You are on page 1of 24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Archaeology
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Archaeologyorarcheology,[1]isthestudyofhumanactivityin
thepast,primarilythroughtherecoveryandanalysisofthe
materialcultureandenvironmentaldatathathasbeenleftbehind
bypasthumanpopulations,whichincludesartifacts,architecture,
biofacts(alsoknownasecofacts)andculturallandscapes(the
archaeologicalrecord).Becausearchaeologyemploysawide
rangeofdifferentprocedures,itcanbeconsideredtobebotha
socialscienceandahumanity,[2]andintheUnitedStates,itis
thoughtofasabranchofanthropology,[3]althoughinEurope,it
isviewedasadisciplineinitsownright,orrelatedtoother
disciplines.Forexample,muchofarchaeologyintheUnited
Kingdomisconsideredapartthestudyofhistory,whileinFrance
itisconsideredpartofGeology.

Romanruins,Lausanne,Switzerland.

Archaeologystudieshumanprehistoryandhistoryfromthedevelopmentofthefirststonetoolsineastern
Africa4millionyearsagoupuntilrecentdecades.[4](Archaeologydoesnotincludethedisciplineof
paleontology).Itisofmostimportanceforlearningaboutprehistoricsocieties,whentherearenowritten
recordsforhistorianstostudy,makingupover99%oftotalhumanhistory,fromthePaleolithicuntilthe
adventofliteracyinanygivensociety.[2]Archaeologyhasvariousgoals,whichrangefromstudyinghuman
evolutiontoculturalevolutionandunderstandingculturehistory.[5]
Thedisciplineinvolvessurveying,excavationandeventuallyanalysisofdatacollectedtolearnmoreabout
thepast.Inbroadscope,archaeologyreliesoncrossdisciplinaryresearch.Itdrawsuponanthropology,
history,arthistory,classics,ethnology,geography,[6]geology,[7][8][9]linguistics,semiology,physics,
informationsciences,chemistry,statistics,paleoecology,paleontology,paleozoology,paleoethnobotany,
andpaleobotany.
ArchaeologydevelopedoutofantiquarianisminEuropeduringthe19thcentury,andhassincebecomea
disciplinepracticedacrosstheworld.Sinceitsearlydevelopment,variousspecificsubdisciplinesof
archaeologyhavedeveloped,includingmaritimearchaeology,feministarchaeologyandarchaeoastronomy,
andnumerousdifferentscientifictechniqueshavebeendevelopedtoaidarchaeologicalinvestigation.
Nonetheless,today,archaeologistsfacemanyproblems,suchasdealingwithpseudoarchaeology,the
lootingofartifacts,alackofpublicinterest,andoppositiontotheexcavationofhumanremains.

Contents
1History
1.1Antiquarians
1.2Firstexcavations
1.3Developmentofarchaeologicalmethod
2Purpose
2.1Theory

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

1/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

2.1Theory
3Methods
3.1Remotesensing
3.2Fieldsurvey
3.3Excavation
3.4Analysis
3.5Virtualarchaeology
3.6Drones
4Academicsubdisciplines
4.1Historicalarchaeology
4.2Ethnoarchaeology
4.3Experimentalarchaeology
4.4Archaeometry
4.5Culturalresourcesmanagement
5Popularviewsofarchaeology
6Currentissuesandcontroversy
6.1Publicarchaeology
6.2Pseudoarchaeology
6.3Looting
6.4Descendantpeoples
6.4.1Repatriation
7Fictionalarchaeologists
8Seealso
9References
10Bibliography
11Furtherreading
12Externallinks

History
Antiquarians
Thescienceofarchaeology(fromGreek,archaiologiafrom,arkhaios,"ancient"and
,logia,"logy")[10]grewoutoftheoldermultidisciplinarystudyknownasantiquarianism.
Antiquariansstudiedhistorywithparticularattentiontoancientartefactsandmanuscripts,aswellas
historicalsites.Antiquarianismfocusedontheempiricalevidencethatexistedfortheunderstandingofthe
past,encapsulatedinthemottoofthe18thcenturyantiquary,SirRichardColtHoare,"Wespeakfromfacts
nottheory".Tentativestepstowardsthesystematizationofarchaeologyasasciencetookplaceduringthe
EnlightenmenterainEuropeinthe17thand18thcenturies.[11]
InEurope,philosophicalinterestintheremainsofGrecoRomancivilisationandtherediscoveryof
classicalculturebeganinthelateMiddleAge.FlavioBiondoanItalianRenaissancehumanisthistorian
createdasystematicguidetotheruinsandtopographyofancientRomeintheearly15thcenturyforwhich
hehasbeencalledanearlyfounderofarchaeology.Antiquarians,includingJohnLelandandWilliam
Camden,conductedsurveysoftheEnglishcountryside,drawing,describingandinterpretingthe
monumentsthattheyencountered.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

2/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Firstexcavations

AnearlyphotographofStonehengetaken
July1877

Oneofthefirstsitestoundergoarchaeologicalexcavationwas
StonehengeandothermegalithicmonumentsinEngland.John
Aubreywasapioneerarchaeologistwhorecordednumerous
megalithicandotherfieldmonumentsinsouthernEngland.He
wasalsoaheadofhistimeintheanalysisofhisfindings.He
attemptedtochartthechronologicalstylisticevolutionof
handwriting,medievalarchitecture,costume,andshield
shapes.[12]

Excavationswerealsocarriedoutintheancienttownsof
PompeiiandHerculaneum,bothofwhichhadbeencoveredby
ashduringtheEruptionofMountVesuviusinAD79.These
excavationsbeganin1748inPompeii,whileinHerculaneumtheybeganin1738.Thediscoveryofentire
towns,completewithutensilsandevenhumanshapes,aswelltheunearthingofancientfrescos,hadabig
impactthroughoutEurope.
However,priortothedevelopmentofmoderntechniques,excavationstendedtobehaphazardthe
importanceofconceptssuchasstratificationandcontextwereoverlooked.[13]

Developmentofarchaeologicalmethod
ThefatherofarchaeologicalexcavationwasWilliamCunnington
(17541810).HeundertookexcavationsinWiltshirefromaround
1798,[14]fundedbySirRichardColtHoare.Cunningtonmade
meticulousrecordingsofneolithicandBronzeAgebarrows,andthe
termsheusedtocategoriseanddescribethemarestillusedby
archaeologiststoday.[15]
Oneofthemajorachievementsof19thcenturyarchaeologywasthe
developmentofstratigraphy.Theideaofoverlappingstratatracing
backtosuccessiveperiodswasborrowedfromthenewgeologicaland
palaeontologicalworkofscholarslikeWilliamSmith,JamesHutton
andCharlesLyell.Theapplicationofstratigraphytoarchaeologyfirst
tookplacewiththeexcavationsofprehistoricalandBronzeAgesites.
Inthethirdandfourthdecadesofthe19thcentury,archaeologistslike
JacquesBoucherdePerthesandChristianJrgensenThomsenbeganto
puttheartifactstheyhadfoundinchronologicalorder.

Artefactsdiscoveredatthe1808
BushBarrowexcavationbySir
RichardColtHoareandWilliam
Cunnington.

Amajorfigureinthedevelopmentofarchaeologyintoarigoroussciencewasthearmyofficerand
ethnologist,AugustusPittRivers,[16]whobeganexcavationsonhislandinEnglandinthe1880s.His
approachwashighlymethodicalbythestandardsofthetime,andheiswidelyregardedasthefirst
scientificarchaeologist.Hearrangedhisartefactsbytypeor"typologically,andwithintypesbydateor
"chronologically".Thisstyleofarrangement,designedtohighlighttheevolutionarytrendsinhuman

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

3/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

artefacts,wasofenormoussignificancefortheaccuratedatingoftheobjects.Hismostimportant
methodologicalinnovationwashisinsistencethatallartefacts,notjustbeautifuloruniqueones,be
collectedandcatalogued.[17]
WilliamFlindersPetrieisanothermanwhomaylegitimatelybecalledtheFatherofArchaeology.His
painstakingrecordingandstudyofartefacts,bothinEgyptandlaterinPalestine,laiddownmanyofthe
ideasbehindmodernarchaeologicalrecordingheremarkedthat"Ibelievethetruelineofresearchliesin
thenotingandcomparisonofthesmallestdetails."Petriedevelopedthesystemofdatinglayersbasedon
potteryandceramicfindings,whichrevolutionizedthechronologicalbasisofEgyptology.Petriewasthe
firsttoscientificallyinvestigatetheGreatPyramidinEgyptduringthe1880s.[18]Hewasalsoresponsible
formentoringandtrainingawholegenerationofEgyptologists,includingHowardCarterwhowentonto
achievefamewiththediscoveryofthetombof14thcenturyBCpharaohTutankhamun.
Thefirststratigraphicexcavationtoreachwidepopularitywith
publicwasthatofHissarlik,onthesiteofancientTroy,carriedout
byHeinrichSchliemann,FrankCalvert,WilhelmDrpfeldandCarl
Blegeninthe1870s.Thesescholarsindividuatedninedifferent
citiesthathadoverlappedwithoneanother,fromprehistorytothe
Hellenisticperiod.[19]Meanwhile,theworkofSirArthurEvansat
KnossosinCreterevealedtheancientexistenceofanequally
advancedMinoancivilization.[20]
MortimerWheelerpioneered
systematicexcavationintheearly
20thcentury.Pictured,arehis
excavationsatMaidenCastle,Dorset,
inOctober1937.

