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LedaFlow Tutorial

2014

LedaFlow Tutorial

Study of severe slugging effects in a


Pipeline/Riser geometry

LedaFlow Tutorial

2014

Table of contents

Sommaire
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 1
Create a database .................................................................................................................................... 2
Create a case ........................................................................................................................................... 3
Set PVT option ......................................................................................................................................... 6
Set heat transfer option .......................................................................................................................... 9
Define the pipe wall properties ............................................................................................................. 10
Set pipe geometry ................................................................................................................................. 13
Configure mesh ..................................................................................................................................... 15
Set boundary conditions ....................................................................................................................... 17
Set numerical parameters ..................................................................................................................... 18
Run the case .......................................................................................................................................... 20
Plot and export the results .................................................................................................................... 21

LedaFlow Tutorial

2014

Introduction
This tutorial has been designed to study the severe slugging effects found in a simple geometry, using
water and air at atmospheric pressure. The document teaches step by step the basic features of
LedaFlow: from creating a database and a new case to analysing the obtained results.
Geometry
This tutorial will be based on a previous report written by J.Fabre et al for the Society of Petroleum
Engineers, published in 1987 (SPE 16846).. The following figure represents the geometry of the
pipeline that will be used during this exercise.

Pipeline/Riser geometry
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Z - Pipe height (m)

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0

10

15

20

25

X - Pipe length (m)

Device characteristics
Pipe diameter

53mm in the entire system


Pipeline of 25m
Pipe geometry
riser of 13.5 m
50 cm radius bend
5 mm of steel
Pipe walls
5 mm of an insulation material
5 mm of an isolated coating
Ambient temperature 20 C
Gas mass flow rate: 0.000533 kg/s
Inlet conditions
Water mass flow rate: 0.280167 kg/s
1 bar
Outlet conditions
20 C

LedaFlow Tutorial

2014

Create a database
LedaFlow uses a MySQL version 5.1 as a database service. The user has the possibility to create
several databases inside MySQL to organise data. The database management tool allows the user to
manage all the databases and their contents.
Go to the Tools menu
Click on Database management

Click on the Databases tab


Create a new database by clicking on the Add new icon

LedaFlow Tutorial

2014

Name the database severeslugging

Click on Close once the database has been created. Your case will be saved in this
database.
Note: LedaFlow saves automatically all changes and results. You do not need to save it manually.

Create a case
Create a new folder called SevereSlugging in the Case Browser:
Right-click on the default folder Project and select Rename
Enter the name SevereSlugging and click OK

LedaFlow Tutorial

2014

Create a default case


Right-click on the folder SevereSlugging and select New case

Select Leda 1D - 2phases


Enter the name SevereSlugging Case and click OK

A default 2-phase case has been created.

LedaFlow Tutorial

2014

Rename the pipes and nodes:


Right click on the pipe and select Rename
Rename pipe from Pipe 1 to Flowline

Similarly rename Node 1 to Manifold and Node 2 to Outlet

LedaFlow Tutorial

2014

Set PVT option


For this exercise, the user must set the thermodynamics options in order to run the calculation
because we use a water-air mixture. The user could you use a specific PVT table or introduce the
thermodynamic variables as constants among other options. In this tutorial the above-mentioned
case will be explained.
Open the Case setting window

The following window appears.

LedaFlow Tutorial

2014

The first case is using the PVT table.


Load a PVT table

Click on the green plus sign under PVT Library


Click on the folder icon and search for the file PVT.inp
Name the table PVT
Comment [AV1]: Tambien agregar nuestro caso,
que es cuando metemos los valores manuelmente.

The other option is set the thermodynamic variables as constants.

Click on the green plus sign under PVT Library


Click on Type and select constant
Introduce the values manually.
Name the table PVT

LedaFlow Tutorial

2014

Change the PVT object assigned to Flowline

Double-click on Flowline in PVT selection


Select PVT from the drop-down menu

LedaFlow Tutorial

2014

Set heat transfer option


LedaFlow includes several options for heat transfer modelling: U Value, walls and dynamic walls.
According to the option selected, the user will have to set up the wall properties.
Select the Model options tab in the Case settings window
Select the option Yes for the Temperature calculations options. This activates the energy
equation in LedaFlow
Select Walls (dynamic) as the Wall heat transfer option. This will instruct LedaFlow to
account for heat storage in the pipe walls

The following window appears

LedaFlow Tutorial

2014

Define the pipe wall properties


Define the pipe wall properties by clicking on the Walls library icon

Create new materials in the Material option


Add a new material by clicking on
. Give the new material the name Isolated

Change properties of all materials

Density (kg/m3)
Conductivity (W/m.K)
Heat capacity (J/kg.K)

Isolated Insulation Steel


1300
500 1300
0.2
0.03 0.16
1500
1000 1500

Click on the Walls option


Add a new wall by clicking on
Name the wall FlowlineWall

close to Wall1
Comment [AV2]: Actualizar Procedimiento

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LedaFlow Tutorial

2014

Under Wall layers option, click twice on


to add two new layers
Select the material Steel for the first layer, Insulation for the second one and Isolated
for the last one
Set a thickness of 5 mm for each layer

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LedaFlow Tutorial

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Click on Save All

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LedaFlow Tutorial

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Set pipe geometry


Set the geometry for the pipe
Click on the Pipe Properties located in the main toolbar

LedaFlow opens the following window, where you can edit the pipeline geometry and properties.

