You are on page 1of 66

AquaVolt

Installation, Operation
and Service Manual
M4000
12/27/2012 Rev K

2001, MEECO, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted,
transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language in any form by any means
without the written permission of MEECO, Inc.
AquaVolt is a trademark of MEECO, Inc.
LabVIEW executable. LabVIEW 1994, National Instruments Corporation. All rights reserved.
United States Patent Nos. 4,901,221; 4,914,568; 5,291,587 and 5,301,366. Other patents pending.
SmartHeap memory manager 1991-1994, Arthur D. Applegate. All rights reserved.
For service and support, please contact MEECO, Inc., 250 Titus Ave., Warrington, PA 18976-2426,
PHONE: (215) 343-6600 or
(800) 641-6478, FAX: (215) 343-4194

Thank You
Dear Customer,
We commend you on your selection of the MEECO AquaVolt moisture analyzer. We
appreciate the time, effort and money you devoted to selecting equipment best suited to
your needs. We want to assure you that you made the appropriate choice. We respect
the fact that, by purchasing our equipment, you show your faith in our technology and
our organization. Therefore, we pledge to repay you with exceptional quality, service
and support.
Founded in 1948, MEECO provides instrumentation of the highest quality and finest
precision for some of industrys toughest analytical and measurement tasks. As the field
of moisture analysis grew and changed during the past few decades, MEECO led in
product innovation. Thus, our second pledge to our customers is to continue to keep
pace with market needs now and long into the future.
As always, we are working hard to make our documentation clear and complete. Please
let us know if you discover omissions, unclear explanations or inaccuracies. Your
feedback will help us make necessary improvements to both the manual and the
instrument.
We welcome calls and faxes regarding any questions and/or comments to:
VP Marketing
MEECO, Inc.
250 Titus Avenue
Warrington, PA 18976
Phone: (215) 343-6600
Toll Free: (800) 641-6478
FAX: (215) 343-4194
Finally, thank you for choosing a MEECO AquaVolt moisture analyzer. Please
remember that we value your opinion as much as your patronage. We welcome your
comments, questions and suggestions about our equipment.
Sincerely,
The MEECO Staff

MEECO Warranty
MEECO, Inc. (MEECO) warrants that newly manufactured instruments will be (A) free
from defects in materials and workmanship for a period of one year from the date of
delivery, except for the Aquavolt+ and the Tracer-2 instruments for which the period
shall be two years from the date of invoice, and (B) free from any lawful lien, security
interest or encumbrance from any person claiming by, through or under MEECO,
provided the full purchase price is paid in a timely fashion. MEECO warrants that any
cell which it has cleaned and resensitized (C&R) will be free from defects in materials
and workmanship for a period of 90 days from the date of completion of the C&R
service. The warranties regarding defects in materials and workmanship do not apply to
(i) defects, malfunction or damages arising out of or relating to improper installation,
improper use, improper storage, negligence, misuse, abuse, mishandling, accident or
failure to follow operating or maintenance instructions, or (ii) instruments and parts
repaired, altered, modified, contaminated or serviced by anyone except a MEECO
authorized service technician. If a newly manufactured instrument does not meet the
warranties specified in clause (A) above and the purchaser notifies MEECO promptly,
MEECOs sole responsibility will be to repair or replace such instrument or to correct
any defect in materials or workmanship that developed under proper and normal use
within one year (two years in the case of Aquavolt+ and Tracer-2 instruments) from the
date of invoice of such instrument. All warranties, expressed or implied in law, are
subject to the requirement that repairs of the instruments are made or attempted solely
by MEECO or under MEECOs supervision, and if repairs are made or attempted to be
made by any other person, all warranties, express or implied, shall terminate. Parts
considered consumable or expendable, including without limitation, batteries, fuses, and
filter elements, are excluded from the warranties set forth herein.
THE WARRANTIES CONTAINED IN THIS SECTION ARE EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU
OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES AND NO OTHER WARRANTIES WHATSOEVER,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING THE WARRANTIES OF PERFORMANCE,
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NO
INFRINGEMENT, APPLY TO THE INSTRUMENTS, AND NO WARRANTY SHALL BE
IMPLIED OR ARISE FROM ANY COURSE OF DEALING OR USAGE OF TRADE. NO
EXPRESS WARRANTY OR GUARANTY, EXCEPT AS MENTIONED ABOVE, GIVEN
BY ANY PERSON, WITH RESPECT TO THE INSTRUMENTS, SHALL BIND MEECO
AND ALL ORAL OR WRITTEN REPRESENTATIONS MADE OR IMPLIED IN ANY
MANUAL, LITERATURE, ADVERTISING BROCHURE OR OTHER MATERIALS ARE
EXPRESSLY SUPERSEDED.
THE PARTIES AGREE THAT THE PURCHASERS SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY
AGAINST MEECO SHALL BE FOR THE CORRECTION OF ANY DEFECTS IN
MATERIALS OR WORKMANSHIP AS DESCRIBED IN THE FIRST PARAGRAPH
ABOVE. The purchaser expressly agrees that no other remedy shall be available and
that MEECO shall not be liable for delays, deprivation of use, or any other damages,
direct, indirect, exemplary, moral, incidental, consequential or punitive, which may result
to the purchaser because the instrument does not operate to the purchasers
satisfaction. IN NO EVENT SHALL MEECO BE LIABLE TO THE PURCHASER OR
ANY THIRD PARTY BASED UPON BREACH OF WARRANTY, BREACH OF
CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE, STRICT TORT LIABILITY OR OTHERWISE, FOR ANY
INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, EXEMPLARY, MORAL OR
ii

PUNITIVE DAMAGES (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY LOSS OF


PROFITS), OR DAMAGES IN THE NATURE OF PENALTIES, EVEN IF MEECO HAS
BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. In addition, it is
expressly agreed between the parties that the purchaser shall use all reasonable efforts
and take all reasonable steps in order to mitigate any damages or loss incurred.
The purchaser assumes all risk and liability for loss, damage, injury to persons, or to the
property of the purchaser or other third parties arising out of or related to the
instruments purchased hereunder. The purchaser agrees to indemnify, defend and hold
harmless MEECO from and against all actions, suits, claims, liabilities, damages, costs,
and expenses, including without limitation, any loss of use, loss of profits, damage or
injury to persons or property, attorneys and experts fees and court costs, arising out of
or related to the instruments purchased hereunder, whether made or alleged by the
purchaser, the purchasers customers or other third parties.

During the warranty period, MEECOs obligation shall be limited to the repair or
replacement of materials or the correction of any workmanship shown to its satisfaction
to be defective. Please contact MEECOs Customer Service Coordinator for a Return
Authorization Number (RA#). All units and/or cells returned without an RA# may
experience service delays. Please return units and/or cells DDP Warrington, PA, USA,
to:
MEECO Service Department
Attention: RA# _____________
250 Titus Avenue
Warrington, PA 18976
Phone (215) 343-6600
Facsimile: (215) 343-4194
Toll Free: (800) 641-6478
service@meeco.com
NOTE: Prior to sending instruments to MEECO, instruments must be purged, properly
shut down, and properly capped. Please refer to the manual for procedures. Failure to
do so may void the warranty contained herein. Instruments or cells returned are subject
to review, and contaminated instruments may be returned to the purchaser at its cost
without service.

iii

Product Registration
Please fill out the information requested below to register your analyzer and return to MEECO at the
address noted on the next page.
Model/Type:_________________________ Serial Number _____________________________
Company: ____________________________________________________________________
Dept.: ________________________________________________________________________
User Name: ___________________________________________________________________
Users Title: ___________________________________________________________________
Address: _____________________________________________________________________
City: _______________________________ State: ________________ Zip Code: _________
Country: ____________________________
Phone: _____________________________ Fax:_____________________________________
Purchase Date: ________________________________________________________________
Type of Application:_____________________________________________________________

 Yes

Was the product received in working order:

No

If No, please explain:____________________________________________________________


____________________________________________________________________________
Was the instrument received on time?

 Yes

No

Why did you purchase a MEECO Analyzer? (Please mark all that apply)





Reliability
Versatility

 Accuracy
 Durability

Speed of Readings
Price

Other ____________________________________________________________

 Yes

Do you presently own MEECO instruments?