ThenextmajorfigureinthedevelopmentofarchaeologywasSir
MortimerWheeler,whosehighlydisciplinedapproachtoexcavation
andsystematiccoverageinthe1920sand1930sbroughtthescience
onswiftly.Wheelerdevelopedthegridsystemofexcavation,which
wasfurtherimprovedbyhisstudentKathleenKenyon.

Archaeologybecameaprofessionalactivityinthefirsthalfofthe
20thcentury,anditbecamepossibletostudyarchaeologyasasubjectinuniversitiesandevenschools.By
theendofthe20thcenturynearlyallprofessionalarchaeologists,atleastindevelopedcountries,were
graduates.Furtheradaptationandinnovationinarchaeologycontinuedinthisperiod,whenmaritime
archaeologyandurbanarchaeologybecamemoreprevalentandrescuearchaeologywasdevelopedasa
resultofincreasingcommercialdevelopment.[21]

Purpose
Thepurposeofarchaeologyistolearnmoreaboutpastsocietiesandthedevelopmentofthehumanrace.
Over99%ofthedevelopmentofhumanityhasoccurredwithinprehistoriccultures,whodidnotmakeuse
ofwriting,therebynotleavingwrittenrecordsofthemselvesthatcanbestudiedtoday.Withoutsuch
writtensources,theonlywaytolearnaboutprehistoricsocietiesistousearchaeology.Because
archaeologyisthestudyofpasthumanactivity,itstretchesbacktoabout2,5millionyearsagowhenwe
findthefirststonetoolsTheOldowanIndustry.Manyimportantdevelopmentsinhumanhistoryoccurred
duringprehistory,suchastheevolutionofhumanityduringthePaleolithicperiod,whenthehominins
developedfromtheaustralopithecinesinAfricaandeventuallyintomodernHomosapiens.Archaeology
alsoshedslightonmanyofhumanity'stechnologicaladvances,forinstancetheabilitytousefire,the
developmentofstonetools,thediscoveryofmetallurgy,thebeginningsofreligionandthecreationof
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

4/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

agriculture.Withoutarchaeology,wewouldknowlittleornothing
abouttheuseofmaterialculturebyhumanitythatpredates
writing.[22]
However,itisnotonlyprehistoric,preliterateculturesthatcanbe
studiedusingarchaeologybuthistoric,literateculturesaswell,
throughthesubdisciplineofhistoricalarchaeology.Formany
literatecultures,suchasAncientGreeceandMesopotamia,their
survivingrecordsareoftenincompleteandbiasedtosomeextent.In
manysocieties,literacywasrestrictedtotheeliteclasses,suchas
theclergyorthebureaucracyofcourtortemple.Theliteracyeven
CastoftheskulloftheTaungchild,
ofaristocratshassometimesbeenrestrictedtodeedsandcontracts.
uncoveredinSouthAfrica.TheChild
Theinterestsandworldviewofelitesareoftenquitedifferentfrom
wasaninfantoftheAustralopithecus
thelivesandinterestsofthepopulace.Writingsthatwereproduced
africanusspecies,anearlyformof
bypeoplemorerepresentativeofthegeneralpopulationwere
hominin
unlikelytofindtheirwayintolibrariesandbepreservedtherefor
posterity.Thus,writtenrecordstendtoreflectthebiases,
assumptions,culturalvaluesandpossiblydeceptionsofalimitedrangeofindividuals,usuallyasmall
fractionofthelargerpopulation.Hence,writtenrecordscannotbetrustedasasolesource.Thematerial
recordmaybeclosertoafairrepresentationofsociety,thoughitissubjecttoitsownbiases,suchas
samplingbiasanddifferentialpreservation.[23]

Theory
Thereisnoonesingularapproachtoarchaeologicaltheorythathas
beenadheredtobyallarchaeologists.Whenarchaeologydevelopedin
thelate19thcentury,thefirstapproachtoarchaeologicaltheorytobe
practicedwasthatofculturalhistoryarchaeology,whichheldthegoal
ofexplainingwhycultureschangedandadaptedratherthanjust
highlightingthefactthattheydid,thereforeemphasizinghistorical
particularism.[24]Intheearly20thcentury,manyarchaeologistswho
studiedpastsocietieswithdirectcontinuinglinkstoexistingones(such
asthoseofNativeAmericans,Siberians,Mesoamericansetc.)followed
SignatLubbockLakeLandmark
thedirecthistoricalapproach,comparedthecontinuitybetweenthepast
inLubbock,Texas
andcontemporaryethnicandculturalgroups.[24]Inthe1960s,an
archaeologicalmovementlargelyledbyAmericanarchaeologistslike
LewisBinfordandKentFlanneryarosethatrebelledagainsttheestablishedculturalhistory
archaeology.[25][26]Theyproposeda"NewArchaeology",whichwouldbemore"scientific"and
"anthropological",withhypothesistestingandthescientificmethodveryimportantpartsofwhatbecame
knownasprocessualarchaeology.[24]
Inthe1980s,anewpostmodernmovementaroseledbytheBritisharchaeologistsMichael
Shanks,[27][28][29][30]ChristopherTilley,[31]DanielMiller,[32][33]andIanHodder,[34][35][36][37][38][39]which
hasbecomeknownaspostprocessualarchaeology.Itquestionedprocessualism'sappealstoscientific
positivismandimpartiality,andemphasizedtheimportanceofamoreselfcriticaltheoreticalreflexivity.
However,thisapproachhasbeencriticizedbyprocessualistsaslackingscientificrigor,andthevalidityof
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

5/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

bothprocessualismandpostprocessualismisstillunderdebate.Meanwhile,anothertheory,knownas
historicalprocessualismhasemergedseekingtoincorporateafocusonprocessandpostprocessual
archaeology'semphasisofreflexivityandhistory.[40]
Archaeologicaltheorynowborrowsfromawiderangeofinfluences,includingneoDarwinianevolutionary
thought,phenomenology,postmodernism,agencytheory,cognitivescience,structuralfunctionalism,
genderbasedandfeministarchaeology,andsystemstheory.

Methods
Anarchaeologicalinvestigationusuallyinvolvesseveraldistinctphases,eachofwhichemploysitsown
varietyofmethods.Beforeanypracticalworkcanbegin,however,aclearobjectiveastowhatthe
archaeologistsarelookingtoachievemustbeagreedupon.Thisdone,asiteissurveyedtofindoutasmuch
aspossibleaboutitandthesurroundingarea.Second,anexcavationmaytakeplacetouncoverany
archaeologicalfeaturesburiedundertheground.And,third,thedatacollectedfromtheexcavationis
studiedandevaluatedinanattempttoachievetheoriginalresearchobjectivesofthearchaeologists.Itis
thenconsideredgoodpracticefortheinformationtobepublishedsothatitisavailabletoother
archaeologistsandhistorians,althoughthisissometimesneglected.[41]

