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STEEL PLANT HISTORY :

1971 Jan 30, Indra Gandhi Laid a foundation stone for VSP
(as SAIL [ steel authority of India Limited ] proposed for one more steel plant, other than
operating 5 steel plants )
In order to produce 4.8 Billion tons of steel the estimated cost was 2000 Crores
But due to some political allegations, the plant construction is not started.
So Revolution has started against govt in order to get Steel plant in Andhra Pradesh with
the slogan Vishaka ukku andrula hakku
32 members died during this revolution. In memory of these 32, they built 32 candles
inside the plant.
Finally, In 1980 Feb 18, construction started by RINL rashtryia ispat nigam limited.
At this time, the estimated cost is 17000 Crores.
The government stood besides RINL, and it got loans from banks for construction.
During 1990 to 1995, it was very critical time for steel plant as it is under high pressure
the debts are doubled and it is running in losses.
The plant is in dilemma whether to continue or shutdown the plant
There is a lot of pain in employees as they are aware of the worst situation.
At this point, the plant decided to reduce the wastage and reuse and recycle
After a long struggle in 2002-03, it is started making profits

During HUDHUD,
52 lakhs trees fell down in VSP itself

Reference by Kondalrao, TeleCom, Sinter Plant


VSP is Integrated steel plant and Structural steel plant.
It will produce steel but not stain less steel.
(Stain less steel - percentage of chromium will be greater than 18%.)
Sallam, Tamilnadu is the only plant which produces stainless steel in India.
PLANT LAYOUT / INDUSTRY LAYOUT:
RIGHT SIDE : Productive Departments
LEFT SIDE :Non Productive Departments/ Service Departments/ Auxiliary Shops
There are 2 medical centers and fire stations and 5 gates in VSP

There are 6 major core departments:


1.Raw Material Handling Plant (RMHP)
2.Coke Oven and Coal Chemical Plant (COCCP)
3.Sinter Plant (SP)
4.Blast Furnace (BF)
5.SMS Steel Melting Shop and Continuous casting Department (SMS & CCD)
6.Rolling Mills (RM)
COKE OVEN
The Processes in COKE OVEN are Charging, Pushing, Collecting and Cooling
Coal is converted into coke.(COKE- used only as fuel in blast furnace)
Coal is transferred from Junction house to ovens using charging cars.
In Coke Oven, we will produce coke using coal
Coke is the melting agent and fuel in blast furnace
MAX (main automatic exchange)
Dispatcher Communication system (In the zone premises)
VHF sets (Very High Frequency sets)

Walkie talkies (less frequency)


We are using VHF(very high frequency) sets, as less frequencies may interact with other
frequencies and may lead to wrong communication.
Navy allots VSP these VHF sets
They will check this VHF sets every year because we are near the sea shore (frequencies
of different plants should not interfere with that of navy)

SINTER plant:
Making flux (sinter) which we will use in blast furnace

NIDO project :
We are using the heat to rotate turbine. It will produce 20.8Megawatts.
As we are having power here ( we use SCADA)

Blast Furnace:
PIG Iron
10% of PIG iron production (compulsory for Govt steel plants to produce PIG iron)

There are 4 tap holes at the bottom of Blast Furnace to collect the hot metal
During the release of hot metal, there is a chance of many accidents which may lead to
damage of the equipments near it (CC TVs)
Thats why we are using Panel tilt mechanism CC TVs, which can rotate 180 degrees
vertically and horizontally as well.
So we are having 4 such CC TVs, as there are 4 tap holes. It results in monitoring of 3
CC TVs for one tap hole activity. Even if one CC TV is damaged due to accident, we can
easily notice it by other 2 CC TVs

Gas Expansion Turbine Station (GETS)


