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TYPES OF BEAMS

SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

PROPERTIES OF FORCES

MAGNITUDE

DIRECTION

by the angle that the line of action makes with some reference.

SENSE

(OVERHANGING BEAM)

CANTILEVER BEAM

PROPPED CANTILEVER BEAM

(indeterminate)

CONTINOUS BEAM

FORCE SYSTEM

COPLANAR

PARALLEL

CONCURRENT

MOMENT

force x distance

moment can be about any point called CENTER OF MOMENT

MOMENT ARM

shortest or perpendicular distance from the center of moment to line of

action of force.

TENSION

COMPRESSION

SHEAR

pushes towards joint

for connections

ASTM

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS

ACI

AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE

KINDS OF LOADS

CONCENTRATED LOADS

UNIFORM LOADS

more uniformly spaced concentrated loads.

OTHER LOADS

TYPES OF SUPPORT

HINGED

ROLLER

FIXED/ RESTRAINED

0.003 (conc= 0.003), =3mm

1000

It begins to crack

AISC

AMERICAN INSTITUTE FOR STEEL CONSTRUCTION

If a grade 60 steel (fy= 60ksi= 414Mpa) reaches a strain 0.0021 it begins to

yield of (2.1mm)

STRESS- STRAIN DIAGRAM

a graphic representation of the relationship between unit stress values and the

corresponding unit strains for a specific material

1. PROPORTIONAL LIMIT

maximum stress which the material springs back to the original length when

the load is released

2. ELASTIC LIMIT

maximum stress below which the material does not return to its original

length but has incurred a permanent deformation we call permanent set

3.YIELD POINT

the stress wherein the deformation increases without any increase in the load.

The material at some portion shows a decrease in its cross section

4. ULTIMATE STRENGTH

the maximum stress that can be attained immediately before actual failure or

rupture

RUPTURE STRENGTH

stress at which material specimen breaks

ALLOWABLE STRESS

the maximum unit stress permitted for a material in the design of a structural member,

usually a fraction of the materials elastic limit, yield strength, or ultimate strength.

Also called ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESS, WORKING STRESS.

ELASTICITY

the property of a material that enables it to deform in response to an applied force and

to recover its original size and shape upon removal of the force

MALLEABILITY

the ability of a material to regain and rebound to original shape when the load is

released

TOUGHNESS

the property of a material that enables it to absorb energy before rupturing, represented

by the area under the stress- strain curve derived from a tensile test of the material.

Ductile materials are tougher than brittle materials.

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

a coefficient of elasticity of a material expressing the ratio between a unit stress and the

corresponding unit strain caused by the stress, as derived from Hookes law and

represented by the slope of the straight line portion of the stress- strain line diagram.

Also called COEFFICIENT OF ELASTICITY, ELASTIC MODULUS

PERMANENT SET

the inelastic strain remaining in a material after complete release of the stress producing

deformation

YIELD STRENGTH

the stress necessary to produce a specific limiting permanent set in a material,

usually 0.2% of its original length when tested in tension. Yield strength is used to

determine the limit of usefulness of a material having a poorly defined yield point.

Also called POOR STRESS.

STRAIN- RATE EFFECT

the behavior an increased rate of load application can cause in normally ductile material

ELASTIC RANGE

the range of unit stresses for which a material exhibits elastic deformation

TEMPERATURE EFFECT

the brittle behavior low temperatures can cause in a normally ductile material

ELASTIC DEFORMATION

a temporary change in the dimensions or shape of a body produced by a stress less

than the elastic limit of the material

STRESS RELAXATION

the time- dependent decrease in stress in a constrained material under a constant load

BRITTLENESS

the property of material that causes it to rupture suddenly under stress with little evident

deformation. Since brittle materials lack the plastic behavior of ductile materials, they

can give no warning of impending material

DUCTILITY

the property of a material that enables it to undergo plastic deformation after being

stressed beyond the elastic limit and before rupturing. Ductility is a desirable property

of a structural material since plastic behavior is an indicator of reserve strength and

can serve as a visual warning of impending failure.

CREEP

the gradual permanent deformation of a body produced by a continued application of

stress or prolonged exposure to heat. Creep deflection in a concrete structure continues

over time and can be significantly greater than the initial elastic deflection

FATIGUE

the weakening or failure of a material at a stress below the elastic limit when subjected

to a repeated series of stresses

STRESSthe internal resistance or reaction of an elastic body to external forces applied to it.

Equal to the ratio of force to area and expressed in units of force per unit of crosssectional area.

Also called UNIT STRESS.

Maximum allowable stress (Fb) for bending is 24 ksi

Modulus of elasticity (E) is 29,000 ksi

WEIGHT:

water= 1000 kg/ m3

steel= 7850 kg/ m3

TENSILE STRESS

the axial stress that develops at the cross section of an elastic body to resist the

collinear tensile forces tending to elongate it.

TENSILE STRAIN

the elongation of a unit length of material produces by a tensile stress

ELONGATION

a measure of ductility of a material, expressed as the percentage increase in length of a

test specimen after failure in tensile test

4

PROPERTIES OF A MATERIAL

TENSION

the act of stretching or state of being pulled apart, resulting in the elongation of an

elastic body

TENSILE FORCE

an applied force producing or tending to produce tension in an elastic body

AXIAL FORCE

a tensile or compressive force acting along the longitudinal axis of a structural member

and at the centroid of the cross section, producing axial stress without bending, torsion

or shear also called AXIAL LOAD

AXIAL STRESS

the tensile or compressive stress that develops to resist axial force, assumed to be

normal to and uniformly distributed over the area of the cross section.