No

If Yes, which one(s): ___________________________________________________________


How Many? _________________________ Year(s) Purchased? ________________________

iv

How did you hear about MEECO? (Please mark all that apply)

 Advertisement (Publication Title)_______________________________________________


 Article (Publication Title) _____________________________________________________
 Demonstration (Location) ____________________________________________________
 Recommendation (Reference) ________________________________________________
Other _____________________________________________________________________
Please send information on the following:

 Accessories/Options

 Extended Warranty

 On-site Service Calls

 MEECO Product Line

Complete and mail to:


MEECO Product Registration
250 Titus Avenue
Warrington, PA 18976
Phone: (215) 343-6600
FAX: (215) 343-4194
Toll Free: (800) 641-6478

Extended Warranty Agreement


We would like to introduce you to the MEECO, Inc. Compliance 9000 Program. This extended warranty
program was developed to help you meet ISO 9000 requirements on your MEECO moisture analyzer and
to extend your units years of optimum service.
Provisions of Agreement:
The one-year preventive maintenance agreement provides service and maintenance performed by
qualified MEECO Inc. technicians on the equipment listed above. The agreement covers repair parts and
labor (refer to the original MEECO Warranty in your instruction manual), annual electronic calibration and
annual N.I.S.T. certification, routine maintenance, and the cleaning and resensitizing (C&R) of two
standard electrolytic cells, or one high purity cell, per year. Repair, calibration and routine maintenance
include the following:
 Electronic calibration of display meter, 4-20 mA output, mV output and alarm (if applicable);
calibration performed using a N.I.S.T. traceable current source.
 Mass flow controller calibration against a N.I.S.T. traceable flow standard (if applicable).
 Verification of moisture cell response and accuracy using a certified permeation-based moisture
generator (if applicable).
 Flush flow system and static leak check on industrial units.
 Determination if any part or parts require replacement, including electrolytic cells. Such parts will
be replaced free of charge, with the exception of consumable/expendable items; i.e. batteries,
fuses, filter cartridges or membranes, permeation devices.
This maintenance should be performed at minimum once per year to ensure ultimate instrument
performance and reliability and to ensure re-qualification eligibility for the next years Compliance
9000 extended warranty program.
ANY UNAUTHORIZED MODIFICATIONS TO MEECO UNITS WILL VOID WARRANTIES
Exclusions:
The Compliance 9000 Program price does not include travel expenses (food, lodging, airfare and
ground transportation) for field service. If on-site service is desired, please contact the MEECO
Service Department. This agreement does not cover user-related or negligent damage or items
considered expendable or consumable as listed above or if unit has been serviced by anyone except
a MEECO authorized Service Technician. Units returned with obvious contamination will be subject to
review, and if determined hazardous the unit will be returned at customers expense without service.
The Extended Warranty price does not include travel expenses (airfare, lodging, food, ground
transportation, and related freight charges) for field service. If on-site service is desired, please
contact the MEECO Service Department.
Program Eligibility:
If your unit is not currently under warranty, it will need to be eligibility qualified by the MEECO Service
Dept. Any unwarranted unit is eligible if it has been repaired by a MEECO Service Technician within
the past ninety (90) days. For customers still under warranty, in order to be eligible to renew the
Compliance 9000 Program Extended Warranty Agreement, a unit must have been serviced at least
once within its warranty period. To initiate an extended warranty once it has expired, or for new
warranty customers, an eligibility requalification check-up must first be performed at the normal perunit service cost, and any parts requiring repair or replacement will be at customers expense. Certain
discounts, however, may apply; contact the MEECO Extended Warranty Administrator.

vi

Procedure for Returns:


Customers units returned to MEECOs factory for service or maintenance will be prioritized on a firstin/first-out basis. Prior to equipment return, call MEECO Customer Service (215-343-6600) for a
Return Authorization Number (RA#) and print RA# clearly on outside package label. Material sent in
without an RA# may be delayed until customer is contacted and reason for return is reviewed.
Warranty customers are responsible for transportation to MEECO; MEECO will return prepaid via
UPS GT.

vii

Table of Contents
Thank You ________________________________________________________________________ i
Product Registration ______________________________________________________________ iv
Extended Warranty Agreement _____________________________________________________ vi
Table of Figures __________________________________________________________________ x
AquaVolt SPECIFICATIONS _____________________________________________________ xi
Serial Number Identification _______________________________________________________ xii
Warning! Labels _________________________________________________________________ xiii

1 Installation & Startup ________________________________________________________ 1


Unpacking Instructions ____________________________________________________________ 1
Getting Started __________________________________________________________________________2

Component Identification __________________________________________________________ 3


Front Panel _____________________________________________________________________________3
Rear Panel ______________________________________________________________________________4
Internal View____________________________________________________________________________5

Internal View (components)_________________________________________________________ 5


Side View ______________________________________________________________________________6

Unit Hook-up_____________________________________________________________________ 7
Internal Pressure Regulator Adjustment ______________________________________________ 9
Basic Menu Operation ____________________________________________________________ 10
Status Display __________________________________________________________________________10
Adjusting Parameters ____________________________________________________________________11

Cell Protection___________________________________________________________________ 13
Cell Protection Below Lower Detection Limit _________________________________________________13
Cell Protection Above Maximum Range _____________________________________________________13

2 Shutdown _________________________________________________________________ 15
Shutdown _______________________________________________________________________ 15

3 Maintenance ______________________________________________________________ 17
Cell Change Procedure ___________________________________________________________ 17
Removal and Installation of the Electrolytic Cell _______________________________________________18
Battery Replacement Procedure ____________________________________________________________19

Software Upgrade Installation______________________________________________________ 19


Flash Reprogramming ____________________________________________________________________20

Changing Fuses __________________________________________________________________ 21


AquaVolt Spare Parts List _______________________________________________________ 22

4 General Information ________________________________________________________ 23


Pin Out Listing __________________________________________________________________ 23
Serial Port RS-232 ______________________________________________________________________23
I/O Connector __________________________________________________________________________24
Alarm Relay Connector___________________________________________________________________24

5 Serial Communication ______________________________________________________ 25


General Information______________________________________________________________ 25

viii

Communications Protocol _________________________________________________________ 26


Communication Parameters _______________________________________________________________26
Connector Pin Out _______________________________________________________________________26
Message Structure _______________________________________________________________________27
Systems Commands _____________________________________________________________________27
Variable Format ________________________________________________________________________28

System Protocol__________________________________________________________________ 29
Floating Point Operations _________________________________________________________________29
Flowchart for floating point operations_______________________________________________________30
Integer Operations _______________________________________________________________________31
Flowchart for write integers _______________________________________________________________32
Error Handling _________________________________________________________________________33

AquaVolt Variable Reference ____________________________________________________ 33

Appendix 1 _________________________________________________________________ 35
The AquaVolt Concept __________________________________________________________ 35
Electrolytic Cell Principle _________________________________________________________ 36
Cell Construction _______________________________________________________________________36
Faradays Law __________________________________________________________________________38

The Delta Flow Test ______________________________________________________________ 39


General Analyzer Configuration ____________________________________________________ 41

Appendix 2 _________________________________________________________________ 43
Construction of a Sampling Manifold________________________________________________ 43

Appendix 3 _________________________________________________________________ 45
Calibration Factors When Nitrogen is Not the Calibration Gas __________________________ 45

Appendix 4 _________________________________________________________________ 49
Approvals ______________________________________________________________________ 49

ix

Table of Figures
Figure 1 Front Panel .................................................................................................................3
Figure 2 Rear Panel ..................................................................................................................4
Figure 3 Internal View ..............................................................................................................5
Figure 4 Side View ....................................................................................................................6
Figure 5 Removing Electrolytic Cell....................................................................................... 18
Figure 6 Flowchart for Read (Floating Point Variables) ....................................................... 29
Figure 7 Flowchart for Write (Floating Point Variables) ...................................................... 30
Figure 8 Flowchart for Read (Integer Operations)................................................................ 31
Figure 9 Flowchart for Write (Integer Operation) ................................................................ 32
Figure 10 Element Cross Section ............................................................................................ 36
Figure 11 Cell Body................................................................................................................. 37
Figure 12 Cell Coating ............................................................................................................ 37
Figure 13 Delta Flow ............................................................................................................... 40
Figure 14 General Arrangement of Electrolytic Cell ............................................................. 41
Figure 15 Sample Manifold ....................................................................................................44

AquaVolt SPECIFICATIONS
Ranges: 1-1000 ppm inerts, oxygen, hydrogen
Sensor: Meeco AP Style Cell
Lower Detection Limit: 1 ppm
Accuracy: +/- 5% of reading or 0.4 ppm, whichever is greater
Unit of Measure: Field selectable choices: ppmV, ppmV, ppmW, dewpoint in C or F
Power: 100 - 240 VAC, 50/60 Hz 2.5 AMP Replaceable fuse in Power Entry module
Output Signal: (Field Configurable Isolated 0-5 VDC or Isolated Current Output 4-20mA, 0-20mA, or 0-24
mA) RS - 232 Communications Standard
Alarms: Standard
One (1) Cell Alarm Fixed
Two (2) User Adjustable Moisture Level Alarms
Inlet Pressure: 10-3000 psig (0.7 - 204 Bar)
Ambient Temperature: 0 C to 60 C, Max. 80% RH non condensing
Flow Rate: ~ 1.1 slpm combined sample and bypass
Gas Connection: 1/8" Compression tube fitting
Weight: 25 lbs. (11.34 kg )
Dimension: See Section 1 Figure 2 and Figure 4

xi

Serial Number Identification


Each AquaVolt contains a serial number plate located at the rear of the unit. The identifying features of
this number are as follows:

XXXXX- 41 -0
|_____| |_| |
|
| |
Unit Serial # | Hardware Revision #
Model #
Please have this number available when you contact MEECO with any questions regarding service.
The software version will be displayed on the initial menu when the unit is powered up.

xii

Warning! Labels
NOTE: Before operating the AquaVolt, please be sure to read all warning
notes which are shown throughout the manual. We have listed all of the
warning notes on this page for your convenience. Read this instruction manual
completely before operating your AquaVolt. Failure to do so may cause
damage to your unit.