Remotesensing
Beforeactuallystartingtodiginalocation,satelliteimagerycanbeusedtolookwheresitesarelocated
withinalargearea.[42]Therearetwotypesofremotesensinginstrumentspassiveandactive.Passive
instrumentsdetectnaturalenergythatisreflectedoremittedfromtheobservedscene.Passiveinstruments
senseonlyradiationemittedbytheobjectbeingviewedorreflectedbytheobjectfromasourceotherthan
theinstrument.Hereareothertwoinstrumentsthatarepassiveinremotesensing.
Lidar(LightDetectionandRanging)Alidarusesalaser(lightamplificationbystimulatedemissionof
radiation)totransmitalightpulseandareceiverwithsensitivedetectorstomeasurethebackscatteredor
reflectedlight.Distancetotheobjectisdeterminedbyrecordingthetimebetweenthetransmittedand
backscatteredpulsesandusingthespeedoflighttocalculatethedistancetraveled.Lidarscandetermine
atmosphericprofilesofaerosols,clouds,andotherconstituentsoftheatmosphere.
LaserAltimeterAlaseraltimeterusesalidar(seeabove)tomeasuretheheightoftheinstrumentplatform
abovethesurface.ByindependentlyknowingtheheightoftheplatformwithrespecttothemeanEarth's
surface,thetopographyoftheunderlyingsurfacecanbedetermined.[43]

Fieldsurvey
Thearchaeologicalprojectthencontinues(oralternatively,begins)withafieldsurvey.Regionalsurveyis
theattempttosystematicallylocatepreviouslyunknownsitesinaregion.Sitesurveyistheattemptto
systematicallylocatefeaturesofinterest,suchashousesandmiddens,withinasite.Eachofthesetwogoals
maybeaccomplishedwithlargelythesamemethods.
Surveywasnotwidelypracticedintheearlydaysofarchaeology.Culturalhistoriansandpriorresearchers
wereusuallycontentwithdiscoveringthelocationsofmonumentalsitesfromthelocalpopulace,and
excavatingonlytheplainlyvisiblefeaturesthere.GordonWilleypioneeredthetechniqueofregional
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

6/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

settlementpatternsurveyin1949intheViruValleyofcoastalPeru,[44][45]andsurveyofalllevelsbecame
prominentwiththeriseofprocessualarchaeologysomeyearslater.[46]
Surveyworkhasmanybenefitsifperformedasapreliminaryexerciseto,oreveninplaceof,excavation.It
requiresrelativelylittletimeandexpense,becauseitdoesnotrequireprocessinglargevolumesofsoilto
searchoutartifacts.(Nevertheless,surveyingalargeregionorsitecanbeexpensive,soarchaeologistsoften
employsamplingmethods.)[47]Aswithotherformsofnondestructivearchaeology,surveyavoidsethical
issues(ofparticularconcerntodescendantpeoples)associatedwith
destroyingasitethroughexcavation.Itistheonlywaytogather
someformsofinformation,suchassettlementpatternsand
settlementstructure.Surveydataarecommonlyassembledinto
maps,whichmayshowsurfacefeaturesand/orartifactdistribution.
Thesimplestsurveytechniqueissurfacesurvey.Itinvolves
combinganarea,usuallyonfootbutsometimeswiththeuseof
mechanizedtransport,tosearchforfeaturesorartifactsvisibleon
thesurface.Surfacesurveycannotdetectsitesorfeaturesthatare
completelyburiedunderearth,orovergrownwithvegetation.
Surfacesurveymayalsoincludeminiexcavationtechniquessuchas
augers,corers,andshoveltestpits.Ifnomaterialsarefound,the
areasurveyedisdeemedsterile.
Aerialsurveyisconductedusingcamerasattachedtoairplanes,
balloons,orevenKites.[48]Abird'seyeviewisusefulforquick
mappingoflargeorcomplexsites.Aerialphotographsareusedto
documentthestatusofthearchaeologicaldig.Aerialimagingcan
alsodetectmanythingsnotvisiblefromthesurface.Plantsgrowing
aboveaburiedmanmadestructure,suchasastonewall,will
developmoreslowly,whilethoseaboveothertypesoffeatures
(suchasmiddens)maydevelopmorerapidly.Photographsof
ripeninggrain,whichchangescolourrapidlyatmaturation,have
revealedburiedstructureswithgreatprecision.Aerialphotographs
takenatdifferenttimesofdaywillhelpshowtheoutlinesof
structuresbychangesinshadows.Aerialsurveyalsoemploys
ultraviolet,infrared,groundpenetratingradarwavelengths,LiDAR
andthermography.[49]

MonteAlbanarchaeologicalsite

Invertedkiteaerialphotoofan
excavationofaRomanbuildingat
NesleynearTetburyin
Gloucestershire.

Geophysicalsurveycanbethemosteffectivewaytoseebeneaththeground.Magnetometersdetectminute
deviationsintheEarth'smagneticfieldcausedbyironartifacts,kilns,sometypesofstonestructures,and
evenditchesandmiddens.Devicesthatmeasuretheelectricalresistivityofthesoilarealsowidelyused.
Archaeologicalfeatureswhoseelectricalresistivitycontrastswiththatofsurroundingsoilscanbedetected
andmapped.Somearchaeologicalfeatures(suchasthosecomposedofstoneorbrick)havehigher
resistivitythantypicalsoils,whileothers(suchasorganicdepositsorunfiredclay)tendtohavelower
resistivity.
Althoughsomearchaeologistsconsidertheuseofmetaldetectorstobetantamounttotreasurehunting,
othersdeemthemaneffectivetoolinarchaeologicalsurveying.Examplesofformalarchaeologicaluseof
metaldetectorsincludemusketballdistributionanalysisonEnglishCivilWarbattlefields,metaldistribution
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

7/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

analysispriortoexcavationofa19thcenturyshipwreck,andservicecablelocationduringevaluation.
Metaldetectoristshavealsocontributedtoarchaeologywheretheyhavemadedetailedrecordsoftheir
resultsandrefrainedfromraisingartifactsfromtheirarchaeologicalcontext.IntheUK,metaldetectorists
havebeensolicitedforinvolvementinthePortableAntiquitiesScheme.
Regionalsurveyinunderwaterarchaeologyusesgeophysicalorremotesensingdevicessuchasmarine
magnetometer,sidescansonar,orsubbottomsonar.[50]

Excavation
Archaeologicalexcavationexistedevenwhenthefieldwasstillthe
domainofamateurs,anditremainsthesourceofthemajorityof
datarecoveredinmostfieldprojects.Itcanrevealseveraltypesof
informationusuallynotaccessibletosurvey,suchasstratigraphy,
threedimensionalstructure,andverifiablyprimarycontext.
Modernexcavationtechniquesrequirethatthepreciselocationsof
objectsandfeatures,knownastheirprovenanceorprovenience,be
recorded.Thisalwaysinvolvesdeterminingtheirhorizontal
locations,andsometimesverticalpositionaswell(alsoseePrimary
Excavationsatthe3800yearold
LawsofArchaeology).Likewise,theirassociation,orrelationship
EdgewaterParkSite,Iowa
withnearbyobjectsandfeatures,needstoberecordedforlater
analysis.Thisallowsthearchaeologisttodeducewhichartifactsand
featureswerelikelyusedtogetherandwhichmaybefromdifferentphases
ofactivity.Forexample,excavationofasiterevealsitsstratigraphyifasite
wasoccupiedbyasuccessionofdistinctcultures,artifactsfrommorerecent
cultureswilllieabovethosefrommoreancientcultures.
Excavationisthemostexpensivephaseofarchaeologicalresearch,in
relativeterms.Also,asadestructiveprocess,itcarriesethicalconcerns.As
aresult,veryfewsitesareexcavatedintheirentirety.Againthepercentage
ofasiteexcavateddependsgreatlyonthecountryand"methodstatement"
issued.Inplaces90%excavationiscommon.Samplingisevenmore
importantinexcavationthaninsurvey.Itiscommonforlargemechanical
equipment,suchasbackhoes(JCBs),tobeusedinexcavation,especiallyto
removethetopsoil(overburden),thoughthismethodisincreasinglyused
withgreatcaution.Followingthisratherdramaticstep,theexposedareais
usuallyhandcleanedwithtrowelsorhoestoensurethatallfeaturesare
apparent.

Archaeologicalexcavation
thatdiscoveredprehistoric
cavesinVill(Innsbruck),
Austria

Thenexttaskistoformasiteplanandthenuseittohelpdecidethemethod
ofexcavation.Featuresdugintothenaturalsubsoilarenormallyexcavatedinportionstoproduceavisible
archaeologicalsectionforrecording.Afeature,forexampleapitoraditch,consistsoftwoparts:thecut
andthefill.Thecutdescribestheedgeofthefeature,wherethefeaturemeetsthenaturalsoil.Itisthe
feature'sboundary.Thefilliswhatthefeatureisfilledwith,andwilloftenappearquitedistinctfromthe
naturalsoil.Thecutandfillaregivenconsecutivenumbersforrecordingpurposes.Scaledplansand

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

8/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

sectionsofindividualfeaturesarealldrawnonsite,blackandwhiteandcolourphotographsofthemare
taken,andrecordingsheetsarefilledindescribingthecontextofeach.Allthisinformationservesasa
permanentrecordofthenowdestroyedarchaeologyandisusedindescribingandinterpretingthesite.