Also called DIRECT STRESS, NORMAL TRESS

COMPRESSION

the act of shortening or state of being pushed together, resulting in the reduction in size

or volume of an elastic body

COMPRESSIVE FORCE

an applied force producing or tending to produce compression in an elastic body

ECCENTRIC FORCE

force applied parallel to the longitudinal axis of a structural member but not to the

centroid of the cross section, producing bending and uneven distribution of stresses in

the section.

Also called ECCENTRIC LOAD.

REDUCTION OF AREA

a measure of ductility of a material, expressed as the percentage decrease in crosssectional area of a test specimen after rupturing in a tensile test

TENSILE STRENGTH

the resistance of a material to longitudinal stress, measured by the minimum amount of

longitudinal stress required to rupture the material

STRAIN

the deformation of a body under the action of an applied force. Strain is a dimensionless

quantity, equal to the ratio of the change in size and shape to the original size and

shape of a stressed element.

STRAIN GAUGE

an instrument for measuring minute deformation in a test specimen caused by tension,

compression, bending or twisting.

Also called EXTENSOMETER

YOUNGS MODULUS

a coefficient of elasticity of material expressing the ratio of longitudinal stress to the

corresponding longitudinal strain caused by the strain.

POISSONS RATIO

the ratio of lateral strain to the corresponding longitudinal strain in an elastic body under

longitudinal stress

COMPRESSIVE STRESS

the axial stress that develops at the cross section of an elastic body to resist the

collinear compressive forces tending to shorten it.

COMPRESSIVE STRAIN

the shortening of a unit length of material produced by a compressive stress

REINFORCED CONCRETE

SHEAR

EFFECTIVE LENGTH

the depth of concrete section measured from the compression face to the centroid of the

tension reinforcement

the lateral deformation produced in a body by an external force that causes one part of

the body to slide relative to an adjacent part in a direction parallel to their plane contact.

SHEAR FORCE

an applied force producing or tending to produce shear in the body

SHEARING FORCE

an internal force tangenial to the surface on which it acts, developed by a body in

response to shear, shearing in a vertical plane necessarily involves shearing in a

horizontal plane and vise versa

SHEARING STRESS

the force per unit area developed along a section of an elastic body to resist a shear

force.

Also called SHEAR STRESS, TANGENIAL STRESS

SHEARING STRAIN

the lateral deformation developed in a body in response to shearing stresses, defined as

the tangent of the skew angle of the deformation.

SHEAR MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

a coefficient elasticity of a material, expressing the ratio between shearing stress and

the corresponding shearing strain produced by the strain.

Also called MODULUS OF RIGIDITY, MODULUS OF TORSION

BENDING

the bowing of an elastic body as an external force is applied transversely to its length.

Bending is the structural mechanism that enables a load to be mechanism that enables

a load to be channeled in a direction perpendicular to its application.

TRANSVERSE FORCE

a force applied perpendicular to the length of a structural member,

producing bending and shear

TORQUE

the moment of a force system that causes or tends to cause rotation or torsion

TORSION

the twisting of an elastic body about its longitudinal axis caused by two equal and

opposite torques, producing shearing stresses in the body

COVER

the amount of concrete required to protect steel reinforcement from fire and corrosion,

measured from the surface of the reinforcement to outer surface of the concrete section

BOND STRESS

the adhesive for per unit area of contact between reinforcing bar and the surrounding

concrete developed at any section of a flexural member

HOOK

a bend or curve given to develop an equivalent embedment length, used where there is

insufficient room to develop in adequate embedment length

STANDARD HOOK

a 90, 135, 180 bend made at the end of a reinforcing bar according to standards

ANCHORAGE

any of various means, as embedment length or hooked bars, for developing tension or

compression in a reinforcing bar on each side of critical section in order to prevent bond

failure or splitting

CRITICAL SECTION

the section of a flexural concrete member at a point of maximum stress, a point of

inflection, or appoint within the span where tension bars are no longer needed to resist

stress

BALANCED SECTION

a concrete in which the tension reinforcement theoretically reaches its specified yield

strength as the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate strain

OVERREINFORCED SECTION

a concrete section in which the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate

strain before the tension reinforcement reaches its specified yield strength. This is a

dangerous condition since failure of the section could occur instantaneously without

warning

UNDERREINFORCED SECTION

a concrete section in which the tension reinforcement reaches its specified yield

strength before the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate strain. This

is desirable condition since failure of the section would be preceded by large

deformations giving prior warning of impending collapse

BEAM

BEAM

a rigid structural member designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across spaces

supporting elements

SPAN

the extent of space between two supports of a structure

CLEAR SPAN

the distance between inner faces of the support of a span

EFFECTIVE SPAN

the center to center distance between the supports of a span

BENDING MOMENT

an external moment tending to cause part a structure to rotate or bend, equal to the

algebraic sum of the moments about the neutral axis of the section under consideration

RESISTING MOMENT

an internal moment equal and opposite to a bending moment, generated by a force

couple to maintain equilibrium of the section being considered

DEFLECTION

the perpendicular distance a spanning member deviates from a true course under

transverse loading, increasing with load and span, and decreasing with an increase in

the moment of inertia of the section of the modulus of elasticity of the material

VERTICAL SHEARING

the shearing stress developed along cross section of a beam to resist transverse shear,

having a maximum value at the neutral axis and decreasing nonlinearly toward the outer

faces

HORIZONTAL SHEARING

the shearing stress developed to prevent slippage along longitudinal planes of a beam

under transverse loading, equal to any point to the vertical shearing stress at that point.