WARNING: Oxygen Cleaning Operation is recommended for the Analyzers


when used for analysis of pure Oxygen, and gas mixtures with high content of
Oxygen.

Do not remove the cap fittings on the rear of the AquaVolt until you are ready to start up
the unit. Leaving the AquaVolt open or uncapped for more than a few minutes causes the
electrolytic cell to get very wet, resulting in a long initial drydown period, or damage to the
electrolytic cell.

Do not disconnect the 67.5V battery! This battery is not rechargeable.

Avoid back pressure into the sample and bypass outlets.

Proper precautions must be used when venting hazardous or toxic gases.

Never access any internal components of the AquaVolt without first turning off the main
power switch on the front panel and unplugging the unit from the AC Power Source!

Be sure to read the Unpacking Instructions and Getting Started guidelines before proceeding
any further. Failure to do so can result in extremely long drydown times for your instrument.

Maintain the instrument on a dry gas purge when it is idle, with at least 100 sccm flow from
the sample outlet on the back of the unit.

When purging your MEECO system, be sure that your purge gas is within the operating
range of the unit. Otherwise, please use a MEECO SMA (Standard Moisture Addition) to
avoid cell dry-out and sluggish performance.

NEVER service the AquaVolt without first disconnecting AC power; this may result in
electrical shock.

This high voltage symbol indicates the presence of high voltages.

xiii

(page intentionally left blank)

xiv

Section 1

1
Installation
& Startup

PROTECT YOUR WARRANTY -- OPEN AND POWER UP IMMEDIATELY!


PLEASE FLOW GAS THROUGH THE INSTRUMENT AS SOON AS POSSIBLE.
The shelf life of the battery is six months when the instrument is not connected.
MEECO strongly suggests you flow gas through the unit as quickly as possible.
Spare cells should have their batteries checked and/or replaced every 90 days.

NOTE: The AquaVolt should only be used in a manner specified by the manufacturer, and therefore, requires operators to read this manual in its entirety.

Unpacking Instructions
Remove the AquaVolt from the carton and packing material.
Retain the carton and packing material for future use.
The AquaVolt is shipped ready for use.* At the factory, we dried the analyzer to a low ppm level. To
keep the system clean and dry during shipment, we capped all inlet and outlet fittings.

IMPORTANT: Do not remove the cap fittings on the rear of the AquaVolt until
you are ready to startup the unit. Leaving the AquaVolt open or uncapped for
more than a few minutes causes the electrolytic cell to get very wet, resulting
in a long initial drydown period, or damage to the electrolytic cell.
* If inlet pressure is above 600 psig, see internal pressure regulator adjustment section.

Section 1
A 67.5V battery connected to the electrolytic cell keeps it dry during shipment. The battery connects
internally to the electrolytic cell. When AC power is connected to the analyzer, the battery automatically
disconnects from the cell. The battery resides in the holder in standby mode until a power outage or
disconnection occurs. At this time, the battery then powers the cell.

IMPORTANT: Do not disconnect the 67.5V battery! This battery is not


recharge-able. The battery voltage is monitored while the unit is powered. If
the voltage level dips below a satisfactory level, a low battery warning will flash
on the display.

Getting Started
The following guidelines will help make the installation of the AquaVolt go smoothly.

Choose a suitable location for the AquaVolt. The AquaVolt should be mounted in a 19" rack.
We recommend that, in addition to the front panel mounts, you support the unit with side rails or
bottom braces to evenly distribute the unit's weight. In either case, make sure that it is level
during operation to permit accurate operation of the mass flow controller.

Prepare your sample line properly by purging it before attempting to hook up the AquaVolt. This
prevents prolonged exposure of the analyzer to ambient moisture levels. To construct your
sampling system in a way to allow switching the AquaVolt between two separate samples
without disconnecting the unit, please refer to MEECOs recommended guidelines for the
construction of a sampling manifold located in

Use only clean, high quality stainless steel tubing for the sample line connection. Eliminate
excess components and dead legs in the sample line. When components are necessary, use only
high-quality components with metal seals.

Be certain an appropriately rated power cord is connected at the rear of the unit, and to use an
easily accessible socket outlet no more than 3 meters from the AquaVolt.

The AquaVolt is capable of handling inlet pressures up to 3000 psig (204 Bar). Avoid
redundant regulators and other components in the sample line, which act as moisture traps.

WARNING: Avoid back pressure into the sample and bypass outlets.

WARNING: Use proper precautions when venting hazardous or toxic gases.

Section 1

Component Identification
Front Panel

Figure 1
Front Panel
(A) Alphanumeric Vacuum-fluorescent display, 2 characters high x 20 characters wide;
Display
displays moisture reading, units of measure, setup selections and alarm
status.
(B) Power Switch Main Power on/off function
(C) Menu Key Use to access the various setup menus or to enter a selected option on
the alphanumeric display
(D) Arrow Keys
Left and right arrow keys are used to display menu parameters for review
or editing. The up and down arrow keys enable the operator to adjust the
value of the parameter displayed.

Section 1

Rear Panel

Figure 2
Rear Panel
(A) Sample Inlet

1/8" compression fitting; 10-3000 psig (.7204 Bar) inlet pressure

(B) Alarms

Connector for alarm outputs

(C) Bypass Outlet

1/8" compression bulkhead fitting

(D) Sample Outlet

1/8" compression bulkhead fitting

(E) Cell Access Panel

For removal and replacement of electrolytic cell; also for access to internal
pressure regulator for pressure adjustment

(F) Power Entry Module

Connector for main power

(G) Fuses (2)

Holds two 2.5A main power fuses

(H) RS-232 Connector

Connector for serial interface

(I) I/O Connector

Connector for 0-5 V / 4-20 mA / 0-20mA / 0-24 mA output

(J) Module Screws Retains instrument module inside of chassis

Section 1

Internal View

Figure 3
Internal View

Internal View (components)


(A)

Electrolytic Cell

Senses moisture

(B)

Sample Inlet Pressure Regulator

Do not allow inlet pressures to exceed 3000 psig 204


Bar) or go lower than 10 psig (.7 Bar)

(C)

Sample Mass Flow Controller

0200 sccm control range (100 sccm standard

(D)

Vacuum Fluorescent Display

Alphanumeric display; 2 characters high x 20


characters wide

(E)

Power Supply

15 V DC and +5 V DC; power supply for the mass flow


controller, display and main board.

(F)

Main Board

Single controller board for all logic, A/D, relay and


communication functions

(G)

67.5V Battery

Provides power to cell during shipment or power loss

for N2)

Section 1

Side View

Figure 4
Side View

Section 1

Unit Hook-up
WARNING: Be sure to read the Unpacking Instructions and Getting Started
guidelines on the previous pages before proceeding any further. Failure to do
so can result in long drydown times or damage to your instrument.

After placing the AquaVolt in the desired location:


1. Plug the socket end of the power cord into the power receptacle (Fig. 2, Item F) on the back of
the AquaVolt.
2. Plug the other end of the power cord into an appropriate grounded AC outlet.
3. Press the Main Power Switch (Fig. 1, Item B) to the ON position. The vacuum fluorescent
display will illuminate when the power is on.
The following title screen will appear on the display.

After a few moments, the display will change to the standard "status display" as shown below.

Section 1
If the AquaVolt is turned off without going through the shutdown sequence or in the case of a power
failure, the system will return to the mode it was in prior to the loss of power and all user programmable
settings will be saved. This feature is especially useful when quickly moving the system from one location
to another. For initial hook-up, however, the moisture values, mode and other information displayed at
this time are not meaningful. A detailed description of the displayed data is provided in Section 1, "Basic
Operation," and should be reviewed after initial hook-up.
4. Uncap the Sample Inlet (Fig. 2, Item A) , and quickly connect a closed gas source of between
10-3000 psig (.7-204 Bar) to the sample inlet. See internal pressure regulator adjustment section
if inlet pressure exceeds 600 psig.
5. Uncap the Bypass Outlet (Fig. 2, Item C)
6. Enable the gas source to allow a gas flow from the source, through the Bypass Outlet, to purge
the source line. This process should continue for 5 minutes.
7. When the instrument moisture reading is on scale and decreasing in value, uncap the Sample
Outlet (Fig. 2, Item D).
8. Select the proper gas type under the Measure mode menu selection.
The AquaVolt is now ready for operation.