Analysis
Onceartifactsandstructureshavebeenexcavated,orcollectedfromsurfacesurveys,itisnecessaryto
properlystudythem,togainasmuchdataaspossible.Thisprocess
isknownaspostexcavationanalysis,andisusuallythemosttime
consumingpartofthearchaeologicalinvestigation.Itisnot
uncommonforthefinalexcavationreportsonmajorsitestotake
yearstobepublished.
Atitsmostbasic,theartifactsfoundarecleaned,catalogedand
comparedtopublishedcollections,toclassifythemtypologically
andtoidentifyothersiteswithsimilarartifactassemblages.
However,amuchmorecomprehensiverangeofanalytical
AnarchaeologistsiftingforPOW
techniquesareavailablethrougharchaeologicalscience,meaning
remainsonWakeIsland.
thatartifactscanbedatedandtheircompositionsexamined.The
bones,plantsandpollencollectedfromasitecanallbeanalyzed
(usingthetechniquesofzooarchaeology,paleoethnobotany,andpalynology),whileanytextscanusually
bedeciphered.
Thesetechniquesfrequentlyprovideinformationthatwouldnototherwisebeknownandtherefore
contributegreatlytotheunderstandingofasite.

Virtualarchaeology
Sometimearound1995archaeologistsstartedusingcomputergraphicstobuildvirtual3Dmodelsofsites
suchasthethroneroomofanancientAssyrianpalaceorancientRome.[51]Thisisdonebycollecting
normalphotographsandusingcomputergraphicstobuildthevirtual3Dmodel.[51]Inmoregeneralterms,
computerscanbeusedtorecreatetheenvironmentandconditionsofthepast,suchasobjects,buildings,
landscapesandevenancientbattles.[51]Computersimulationcanbeusedtosimulatethelivingconditions
ofanancientcommunityandtoseehowitwouldhavereactedtovariousscenarios(suchashowmuchfood
togrow,howmanyanimalstoslaughter,etc.)[51]Computerbuilttopographicalmodelshavebeen
combinedwithastronomicalcalculationstoverifywhetherornotcertainstructures(suchaspillars)were
alignedwithastronomicaleventssuchasthesun'spositionatasolstice.[51]

Drones
InPeruarchaeologistsusedronestospeedupsurveyworkandprotectsitesfromsquatters,buildersand
miners.SmalldroneshelpedresearchersproducethreedimensionalmodelsofPeruviansitesinsteadofthe
usualflatmapsandindaysandweeksinsteadofmonthsandyears.[52]
Droneshavereplacedexpensiveandclumsysmallplanes,kitesandheliumballoons.Dronescostingas
littleas650haveprovenuseful.In2013droneshaveflownoveratleastsixPeruvianarchaeologicalsites,
includingthecolonialAndeantownMachuLlacta4,000metres(13,000ft)abovesealevel.Thedrones
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

9/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

continuetohavealtitudeproblemsintheAndes,leadingtoplanstomakeadroneblimp,employingopen
sourcesoftware.[52]
JeffreyQuilter,anarchaeologistwithHarvardUniversitysaid,"Youcangoupthreemetresandphotograph
aroom,300metresandphotographasite,oryoucangoup3,000metresandphotographtheentire
valley."[52]
InSeptember2014dronesweighingabout5kg(11lb)wereusedfor3Dmappingoftheaboveground
ruinsoftheGreekcityofAphrodisias.ThedataisbeinganalysedbytheAustrianArchaeologicalInstitute
inVienna.[53]

Academicsubdisciplines
Aswithmostacademicdisciplines,thereareaverylargenumberofarchaeologicalsubdisciplines
characterisedbyaspecificmethodortypeofmaterial(e.g.,lithicanalysis,music,archaeobotany),
geographicalorchronologicalfocus(e.g.NearEasternarchaeology,Islamicarchaeology,Medieval
archaeology),otherthematicconcern(e.g.maritimearchaeology,landscapearchaeology,battlefield
archaeology),oraspecificarchaeologicalcultureorcivilization(e.g.Egyptology,Indology,Sinology).

Historicalarchaeology
Historicalarchaeologyisthestudyofcultureswithsomeformofwriting.
InEngland,archaeologistshaveuncoveredthelonglostlayoutsofmedievalvillagesabandonedaftercrises
ofthe14thcentury(suchastheBlackDeath)andtheequallylostlayoutsof17thcenturyparterregardens
sweptawaybyachangeinfashion.IndowntownNewYorkCityarchaeologistshaveexhumedthe18th
centuryremainsoftheAfricanburialground.

Ethnoarchaeology
Ethnoarchaeologyisthearchaeologicalstudyoflivingpeople.[54][55][56][57][58][59]Theapproachgained
notorietyduringtheemphasisonmiddlerangetheorythatwasafeatureoftheprocessualmovementofthe
1960s.Earlyethnoarchaeologicalresearchfocusedonhuntingandgatheringorforagingsocieties.
Ethnoarchaeologycontinuestobeavibrantcomponentofpostprocessualandothercurrentarchaeological
approaches.[60][61][62][63]Ethnoarchaeologyistheuseofethnographytoincreaseandimproveanalogs,
whicharethenusedasanalogiestointerpretthearchaeologicalrecord.Inshort,ethnoarchaeologyisthe
applicationofethnographytoarchaeology.[64]

Experimentalarchaeology
Experimentalarchaeologyrepresentstheapplicationoftheexperimentalmethodtodevelopmorehighly
controlledobservationsofprocessesthatcreateandimpactthearchaeologicalrecord.[65][66][67][68][69]Inthe
contextofthelogicalpositivismofprocessualismwithitsgoalsofimprovingthescientificrigorof
archaeologicalepistemologiestheexperimentalmethodgainedimportance.Experimentaltechniques
remainacrucialcomponenttoimprovingtheinferentialframeworksforinterpretingthearchaeological
record.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

10/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Archaeometry
Archaeometryisafieldofstudythataimstosystematizearchaeologicalmeasurement.Itemphasizesthe
applicationofanalyticaltechniquesfromphysics,chemistry,andengineering.Itisafieldofresearchthat
frequentlyfocusesonthedefinitionofthechemicalcompositionofarchaeologicalremainsforsource
analysis.[70]Archaeometryalsoinvestigatesdifferentspatialcharacteristicsoffeatures,employingmethods
suchasspacesyntaxtechniquesandgeodesyaswellascomputerbasedtoolssuchasgeographic
informationsystemtechnology.[71]Rareearthelementspatternsmayalsobeused.[72]Arelativelynascent
subfieldisthatofarchaeologicalmaterials,designedtoenhanceunderstandingofprehistoricandnon
industrialculturethroughscientificanalysisofthestructureandpropertiesofmaterialsassociatedwith
humanactivity.[73]