Also called LONGITUDINAL SHEARING STRESS

FLEXURE FORMULA

a formula defining the relationship between bending moment, bending stress, and the

cross sectional properties of a beam. Bending stress is directly proportional to bending

moment and inversely proportional to the moment of inertia of a beam section.

MOMENT OF INERTIA

the sum of the products of each element of an area and the square of its distance from a

coplanar axis of rotation. Moment of inertia is a geometric property that indicates how

the cross sectional area of structural member is distributed and does not reflect the

intrinsic physical properties of a material

SECTION MODULUS

a geometric property of a cross section, defined as the moment of inertia of the section

divided by the distance from the neutral axis to the most remote surface.

LATERAL BUCKLING

the buckling of a structural member induced by compressive stresses acting on slender

portion insufficiently rigid in the lateral direction

NEUTRAL AXIS

an imaginary line passing through the centroid of the cross section of a beam, other

member subject to bending, along which no bending stresses occur

STRESS TRAJECTORIES

lines depicting the direction but not the magnitude of the principal stresses in a beam

BENDING STRESS

a combination of compressive and tensile stresses developed at a cross section of

structural member to resist transverse force, having a maximum value at the surface

furthest from the neutral axis

SHEAR DIAGRAM

a graphic representation of the variation in magnitude of the external shears present in a

structure for a given set of transverse loads and support conditions concentrated loads

produce external shears which are constant in magnitude between the loads uniformly

distributed loads produce linearly varying shears

CAMBER

a slight convex curvature intentionally built into beam, girder, or truss to compensate for

an anticipated deflection

How is camber treated in a steel truss 25 meters and longer?

Camber shall be approximately equal to the dead load deflection

TRANSVERSE SHEAR

an external shear force at a cross section of a beam or other member subject to

bending, equal to the algebraic sum of transverse forces on one side of the section

MOMENT DIAGRAM

a graphic representation of the variation in magnitude of the bending moment present in

a structure for a given set of transverse load and support conditions. The overall

deflected shape of a structure subject to bending can often be inferred from the shape

of its moment diagram

CONCENTRATED LOADS

produce bending moments which vary linearly between loads

UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADS

produce parabolically varying moments

POSITIVE SHEAR

a net resultant of shear forces that acts vertically upward on the left part of the structure

being considered

NEGATIVE SHEAR

a net resultant of shear forces that act vertically downward on the left part of the

structure being considered

POSITIVE MOMENT

a bending moment that produces moment that produces a concave curvature at a

section of a structure

INFLECTION POINT

a point at which a structure changes curvature from convex to concave or vise versa as

it deflects under a transverse load: theoretically an internal hinge and therefore a point

of zero moment

NEGATIVE MOMENT

a bending moment that produces a convex curvature at a section of a structure

SIMPLE BEAM

a beam resisting on simple supports at both ends which are free to rotate and have no

moment resistance. As with any statistically determinate structure, the values of all

reactions, shears, and moments for a simple beam are independent of its cross

sectional shape and material

CANTILEVER BEAM

a projecting beam supported at only one fixed end

CANTILEVER

a beam or other rigid structural member extending beyond a fulcrum and supported by a

balancing member or a downward force behind the fulcrum

OVERHANGING BEAM

a simple beam extending beyond one of its supports. The overhanging reduces the

positive moment at midspan while developing a negative moment at the base of the

cantilever over the support

FIXED END BEAM

a beam having both ends restrained against translation and rotation. The fixed ends

transfer bending stresses, increase the rigidity of the beam and reduces its maximum

deflection

CONTINUOUS BEAM

a beam extending over more than 2 supports in order to develop greater rigidity and

smaller moments than a series of simple beams having similar spans and loading. Both

fixed end and continuous beams are indeterminate structures for which the values of all

reactions, shears and moments are dependent not only on span and loading but also on

cross sectional shape and material

HAUNCH

the part of a beam that is thickened or deepened to develop greater moment resistance.

The efficiency of a beam can be increased by shaping its length in response to the

moment and shear values which typically vary along its longitudinal axis

SUSPENDED SPAN

a simple beam supported by the cantilevers of two adjoining spans with pinned

construction joints at points of zero moment. Also called hung span

EFFECTIVE LENGTH

the distance between inflection points in the span of a fixed end or continuous beam,

equivalent in nature to the actual length of simply supported beam

COLUMN

COLUMN

a relatively slender structural member designed primarily to support axial, compressive

loads, applied at the member ends.

POST

a stiff vertical support especially a wooden column in timber framing

BUCKLING

the sudden lateral or torsional instability of a slender structural member induced by the

action of a compressive load. Buckling can occur well before the yield stress of the

material is reached

BUCKLING

the axial load at which a column begins to deflect laterally and becomes unsuitable.

CRITICAL BUCKLING LOAD

the maximum axial load that can theoretically be applied to a column without causing it

to buckle. The critical buckling load for a column is inversely proportional to the square

of its effective length and directly proportional to the modulus of elasticity of the material

and to the moment of inertia of the cross section.