Section 1

Internal Pressure Regulator Adjustment


The inlet pressure should be within 10-3000 psig (.7-204 Bar) and the unit is factory set for 5 psig. This
range is specified for the protection of the electrolytic cell, and other components of the AquaVolt.
An optional pressure measurement kit (P/N L1487) can be purchased for use with the AquaVolt and
would become necessary if the inlet pressure were to exceed 600 psig. The kit consists of a 0-10 psig
pressure gauge, 12" length of 1/8" OD PTFE tubing, a 1/8" compression nut and ferrule fitting.
To adjust the internal pressure regulator:
1. Make sure the AquaVolt is connected to the gas supply, following the hook-up procedures on
the previous pages, and that the moisture readings are on scale.
2. Open the cell/regulator access door on the back of the instrument to gain access to the regulator.
3. To prevent damage to the gauge, turn the regulator to its lowest setting. Looking from the bottom
of the instrument, turn the knob fully counter-clockwise.
4. Connect the pressure gauge to the sample outlet.
5. Adjust the regulator until the gauge pressure measures 5 psig (.35 Bar).
6. Remove the pressure gauge and close the cell/regulator access door.

Section 1

Basic Menu Operation


Operation of the AquaVolt is designed to be simple. After start-up and the brief display of the title
screen, the main "status display" appears. A sample "status display" is shown below, along with a
description of the information it contains:

Status Display

(A) Moisture Reading

This reading represents the measured moisture


content of the sample gas.

(B) Mode Indicator

S Service
M Measure

(C) Flow Rate Indication

This area of the display will show the sample flow


rate in sccm.

(D) Alarm State

1 - User Set
2 - User Set
C - Cell Alarm
F - Flow Alarm

10

Section 1

Adjusting Parameters
Normally the Status Display will be shown on the vacuum fluorescent display. Pressing the 'M' key while
the Status Display is shown will change the display to parameter adjustment mode. Once in the
parameter adjustment mode, the keys have the following functions:
Up

Increment the value of the currently displayed parameter. On


parameters with wide numeric ranges, holding the Up key
depressed will rapidly increment the parameter's value.

Down

Decrement the value of the currently displayed parameter. On


parameters with wide numeric ranges, holding the Down key
depressed will rapidly decrement the parameter's value.

Left

Go to the previous parameter without saving any changes made


to the currently displayed parameter.

Right

Go to the next parameter without saving any changes made to the


currently displayed parameter.

M/Enter Information

Access the parameter list when viewing the Status Display; save
the changes made to the currently displayed parameter and go to
the next parameter when viewing parameters.

When changing a parameter's value, the previously saved value will be preceded by an asterisk. This is
only to show the previously selected value.
If twenty seconds pass without any key being pressed, the display will revert back to the Status Display
and any changes to the currently displayed parameter will be lost. To regain access to the parameter list,
press the 'M' key.
The following table displays the parameters, along with their ranges, in the order in which they are
accessed.
Display Text
Operating Mode:

Range of Value
Measure, Service
Shutdown

Moisture Units

K-fac for User Gas:

PPMv, PPBv, DewPoint C,


# / MMSCF DewPoint F,
Air, Argon, Carbon Dioxide,
Helium, Hydrogen, Methane,
Neon, Nitrogen, Nitrus Oxide,
Oxygen, Xenon, Other Gas
0.50 to 3.00

Communications ID#:

0 to 15

Sample Gas Type:

11

Definition or Usage
Measure Mode measures
moisture under default
parameters, whereas Service
Mode parameters may be
altered.

The type of gas being analyzed.


This is required so that the mass
flow controller can adapt for
differing molecular weights.
K factor, for mass flow controllers,
when using a gas not listed in the
Gas Type parameter. This menu is
shown only when gas type =
OTHER. (see Appendix 3)
Aquavolts adress for serial
communications.

Section 1
Display Text
Recorder Output
MODE:
Recorder Scale:

Range of Value
0-5 Vdc, 4-20 mA,
0-20 mA, 0-24 mA
1 - any value up to the upper limit
of the unit.( 2 ppm increments)

Level Alarm Type:

1 or 2 (ENABLED or DISABLED)

Level Alarm Value:

Upper limit of unit (user set) to


lower detection limit of unit.

Cell Alarm:

Always Enabled

Flow Alarm Type:

ENABLED, DISABLED
(Default 5%)

Flow Alarm
Deviation:

3 to 25 (% of scale deviation)

Software Revision:

Read only, not adjustable

Uptime:

Read only, not adjustable

Definition or Usage
The selection of recorder output
signal.
The range of values to provide
full scale output of the recorder
output.
The effect of the derived
moisture level on the alarm
output relay. Alarms will always
be displayed in the Status
Display regardless of this setting.
The value at which point the
derived moisture level is
considered to be an alarm.
Alarm will trigger when the
reading is below the lower
detection limit.
The effect of flow deviation on
the alarm output relay. Alarms
will always be displayed in the
Status Display regardless of this
setting.
The amount of deviation from set
point at which to be considered a
flow alarm.
Software version and release
date of the installed software.
Duration that the unit has been
powered up.

Pressing the LEFT arrow key when viewing the "Operating Mode:" parameter or the RIGHT arrow key
when viewing the software revision will return you to the STATUS display.
Pressing the left arrow key when viewing the "Operating Mode" parameter or the right arrow key when
viewing the software revision will return you to the status display.
If you wish to just review the settings, use the RIGHT arrow key to step through the list. This will prevent
accidentally changing a parameter.

12

Section 1

Cell Protection
Cell Protection Below Lower Detection Limit
The AquaVolt is equipped with a cell protection feature which will aid in preventing a cell from drying
out. If the cell reading drops to 200ppb, power to the cell is removed. After 5 minutes, power is reapplied
and the cell level checked. If the measurement is now greater than 200ppb, the unit will return to normal
operation. If the measurement is still below 200ppb the testing process will continue an additional 5
minutes. During this wait period, the display will flash "Cell Protection" and the time remaining in cell
protection mode.

Cell Protection Above Maximum Range


The AquaVolt comes equipped with a cell protection feature which will aid in preventing a cell from
saturation. This feature can be enabled or disabled by use of the menu. When the feature is enabled and
moisture readings are above the User Selected Limit, the AquaVolt automatically reduces the flow rate
in the sample line. Compensation for this reduction is made for the display output and may have an effect
on accuracy. The level at which this feature is deployed can be set through the menu.

13

Section 1

(page intentionally left blank)

14

Section 2

2
Shutdown

Shutdown
MEECO recommends that you maintain the AquaVolt on a dry gas purge (dry gas not less than 1 ppm)
with AC power applied when not in use. This way the instrument will be in good condition when you go to
use it again.
Since the complete shutdown procedure includes removing the AquaVolt from the sample and capping
the instrument, generally a small amount of moisture will enter the unit. This will cause you to wait through
an initial drydown period again upon the next startup. Therefore, maintaining the instrument on a slight
purge is better than taking the instrument completely off line.
IMPORTANT: Maintain the instrument on a dry gas purge when it is idle, with at least
100 sccm flow.
Of course, if you need to move the AquaVolt, disconnection from the sample is unavoidable. Please
follow the shutdown procedure step by step to limit the analyzers exposure to moisture.
To shut down the AquaVolt, follow the instructions on the display to perform the following steps:
1. Cap the Sample Outlet (Figure 2, Item D).
2. Cap the Bypass Outlet (Figure 2, Item C).

WARNING: Do not perform the next step until the sample inlet pressure is
reduced to a safe level. Also, do not leave the instrument capped and
connected to a pressurized sample line for extended periods. Regulator
leakage can allow the internal instrument pressure to rise to the level of the
inlet pressure which could damage the unit.

3. Disconnect the Sample Inlet (Figure 2, Item A) and cap with a 1/8" compression plug fitting. You
should also plug the sampling system.
4. Turn off the power by pressing the Power Switch on the front panel (Figure 1, Item B).
If you remove power to the unit, the cell will automatically switch to the 67.5 V DC battery located inside
of the unit.
Since the 67.5 V battery can run down, only use it when you ship or transport the unit. Otherwise, keep
the AquaVolt connected to an AC source and powered on.
NOTE: The AquaVolt will automatically switch on/off the 67.5 V battery
when connected or disconnected from AC source.

15

Section 3

(page intentionally left blank

16

Section 3

3
Maintenance
WARNING: When purging your MEECO system, be sure that your purge gas is within
the operating range of the unit. Otherwise, please use a MEECO SMA (Standard
Moisture Addition) to avoid cell dry-out and sluggish performance.

Cell Change Procedure


If you suspect a problem with the electrolytic cell in your AquaVolt, contact MEECO before you attempt to
service your unit. What may appear to be a cell problem could, in fact, be something else. MEECO
service personnel can assist you in troubleshooting.
If the problem is identified as a faulty cell and you have a replacement from MEECO, the following
procedure will assist you in removing the defective cell and replacing it with a new one.
Before performing the cell change procedure, turn off the sample gas source. Failure to do so may result
in excessive venting of your sample gas.