Culturalresourcesmanagement
Whilearchaeologycanbedoneasapurescience,itcanalsobeanappliedscience,namelythestudyof
archaeologicalsitesthatarethreatenedbydevelopment.Insuchcases,archaeologyisasubsidiaryactivity
withinCulturalresourcesmanagement(CRM),alsocalledheritagemanagementintheUnitedKingdom.[74]
Today,CRMaccountsformostofthearchaeologicalresearchdoneintheUnitedStatesandmuchofthatin
westernEuropeaswell.IntheUS,CRMarchaeologyhasbeenagrowingconcernsincethepassageofthe
NationalHistoricPreservationAct(NHPA)of1966,andmosttaxpayers,scholars,andpoliticiansbelieve
thatCRMhashelpedpreservemuchofthatnation'shistoryandprehistorythatwouldhaveotherwisebeen
lostintheexpansionofcities,dams,andhighways.Alongwithotherstatutes,theNHPAmandatesthat
projectsonfederallandorinvolvingfederalfundsorpermitsconsidertheeffectsoftheprojectoneach
archaeologicalsite.
TheapplicationofCRMintheUnitedKingdomisnotlimitedtogovernmentfundedprojects.Since1990
PPG16[75]hasrequiredplannerstoconsiderarchaeologyasamaterialconsiderationindetermining
applicationsfornewdevelopment.Asaresult,numerousarchaeologicalorganisationsundertakemitigation
workinadvanceof(orduring)constructionworkinarchaeologicallysensitiveareas,atthedeveloper's
expense.
InEngland,ultimateresponsibilityofcareforthehistoricenvironmentrestswiththeDepartmentfor
Culture,MediaandSport[76]inassociationwithEnglishHeritage.[77]InScotland,WalesandNorthern
Ireland,thesameresponsibilitiesliewithHistoricScotland,[78]Cadw[79]andtheNorthernIreland
EnvironmentAgency[80]respectively.
AmongthegoalsofCRMaretheidentification,preservation,andmaintenanceofculturalsitesonpublic
andprivatelands,andtheremovalofculturallyvaluablematerialsfromareaswheretheywouldotherwise
bedestroyedbyhumanactivity,suchasproposedconstruction.Thisstudyinvolvesatleastacursory
examinationtodeterminewhetherornotanysignificantarchaeologicalsitesarepresentintheareaaffected
bytheproposedconstruction.Ifthesedoexist,timeandmoneymustbeallottedfortheirexcavation.If
initialsurveyand/ortestexcavationindicatesthepresenceofanextraordinarilyvaluablesite,the
constructionmaybeprohibitedentirely.CRMisathrivingentity,especiallyintheUnitedStatesand
Europewherearchaeologistsfromprivatecompaniesandalllevelsofgovernmentengageinthepracticeof
theirdiscipline.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

11/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Culturalresourcesmanagementhas,however,beencriticized.CRMisconductedbyprivatecompaniesthat
bidforprojectsbysubmittingproposalsoutliningtheworktobedoneandanexpectedbudget.Itisnot
unheardoffortheagencyresponsiblefortheconstructiontosimplychoosetheproposalthatasksforthe
leastfunding.CRMarchaeologistsfaceconsiderabletimepressure,oftenbeingforcedtocompletetheir
workinafractionofthetimethatmightbeallottedforapurelyscholarlyendeavor.Compoundingthetime
pressureisthevettingprocessofsitereportsthatarerequired(intheUS)tobesubmittedbyCRMfirmsto
theappropriateStateHistoricPreservationOffice(SHPO).FromtheSHPO'sperspectivethereistobeno
differencebetweenareportsubmittedbyaCRMfirmoperatingunderadeadline,andamultiyear
academicproject.TheendresultisthatforaCulturalResourceManagementarchaeologisttobesuccessful,
theymustbeabletoproduceacademicqualitydocumentsatacorporateworldpace.
Theannualratioofopenacademicarchaeologypositions(inclusiveofPostDoc,temporary,andnontenure
trackappointments)totheannualnumberofarchaeologyMA/MScandPhDstudentsisgrossly
disproportionate.Thisdearthofacademicpositionscausesapredictableexcessofwelleducatedindividuals
whojointheranksofthefollowingyear'scropofnonacademicallyemployedarchaeologists.Cultural
ResourceManagement,onceconsideredanintellectualbackwaterforindividualswith"strongbacksand
weakminds"[81]hasreapedthebenefitofthismassivepoolofwelleducatedprofessionals.Thisresultsin
CRMofficesincreasinglystaffedbyadvancedegreedindividualswithatrackrecordofproducingscholarly
articlesbutwhohavethenotchesontheirtrowelstoshowtheyhavebeeninthetrenchesasashovelbum.

Popularviewsofarchaeology
Earlyarchaeologywaslargelyanattempttouncoverspectacular
artifactsandfeatures,ortoexplorevastandmysteriousabandoned
cities.Earlyarchaeologywasmostlydonebyupperclass,scholarly
men.Thisgeneralizationlaidthefoundationforthemodernpopular
viewofarchaeologyandarchaeologists.Thisgeneralizationhas
beenwithwesterncultureforalongtime.Anotherpopularthought
thatdatesbacktothiseraisthatarchaeologyismonetarilylucrative.
Alargemajorityofthegeneralpublicisundertheimpressionthat
excavationsareundertakenformoneyandnothistoricaldata.Itis
easyforthegeneralpublictoholdthisnotionforthatiswhatis
presentedtothemthroughgeneralmedia,andhasbeenformany
decades.

ExtensiveexcavationsatBeitShe'an,
Israel

Themajorityofthepublicviewarchaeologyasbeingsomethingonlyavailabletoanarrowdemographic.
Thejobofarchaeologistisdepictedasa"romanticadventuristoccupation".[82]Togeneralize,thepublic
viewsarchaeologyasafantasizedhobbymorethanajobinthescientificcommunity.Theaudiencemay
nottakeawayscientificmethodsfrompopularcinemabuttheydoformanotionof"whoarchaeologists
are,whytheydowhattheydo,andhowrelationshipstothepastareconstituted".[82]Themoderndepiction
ofarchaeologyissensationalizedsomuchthatithasincorrectlyformedthepublic'sperceptionofwhat
archaeologyis.Thepublicisoftenundertheimpressionthatallarchaeologytakesplaceinadistantand
foreignland,onlytocollectmonetarilyorspirituallypricelessartifacts.
Suchpursuitscontinuetofascinatethepublic.Books,films,andvideogames,suchasIndianaJones,King
Solomon'sMines,TheCityofBrass,RelicHunter,TheMummy,Stargate,andTombRaideralltestifytothe
public'sinterestinthediscoveryaspectofarchaeology.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

12/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Indeed,itisawidelyheldbeliefthatthegeneralpublictakesmany
oftheirstereotypicalidealsofarchaeologistsandarchaeologyfrom
thesefilms.TheIndianaJonesmovieshaveputforththeimageof
theablebodiedwhitewesternmalewhoiscomfortableinboththe
classroomandholdinghisownagainstbaddies,andwhileIndiana
Jonesscholarsliketopointtothisreallifearchaeologistandthat
oneastheprototypeforthecharacteritislikelythatcomingupwith
acharacterwhoisarugged,sexuallyappealingmalethatissmart
enoughtohaveadoctorateandcanstillsaveyourlifewhileunder
extremeperilcouldnothavebeendifficultforscreenwriters.[83]
PermanentexhibitioninaGerman
WhiletheLaraCroft:TombRaidermoviesandvideogames
multistoreycarpark,explainingthe
stereotypefemalearchaeologistsasneedingtobewealthyandfit
archaeologicaldiscoveriesmade
andhaveaparentwhocarriedweightintheirfieldtobesuccessful,
duringtheconstructionofthis
assheisnotconsideredherselftobeanarchaeologistsomuchas
building
sheisatreasurehunter.Fromtheoriginal1932Mummyfilmwith
BorisKarlofftheviewingpublicisfirstshowntheideaof
archaeologytakingplaceinadistantlandonfilm,anideawhichcontinuedthroughoutalloftheabove
films.Therearesubsequentlynumerousmovieswhichalltakeplaceinwarmandexoticlocales,including
allfourIndianaJonesmoviesbothTombRaidermoviesandthreemoremummyfilmsafterthefranchise
wasreimagined.
Sowhileitisclearthatfilmmakersareattheveryleastdrawingattentiontoarchaeologyinawaythat
othersciencescannotboast,thereiscertainlyaveryrealdisconnectbetweenwherearchaeologyisactually
practiced(allovertheworld,ofteninmudorsnowasoftenasinthesandydeserts)andbywhomitisdone
thesedays(primarilyyoungwomenseemstobetheanswer).Archaeologyinpopularcultureisarguably
thriving,andwilllikelycontinuetodosointheformofhighlyexaggeratedfilmsasthatiswhatthepublic
want.Itthereforremainsthejoboftheeverydayarchaeologytoinformtheirstudentsaboutthegrand
traditionofthesefilmsandtoshowthemtheparallelsthatwillultimatelydrawnewscientistsintothefield
ofarchaeology.
MuchthoroughandproductiveresearchhasindeedbeenconductedindramaticlocalessuchasCopnand
theValleyoftheKings,butthebulkofactivitiesandfindsofmodernarchaeologyarenotsosensational.
Archaeologicaladventurestoriestendtoignorethepainstakingworkinvolvedincarryingoutmodern
surveys,excavations,anddataprocessing.Somearchaeologistsrefertosuchoffthemarkportrayalsas
"pseudoarchaeology".[84]
Archaeologyhasbeenportrayedinthemainstreammediainsensationalways.Thishasitsadvantagesand
disadvantages.ManypractitionerspointtothechildhoodexcitementofIndianaJonesfilmsastheir
inspirationtoenterthefield.[85][86]Archaeologistsarealsoverymuchreliantonpublicsupportthe
questionofexactlywhotheyaredoingtheirworkforisoftendiscussed.[87]