Also called EULER BUCKLING LOAD

BIFURCATION

the critical point at which a column carrying its critical buckling load, may either buckle

or remain undeflected. The column is therefore in a state of neutral equilibrium

CRITICAL BUCKLING STRESS

the critical buckling load for a column divided by the area of its cross section

SLENDERNESS RATIO

the ratio of the effective length of a column to its least ratio of gyration

The higher the slenderness ratio, the lower is the critical stress that will cause buckling.

A primary objective in the design of a column is to reduce its slenderness ratio by

minimizing its effective length or maximizing its effective length or maximizing the radius

of gyration of its cross section

RADIUS OF GYRATION

the radial distance from any axis to a point at which the mass of a body could be

concentrated without altering the moment of inertia of the body about that axis. For a

structural section, the radius of gyration is equal to the square root of the quotient of the

moment of inertia and the area

The higher the radius of gyration of a structural section, the more resistant the section is

to buckling. In determining the cross- sectional shape of a column, the objective is to

providethe necessary radius of gyration about the different axes. For an asymmetrical

cross section, buckling will tend to occur about the weaker axis or in the direction of the

least dimension

LONG COLUMN

a slender column subject to failure by buckling rather than by crushing

SHORT COLUMN

a thick column subject to failure by crushing rather than by buckling. Failure occurs

when the direct stress from an axial load exceeds the compressive strength of the

material available in the cross section. An eccentric load, however, can produce bending

and result in uneven stress distribution in the section

INTERMEDIATE COLUMN

a column having a mode of failure between that a short column and a long column, often

party inelastic by crushing and partly elastic by buckling

ECCENTRICITY

The amount by which an axis deviates from another parallel axis.

P-DELTA EFFECT

An additional moment developed in a structural member as its longitudinal axis deviates

from the line of action of a compressive force equal to the product of the load and the

member deflection at any point.

MIDDLE THIRD RULE

The proposition that a compressive load should be located within the middle third of a

horizontal section of a column or wall to prevent tensile stresses from developing in the

section.

EFFECTIVE LENGTH

The distance between inflection points in a column subject to buckling load. When this

portion of a column buckles the entire column falls.

COMBINED STRESSES

A set of tensile and compressive stresses resulting from the superposition of axial and

bending stresses at a cross section of a structural member, acting in the same direction

and equal at any point to their algebraic sum.

KERN

The central area of any horizontal section of a column or wall within which the resultant

of all compressive loads must pass if only compressive stresses are to be applied

beyond this area will cause tensile stresses to develop in the section. Also called kern

area.

KERN POINT

A point on either side of the centroidal axis of a horizontal column or wall section

defining the limits of the kern area.

LATERAL BRACING

the bracing of a column or other compression member to reduce its effective length.

Lateral bracing is most effective when the bracing pattern occurs in more than one

plane.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE

a soil pressure acting on any structure that will tend to push the structure wherein the

structure or a wall tends to move away from the soil

ACCELEROGRAPH

is an instrument which measures the velocity and acceleration of an earthquake in the

ground

ANCHOR BOLTS

a round, steel bolt embedded in concrete or masonry used to hold down machinery,

steel columns or beam casting, shock beam plates and engine heads

BALANCED DESIGN

is one which both the concrete and the steel are so proportioned as to work to their full

working stresses when the member carries its full allowable load

BATTER PILES

are piles at an inclination to resist forces that are not critical. This is also known as brace

pile or spur pile

BEARING WALL SYSTEM

a structural system without a complete vertical load carrying space frame

UNBRACED LENGTH

the distance between the points at which a structural member is braced against buckling

in a direction normal to its length.

EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR

a coefficient for modifying the actual length of a column according to its end conditions

in order to determine its effective length. Fixing both ends of a long column reduces its

effective length by half and increases its load-carrying capacity by a factor of 4.

TRUSS

METHOD OF SECTIONS

a method of determining member forces in a truss by considering the equilibrium of any

portion of the truss assembly.

BENDING MOMENT

is the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces acting on either side of the section of

a beam about an axis through the center of the gravity of the section

BORED PILE (bearing pile)

a concrete pile which concreted either with a casing or without a casing at its permanent

location. This is a cast in place pile

CAISSON

a watertight, cylindrical or rectangular chamber used to in under water construction to

protect workers from water pressure and soil collapse

CEMENT GUN

is an ejector operated by compressed air to force gunite into cavities or cracks in rocks

or cement works

CHUTE

is an open-top through which bulk materials are conveyed and by gravity

METHOD OF JOINTS

a method for determining member forces in a truss by considering the equilibrium of the

various joints idealized as points in free body diagrams

COFFER DAM

a temporary dam- like structure constructed which excludes water from the site of the

foundation during its excavation and construction

CONSTRUCTION JOINT

the vertical or horizontal face in a concrete structure where concreting has been stopped

and continued later

FATIGUE

is a phenomenon of failure under repeated stresses. A fact, based experience and

experiments, is well known that stresses which are applied to a body a few times without

causing apparent structure injury may, if applied repeatedly or causing a great number

of times, causes failure

COLD JOINT

formed when a concrete surface hardens before the next batch o f concrete is placed

GUNITE

CREEP

is a rich cement mortar which is applied by spraying under high air pressure

he tendency of most material to move or deform over time under a constant load The

amount of movement varies enormously depending upon the material. The area that is

highly stressed will move the most. The movement causes stresses to be redistributed.