WARNING: NEVER service the AquaVolt without first disconnected


AC power.

17

Section 3

Removal and Installation of the Electrolytic Cell


1. Ensure that all power sources are disconnected and all switches are off.
2. Open the Cell Access Door on the rear of the unit (Figure 2, Item E).
Inside the door, you will see the electrolytic cell as shown below.

Figure 5
Removing Electrolytic Cell
3. Carefully disconnect the cell leads by unplugging the connector (Figure 5, Item A).
4. Loosen the cell nuts (Fig. 5, Item B) at the top and bottom of the cell with a 7/8" wrench.
5. Remove the cell retaining strap (Fig. 5, Item C)
6. Remove the cell along with the PTFE gaskets from the top and bottom fittings.
7. Install new PTFE gaskets in the top and bottom fittings.
8. Remove the red plastic end caps from the new cell.
9. Install the new cell in the holder and install the cell retaining strap.
10. Connect the new cell leads to the connector.
11. Tighten the cell top and bottom nuts about 1/8 turn beyond finger tight.
12. Install the red end caps on the cell which was removed.
13. Return the old cell to MEECO for servicing.

18

Section 3

Battery Replacement Procedure

WARNING: NEVER service the AquaVolt without first disconnected AC


power.

1. Power off and then disconnect the AC power cord from the AquaVolt
2. Remove the AquaVolt module from the chassis by removing rear screws (Fig. 2, Item K) and
then sliding module out of the chassis (the sample line may need to be disconnected from the
inlet for this step).
3. Remove the 15 top cover screws (1/16" hex head) then remove the cover from the AquaVolt.
4. Remove the battery electrical connection clip from the battery terminals.
5. Remove the two nuts and washers that fasten the battery bracket to the AquaVolt chassis.
6. Lift the battery to clear the two threaded studs, and then move it forward to allow removal of the
battery.
7. Remove and replace the 67.5 Vdc NEDA 200 battery (MEECO P/N L0027 Replacement Battery).
8. Reverse the above steps to reassemble your AquaVolt and return it to service.
9. It is not necessary to change the battery if the unit is powered.Software Upgrade Installation

Software Upgrade Installation


* If problems are encountered uploading or downloading the software line or character, delays may need
to be added under the ASCII setup.
As MEECO continues to add features and make improvements to the AquaVolt, we will make available
new versions of the operating software. The following procedure will guide you through the installation of
new AquaVolt software.
The pre-procedures for upgrading the newest AquaVolt software:
(S1) Find out the current software version you are using:
Press M at center of front panel; then press right arrow  continuously till the version information
is displayed;
write down the version information.
(S2) If the version number is v2.11 or below, or xxb.xx, you need to choose our latest software version B
for upgrading, for example v2b.18. If the version number is v2.15 or above, you need to choose our
regular latest software version for upgrading, for example v2.18.

19

Section 3

Flash Reprogramming
To reprogram the flash memory of the AquaVolt, the following procedure should be followed.
1. Obtain the latest software for theAquaVolt from MEECO Inc.
2. Turn power to the AquaVolt off.
3. Connect a 1 to 1 nine pin cable from the serial port of a computer to the serial connection on the
rear of the AquaVolt.
4. Run a terminal program on the computer such as Hyperterminal with communications settings*
of:
9600 bits per second
No parity
8 data bits
1 stop bit
Be sure flow control is set to none.
5. Power the AquaVolt on.
6. Once the AquaVolt is powered on there is a 10 second opportunity to type CTRL Z, which will
bring up the bootloader program. If you miss the opportunity, recycle the power and repeat.
7. A menu of choices will appear on the display.
a) Menu of choices
S = Save your current firmware
U = Update your firmware
X = Exit program mode
8. It is recommended that you save your present configuration first before trying to update.
9. To save your present firmware, press the S key.
10. Use the transfer option of the communications program to receive a file using xmodem.
11. Enter a file name and a folder to store your existing software.
12. When the file is finished being saved you will see a transfer complete and the previous menu
choices repeated.
13. To upload the new firmware press U to update the AquaVolt. After pressing U the operator is
given the choice of continuing or aborting. Press C to continue.
14. Use the transfer option of the communications program to send a file using xmodem.
15. Choose the file with the new firmware for the AquaVolt.
16. At the end of the transmission a menu will appear. Press X to reset the AquaVolt with the
new code.

20

Section 3

Changing Fuses
There are two 2.5 Amp IEC fuses mounted in a removable fuse holder on the rear of the AquaVolt (see
Figure 2, Item G). If the AquaVolt has no power indications with the power switch on and AC power
connected, there may be a problem with the fuses. To remove and replace these fuses:

WARNING: NEVER service the AquaVolt without first disconnected AC


power.

1. Switch the AquaVolt power off and disconnect the AC power cord from the AC source.
2. Remove the fuse holder cap of the power entry module.
3. Remove the fuses from the fuse holder and examine for an open fuse. If necessary, use an
ohmmeter to check for continuity across each fuse.
4. If the fuse is open, replace with a fast-acting, 250V/2.5A IEC fuse (MEECO P/N L3380).
5. Replace the AC power cord at the rear of the unit. Power the unit back on and check for normal
operation.
This completes the Fuse Replacement procedure.

21

Section 3

AquaVolt Spare Parts List


Part #
L3380
L6538
L3240
L3795
T6046
T6051
T6053

Description
FUSE, 2.5 AMP
Battery
15 Volt Power Supply
PCB Assembly
APR Cell (Inert Gas Only)
APO Cell (Oxygen and Inert Gas)
APRH Cell (Hydrogen and Inert Gas)

22

QTY
2
1
1
1
1
1
1

Section 4

4
General
Information

Pin Out Listing


Serial Port RS-232

Female - DB-9
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Not used
TX signal
RX signal
Not used
Signal ground
Not used
Not used
Not used
Not used

23

Section 4

I/O Connector

Male - DB-9
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

0-5Vdc Signal Out


0-5 Vdc Common
4-20 / 0-20 / 0-24 Common
4-20 / 0-20 / 0-24 Signal Out

Alarm contact ratings: 48Vac/2A non-inductive

Alarm Relay Connector


Alarm contact ratings: 30 Vdc / 1A
nc com no -

Normally Closed
Common
Normally Open

Female - DB-9
5. com - Low Level Alarm
4. nc - Low Level Alarm
9. no - Low Level Alarm
1. com - Level Alarm1
2. nc - Level Alarm 1
6. no - Level Alarm1
8. com - Level Alarm 2
3. nc - Level Alarm 2
7. no - Level Alarm 2

24

Section 5

5
Serial
Communication

General Information
The Serial Communication feature allows you to monitor the instrument from a host computer via an RS232 connection. You can read integer and floating point data to and from memory locations inside the
AquaVolt. Access to these memory locations allows complete monitoring of the instrument.

25

Section 5

Communications Protocol
The communication protocol functions in the following sequence. The host initiates an exchange of data
by sending a command byte to a network of instruments. This command byte consists of a one bit field
that distinguishes command bytes from data bytes, a three-bit field that contains the commands op-code,
and a four bit field that contains the address of the receiving instrument. The addressed instrument
responds by echoing the command byte back to the host. The host sends a data byte containing a seven
bit operand address referring to a lookup table of internal AquaVolt variables. A list of these variables
and their addresses is provided in the AquaVolt Variable Reference portion of this section. The
instrument acknowledges receipt of this operand byte by echoing it back to the host. If the command was
a request for an integer or floating point number, the AquaVolt sends a series of data bytes to the host,
each being echoed back to the AquaVolt for verification. If the command was a write integer or write
floating point command, the host sends a series of data bytes to the AquaVolt, each being echoed back
to the host for verification. Refer to the flowcharts in the following text for the choreography of this
exchange.

Communication Parameters
The AquaVolt uses the following communication parameters:
Baud Rate:
Data Bits:
Start Bits:
Stop Bits:
Parity:

9600 Baud
8
1
1
None

Connector Pin Out


The AquaVolt used a 1 to 1,9 pin serial (male/female) cable.

26

Section 5

Message Structure

Command Byte:
XXX = command field

0 = Read integer
1 = Read floating point
2 = Write integer
3 = Write floating point
4 = Reversed
5 = Reversed
6 = Reversed
7 = Error acknowledge
0-15 = AquaVolt address (Each AquaVolt
should be assigned its own unique address)

YYY = address field

Data Byte:
XXXXXXX = data or operand

Systems Commands
Write Integer

Writes a 16 bit integer value to the specified AquaVolt variable.

Write Floating Point

Writes a 32 bit single precision floating point number to the specified


AquaVolt variable.

Read Integer

Retrieves a 16 bit integer value from the specified AquaVolt location.

