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MATERIAL SCIENCE

MATERIAL SCIENCE
DAM 20802

CHAPTER 7: METAL-FERROUS ALLOY

LECTURER NAME

: CIK NURUL HIDAYAT BINT MAT ISA

SECTION

:1

YEAR PROGRAMME

: 2 DAM

GROUP MEMBERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

MUHAMMAD HAFIZ BIN ROFLI


MUHAMMAD HIDAYAT BIN IZHAR
MUHAMMAD LUQMAN BIN ABD RAHIM
MUHAMMAD NAZIF BIN MISNAN
MUHAMMAD NAZMI HADI BIN ROSLAN

MATRIX NUMBER
AA 130097
AA 130417
AA 131173
AA 130249
AA 130072

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MATERIAL SCIENCE
CONTENT

TITLE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

2.0 OBJECTIVE

PAGE

3-4

3.0 LOW CARBON STEEL

5-6

4.0 HIGH CARBON STEEL

5.1 CAST IRON


5.2 TYPE OF CAST IRON
5.3 PRODUCTION OF CAST IRON

8-13

6.0 QUESTION

14

7.0 CONCLUSION

15

8.0 REFERENCE

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MATERIAL SCIENCE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
METAL
Metal is an element, compound or alloy that is a good conductor of both electricity and heat.
Metal crystal structure and specific metal properties are determined by metallic bonding force,
holding together the atoms of a metal.
FERROUS METAL
Ferrous metals are metals that consist mostly of iron and small amounts of other elements. They
are usually important as engineering construction materials. Their widespread use is accounted
for by three factors:

Iron-containing compound exist in abundant quantities within the earths crust.


Metallic iron and steel alloys may be produced using relatively economical extraction.

Refining, alloying, and fabrication techniques.


Ferrous alloys are extremely versatile, in that they may be tailored to have a wide range of
mechanical and physical properties.

Ferrous metals are prone to rusting if exposed to moisture. Ferrous metals can be picked up by a
magnet. The rusting and magnetic properties in ferrous metals are both down due to the iron. The
examples of ferrous metals are:

Low carbon steels


High carbon steels
Cast iron

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STEELS
Steels are iron-carbon alloys. It contains 0.01%-2.00% wt carbon,C + other alloying elements.
The mechanical properties are sensitive to the content of the carbon. Most common steels are
classified according to carbon concentration that is, low carbon, medium carbon and high carbon
types. Subclasses also exist according to the concentration of other alloying elements such as
plain carbon steels & alloy steels. Plain carbon steels contains carbon + a little manganese while
alloy steels contains carbon + more alloying elements (added in specific concentrations).

2.0 OBJECTIVE

To introduce to students about the mechanical and chemical properties of an alloy.


To introduce to students the process of alloying.
To introduce to students type of alloy and its usage in our daily life.

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MATERIAL SCIENCE
3.0 LOW CARBON STEEL

Figure 1.0 Low carbon steel


Low carbon steel also known as mild steel is a type of metal that has an alloying element
made up of a relatively low amount of carbon. It contains about <0.25 wt % of carbon, C +
manganese, Mn. Low carbon steel is one of the most common types of steel used for general
purposes, in part because it is often less expensive that other types of steel. Since it has a low
amount of carbon in it, the steel is typically more malleable than other kinds of steel. As a
result, it can be rolled thin into products like car body panels. Low carbon steel will rust
quickly if it is in frequent contact with water. It has a melting point of 1600 C.
Low carbon steels divided into:
a) Plain low carbon steels
Properties:
Relatively soft and weak
Outstanding ductility
Outstanding toughness
Machinable and weldable
Least expensive
Applications: Automobile, components, structural shape (beam) and sheets (bridge)
b) High strength low alloy (HSLA)
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Contains carbon + manganese + other alloying elements (copper, nickel, vanadium,
molybdenum)
Properties:
Higher strength than plain low carbon steels.
Ductile
Formable
Machinable
More resistant to corrosion than plain carbon steels.
Applications: Bridges, towers, pressure vessels, etc.

4.0 HIGH CARBON STEEL

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Figure 1.1 High carbon steel

High carbon steel is a type of metal that has an alloying element made up of a relatively high
amount of carbon. It contains 0.60 wt% - 1.4 wt% of carbon. The steel has one major
constituent which is pearlite.
The properties of high carbon steels are:
High hardness
High strength
Good wear resistance
Low ductility
It is also used for cutting tools, such as chisels, high strength wires, screwdrivers, hammers,
saws and garden tools. These applications require a much finer microstructure, which
improves the toughness. It has a melting point of 1800 C.