a cantilever wall that is reinforced with a masonry structure extending upward from the

foundation or from the inner face of the retaining wall to provide additional resistance to

thrust and are placed at regular intervals. (Buttress if outer)

COFFER DAM

a temporary watertight enclosure around an area of water or water bearing soil, in which

construction is to take place, bearing on a stable statum at or above the foundation level

of new construction. The water is pumped from within to permit free access to the area

DIAPHRAGM

a horizontal or nearly horizontal system including horizontal bracing system, that act to

transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements

DIAPHRAGM STRUT

a structural member of a horizontal bracing system that takes axial tension or

compression. It is parallel to the applied load that collects and transfers shear to the

vertical resisting elements or distributive loads within the horizontal bracing system

DIVING BELL

a watertight bell- shaped steel chamber which can be lowered to or raised from a fresh

or seawater bed crane. It is opened at the bottom and filled with compressed air so that

men can prepare foundations and undertake similar construction work under water.

DOWEL

GRADE BEAM

a concrete beam placed directly on the ground to provide foundation for the

superstructure

GRANOLITHIC FINISH

a surface layer or granolithic concrete which maybe laid on a base of either fresh or

hardened concrete

GRILLAGE

is a footing which consist of steel beams arranged to distribute a concentrated load to

the supporting masonry or soil

DISTRIBUTION OF HORIZONTAL SHEAR

design analysis requirement, considered as the basis for the structural design of

structures where the total lateral forces are distributed to the various vertical

elements of the lateral force resisting system in proportion to their rigidities

considering the rigidity of the horizontal bracing system or diaphragm

HYBRID STEEL GIRDER

is a fabricated metal beam composed of flanges with a material of a specified minimum

yield strength different from that of the web plate

INTENSITY

the measure of the damage level of an earthquake (subjective to visual assessment)

INFLECTION POINT

a point in the moment diagram where it changes from positive to negative moment of

vise versa and the value of the moment at this point is zero

a short steel bar extending from one concrete element to another as for instance a

concrete foundation to a concrete column. It may or may not transfer direct stress

DRIFT BOLT

is a long pin of steel or wood, made with or without the head, driven through the timber

and into an adjacent timber to hold them together and to transmit stresses

EXPANSION OR CONTRACTION

a joint designed to take expansion and contraction

the designed break in a structure to allow for the drying and temperature shrinkage of

concrete, brickwork of similar material, thereby preventing the formation of harmful

cracks

JETTING

a method of driving piles or well points into the sand in the situations where a pile

hammer might not be suitable owing to the risk of damage by vibration to the piles of

adjacent buildings.

LINTEL BEAM

a beam especially provided over an opening for a door, window, to carry the wall over

the opening

MAGNITUDE

the measure of the energy released by an earthquake (measured by instrument)

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

is the constant which, within the proportional limit, express ratio between the unit stress

to the unit strain. It is the measure of the relative abilities of the different materials of

construction to resist deformation under stress within proportional limit

MODULUS OF RESILIENCE

is a measure of the capacity of the material to absorb energy without danger of being

permanently deformed

MOMENT OF RESITANCE

is the internal resisting moment of a beam. It is opposite in sense to the bending

moment but of the same magnitude

PORTLAND CEMENT

is the product obtained by finely pulverizing clinker produced by calcining to incipient

fusion an intimate and properly proportioned mixture of argillaceous and calcareous

materials with no additions subsequent to calcinations except water and calcined or

uncalcined gypsum

PROPORTIONAL LIMIT

is the highest unit stress for which the deformation of a body is proportional to the

stress. Beyond this point, permanent deformation occurs

REDUNDANT MEMBER

is any framed structure or truss, is one which maybe omitted in the structure without

affect in the possibility of analyzing the frame or truss by ordinary static method of

computations such as the counter diagonal truss

RIP-RAP

MORTAR

water and protect material which maybe washed out by the water

is a mixture, composed of one part of Portland cement and one part of clean sand, used

as a filter

SAGROD

MULLION

is a vertical member between two portions of window sash usually designed to resist

wind load and not vertical load. It is different from muntin, which is smaller member

which separates the panels of glass within the whole sash.

structural member in the steel truss framing that counteracts forces in compression

because of high probability of the purlins to deflect and bend down during purlin

installation.

is wall that carries no load other than its own weight

SAND DRAIN

it is provided to help in the compaction of natural soil which provide channels through

which water can escape much more rapidly then through the clay itself. The weight of

the drain itself helps in the compaction.

ORTHOGONAL EFFECT

the effect on the structure due to extreme lateral (earthquake) motions acting in

directions other than parallel to the direction to the direction of resistance under

consideration

SHEAR WALL

a wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of a wall

SOFFIT is the concave surface of an arch

PARTY WALL

is a wall used or adopted for joint service between two buildings

PLASTER CEMENT FINISH

a mixture of Portland cement, with water and sand applied to surfaces such as walls

ceilings in a plastic state, later it sets to form a hard surface

SPANDREL BEAM

is a beam from column to column, carrying an exterior wall in a skeleton building