Read Floating Point

Retrieves a 32 bit single precision floating point number from the specified
AquaVolt memory location.

Error Acknowledge

Issued by an AquaVolt to alert the host that the echo character received
by an AquaVolt did not match the character that was sent by that
AquaVolt during a read integer or read floating point operation.

27

Section 5

Variable Format
Since data bytes can only carry seven bits of usable data, integer and floating point variables are
represented in the following fashion:

Floating Points:

Byte 1:

Byte 2:

Byte 3:

Byte 4:

Byte 5:
s = sign bit
Ex = expoment
Mx = manitissa

Integers:
Byte 1:

Byte 2:

Byte 3:
Dx= integer data

28

Section 5

System Protocol
Floating Point Operations
The following flowcharts indicated the order of operations the host computer must perform for proper
transfer of floating point data to and from theAquaVolt.
Flowchart for read floating point variables:
Loop Counter
=0

Send com mand


byte to Aquavol t

No

Recei ve echo
before ti meout

Process Error

Yes

Send operand
byte to Aquavol t

No
Recei ve echo
before ti m eout?

Process Error

Yes

Recei ve data byte


before ti meout ?

Process Error
No

Yes
Echo data byte

Increment l oop counter

Recei ve error
character ?

Yes
Process Error

No

Loop counter
=5

No

Yes

Process data bytes

.
Figure 6
Flowchart for Read (Floating Point Variables)
29

Section 5

Flowchart for floating point operations


Loop Counter
=0

Send com m and


byte to Aquavol t

No

Recei ve echo
before ti m eout

Process Error

Yes

Send operand
byte to Aquavol t

No
Recei ve echo
before ti m eout?

Process Error

Yes

Send data byte

No

Recei ve echo
before ti m eout ?

Process Error

Yes
Increm ent l oop counter

Loop counter
=5

No

Yes

T ransfer Com pl ete

Figure 7
Flowchart for Write (Floating Point Variables)
30

Section 5

Integer Operations
The Following flowcharts indicated the core of operations the host computer must perform for proper
transfer of integer data to and from the Aquavolt.
Flowchart for read integer operations:
Loop Counter
=0

Send command
byte to Aquavolt

No

Receive echo
before timeout

Process Error

Yes

Send operand
byte to Aquavolt

No
Receive echo
before timeout?

Process Error

Yes

Receive data byte


before timeout ?

Process Error
No

Yes
Echo data byte

Increment loop counter

Receive error
character ?

Ye s
Process Error

No
Loop counter
=3

No

Yes

Process data bytes

Figure 8
Flowchart for Read (Integer Operations)
31

Section 5

Flowchart for write integers:


Loop

Counter
= 0

Send
command
byte to Aquavolt

Receive echo
bef ore timeout

No
Process

Error

Y es

Send operand
byte to Aquavolt

Receive echo
bef ore
timeout?

No
Process

Error

Process

Error

Yes

Send data

byte

Receive echo
bef ore timeout ?

No

Yes
Increment

loop

counter

Loop counter
= 3

No

Yes
Transf er

Complete

Figure 9
Flowchart for Write (Integer Operation)

32

Section 5

Error Handling
When an error acknowledge (see item on command bytes in preceding section on Message Structure) is
received by the host, the current data exchange is terminated and the data is lost. The exchange must be
reiterated by the host from the beginning with the retransmission of the command byte. In addition, the
host computer is responsible for establishing the proper time-out periods referred to in the decision boxes
of the preceding flowcharts. This time-out period should be in the neighborhood of 50 milliseconds or
greater for effective error trapping.
ASCI Mode (Software Rev. 2.13 and above)
The AquaVolt may be queried with an ASCII terminal when configured for RS-232 operation. Simply
send the following formatted command to the AquaVolt Do not sent the '<' and '>' characters.
<type><index#><CR>
Where:
Type is "i" or "I" for integer values and "f" or "F" for floating point values.
Index # is the index of the variable being queried.
CR is the carriage return character.
No special setup is required to operate in ASCII mode. The AquaVolt will automatically recognize an
ASCII query or a binary query and return a message in the appropriate format.

AquaVolt Variable Reference


Floating point variables:

Type

F0

Moisture value in ppb with gas correction assuming 100 sccm flow rate.

F1

Moisture value in ppb with gas and flow correction

F5

Moisture value shown on display

F8

Sample MFC setpoint

R/W

Integer variables:
I0

Software revision

I3

1= Flow reduction enable

0 = Flow reduction disabled

R/W

I4

2 = Measure mode

3 = Service mode

R/W

I7

Gas Type

4 = Shutdown mode

R/W

I10 Cell alarm Enable/ Disable

R/W

I11 Level alarm 1


1 = Enable

2 = Disable

R/W

I12 Level alarm 2


1 = Emable

2 = Disable

R/W

I14 Flow alarm


1 = Enable

2 = Disable

R/W

33

Section 5

(page intentionally left blank

34

Appendix 1

Appendix
1

The AquaVolt Concept


The AquaVolt is the newest member of MEECOs trace moisture analyzers for industrial and high-purity
monitoring applications. Simply put, the AquaVolt provides higher reliability, easier operation, a simpler
design and lower maintenance than any other moisture analyzer in its class.
In keeping with contemporary needs, the output signal is now microelectronics-based. The instrument
comes standard with both an RS232 serial communications port and a 0-5 Vdc, 4-20 mA, 0-20 mA, or 024 mA (isolated) output. You no longer need to request that the factory preset the concentration range.
Simply enter in the desired scale on the front keypad to match your recorder or data acquisition system
voltage or current input.
Based on the electrolytic principle, the AquaVolt is modular in design and can accommodate one or two
units in a single 19 rack mount. The instrument can be used on the bench, in a plant control room or in a
standalone panel. The lower detection limit of the AquaVolt is 1 ppm over a 0-1000 ppm scaleable
output range.
The AquaVolt provides precise, on-line trace moisture monitoring for:

Industrial process gas production in air-separation plants


Industrial gas at various stages of product purification
Trailer and cylinder filling operations
Instrument air used in pneumatic systems
Shielding gases used in welding
Specialty gas applications
Mobile cart application
Research/scientific labs

Much of the success of the AquaVolt derives from a time proven electrolytic cell design (see Figure 15).

35

Appendix 1

Electrolytic Cell Principle


Before you can fully appreciate what makes the AquaVolt and other MEECO analyzers unique, you
need to understand the principle of operation of the electrolytic cell, the heart of all MEECO analyzers

Cell Construction
The electrolytic cell consists of a hollow glass tube about four inches long, with an outside diameter of
about 1/8"(2.5 mm) of an inch and about 1/16" (1mm) of an inch inside diameter. Two metal electrode
wires run parallel in a double spiral along the inside of the tube. These wires are partially imbedded in the
glass, fixing their position. This assembly, called the element, is shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10
Element Cross Section
The element is then assembled into a protective metal body, before being plumbed into the moisture
analyzer. Within the body, as shown in Figure 11, a seal surrounds the element so that gas can only flow
through the element. The electrode wires extend from the bottom end of the element and pass through
insulated feedthrough to the outside of the body to separate terminals. A voltage can then be applied to
the terminals. At this point, they register no current since the electrodes never contact each other.

36

Appendix 1

Figure 11
Cell Body
Next, the inside of the element is covered with a thin coating of phosphorous pentoxide (P2O5) as shown
in Figure 12. One of the most hygroscopic materials known, P2O5, is often used in driers or as a
desiccant.

Figure 12
Cell Coating
37

Appendix 1

Faradays Law
In operation, the sample gas enters the element and the P2O5 absorbs 100% of the water molecules
present in the gas flow. A voltage, applied across the electrode terminals, electrolyzes moisture in the
film. Once equilibrium is reached, the rate at which water molecules enter the cell will exactly match the
rate that molecules are electrolyzed. Each electrolyzed water molecule displaces two electrons from the
anode to the cathode. The electrolysis current (Amps) gives the electrical charge (Coulombs) displaced
per second.
Consequently, since the elementary charge of an electron is known, you can determine the rate that
water molecules enter the cell by current measurement. When the rate of water molecules entering the
cell is known, the moisture reading is expressed in parts-per-million (ppm) by comparing the rate of water
molecules to the rate of total gas molecules entering the cell. The rate of total gas molecules entering can
be determined by controlling the flow rate through the cell. The relationship between measured current
and moisture concentration in the electrolytic cell is governed by these absolute principles of Faradays
Law without any need for calibration versus a moisture standard.
You can derive the relationship numerically as follows:
In this example, assume a standard 100 cc/minute flow of gas through the element. Standard
means at standard temperature and pressure, which are 25 C (298.16 K) and 1.0 atm (14.7
psi). Also assume a moisture concentration of 1 ppm.
Calculate first, the total number of moles of gas that flow through the element per minute by using
the Ideal Gas Law.
PV = nRT
where,