Open the Excel file that contains the geometry of the pipeline for this case
Copy the content of the file and paste it in the Pipe Properties window
Under the Walls column, double-click on Wall1 and change the assigned wall to
FlowlineWall. Do so for all geometry points to have the same wall all over.
Once the geometry is set, click on Ok. The following message appears

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LedaFlow Tutorial

2014

The aim of this message is to warn the user that any changes on the geometry will affect the
mesh and the simulation results. Make sure that your geometry is well defined before
running the case
Click on Yes to continue
The geometry can be seen under LedaFlow

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LedaFlow Tutorial

2014

Configure mesh
The mesh is the discretization of the geometry for numerical computation.
Set the mesh for the pipe by clicking on the Edit mesh in construction icon

Click on the Lock Geom points button


Choose the Uniform Method under the Grid constructor case
Set the approximate number of cells to 210
Click on Run

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LedaFlow Tutorial

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The following graph shows the geometry, the meshing and the L-Ratio of the S-Riser system

If you change the geometry in the Pipe Properties Window, you will have to update the meshing to
continue

What is the LENGTH RATIO?


It is the ratio between the length of two consecutive cells and it is really important to keep it lower
than 2 to run the calculation. Otherwise, LedaFlow will send a warning message.
In any case, start the simulation with a fine mesh, like the one you have just created, and then try to
simplify it. However, it is not advisable to have long cell lengths near the base of the riser and within
the catenary. The idea is to be able to account for the filling and emptying of the base of the pipe,
and if cells are too long, this effect may not be observed correctly.

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LedaFlow Tutorial

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Set boundary conditions


LedaFlow can handle mass-pressure and pressure-pressure boundary.
The split can be either calculated automatically by flashing the fluid at the inlet or set through the
volume or mass fractions of each phase
Set the inlet
Gas

Right click on the inlet node


Click on Properties
Choose No for the flash inflow option

Set the following characteristics for the inlet


Time (s)
0
Ft (kg/s)
0.2807
mg (-)
0.0019
ml (-)
0.9981
Temperature (C)
20

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LedaFlow Tutorial

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Set the outlet

Right click on the outlet node


Click on Properties

Set the following characteristics for the outlet

Set numerical parameters


LedaFlow is using a dynamic time step which means the size of the time step depends on the grid and
the velocities through the CFL number.
The numerical settings are defined by: the maximum time step, the CFL number, the sample rate and
the time to advance the solution.
Click on the Numerical settings tab in the Case settings window

Set the following parameters


Simulation time (s) 1000
Sample time (s)
1
CFL
0.8
Dtmax
0.05

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LedaFlow Tutorial

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LedaFlow Tutorial

2014

Run the case


Initialise your case

You can see the progress in the bottom bar:

Run your case

Once LedaFlow has finished simulating the case, the progress bar will be complete. If you go to the
Output tab, under the Status window, you can see the errors encountered (if any) and a review of
the simulation numerical results.

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LedaFlow Tutorial

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Plot and export the results


You can visualise the terrain slugging effect by plotting the pressure as a function of time for the
lowest point of the pipe. This point is the most interesting one, because it is where the liquid
accumulates and does not let the gas go through.
To create a plot, click on the Create a new plot icon on the toolbar.

There are several plotting possibilities.


Select Trend from the Plot Type drop-down menu

Make sure that Flowline is selected under the Plot Object list
Under the Templates tab, ungroup PT and phase mass flowrates by clicking on the [+]
sign
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LedaFlow Tutorial

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Select Pressure to plot pressure evolution with time for this pipe

You can also choose Pressure from the Select Variables tab.
Once you click Ok, a new window will be opened where you will see the simulation results. By
default, LedaFlow plots the trend of the first mesh cell. You will need to instruct LedaFlow to show
you the results for the lowest point of the pipe.
To do so, click on the Edit Position icon on the toolbar located on the up-left corner of the
new window.

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LedaFlow Tutorial

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In the new window that appears, drag the position bar to reach the bottom of the pipe, at
25.1277 m (cell number 148).

Click on Ok. LedaFlow will plot the pressure trend on this point.
To export the results to a .csv format, click con the Export data to .csv file icon on the toolbar.

This will allow you to work on the results in other software, like Excel.

Congratulations, you have finished the tutorial. Analyse the results of the simulation in terms of
pressure amplitudes and slugging periods.

What should be the amplitude expected?


What parameter controls the slugging periods?
Verify that all boundary conditions are respected (mass flow rates, temperatures, etc.)
Reproduce the same simulation with the following boundary conditions
Sup. Velocity at Std
Conditions (m/s)
Gas
Water

Case 1

Case 2

0.45
0.127

2.24
0.127

Compare simulated results with experimental data provided by the paper


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LedaFlow Tutorial

2014

Annexe
Example of a geometrie for this tutorial
X [m]
0
5
10
15
20
22
24,1
24,3
24,5
24,7
25
25,1
25,2
25,3
25,35
25,4
25,45
25,48
25,49
25,5
25,5
25,5

Y
[m]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Z
[m]
0,25
0,2
0,15
0,1
0,05
0,03
9
7
5
3
0
5
9
15
0,02
0,03
0,04
48
0,06
0,08
7
13,5

Diameter
[mm]
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
-

Roughness
[mm]
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
-

Tout
[C]
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85
6,85

Hout [W/m2K]
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

Walls[]
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
Wall1
-

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