STIFFNESS RATIO (K)

in moment distribution method- (as used in analysis of indeterminate structures) is the

ratio of moment of inertia of the cross section of its length

POINTING

in masonry, the final treatment of joints by the troweling of mortar or putty like filler into

joints

STRESS

PORTAL METHOD

method of analyzing indeterminate modular building frames by assuming hinges at the

center of beam spans and column heights or the interior column carries twice as much

shear as the exterior column

STRAIN OR DEFORMATION

is the change in the shape of any material when subjected to the action force

is the cohesive force in a body, which resists the tendency of an external force to

change the shape of the body

TIE BAR

a deformed bar, embedded in a concrete construction at a joint and designed to hold a

butting edges together, not designed for direct load transfer

TORSION OR MOMENT OF INERTIA

is a quality which measures the resistance of the mass to being revolved about a line

TRANSFORMED SECTION

is one in which the flexural steel is conceived to be replaced by large area of imaginary

concrete which can take tension. This gives a homogeneous section of concrete to

which ordinary beam analysis may be applied

TREMIE

is a watertight pipe 300 mm to 600 mm in diameter with a flared top used in depositing

concrete under water

UNDERPINNING

is an art of placing new foundation under old foundation

VIBRATOR

is an oscillating power operated machine used to agitate fresh concrete so as to

eliminate gross voids including entrapped air and to produce intimate contact with form

surfaces and embedded materials

VOID- CEMENT RATIO

is the ratio of volume of air plus water to the volume cement

WALL FOOTING

a continuous type of spread footing the supports vertical load, the weight of the wall

itself and the weight of the footing

WATER CEMENT RATIO

the ration of the amount of water, to the amount of cement in a concrete or mortar

mixture

WEB CRIPPLING

local failure of a thin web plate of a steel beam or girder in the immediate vicinity of a

concentrated load

ASD

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN

LRFD

LOAD RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN

ARTIFICIAL RIGIDITY

will cause torsion (twisting)

BASE

is the level at which the earthquake motions are considered to be imparted to the

structure

BASE SHEAR

is the total designed lateral force or shear at the base of the structure

BEARING WALL SYSTEM (shear type)

is a structural system without a complete vertical load carrying space frame

BOUNDARY ELEMENT

is an element at edges of opening or at the perimeters of shear walls or diaphragm

BRACED FRAME

is an essentially vertical truss system of the concentric or eccentric type which is

provided to resist lateral forces

BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM

is an essentially complete space frame which provides supports for gravity loads

CONCENTRIC BRACED FRAME

is a braced frame in which the members are subjected primarily to axial forces

COLLECTOR

is a member or an element provided to transfer lateral forces from a portion of a

structure to the vertical elements of the lateral force resisting system

DIAPHRAGM

is a horizontal or nearly horizontal system (including horizontal bracing system) acting to

transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements

DIAPHRAGM STRUT

also known as tie or collector, is the element of a diaphragm parallel to the applied load

which collects and transfer diaphragm shear to the vertical resisting elements or

distribute loads within the diaphragm. Such members may also take axial tension or

compression.

DIAPHRAGM CHORD

is the boundary element of a diaphragm or a shear wall which is assumed to take axial

stresses analogous to the flanges of the beam

DUAL SYSTEM

is a combination of a Special or Intermediate Moment Resisting Space Frame and

Shearwalls or Braced Frame

is the coincidence of the natural period of structure which dominant frequency in the

ground motion

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES

are those structures which are necessary for emergency post- earthquake operations

STRENGTH

is the usable capacity of a structure or its members to carry loads within the deformation

limits prescribed in the code

FLEXIBLE ELEMENT

an element or system is one whose deformation under lateral load significantly larger

than adjoining parts of the system

HARMONIC MOTION

the coincidence of the natural period of structural with the dominant frequency in the

ground

MOMENT RESISTING FRAME

is a space frame in which the members and joints are capable of resisting forces

primarily by flexure

SOIL STABILIZATION

is the process of improving the properties of a soil to make it more suitable for a

particular purpose

SPACE FRAME

is a three dimensional structural system without bearing walls composed of members

interconnected so as to function as a complete self contained unit with or without the aid

of horizontal diaphragms or bracing systems

STOREY

is the space between levels. Storey x is the storey below level x

ORTHOGONAL EFFECT

is the effect of the structure due to earthquake motions acting in directions other than

parallel to the direction of resistance under consideration

P- DELTA EFFECT

is the secondary effect on shears and moments of frame members induced by the

vertical loads acting on the laterally displaced building frame

PERT-CPM

PROGRAM EVALUATION REVIEW TECHNIQUE- CRITICAL PATH METHOD

it is a presentation of project plan by a schematic diagram or network that depicts the

sequence and interrelation of all the component parts of the project, and the logically

analysis and manipulation of this network in determining the best overall program of

operation.

PLATFORM

is the lower rigid portion of a structure having vertical combination of structural system

PNEUMATIC MORTAR

mortar applied to a surface with a cement gun in the same manner as gunite, with such

mortar has a cube crushing strength of 20.68 Mpa

at 28 days with water/ cement ratio of 0.45

SHEAR WALL

is a wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall (sometimes

referred to or a structural wall)

SOFT STOREY

is a storey whose lateral stiffness is less than 70% of the stiffness of the storey above

STOREY SHEAR

is the summation of design lateral forces above the storey under consideration

STOREY DRIFT

is the displacement of one level relative to the level above or below

STOREY DRIFT RATIO

is the storey drift divided by the storey height

STRUCTURE

is an assemblage of framing members designed to support gravity loads and resist

lateral forces. They maybe categorized as building or non- building.