P = Pressure [atmosphere]
V = Volume [liter]
T = Temperature [Kelvin]
R = 0.08205 [atmosphere liter Kelvin-1 mole-1]
n = number of moles of gas [mole]

Therefore, since.

n=

P x V
( R x T )

n=

1.0 x 0.1
(0.08205 x 298.16)
-3

n=

4.0851 x 10 moles

Per definition, a mole of gas contains 6.022 x 1023 molecules of gas. Therefore, the total number of
molecules of gas that flow through the element per minute is:
-3

23

21

4.0851 x 10 moles x 6.022 x 10 molecules = 2.46 x 10

molecules

Since the gas contains 1 ppm of moisture (one out of a million molecules is a water molecule), the
number of water molecules that enter the element per minute is:
2.46 x 1021 molecules = 2.46 x 1015 water molecules
1 x 106

38

Appendix 1
As mentioned earlier, to electrolyze one water molecule, two electrons have to be transported from one
electrode to the other. Also, an electron represents one elementary charge or 1.6022 x 10-19
Coulombs(C). Therefore the total amount of charge due to electrolysis flowing through the electrodes per
minute is:
15

2.46 x 10

-19

x 2 electrons x 1.6022 x 10

-4

C = 7.85 x 10 C

Current is measured in units of amperes (Amps). One ampere (A) is defined as one Coulomb per second.
Since you know the total charge per minute (in Coulombs), you can determine the charge flowing per
second, which is:
-4

-6

7.85 x 10 C = 13.138 x 10 C
60
This corresponds to a current of 13.138 microAmpere.
Thus, by principle of Faradays Law (and as derived here), a gas containing 1 ppm of moisture flowing
through the element at 100 cc per minute, standard conditions, results in an electrolysis current of 13.138
microAmpere.
Then again, for the theoretical to hold true in practice, certain conditions must hold true. These are:
a) Accurate flow rate through the element.
b) Accurate current measurement.
c) All moisture passing through the element is absorbed by the P2O5.
MEECOs test procedures are documented in a test record, detailed later in this manual, that you receive
with the unit. With regard to a) and b) listed above, MEECO uses NIST traceable test equipment to insure
the accuracy of the flow and current measurements in the AquaVolt. Assumption c) requires additional
discussion.

The Delta Flow Test


Every measuring device has a specific operating range. This means that there are restrictions on the
usability of the instrument at values higher than the upper limit of the range and lower than the lower limit
(often the detection limit). The electrolytic cell is no exception.
As an exaggerated example, at the high end of the range, some liquid moisture is injected into the cell
(do NOT allow this to happen!). Of course, the thin phosphoric acid film is unable to absorb and
electrolyze all of the incoming water. This effect tells us that somewhere at high concentrations (outside
of the operating range) the electrolysis signal is no longer proportional with the rate of incoming moisture.
The response curve flattens and continues toward some saturation value for very high concentrations.
The delta flow test allows you to check that the high end of the operating range of the hygrometer is
sufficiently far away from the point where the response curve starts to flatten.
In the following, the Delta Flow and low detection limit tests are described. These tests verify that the
specified range of the instrument is correct. The Delta Flow Test should be done using nitrogen or
another inert gas.
The Delta Flow test insures that the upper limit of the operating range of the electrolytic cell is in
agreement with the specification. As discussed above, at some point the response curve will flatten for
very high concentrations. The test is performed as follows:
First, you provide a stable higher concentration of moisture to the hygrometer, that is operating at 100
cc/minute and take the reading (when stable). Then you reduce the flow rate to 50 cc/minute and take the
reading (again, when stable).

39

Appendix 1
Fi

Figure 13
Delta Flow
Now suppose, as in Figure 13, that you are in the part of the curve where it starts to flatten. In this case,
the reading at 100 cc/minute is too low while the 50 cc/minute reading is not affected. You will not find the
100 cc/minute reading to be twice the 50 cc/minute reading as it should. Had the test been conducted at a
lower concentration within the operating range, the 100 cc/minute reading would be twice the 50
cc/minute reading due to being on the linear scope of response.
Note 1:

When performing the Delta Flow at very low concentrations, the flow-independent
background has an impact on the result. This effect should not be interpreted in terms of
flattening of the response curve.

Note 2:

There is a proportionality of the electrolysis current with the flow rate of the sample gas
through the element. Increasing to higher and higher flow rates will eventually result in
diffusion limited behavior. At some point, the residence time of a moisture molecule in the
element becomes too short to guarantee that it is going to be absorbed with a 100%
probability. The chosen flow rate of 100 cc/minute is a very safe value for cells of the
geometry that MEECO produces. Attempts to interpret results at higher flow rates should be
regarded in the context of this effect.

Note 3:

The onset of the effect discussed in Note 2 causes all Delta Flow tests, in practice, to fall
short of 100%, when the 50 cc/minute moisture measurement, doubled, is compared to the
100 cc/minute measurement.

Note 4:

Use "SERVICE MODE" to adjust MFC output.

40

Appendix 1

General Analyzer Configuration


The general arrangement of the electrolytic cell in the analyzer is shown in Figure 14. The critical sample
flow rate is controlled downstream of the cell by a mass flow controller just before the sample outlet.
MEECO analyzers also utilize a bypass flow. The exact rate of the bypass flow is not critical, but it is
typically set at about ten times the rate of the sample flow. The bypass flow allows a much higher
throughput between the sample point and the cell. This allows for faster equilibration of the analyzer and
the sampling system. Without the bypass, the entire flow through the sampling system would only be the
100 sccm of the sample flow. Also, the bypass helps to dilute the effect of small contributions of moisture
from the sampling system that may interfere with the true moisture reading.

Figure 14
General Arrangement of Electrolytic Cell

41

Appendix 1

(page intentionally left blank

42

Appendix 2

Appendix
2

Construction of a Sampling Manifold


There are often applications for which it is desirable to switch the AquaVolt between two separate
samples. You may, for instance, want to switch between a sample of unknown moisture content and a
dry, zero gas or a sample with a known moisture content from a moisture generator. You also may want
to be able to do this quickly and efficiently without disconnecting the analyzer and introducing ambient
moisture into the system.
MEECO recommends that you use the following guidelines for the construction of a sampling manifold
that will allow you to switch between samples. This technique ensures the interferences with moisture
measurements due to dead volumes or equilibration of moisture within the sample tubing are kept to a
minimum. A schematic diagram for the manifold is shown in the figure that follows. You may alter the
geometry of the manifold somewhat to suit your specific needs and to maintain access to certain items on
the rear panel of the AquaVolt, but schematically this configuration should be adhered to.

Use high-quality, stainless steel tubing for all parts of the manifold between the sample inlets and
up to the inlet connection of the AquaVolt. Avoid using NPT threaded components as they do not
provide the necessary leak integrity.

Use only high-quality, low dead volume shut-off valves for valves #1 and #2. These may be 1/4
turn valves.

The branches for the purge vents should be 2" from either side of the tee to prevent back
diffusion. This is dimension A in the diagram

The flow meters and needle valves need not be of high quality as long as they are located at least
2" from the sample line (dimension B in the diagram). Their only purpose is to control a small,
continuous purge of about 100 sccm.

43

Appendix 2
To introduce Sample #1, simply open valve 1, keeping valve 2 closed. Both purge vents should be open,
allowing a slight, continuous bleed from both vents. The purge through the vent closest to valve 2 insures
that no moisture trapped in the dead space between valve 2 and the tee can contaminate the sample.
Similarly, to introduce Sample #2, simply close valve 1 and quickly open valve 2. In this configuration, it is
also desirable that the pressures of Sample #1 and Sample #2 be the same in order to prevent pressure
spikes that might force moisture from the dead spaces past the purge branches to the analyzer.