Slag is used in slag cement

Communication plays very important role in coordinating all the above processes.
Here In VSP there are mainly 3 communication systems
3 Communication Systems:
1.General Purpose Communication Systems
2.Process Communication Systems
3.Signal and Monitoring Communication Systems
General Purpose Communication Systems:
Example:
Telephone
Process Communication Systems:
Used in noisy areas
Example:
Loud Speaker Communication Systems
1.Loud Speaker Broad Casting (one way communication)
2.Loud Speaker Integrated Communication( Two way communication)
Dispatcher ( works like main exchange)
It is a small exchange within a zone.
Hotlines ( Emergency Communications)
It is programmed to link only 2 areas
It is to convey information without delay
Wireless Communication
It is a movable communication
Signal and Monitoring Communication Systems:
Example:
1.Fire alarm system
2.SCADA (supervisory control and data aquisation)
It is present where ever gas, water and power generation and distribution takes
place
3. CC TVs ( Closed Circuit)

For shaping, there are 5 rolling mills

CO&CCP (Coke Ovens and Coal Chemical Plant)


Provides service to 2 departments
RMHP (Raw Material handling Plant)
It is an open yard and a vast area. It is used for supplying raw materials
In short, it is just working of conveyor belts
As it is a vast area, communication using wires is difficult. So, VSP is using
Wireless communication (walkie talkies)
COCCP contains mainly 2 major parts
1.Coke Oven:
It contains 4 batteries, out of which 3 are working simultaneously and one will be at
rest.each battery has 67 columns(ovens)
In ovens heating of coal take place for 16-19 hours at 1100 degree centigrade in the
absence of air to convert it to coke
There are 4 cars
1.Charging car
2.Pusher car
3.DE car (Door Extractor car)
4.Loco cars (coke bucket)
Which helps in the above process
Hot coke at 1100 degrees temperature is send to CDCP (Coke Dry Cooling Plant) where
coke is cooled by nitrogen gas.
2.Coal Chemical Plant:
We are converting coal into coke in order to remove impurities and increase the
carbon percentage and more over coke has more calorific value than coal.
In this process a large amount of gases will release, which are sent to CCP (coal chemical
plant) for further processing.

Control rooms (CO&CCP) contains


1. VHF sets(Very High Frequency sets)
It operates at 30MHz - 300MHz frequency
In order to use VHFs in site, we need to take permissions and Govt license from wireless

planning agency
To avoid interference they use different frequencies for different batteries
1.149.45MHz
2.149.55MHz
3.149.65MHz
4.149.7625Hz

1.Transeiver system (Transmitter and Receiver) it is programmable


2.Power supply 13.3volts Dc
3.antenna
There are 2 types of antennas
1.RIP antenna
2.GP antenna (Ground Pole)
It is more robust (removal of outside noise)

General Frequency: 148.50MHz (for walkie-talkies)


In coke handling plant, the frequency is 146.50MHz
2
LSBC (Loud Speaker Broad Casting): used for announcing from control room
It is one way communication.
There will be pre amplifier, post amplifier, channel and power amplifier
In Coke Oven, there are 9 LSBC systems
LSCC (Loud Speaker Conference Communication):
It is 2 way communication
3
Telephone Exchanges:
Generates numbers for intra communication (within VSP)
3000 lines has been extended to 5000 lines
Main exchange: It is 5 digit numbers

Local exchange:It is 3 digit numbers


Local exchange is divided into 2 parts
1. Dailing lines
It will have dailing pads, we need to dail to make a call
2. Hotlines (Just in between 2 places/personals)
It may/may not have dailing pads, no need to dail. Lifting the phone will make
the direct call to control room.
It is used in places where lot of dust is present(dust may damage dailing pad) and
places where regular communication is needed ( may be Emergency)

Trunk cards :
It is to link exchanges and works at -48volts DC (230volts DC is converted into
-48volts DC)

4 CC TV s
(Closed Circuit Television)

RMHP didnt have any monitoring systems where as CDCP(coke dry cooling plant) have
the monitoring systems ( reason: CDCP is automatic)
CDCP-1 and CDCP-3 will have operator
11 cameras are present in COKE OVEN using co-axial cables (12volt DC for cameras
and 230 volts DC for monitors)
Signal voltage IV peak-peak
These cameras are simple analog cameras (not IP cameras) as these are used just for
monitoring and no footage is stored.
The main difference between the IP cameras and analog cameras is Storage(footage)
IP- Integrated Protocol
We will find large number of VHF sets and more number of walkie-talkies in COCCP
and RMHP

We will find IP cameras in SMS


(IP encoder and decoder)

There is VMS (Video Management System)

5
Video Conferencing:
(used for Communicating ministers in Delhi)

Cables used are ethernet and optical fibers.