RAINWATER LEADER

it is another term of a downspout. It is a vertical pipe, often of sheet metal, used to

conduct water from a roof drain or gutter to the ground.

TORSION RIGIDITY (is used in seismic design)

refers to the relative stiffness of the structure to resist torsional stress

TOWER

is the upper flexible portion of a structure having a vertical combination of structural

system

VERTICAL LOAD CARRYING SPACE FRAME

is a space frame designed to carry all vertical (gravity) loads

WEAK STOREY

is a storey whose strength is less than 80% of the strength of the storey

1.

maximum spacing of hoops shall not exceed 24 times the diameter of the hoop bars

2.

maximum spacing of hoops shall not be 8 times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal

bars

3.

4.

the first hoop shall be located not more than 50 mm from the face of the supporting

member

AS GRADED

BEDROCK

BENCH

on which fill is to be placed

BURROW

for use in grading on a site

COMPACTION

EARTH MATERIAL

EROSION

movement of the wind, water or ice

EXCAVATION

FILL

GRADE

EXISTING GRADE

FINISH GRADE

is the final grade of the site that conforms to the approved plan

GRADING

KEY

beneath the toe of a proposed fill slope

ADMIXTURE

a material used as ingredient of concrete and added to concrete before or during its

mixing to modify its properties

AGGREGATE

granular material such as sand gravel stone and iron blast furnace slag used with a

cementing medium to form a hydraulic cement concrete or mortar

AGGREGATE LIGHTWEIGHT

aggregate with a dry, loose weight of 100 kg/m or less

ANCHORAGE

in post tensioning, a device used to anchor tendon to concrete member, in pretensioning, a device used to anchor a tendon during hardening of concrete

BONDED TENDON

pre-stressing tendon that is bonded to concrete either directly or through grouting

COLUMN

member with a ratio to least lateral dimension of 3 or greater used primarily to support

axial compressive load

COMPOSITE CONCRETE FLEXURAL MEMBERS

concrete flexural members of pre-cast and/or cast in place concrete elements but so

interconnected that all elements respond to loads as a unit

CONCRETE

mixture of Portland cement or any other hydraulic cement, fine aggregate, coarse

aggregate, and water, with or without admixtures

SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE (f)

compressive strength of concrete used in design expressed in megapascals (Mpa).

Whenever the quantity Fc is under a radical sign, square root of numerical value only is

intended, and result has units of megapascals (Mpa).

CONCRETE, STRUCTURAL LIGHT WEIGHT

concrete containing lightweight aggregate and has an air-dry unit weight not

exceeding 1900 kg/m3. lightweight concrete without natural sand is termed all- light

weight concrete and lightweight concrete in which of the fine aggregate consists of

normal weight sand is termed sand- lightweight concrete.

CURVATURE FRICTION

friction resulting from bends or curves in the specified pre-stressing tendon profile

DEFORMED REINFORCEMENT

deformed reinforcing bars, bar mats, deformed wire fabric and welded deformed fabric.

PEDESTAL

an upright compression member with a ratio of unsupported height to average least

lateral dimensions of less than 3

DEVELOPMENT LENGTH

length of embedded reinforcement required to develop the design strength of

reinforcement at a critical section

PLAIN CONCRETE

concrete that does not conform to the definition of reinforced concrete

distance measure from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement

PLAIN REINFORCEMENT

reinforcement that does not conform to the definition of deformed reinforcement

EFFECTIVE PRESTRESS

stress remaining in prestressing tendons after all losses has occurred, excluding effects

of dead load and super imposed load

POST TENSIONING

method of prestressing in which the tendons are tensioned after concrete has hardened

EMBEDMENT LENGTH

length of embedded reinforcement provided beyond a critical section

JACKING FORCE

in prestressed concrete, temporary force exerted into prestressing tendons

PRECAST CONCRETE

plain or reinforced concrete element cast elsewhere than its final position in the

structure

POSTENSIONING

method of prestressing concrete which the tendons are tensioned before concrete is

placed

dead weight supported by a member.

Loads of constant magnitude that remains in one position.

REINFORCED CONCRETE

designed on the assumption that two materials act together in resisting forces

loads that may change in magnitude and position

SPIRAL REINFORCEMNT

continuously wound reinforcement in the form of a cylindrical helix

FACTORED LOAD

load multiplied by appropriate load factors, used to proportion a members by the

strength design method.

STIRRUP

reinforcement used to resist shear and torsion stresses in a structural member: typically

bars, wires or welded wire fabric (smooth or deformed) either single leg or bent into L, U

or rectangular shapes and located perpendicularly to or at angle to longitudinal

reinforcement (The term stirrups is usually applied to lateral reinforcement in flexural

members and the term ties to those in compression members.)