Figure 15
Sample Manifold

44

Appendix 3

Appendix
3

Calibration Factors When Nitrogen is Not the


Calibration Gas
The AquaVolt uses mass flow controllers to maintain a constant calibrated flow for the moisture
measurement. A standard AquaVolt uses a mass flow controller calibrated for Nitrogen use, in addition
to the manufacturers conversion factors for use on gases other than Nitrogen. These conversion factors
are normally automatically applied when a different gas is chosen from the sample gas type menu.
When an AquaVolt is used with a flow controller calibrated on a gas other that Nitrogen the standard
method of choosing a gas from the sample gas menu must be ignored and the following procedure
followed.
1) When using a flow controller which has not been calibrated for Nitrogen the gas type must always
be other. The sample gas type must be set to other with a K-fac of 1.00 as long as the mass flow
controller calibrated gas is flowing.
2) If a new gas is going to be applied to the AquaVolt a new K-fac must be applied to get the
proper flow rate. To do this you will need to obtain the sensor factors of both the original
calibration gas and the new gas from the manufacturer supplied flow controller manual. To
calculate the new K-fac, use the equation below.
3) New K-fac = factor of new gas
factor of cal gas
ex. Original cal gas = NF3 (Sensor factor = 0.501)
New gas = SF6 (Sensor factor = 0.270)
New K-fac = 0.270
0.501 = 0.54
4) Enter this value into the K-fac for user gas.
C2H3

45

Appendix 3
Conversion Factors (Nitrogen Base)
GAS NAME
Acetylene
Air
Allene
Ammonia
Argon
Arsine
Boron Trichloride
Boron Trifluoride
Bromine Pentafluoride
Bromine Trifluoride
Bromotrifluoroethylene
Bromotrifluoromethane f-13B1
1,3-Butadiene
Butane
1-Butene
CIS-2-Butene
Trans-2-Butene
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Disulfide
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Tetrachloride
Carbon Tetrafluoride f-14
Carbonyl Fluoride
Carbonyl Sulfide
Chlorine
Chlorine Dioxide
Chlorine Trifluoride
2-Chlorobutane
Chlorodifluoromethane f-22
Chloroform (Trichloromethane)
Chloropentafluoroethane f-115
Chlorotrifluoroethylene
Chlorotrifluoromethane f-13
Cyanogen
Cyanogen Chloride
Cyclobutane
Cyclopropane
Deuterium
Diborane
Diboromodifluoromethane f-12B2
1,2-Dibromotetrafluoroethane f-114B2
Dichlorodifluoromethane f-12
Dichlorofluoromethane f-21
Dichlorosilane
1,2-Dichloroethane
1,2-Dichlorotetrafluoroethane f-114
2,2 Dichloro
1,1-Difluoro-1-Chloroethane
1,1-Difluoroethane
1,1-Difluoroethylene
Diethylsilane
Difluoromethane f-32
Dimethylamine
Dimethylether
2,2-Dimethylpropane
Disilane
Ethane
Ethanol
Ethylacetylene
Ethyl Chloride
Ethylene
Ethylene Oxide
Fluorine
Fluoroform f-23

FORMULA
C2H2
Mixture
C3 H4
NH3
Ar
AsH3
BCl3
BF3
BrF5
BrF3
C2BrF3
CBrF3
C4 H6
C4 H1 0
C4 H8
C4 H8
C4 H8
CO2
CS2
CO
CCl4
CF4
COF2
COS
Cl2
ClO2
ClF3
C4H9Cl
CHClF2
CHCl3
C2ClF5
C2ClF3
CClF3
(CN)2
ClCN
C4 H8
C3 H6
D2
B2H6
CBr2F2
C2Br2F4
CCl2F2
CHCl2F
SiH2Cl2
C2H4Cl2
C2Cl2F4
C2HC12F3
C2H3ClF2
CH3CHF2
CH2CF2
C4H12Si
CF2H2
(CH3)2NH
(CH3)2O
C(CH3)4
Si2H6
C2 H6
C2 H6 O
C4 H6
C2H5Cl
C2 H4
C2 H4 O
F2
CHF3

46

SENSOR FACTOR
0.615
0.998
0.478
0.786
1.395
0.754
0.443
0.579
0.287
0.439
0.326
0.412
0.354
0.257
0.294
0.32
0.291
0.773
0.638
0.995
0.344
0.44
0.567
0.68
0.876
0.693
0.433
0.234
0.505
0.442
0.243
0.337
0.43
0.498
0.618
0.387
0.505
0.995
0.448
0.363
0.215
0.39
0.456
0.442
0.382
0.231
0.259
0.341
0.415
0.458
0.183
0.627
0.37
0.392
0.247
0.332
0.49
0.394
0.365
0.408
0.619
0.589
0.924
0.529

Appendix 3
Conversion Factors (Nitrogen Base)cont.
GAS NAME
Germane
Germanium Tetrachloride
Halothane (R-123B1)
Helium
Hexafluoroacetone
Hexaflorobenzine
Hexafluoroethane f-116
Hexafuoropropylene (HFP)
Hexamethyldisilane (HMDS)
Hexane
Hydrogen
Hydrogen Bromide
Hydrogen Chloride
Hydrogen Cyanide
Hydrogen Fluoride
Hydrogen Iodide
Hydrogen Selenide
Hydrogen Sulfide
Iodine Pentafluoride
Isobutane
Isobutene
Isopentane
Krypton
Methane
Methylacetylene
Methyl Bromide
3-Methyl-1-butene
Methyl Chloride
Methyl Fluoride
Methyl Mercaptan
Methyl Silane
Methyl Trichlorosilane (MTS)
Methyl Vinyl Ether
Monoethanolamine
Monoethylamine
Monomethylamine
Neon
Nickel Carbonyl
Nitric Oxide
Nitrogen
Nitrogen Dioxide
Nitrogen Trifluoride
Nitrogen Trioxide
Nitrosyl Chloride
Nitrous Oxide
Octofluorocyclobutane
Oxygen
Oxygen Difluoride
Ozone
Pentafluorethane f-125
Pentane (n-Pentane)
Perchloryl Fluoride
Perfluorobutane
Perfluoro-2-Butene
Perfluoromethyl-vinylether
Perfluoropropane
Pentane (n-Pentane)
Phosgene
Phosphine
Phosphorous Pentafluoride
Phosphorous Trifluoride
Propane (same as CH3CH2CH3)
Propylene (Propene)

FORMULA
GeH4
GeCl4
C2HBrClF3
He
F3CCOCF3
C6F6
C2F6
C3F6
(CH2)6Si2
C6H14
H2
HBr
HCl
HCN
HF
HI
H2Se
H2 S
IF
C4 H1 0
C4 H8
C5H12
Kr
CH4
C3 H4
CH3Br
C5 H1 0
CH3Cl
CH3F
CH4S
CH6Si
CH3Cl3Si
C3 H6 O
C2H7NO
C2HH5NH2
CH3NH2
Ne
Ni(CO)4
NO
N2
NO2
NF3
N2 O 3
NOCl
N2 O
C4F8
O2
OF2
O3
C2HF5
C5H12
ClO3F
C4F10
C4F8
PMVE
C3F8
C5H12
COCl2
PH3
PF5
PF3
C 3 H8
C3 H6

47

SENSOR FACTOR
0.649
0.268
0.257
1.386
0.219
0.632
0.255
0.249
0.139
0.204
1.008
0.987
0.983
0.744
0.998
0.953
0.837
0.85
0.283
0.26
0.289
0.211
1.382
0.763
0.473
0.646
0.252
0.687
0.761
0.588
0.393
0.267
0.377
0.305
0.359
0.565
1.398
0.212
0.995
1
0.758
0.501
0.443
0.644
0.752
0.169
0.988
0.672
0.738
0.287
0.212
0.448
0.738
0.268
0.296
0.179
0.212
0.504
0.783
0.346
0.495
0.343
0.401

Appendix 3
Conversion Factors (Nitrogen Base)cont.
GAS NAME
Rhenium Hexafluoride
Silane
Silicon Tetrachloride
Silicon Tetrafluoride
Sulfur Dioxide
Sulfur Hexafluoride
Sulfur Tetrafluoride
Sulfur Trioxide
Sulfuryl Fluoride
Tetrachloromethane
Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE)
Tetrafluorohydrazine
Trichlorofluoromethane f-11
Trichlorosilane
Trimethyloxyborane (TMB)
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,1,2-Triflouroet f-113
Trimethylamine
Tungsten Hexafluoride
Uranimum Hexafluoride
Vinyl Bromide
Vinyl Chloride
Vinyl Fluoride
Water Vapor
Xenon

FORMULA
ReF6
SiH4
SiCl4
SiF4
SO2
SF6
SF4
SO3
SO2F2
CCl4
C2F4
N2F4
CCl3F
SiHC3
B(OCH3)3
C2Cl3F3
(CH3)3N
WF6
UF6
C2H3Br
C2H3Cl
C2H3F
H2O
Xe

48

SENSOR FACTOR
0.23
0.625
0.31
0.395
0.728
0.27
0.353
0.535
0.423
0.344
0.361
0.367
0.374
0.329
0.3
0.231
0.316
0.227
0.22
0.524
0.542
0.576
0.861
1.383

Appendix 4

Appendix
4

Approvals
CE Certification of AquaVolt
MEECO Inc.
250 Titus Ave.
Warrington PA 18976
U.S.A.
Reference: CE Certification of AauaVolt.
Report # NY2249-01
The MEECO Inc. AquaVolt bearing the CE mark has been successfully tested to the regulations
of the Electro Magnetic Compatibility directive (EMC directive 89/336/EEC).
Special attention is required however when selecting the power and signal cables to be used with
CE marked equipment.
A cable, which is overall completely screened with a 100% shield, should be used. The shield
should be terminated to an earth ground. Use of a ferrite clamp (238 ohms @ 100 Mhz) on the voltage
output cable is required to meet the directive.
For pin configuration, please refer to the instruction manual.

49

250 Titus Avenue / Warrington, PA 18976-2426


(215)343-6600 / FAX (215)343-4194
1-800-641-6478