5.0 CAST IRON

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Cast iron is iron or a ferrous alloy which has been heated until it liquefies, and is then poured
into a mould to solidify. It is usually made from pig iron. Cast iron contains 2.14 wt% - 4 wt
% carbon, along with varying amounts of silicon and manganese and traces of impurities
such as sulfur and phosphorus. The carbon exists as graphite. It is made by reducing iron ore
in a blast furnace. The liquid iron is cast, or poured and hardened, into crude ingots called
pigs, and the pigs are subsequently re-melted along with scrap and alloying elements in
cupola furnaces and recast into molds for producing a variety of products. Cast iron is used
as a car brake discs, car cylinders, metalwork vices, manhole covers, machinery base (Pillar
drill). It has a melting point of 1200 C.

Figure 1.2 Blast furnace

5.1 TYPES OF CAST IRON:


i) Gray iron
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Figure 1.3 Gray iron

Graphite flakes are sharp and pointed


Weak & brittle under tension
Stronger under compression
Least expensive of all metallic materials
Excellent vibrational dampening
Wear resistant
Applications: engine cylinder blocks, pipe, machine tools structures, etc.

ii) Ductile (Nodular) iron

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Figure 1.4 Ductile iron

More ductile
Graphite in nodules not flakes
Much stronger
Casting stronger & more ductile than gray iron
Can be welded
Mechanical properties approaching steel
Applications: crankshafts, gears, other automotive, etc.

iii) White iron

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Figure 1.5 White iron

White appearances
Superior tensile strength and malleability
Brittle
Cannot be welded
More cementite
Applications: Rollers in rolling mills, Intermediate product for malleable iron

iv) Malleable iron

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Figure1.6 Malleable iron

Heat threat at 800-900 C

Graphite in rosettes
Can be welded
More ductile
Shock resistance
Applications: Connecting rods, pipe fitting, flanges, etc.

5.2 PRODUCTION OF CAST IRON

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6.0 QUESTION

1. List two examples of steels. For each, briefly describe the properties and typical applications.

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ANSWER
Two examples of steels are low carbon steels and high carbon steels. The properties of low
carbon steels are ductile, formable, machinable and least expensive. While the properties of
high carbon steels are high hardness, high strength, good wear resistance and low ductility.
The example of applications for low carbon steels are bridge, automobile body components,
towers and pressure vessels. While the example of applications for high carbon steels are
chisels, knives, razors and springs.
2. List four types of cast iron. For each, briefly describe the properties and typical applications.
ANSWER
Four types of cast iron are gray, malleable, ductile and white iron. The properties of gray iron
are weak & brittle in tension, high resistance to wear and least expensive. Next, the
properties of malleable iron are high strength and appreciable ductility. The properties of
ductile iron are much stronger and its mechanical properties are approaching steel. Lastly, the
properties of white iron are hard, brittle, unmachinable and wear resistance. The examples of
applications for gray iron are piston, cylinders, diesel engine and clutch plates. While the
examples of applications for malleable iron are connecting rods, pipe fitting and flanges.
Next, the examples of applications of ductile iron are valves, high-strength gears, rollers and
crankshaft. Lastly, the examples of applications of white iron are rollers in rolling mills and
as intermediate product for malleable iron.

7.0 CONCLUSION

This chapter began with a discussion of various fabrication techniques that may be applied to
metallic materials. Forming operations are those in which a metal piece is shaped by plastic
deformation. Forging, rolling, extrusion and drawing are four of the common forming
techniques. Depending on the properties and shape of the finished piece, casting may be the most
desirable and economical fabrication process; sand, die, investment, and continuous casting
methods were also treated.
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Ferrous alloy are those in which iron is the prime constituent. Most steels contain less than
1.0 wt% of Carbon, and in addition, other alloying elements, which render them susceptible to
heat treatment and more corrosion resistant. Plain low-carbon steels and high-strength low alloy,
medium-carbon, tool, and stainless steels are the most common types.
Cast irons contain a higher carbon content, normally between 3.0 and 4.5 wt% of carbon, and
other alloying elements, notably silicon. For these materials, most of the carbon exists in graphite
form rather than combined with iron as cementite. Gray, malleable, ductile and white are the
common types of cast irons.

8.0 REFERENCE

1. William D. Callister (2000). Materials Science and Engineering an Introduction. John


Wiley & Sons, Inc.
2. G.K Narula, K.S Narula & V.K Gupta (1988). Material Science. Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishing Company Limited.
3. R.S Khurmi & R.S Sedha (2000). Material Science. S.Chand &Company LTD.
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4. Cast iron.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cast_iron#White_cast_iron
5. Carbon steel
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_steel

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