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

ratio of normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses below

proportional limit of material

MODULUS, APARENT (concrete)

also known as long term modulus, is determined by using the stress and strain obtained

after the load has been applied for a certain length of time

MODULUS, INITIAL (concrete)

the slope of the stress strain diagram at the origin of the curve

MODULUS, SECANT (concrete)

the slope of the line drawn from the origin to appoint on the curve somewhere between

25% and 50% of its ultimate compressive strength

DEIGN STRENGTH

nominal strength reduction factor,

NOMINAL STRENGTH

strength of a member or cross- section before application of any strength reduction

factors

REQUIRED STRENGTH

strength of a member or cross section required to resist factored loads or related

internal moments and forces in such combinations

TENDON

the slope of tangent to the curve to some point along the curve

steel element such as wire, cable, bar, rods or strand, or a bundle of such elements

used to impart prestress to concrete

TIE

loop or reinforcing bar or wire enclosing longitudinal reinforcement

TRANSFER

act of transferring stress in prestressing tendons from jacks

or pretensioning bed to concrete member

WALL

member, usually vertical, used to enclose or separate spaces

AGGREGATES

Fine aggregates- sand

are those that passes through a No.4

Coarse aggregate shall not be less than:

WOBBLE FRICTION

in pre-stressed concrete, friction caused by unintended deviation of prstressing sheath

or duct from its specified profile

minimum clear spacing between individual reinforcing bars or wires, bundle of bars or

prestressing tendons or ducts

YIELD STRENGTH

specified minimum yield strength or yield point or reinforcing in Mpa

BALANCED DESIGN

a design so proportioned that the maximum stress in concrete (with strain of 0.003) and

steel (with strain of Fy/Es) are reached simultaneously once the ultimate load is

reached, causing them to fall simultaneously

UNDERREINFORCED DESIGN

a design in which the steel reinforcement is lesser than what is required for balanced

conditioned. Failure under this condition is ductile and will give warning to the user of

thee structure to decrease the load

OVERREINFORCED DESIGN

a design in which the steel reinforcement is more than what is required for balanced

condition

75 mm

40-50 mm

40 mm

40 mm

20 mm

for concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground, such as slabs,

walls and joists

a.

groups of parallel reinforcing bars bundled in contact as a unit shall be limited to 4 in any

one bundle

b.

c.

d.

individual bars within a bundle terminated within the span of flexural members should

terminate at a different points at least 40db stagger

STANDARD HOOKS

L/21

L/8

- cantilever

LOAD FACTORS

A.

180 bend plus 4db extension but not less than 65 mm at free end

B.

C.

16 mm bar and smaller, 90 bend plus 6db extension at free end of bar or

25 mm bar and smaller, 135 bend plus 6db extension at free end of bar

Earth or water pressure, H.... 1.70

The diameter of bend measured on the inside of the bar shall not be less than the following:

(a.)

(b.)

(c.)

8db for 10 mm to 28 mm bar

10db for 10 mm to 36 mm bar

4db minimum inside diameter of bend of stirrups and ties for 16 mm bar and smaller in diameter

Flexure w/o axial load.. 0.90

A one-way slab is considered as wide shallow rectangular beam. The reinforcing steel is usually

spaced uniformly over its width. The flexural reinforcement of a one-way slab extends in one

direction only.

3 times the slab thickness or 450 mm

Minimum thickness of one-way slab:

Solid one-way slab

L/20

- simply supported

L/24

- one end continuous

L/28

- both end continuous

L/10

- cantilever

* Span length L is in millimeter

Ribbed one-way slab

L/16

- simply supported

L/18.5

- one end continuous

a. spiral reinforcement 0.75

b. tie reinforcement . 0.70

Bearing on concrete ..0.70

REQUIRED STRENGTH, U or Pu

Required strength U to resist dead load DL and live load LL is

U= 1.4DL + 1.7LL

perimeter of a circle tie is allowed.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF REINFORCEMNT

1. not less than 12 db

2. not less than 1/16 clear span

U= 0.75 (1.4DL + 1.7LL + 1.7W)

whichever is greater

U= 0.75 (1.4DL + 1.7LL + 1.87E)

CRITERION FOR CONDUITS AND PIPES EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE

Where structural effect T of differential settlement, creep, shrinkage or

temperature change are significant in design

U= 0.75 (1.4DL + 1.4T + 1.7LL)

but required strength U shall not be less than

U= 1.4 (DL + T)

SIZE AND SPACING OF MAIN BARS AND TIES

a.

Conduits and pipes embedded in slab, the wall or beam shall not be larger in outside

dimension than 1/3 the overall thickness of slab, wall or beam

b.

Reinforcement with an area not less than 0.002 times the area of cross- section shall be

provided normal to piping

c.

Conduits and pipes with their fittings, embedded within a column shall not displace more

than 4% of the area of the cross section on which strength is calculated

d.

Concrete cover for pipes, conduits and fittings shall not be less than 40 mm for concrete

exposed to earth or weather

1.5 db nor 40 mm

CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH BOLTED CONNECTION

2. Use 10 mm diameter ties for 32 mm bars or smaller and at least

12 mm in size for 36 mm and bundled longitudinal bars

3. Vertical spacing of ties shall be the smallest of the following:

a. 16 x db (db = longitudinal bar diameter)

b. 48 x tie diameter

c. least dimension of columns

4. Ties shall be arrange such that every corner and alternate longitudinal

bar shall have lateral support provided by the corner of the tie with an

included angle of not more than 135 and no bar shall be farther than

150 mm clear on each side along the tie from such a laterally

1.

High-strength bolted parts shall fit solidly together when assembled and shall not be

separated by gaskets or any other interposed compressive material.

2.

washer under the nut or bolt head whichever is the element turned in tightening.

3.

When assembled, all joint surfaces, including those adjacent to the washer, shall be free

of scale, except tight mill scales, dirts and burns.

4.

Surface in contact with the bolt head and nut head shall have slope of not more than

1:20 with respect to a plane normal to the bolt axis.

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