

## Solution of Blasius Equation-IV

Discussion on the numerical solution

w =

Cf

u
y

= u
y =0

w
0.5u 2

d 2f
d 2

u
u
= 0.332u
x
x

( = 0 )

u
x

0.332u
=

0.5u 2
C f ==

= 0.664

ux

0.664
Re x

Separation-II

Separation-I
The problem is more complex to obtain analytical
solution
Can be explained through qualitative arguments
Consider x momentum equation all along the wall

2u 2u
u
u
u
p
+ u
+ v =
+ 2 + 2 + g x
x
y
x
y
t
x
p
2u

= 2
x
y

u
y

## Let us look at the velocity profiles at the boundary layer

For the flow to merge smoothly with the free stream

## This implies that the sign of 2 at the wall is same as

y
that of p
x

Separation-III
There will be no separation when
For separation to occur

p
>0
x

p
<0
x

## Near the point of separation boundary layer concept starts

breaking
After separation boundary layer concepts do not hold
Separation prevents pressure recovery

For
For

p
<0,
x
p
>0,
x

2u
<0
y 2

u
<0
y 2

2u
>0
y 2

## Other Concepts in Drag-I

We have looked at pure frictional darg for plate is held along
the flow direction
We can compute drag, once we know CD
When plate is held normal to the flow, we get drag due to
pressure only

pdA

FD =

## To ensure that flow does not separate, the diverging portion

of venturimeters cone angle is kept small ~15o

plate surface

FD = C D

plates

1
V 2 A projected
2

## Note that wall shear is perpendicular to the flow direction

and so will not contribute to drag

## Other Concepts in Drag-II

Boundary layer concepts do not hold here and hence are
complicated
The drag coefficients are obtained through computational
means or through experiments and correlated empirically

## Drag Over a Sphere-I

For flow over a Sphere we will have both Friction and
Pressure Drag
At very low flow (Re < 1), we have only frictional contribution
as there is no separation and hence there is no pressure
drag. This is some times called creeping flow
CD = 24/ReD
At higher velocities flow starts separating Refer to fig. in next
slide
At around Re ~ 1000, the pressure drag ~ 95%
Turbulence sets in ~ Re 3 X 105
The point of separation shifts to down stream abruptly
decreasing CD (Refer fig. given later)

## Drag Over a Sphere-III

Taken from
ONERA's Science Pictures

## Drag Over a Cylinder

Behavior is similar for a cylinder

Vortex Shedding
Vortices are shed alternately from each side of a
cylinder
The separation point and thus the resultant drag
force oscillate
Dimensionless frequency of shedding given by
Strouhal number S = fD/V
S is approximately 0.2 over a wide range of
Reynolds numbers (100 - 1,000,000)

Streamlining
Used to Reduce Wake and hence Pressure Drag
Note that as c is increased for a given t, the pressure
drag decreases
However there is an optimum c

Lift

FL = C L

1
V 2 A p
2

## Mostly applies to Aerofoils

Note: Ap is planform area
(maximum projected area)
Lift increases as the angle of attack is
increased, but rapidly falls after a
critical value
Drag increases rapidly as angle of
attack increases

Conclusion
There are many more complex issues for finite
wings
These are not important for a first level study
However one should know how to use data
available in books
This will be given in home work with sufficient
hints as they are straight forward

Conservation of Mass - I

A
s
s
u
u + s
s

+ s
s
&
m
& +
m
s
s
A+

A Area (m2)

## In analysis of systems comprising of several

pumps and piping, one dimensional analysis
is most often followed
The necessary system of equations can be
derived from control volume analysis with
suitable closing equations
This is taken up as the last topic for the
course

u Velocity (m/s)

Density (kg/m3)
& Mass flow rate (kg/s)
m

Rate of
accumulation of =
mass in CV

Mass flow _
rate into CV

Rate of
Mass flow rate +/- Mass
out of CV
generated /
destructed in
CV

& g)
(m

= g
s
t
& l)
liquid (l A l ) + (m
= l
s
t
+

## Note: In boiling flows

Conservation of Momentum - I

g = l

Conservation of Momentum - II

## w Wall shear stress (N/m2)

g Gravitational acceleration (m2/s)

&u+
m

p Pressure (N/m2)

pA

( g A g )

Gas

## The control volume need not extend over the entire

cross section. An example is given in next slide

A
p
s
s

& g)
(m

(As)
& m
& +
=m
s s
t
s

&

(
m
)

(A)
g
=
+
1
t
s

H Elevation (m)

&
m

## Mass source/sink (kg/s-m)

Conservation of Mass - II

P Perimeter (m)

A,
u,

## s Coordinate along pipe (m)

&u
m

&u
m
s
s

Rate of
accumulation of =
momentum in
CV

Momentum _
rate into CV

Momentum
+
rate out of CV

g
pA
pA +
s
s

Term-1

Asu

Term-2

Sum of all
forces in
positive
direction
acting on
CV
4

&u
m

Term-3

&u+
m

&u
m
s
s

## Conservation of Momentum - III

= Pressure force + Shear force

Term-4

+ Gravity force

pA
A

s + p
s
Pressure force = pA pA +
s
s

p
= A
s
s
Shear force

w Ps

Gravity force

AsgSin ()

Conservation of Momentum - V

u
A
u
Au
p
+u
+ Au + u
= A w P AgSin
t
t
s
s
s
u
u
p
+ Au
= A w P AgSin
t
s
s

(Au ) (Au 2 )
p
+
= A w P AgSin
t
s
s

&)
& u)
(m
(m
p
=
A w P AgSin
t
s
s

## Mechanical Energy Equation - I

 Multiplication of momentum equation with
velocity will give mechanical energy equation