Currentissuesandcontroversy
Publicarchaeology

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

13/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Motivatedbyadesiretohaltlooting,curbpseudoarchaeology,andtohelppreservearchaeologicalsites
througheducationandfosteringpublicappreciationfortheimportanceof
archaeologicalheritage,archaeologistsaremountingpublicoutreach
campaigns.[88]Theyseektostoplootingbycombattingpeoplewhoillegally
takeartifactsfromprotectedsites,andbyalertingpeoplewholivenear
archaeologicalsitesofthethreatoflooting.Commonmethodsofpublic
outreachincludepressreleases,andtheencouragementofschoolfieldtrips
tositesunderexcavationbyprofessionalarchaeologists.Publicappreciation
ofthesignificanceofarchaeologyandarchaeologicalsitesoftenleadsto
improvedprotectionfromencroachingdevelopmentorotherthreats.
Oneaudienceforarchaeologists'workisthepublic.Theyincreasingly
realizethattheirworkcanbenefitnonacademicandnonarchaeological
audiences,andthattheyhavearesponsibilitytoeducateandinformthe
publicaboutarchaeology.Localheritageawarenessisaimedatincreasing
civicandindividualpridethroughprojectssuchascommunityexcavation
projects,andbetterpublicpresentationsofarchaeologicalsitesand
knowledge.TheU.S.Dept.ofAgriculture,ForestService(USFS)operatesa
volunteerarchaeologyandhistoricpreservationprogramcalledthePassport
inTime(PIT).VolunteersworkwithprofessionalUSFSarchaeologistsand
historiansonnationalforeststhroughouttheU.S.Volunteersareinvolvedin
allaspectsofprofessionalarchaeologyunderexpertsupervision.[89]

Excavationsatthesiteof
GranDolina,inthe
AtapuercaMountains,Spain,
2008

IntheUK,populararchaeologyprogramssuchasTimeTeamandMeetthe
Ancestorshaveresultedinahugeupsurgeinpublicinterest.Wherepossible,archaeologistsnowmake
moreprovisionsforpublicinvolvementandoutreachinlargerprojectsthantheyoncedid,andmanylocal
archaeologicalorganizationsoperatewithintheCommunityarchaeologyframeworktoexpandpublic
involvementinsmallerscale,morelocalprojects.Archaeologicalexcavation,however,isbestundertaken
bywelltrainedstaffthatcanworkquicklyandaccurately.Oftenthisrequiresobservingthenecessary
healthandsafetyandindemnityinsuranceissuesinvolvedinworkingonamodernbuildingsitewithtight
deadlines.Certaincharitiesandlocalgovernmentbodiessometimesofferplacesonresearchprojectseither
aspartofacademicworkorasadefinedcommunityproject.Thereisalsoaflourishingindustryselling
placesoncommercialtrainingexcavationsandarchaeologicalholidaytours.
Archaeologistsprizelocalknowledgeandoftenliaisewithlocalhistoricalandarchaeologicalsocieties,
whichisonereasonwhyCommunityarchaeologyprojectsarestartingtobecomemorecommon.Often
archaeologistsareassistedbythepublicinthelocatingofarchaeologicalsites,whichprofessional
archaeologistshaveneitherthefunding,northetimetodo.
TheArchaeologicalLegacyInstitute(ALI),selfdescribedas"anindependent,nonprofit,taxexempt
(501[c][3])",isaresearchandeducationcorporationregisteredinOregonin1999.TheALIfoundedan
onlineArchaeologyChannel(http://archaeologychannel.org/)tosupporttheorganization'smission"to
developwaystomakearchaeologymoreeffectivebothingatheringimportantinformationaboutpast
humanlifewaysandindeliveringthatinformationtothepublicandtheprofession."[90]

Pseudoarchaeology
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

14/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Pseudoarchaeologyisanumbrellatermforallactivitiesthatfalselyclaimtobearchaeologicalbutinfact
violatecommonlyacceptedandscientificarchaeologicalpractices.Itincludesmuchfictional
archaeologicalwork(discussedabove),aswellassomeactualactivity.Manynonfictionauthorshave
ignoredthescientificmethodsofprocessualarchaeology,orthespecificcritiquesofitcontainedinpost
processualism.
AnexampleofthistypeisthewritingofErichvonDniken.His1968book,ChariotsoftheGods?,
togetherwithmanysubsequentlesserknownworks,expoundsatheoryofancientcontactsbetweenhuman
civilisationonEarthandmoretechnologicallyadvancedextraterrestrialcivilisations.Thistheory,knownas
palaeocontacttheory,orAncientastronauttheory,isnotexclusivelyDniken's,nordidtheideaoriginate
withhim.Worksofthisnatureareusuallymarkedbytherenunciationofwellestablishedtheoriesonthe
basisoflimitedevidence,andtheinterpretationofevidencewithapreconceivedtheoryinmind.

Looting
Lootingofarchaeologicalsitesisanancientproblem.Forinstance,
manyofthetombsoftheEgyptianpharaohswerelootedduring
antiquity.[91]Archaeologystimulatesinterestinancientobjects,and
peopleinsearchofartifactsortreasurecausedamageto
archaeologicalsites.Thecommercialandacademicdemandfor
artifactsunfortunatelycontributesdirectlytotheillicitantiquities
trade.Smugglingofantiquitiesabroadtoprivatecollectorshas
causedgreatculturalandeconomicdamageinmanycountries
whosegovernmentslacktheresourcesandorthewilltodeterit.
Lootersdamageanddestroyarchaeologicalsites,denyingfuture
generationsinformationabouttheirethnicandculturalheritage.
Indigenouspeoplesespeciallyloseaccesstoandcontrolovertheir
'culturalresources',ultimatelydenyingthemtheopportunityto
knowtheirpast.[92]

Alooter'spitonthemorning
followingitsexcavation,takenat
Rontoy,HuauraValley,PeruinJune
2007.Severalsmallholesleftby
looters'prospectingprobescanbe
seen,aswellastheirfootprints.

In1937W.F.HodgetheDirectoroftheSouthwestMuseum
releasedastatementthatthemuseumwouldnolongerpurchaseor
acceptcollectionsfromlootedcontexts.[93]Thefirstconvictionofthetransportofartifactsillegally
removedfromprivatepropertyundertheArchaeologicalResourcesProtectionAct(ARPAPublicLaw96
9593Statute721(http://www.nps.gov/history/locallaw/FHPL_ArchRsrcsProt.pdf)16
U.S.C.470aamm(http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/16/470aamm.html))wasin1992intheStateof
Indiana.[94]

Descendantpeoples
IntheUnitedStates,examplessuchasthecaseofKennewickManhaveillustratedthetensionsbetween
NativeAmericansandarchaeologists,whichcanbesummarizedasaconflictbetweenaneedtoremain
respectfultowardsacredburialsitesandtheacademicbenefitfromstudyingthem.Foryears,American
archaeologistsdugonIndianburialgroundsandotherplacesconsideredsacred,removingartifactsand
humanremainstostoragefacilitiesforfurtherstudy.Insomecaseshumanremainswerenoteven
thoroughlystudiedbutinsteadarchivedratherthanreburied.Furthermore,Westernarchaeologists'viewsof
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