Problems:
1.When distance is increased, underground communication is difficult
2.Heat Problem (Due to over heat, fuses are burnt easily)
3.Electrical Spikes (Due to inconsistent power /not constant)
Most Importantly, Dust and Heat are major reasons for many problems.

BLAST FURNACE:
Normally equipments operate with 230volts 50Hz
NOTE: ultimately every main part of device works with 12 volts DC.
Picture tube requires 24 volts DC to operate
EHT extra high tension
Yoke
Ldt

IN COCCP coke is placed in ovens in the form of powder

Every oven it the battery / Every Battery has 3 holes on the top to dump the coal
powder
DE car : Door Extractor Car

Ge : 0.3volts
Si : 0.7volts
Walkie talkies :
Range is around 1 kilometer
It works with 7.5 volts Nickel Cadmium Cell
The cell will have 3 tips(point of contacts) phase, neutral,

Resistors:
Resistors are of 2 types
1.Fixed Resistance resistors
2.Variable Resistance resistors
Variable resistors are made with ceramic material
Fixed resistors are made with carbon compounds and metal films.

In Blast Furnace
We have 1.CCTVs
2.Broadcasters
3.Hotlines

Working of Radio station:


Mainly there are 2 important parts
1.Transmitter
2.Receiver
Receiver will have a)mixer
b)local oscillator
c)detector

d)push-pull amplifier
And then electric signal is converted into audio signal by speaker

Electronics Engineer requires oscilloscope and multimeter


Fault Finding:
In case of machine failure, we need to investigate the faults
We will begin with testing fuse ( it is called continuity test)

For shaping, we have 5 Rolling Mills


In Rolling mills we can find all kinds of communication systems except SCADA

NOTE:
The advantage for Diesel Generator is there wont be any tripping
Communication technology has been gradually changing from 1990s to 2015

XXXXX
Measuring Device
Current
Ammeter
High Current Current Transformer// Transtester
Low Current Galvanometer
High Voltage Voltmeter

Low Voltage

Galvanometer

# of electrons in outer orbit = 4 implies semiconductor


If electrons are < 4 then those are conductors and > 4 are insulators while 8 electrons in
outer orbit implies inert gases.

Rolling Mills (RM)


Reference: Nooka Raju, Rolling Mills (TelCom Dept)
LMMM (Light and Medium Merchant Mills)
MMSM (Medium Merchant and Structural Mill)
WRM (Wire Rod Mills)
These are the main rolling Mills in the Plant
They take shutdown once in every week for general maintenance and make necessary
changes to suit the production (usually Friday)
Cameras:
There are mainly 2 types of cameras
1.Analog Cameras
2.Digital Cameras (IP Cameras)
Analog cameras are connected to Picture Monitors using co-axial cables. Camera is
supplied with 12volts DC and 220volts DC is provided to monitor.
Working of IP Camera:
Camera is connected to power socket and switch, in turn switch is connected to server
We can access the picture using IP address of it, where intranet is available
In WRM-2, they use Analog Camera but it is connected to encoder, in turn it is connected
to media convertor which is ultimately connected to switch and then to server.
Special Case:
Some Cameras are used to monitor the rolling process, near the furnaces
In order to protect those cameras, cool air is supplied using verti cooling, where high
pressure air is supplied through one end to get the cool air at the other end and to protect
the camera lens, a high density glass is placed before the camera
To avoid illumination during monitoring, welding glass is placed before camera.
Pulp pits: cabins inside the RM, which are useful to monitor and control the process

LSIC (Loud Speaker Inter Communication)


DMS (Desk Mounted Stations) and WMS (Wall Mounted Stations) are part of LSIC in

the rolling mills


These are 2 way communication but half duplex, unlike mobile phones, which are 2 way
communication and fully duplex.
DMS and WMS are connected to exchange, they are provided with switches to send info
for specific location. We have to press it and talk.