## We can get non-conservative form by expanding

the LHS and using mass conservation equation

& u)
(Aus)
(m
p

& u m
&u+
=m
A s w Ps AsgSin
t
s
s

## Eqs. (2) and (3) are the conservative forms of the

momentum equation

## Substitution of all the terms lead to

Conservation of Momentum - IV

## The above expression assumes source an sink of mass

is zero.

u
u
p
+ Au 2
= uA u w P uAgSin 5
t
s
s
2
2
u
u
2 + Au
2 = uA p u P uAg H
A
w
t
s
s
s
Au

Au

## Mechanical Energy Equation - I

2

p + u
+ gH
2

=0
s
2
p + u
+ gH = Cons tan t
2

2 + Au p + uA (gH ) = 0
s
s

I-Law of Thermodynamics
Definitions
Specific Flow Energy

e=h+u
Bernoullis Equation

+ gH

Specific Energy
2
i = h p + u + gZ

Internal energy

I-Law - III

I-Law - II

qaxial
s
s

+
qaxial

E& CV

Work
q''axial

& e+
m

&e
m

q''surface
T
= k
qaxial
s

qsurface
= U (T T )

&e
m
s
s

e p

(Asi )

=
= As
t
t

## Using Taylor series, we can write

& e)
(m
& inlet e inlet m
& exit e exit = m
& e m
&e+
m
s
s

& W
& +m
& inlet e inlet m
& exit e exit
E& CV = Q

## k Thermal Conductivity (W/m-K)

U Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2-K)

& e)
(m
s
s

I-Law - V

I-Law - IV

## Using mass conservation we can write

We can write
& = Psu + W s
W
w
CV

A)
& = q Ps + q A q A + (qaxial
Q
s
surface
axial
axial

A)
(qaxial
P s
= qsurface
s
s

## Substitution of all the terms lead to

A)
(Ae) (Aue)
p
(qaxial
P w Pu

+
= A + qsurface
WCV
t
s
t
s
Conservative form

A)
e
e
p
(qaxial

+ Au = A + qP w Pu
WCV
t
s
t
s

2
2
( h + u + gH )
(h + u + gH )
2
2
A
+ Au
=
t
s
A)
(qaxial
p
P w Pu

A + qsurace
WCV
t
s

I-Law - VI

## Subtracting both sides of mechanical energy

equation Eq. (6) from ILaw Eq. (9) , we
can write the thermal energy equation:

Mass Balance

&)
(A ) (m
+
=0
t
s

Momentum Balance

A)
(h )
(h )
p
p
(qaxial
P
A
+ Au
= uA + A + qsurface
W
t
s
s
t
s

## Here we have assumed that shear work is

lost out to the surroundings. For insulated
systems this gets ploughed back and hence
we have to add w Pu on RHS. If there is
energy split, this has to be suitably handled

10

& ) 1 (Au 2 )
p 1 (m
P
H
=
+
+ w + g
s A t
A
s
A
s

Energy Balance

A)
(h )
(h )
p
p
(qaxial
P
+ Au
= uA + A + qsurface
W
t
s
s
t
s

Solution Strategy-I
independent

Illustrative Application

dependent

A, H, P, t , s , u, m
& , p, w , h, qsurface
, qaxial

Variables
Equations

Closing relations

= (p, h )

u, p, h

chosen as primary
dependent variables

(specified / u , properties)
qsurface
= qsurface
= negligible
qaxial

& = Au
m
w = w (, geometry, u , vis cos ity )

## To illustrate the application let

us consider forced convection
loop

Cooler

## For a given heater power,

assuming large secondary
flow in cooler, and a given
pump characteristics,
estimate, (a) steady mass flow
rate circulating, (b) fluid
temperature distribution

## system is mathematically closed

Sec.
Flow

Heater

Pump

Application-I

Application-II
Momentum Balance

Mass Balance

Pressure term

&)
(A ) (m
+
=0
t
s

Transient term

Acceleration term

Friction term

Gravitation term

& ) 1 (Au 2 )
p 1 (m
P
H

=
+
+ w + g
s A t
s
s
A
A

along the duct

11

Pressure term

## For incompressible fluid, even under transient,

instantaneous mass flow rate does not vary along the
length.

p
ds = 0
s
loop

Transient term

Application-III
Acceleration
term

Application-IV

&2

m
2
A

1 (Au 2 )
ds
ds =

s
s

1
1

A 2 A 2=0
i +1
i
&2
P
u 2
4
4m
1 f i L i K i

ds
=
f
ds
=
+

w
loop A loop 2 d hyd
2 i =all links A i 2 d hyd i 4
=

&2
m

where, f = 16
Friction term

Re

&)
&
&
1 (m
dm
ds dm
L
ds =
=
Ai

A
t
dt
A
dt

i
loop
loop

Re < 1189.4

Gravitation
term

g s ds = g (H

loop

exit i

H inlet i ) = 0

p pump = gH pump

&
dm
L i 4m& 2
1 f i L i K i gH
+
+

pump = 0

2
2

d
4
A
dt all links A i
i hyd i

## = 0.079(Re)0.25 Re > 1189.4

Application-V

Application-VI

&
The integrated momentum equation has only one unknown viz., m

Energy Balance

## For a given initial condition, the solution can be marched in time.

Any standard procedure for solving ODE can be employed
For steady situations, the First term drops out and any standard
procedure for solving non-linear equations can be employed

A)
(h )
(h )
p
p
(qaxial
P
+ Au
= uA + A + qsurface
W + w Pu
t
s
s
t
s

Resistance
curve

Pump
Curve

&
m

(h )
(h )
p
P W + w Pu
+ Au
= uA + qsurface
t
s
s
small