15/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

thepastoftendifferfromthoseoftribalpeoples.TheWestviewstimeaslinearformanynatives,itis
cyclic.FromaWesternperspective,thepastislonggonefromanativeperspective,disturbingthepastcan
havedireconsequencesinthepresent.
Asaconsequenceofthis,AmericanIndiansattemptedtopreventarchaeologicalexcavationofsites
inhabitedbytheirancestors,whileAmericanarchaeologistsbelievedthattheadvancementofscientific
knowledgewasavalidreasontocontinuetheirstudies.Thiscontradictorysituationwasaddressedbythe
NativeAmericanGravesProtectionandRepatriationAct(NAGPRA,1990),whichsoughttoreacha
compromisebylimitingtherightofresearchinstitutionstopossesshumanremains.Dueinparttothespirit
ofpostprocessualism,somearchaeologistshavebeguntoactivelyenlisttheassistanceofindigenous
peopleslikelytobedescendedfromthoseunderstudy.
Archaeologistshavealsobeenobligedtoreexaminewhatconstitutesanarchaeologicalsiteinviewofwhat
nativepeoplesbelievetoconstitutesacredspace.Tomanynativepeoples,naturalfeaturessuchaslakes,
mountainsorevenindividualtreeshaveculturalsignificance.Australianarchaeologistsespeciallyhave
exploredthisissueandattemptedtosurveythesesitestogivethemsomeprotectionfrombeingdeveloped.
Suchworkrequirescloselinksandtrustbetweenarchaeologistsandthe
peopletheyaretryingtohelpandatthesametimestudy.
Whilethiscooperationpresentsanewsetofchallengesandhurdlesto
fieldwork,ithasbenefitsforallpartiesinvolved.Tribalelderscooperating
witharchaeologistscanpreventtheexcavationofareasofsitesthatthey
considersacred,whilethearchaeologistsgaintheelders'aidininterpreting
theirfinds.Therehavealsobeenactiveeffortstorecruitaboriginalpeoples
directlyintothearchaeologicalprofession.
Repatriation
SeeRepatriationandreburialofhumanremains
AnewtrendintheheatedcontroversybetweenFirstNationsgroupsand
scientistsistherepatriationofnativeartifactstotheoriginaldescendants.
AnexampleofthisoccurredJune21,2005,whencommunitymembersand
eldersfromanumberofthe10AlgonquiannationsintheOttawaarea
StelaofakingnamedAdad
convenedontheKitiganZibireservationnearManiwaki,Quebec,tointer
Nirari.Objectstolenfrom
ancestralhumanremainsandburialgoodssomedatingback6,000years.
theIraqNationalMuseumin
Itwasnotdetermined,however,iftheremainsweredirectlyrelatedtothe
thelootinginconnection
Algonquinpeoplewhonowinhabittheregion.Theremainsmaybeof
withtheIraqwarof2003.
Iroquoianancestry,sinceIroquoianpeopleinhabitedtheareabeforethe
Algonquin.Moreover,theoldestoftheseremainsmighthavenorelationat
alltotheAlgonquinorIroquois,andbelongtoanearlierculturewhopreviouslyinhabitedthearea.
Theremainsandartifacts,includingjewelry,toolsandweapons,wereoriginallyexcavatedfromvarious
sitesintheOttawaValley,includingMorrisonandtheAllumetteIslands.Theyhadbeenpartofthe
CanadianMuseumofCivilization'sresearchcollectionfordecades,somesincethelate19thcentury.Elders
fromvariousAlgonquincommunitiesconferredonanappropriatereburial,eventuallydecidingon
traditionalredcedarandbirchbarkboxeslinedwithredcedarchips,muskratandbeaverpelts.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

16/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Now,aninconspicuousrockmoundmarksthereburialsitewherecloseto80boxesofvarioussizesare
buried,nofurtherscientificstudyispossible.Althoughnegotiationswereattimestensebetweenthe
KitiganZibicommunityandmuseum,theywereabletoreachagreement.[95]
KennewickManisanotherrepatriationcandidatethathasbeenthesourceofheateddebate.

Fictionalarchaeologists
BlueBeetle
LaraCroft
DoctorFate
SydneyFox
Hawkgirl
Hawkwoman
DanielJackson(Stargate)
IndianaJones
ScroogeMcDuck
Metamorpho
AmeliaPeabody
DirkPitt
ElijahSnow
AdamStrange
BerniceSummerfield

Seealso
Outlineofarchaeology
Archaeoacoustics
Archaeoastronomy
Archaeobiology
Archaeologyandanimation
Archaeologyofreligionand
ritual
Areaofarchaeological
potential
Biblicalarchaeology
Datingmethodologies
Dumpdigging

Excavation
Paleoneurology
GeographicInformation
Virtualartifact
Systems
Xenoarchaeology
Graverobbery
Lists
Harrismatrix
IntellectualPropertyIssuesin
Archaeologicalperiods
CulturalHeritageproject
Archaeologicalsitesby
(IPinCH)
country
Kiteaerialphotography
Archaeologists
Lostcity
Paleoethnobotanists
Palaeoarchaeology

References
1. SocietyforAmericanArchaeology
(http://www.saa.org/ForthePublic/Resources/OtherUsefulResources/Whyaretheretwodifferentspellingsarchaeology
/tabid/1078/Default.aspx),retrieved20110115
2. RenfrewandBahn(2004[1991]:13)
3. Havilandetal.2010,p.7,14
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology
17/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

3. Havilandetal.2010,p.7,14
4. McPherron,S.P.,Z.Alemseged,C.W.Marean,J.G.Wynn,D.Reed,D.Geraads,R.Bobe,andH.A.Bearat.
2010.Evidenceforstonetoolassistedconsumptionofanimaltissuesbefore3.39millionyearsagoatDikika,
Ethiopia.Nature466:857860
5. Wylie,Alison(2002),Thinkingfromthings:essaysinthephilosophyofarchaeology,Berkeley:Universityof
CaliforniaPress,p.31,ISBN0520223616
6. AldenderferandMaschner(1996)
7. Gladfelter(1977)
8. Watters(1992)
9. Watters(2000)
10. "archaeology"(http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=archaeology).OnlineEtymologyDictionary.
11. TheHistoryoftheScienceofArchaeology
(http://archaeology.about.com/od/historyofarchaeology/a/history_series.htm)
12. Hunter,Michael(1975).JohnAubreyandtheRealmofLearning.London:Duckworth.pp.1567,1626,181.
ISBN0715608185.
13. DorothyKing,TheElginMarbles(Hutchinson,January2006)
14. Everill,P.2010.TheParkersofHeytesbury:Archaeologicalpioneers.AntiquariesJournal90:44153
15. Everill,P.2009.InvisiblePioneers.BritishArchaeology108:4043
16. Bowden,Mark(1984)GeneralPittRivers:Thefatherofscientificarchaeology.SalisburyandSouthWiltshire
Museum.ISBN0947535004.
17. Hicks,Dan(2013).Hicks,DanStevenson,Alice,eds."CharacterizingtheWorldArchaeologyCollectionsofthe
PittRiversMuseum".WorldArchaeologyatthePittRiversMuseum:acharacterization(Oxford:
Archaeopress).
18. "SirWilliamFlindersPetrie"(http://www.pef.org.uk/profiles/sirwilliamflinderspetrie18531942).Palestine
ExplorationFund.2000.Retrieved20071119.
19. KennethW.Harl."GreatAncientCivilizationsofAsiaMinor"
(http://www.thegreatcourses.com/tgc/courses/course_detail.aspx?cid=363).RetrievedNovember23,2012.
20. MacGillivray,JosephAlexander(2000).Minotaur:SirArthurEvansandtheArchaeologyoftheMinoanMyth.
NewYork:HillandWang(Farrar,StrausandGiroux).
21. RenfrewandBahn(2004[1991]:3335)
22. "KevinGreene''Archaeology:anIntroduction''"(http://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk/kevin.greene/wintro).
Staff.ncl.ac.uk.Retrieved20100812.
23. Schiffer,M.B.1972.ArchaeologicalContextandSystemicContext.AmericanAntiquity37:156165
24. Trigger(1989)
25. Binford(1962)
26. Flannery(1967)
27. ShanksandTilley(1987)
28. ShanksandTilley(1988)
29. Shanks(1991)
30. Shanks(1993)
31. Tilley(1993)
32. MillerandTilley1984
33. Milleretal.(1989)
34. Hodder(1982)
35. Hodder(1985)
36. Hodder(1987)
37. Hodder(1990)
38. Hodder(1991)
39. Hodder(1992)
40. Pauketat,TimothyR.(2001)
41. RenfrewandBahn(2004[1991]:75)
42. Remotesensingforarchaeology(http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/lostpyramidsegyptdiscoveredsatellite
images/story?id=13693894)
43. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/RemoteSensing/
44. Willey(1953)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology
18/24

7/13/2015

44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Willey(1953)
Willey(1968)
BillmanandFeinman(1999)
Redman(1974)
"KiteAerialPhotography"(http://www.armadale.org.uk/kite03.htm).Retrieved20121202.
Reeves,D.(1936).Aerialphotographyandarchaeology.AmericanAntiquity,2(2),102107.Retrievedfrom:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/275881
50. Hall,E.T.(1970).Surveytechniquesinunderwaterarchaeology.PhilosophicalTransactionsoftheRoyalSociety
ofLondon.SeriesA,MathematicalandPhysicalSciences,269(1193),121124.Retrievedfrom
http://www.jstor.org/stable/73925
51. MichaelBawaya,"VirtualArchaeologistsRecreatePartsofAncientWorlds",Science,8January2010,vol.327,
p.140.
52. ReutersinLima."Peru'sarchaeologiststurntodronestohelpprotectandexploreancientruins|Worldnews"
(http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/25/peruarchaeologistsdronesancientruins).theguardian.com.
Retrieved20130827.
53. Hudson,Hal(24September2014)."Airchaeologicaldronessearchforancienttreasures"
(http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22329883.900airchaeologicaldronessearchforancient
treasures.html#.VC1hk_ldV8E)(2988).NewScientist.Retrieved2October2014.
54. Gould(1971a)
55. Gould(1971b)
56. Yellen(1972)
57. Yellen(1977)
58. GouldandYellen1987
59. Yellen(1991)
60. Silletetal.(2006)
61. SchottandSillitoe(2005)
62. Ogundele(2005)
63. Kuznar(2001)
64. Ashcer(1961)ascitedinWylie(1985)
65. Ascher(1961)
66. SaraydarandShimada(1971)
67. SaraydarandShimada(1973)
68. GiffordGonzalez(1985)
69. Frison(1989)
70. Glascocketal.1994
71. Hacgzeller,Piraye(2012),"GIS,critique,representationandbeyond"
(http://jsa.sagepub.com/content/12/2/245.abstract),JournalofSocialArchaeology12(2):245263,
doi:10.1177/1469605312439139(https://dx.doi.org/10.1177%2F1469605312439139)
72. Saiano,F.andScalenghe,R.(2009),"AnanthropicsoiltransformationfingerprintedbyREYpatterns",Journal
ofArchaeologicalScience36(11):25022506,doi:10.1016/j.jas.2009.06.025
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.jas.2009.06.025)
73. MITArchaeologicalMaterialsandCMRAEMissionStatement(http://web.mit.edu/cmrae/cmrae_mission.htm/)
74. TheUniversityofExeterSoGAERDepartmentofArchaeology
(http://www.sogaer.ex.ac.uk/archaeology/modules/arc3600.shtml),Sogaer.ex.ac.uk,20081028,retrieved
20090505
75. "PlanningPolicyGuidance16:ArchaeologyandplanningPlanning,buildingandtheenvironment
CommunitiesandLocalGovernment"
(https://web.archive.org/web/20080212011420/http://www.communities.gov.uk/publications/planningandbuilding/
planningpolicyguidance9).Web.archive.org.Archivedfromtheoriginal
(http://www.communities.gov.uk/publications/planningandbuilding/planningpolicyguidance9)on20080212.
Retrieved20090725.
76. DepartmentforCultureMediaandSport(20090428),DepartmentforCultureMediaandSporthistoric
environment(http://www.culture.gov.uk/what_we_do/Historic_environment/),Culture.gov.uk,archived
(https://web.archive.org/web/20090521191552/http://www.culture.gov.uk/what_we_do/Historic_environment/)
fromtheoriginalon21May2009,retrieved20090505
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology
19/24

7/13/2015

77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.

84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

fromtheoriginalon21May2009,retrieved20090505
EnglishHeritageStonehenge&theHistoryofEngland:EnglishHeritage(http://www.englishheritage.org.uk),
EnglishHeritage,archived(https://web.archive.org/web/20090430203419/http://www.englishheritage.org.uk/)
fromtheoriginalon30April2009,retrieved20090505
HistoricScotland(http://www.historicscotland.gov.uk/),HistoricScotland,archived
(https://web.archive.org/web/20090426014641/http://www.historicscotland.gov.uk/)fromtheoriginalon26
April2009,retrieved20090505
Cadw(http://www.cadw.wales.gov.uk/default.asp),Cadw.wales.gov.uk,archived
(https://web.archive.org/web/20090429155411/http://www.cadw.wales.gov.uk/default.asp?)fromtheoriginalon
29April2009,retrieved20090505
BuiltEnvironment(https://web.archive.org/web/20071225132821/http://www.ehsni.gov.uk/built.htm),
Ehsni.gov.uk,archivedfromtheoriginal(http://www.ehsni.gov.uk/built.htm)on20071225,retrieved
20090505
Flannery(1982)
McGeough,Kevin(2006),"Heroes,Mummies,andTreasure:NearEasternArchaeologyintheMovies",Near
EasternArchaeology69:174185
www.jstor.org.proxy.lib.pdx.edulink(http://www.jstor.org.proxy.lib.pdx.edu/stable/2694141?
Search=yes&resultItemClick=true&&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoAdvancedSearch%3Ff2%3Dall%26amp%3Bq4
%3D%26amp%3Bq2%3D%26amp%3Bq5%3D%26amp%3Bgroup%3Dnone%26amp%3Bc1%3DAND%26amp
%3Bf1%3Dall%26amp%3Bar%3Don%26amp%3Bed%3D%26amp%3Bq1%3Dmovies%26amp%3Bf4%3Dall%
26amp%3Bc5%3DAND%26amp%3Bc4%3DAND%26amp%3Bf0%3Dall%26amp%3Bacc%3Don%26amp%3Bc
2%3DAND%26amp%3Bq3%3D%26amp%3Bc3%3DAND%26amp%3Bc6%3DAND%26amp%3Bwc%3Don%2
6amp%3Bf3%3Dall%26amp%3Bpt%3D%26amp%3Bla%3Deng%2BOR%2Ben%26amp%3Bf6%3Dall%26amp
%3Bq0%3Darchaeology%26amp%3Bsd%3D%26amp%3Bf5%3Dall%26amp%3Bq6%3D%26amp%3Bisbn%3D
&seq=4#page_scan_tab_contents)
"RomancingthePastArchaeology"
(http://www.denison.edu/campuslife/museum/romancingthepastarchaeology.html).DenisonUniversity.Retrieved
20110111.
"IndianaJonesInspiresFans"(http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/Springtime/story?id=4879875&page=1).ABC
News.Retrieved20110111.
Strong,Meghan(20070419),TheIndianaJonesEffect
(http://www.lycoming.edu/library/archives/honorspdfs/Meghan_Strong.pdf)(PDF),LycomingCollege,p.40
"Denning2004,InternetArchaeology15"(http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue15/denning_index.html).Intarch.ac.uk.
20040128.Retrieved20100812.
AnthropologicalStudiesCenter(ASC)(http://www.sonoma.edu/asc/roadshow.html),Sonoma.edu,archived
(https://web.archive.org/web/20090328003841/http://www.sonoma.edu/asc/roadshow.html)fromtheoriginalon
28March2009,retrieved20090505
"^''RapidCityJournal''PublishedOnline:14Nov2008"
(http://www.rapidcityjournal.com/news/local/article_3654c4d7e2415b5aa62446628d7c1f4f.html).
Rapidcityjournal.com.20081114.Retrieved20100812.
TheArchaeologicalLegacyInstitute(ALI)."TheArchaeologyChannelandAboutUs:ArchaeologicalLegacy
Institute"(http://archaeologychannel.org/).ArchaeologyChannel.org.Retrieved29December2011.
TimeLifeLostCivilizationsseries:RamsesII:MagnificenceontheNile(1993)
Sheets(1973)
Hodge(1937)
Munsonetal.(1995)
CanadianGeographicOnline(http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/SO05/indepth/archaeology.asp)

Bibliography
Aldenderfer,M.S.&Maschner,H.D.G.,ed.(1996),Anthropology,Space,andGeographicInformation
Systems,NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress
Ascher,R.(1961),"Analogyinarchaeologicalinterpretation",SouthwesternJournalofAnthropology17(4):

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

20/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Ascher,R.(1961),"Analogyinarchaeologicalinterpretation",SouthwesternJournalofAnthropology17(4):
317325,JSTOR3628943(https://www.jstor.org/stable/3628943)
Ascher,R.(1961),"ExperimentalArcheology",AmericanAnthropologist63(4):793816,
doi:10.1525/aa.1961.63.4.02a00070(https://dx.doi.org/10.1525%2Faa.1961.63.4.02a00070)
Billman,B.R.&Feinman,G.(1999),SettlementPatternStudiesintheAmericasFiftyYearsSinceVir,
WashingtonDC:SmithsonianInstitutionPress
Binford,L.(1962),"ArchaeologyasAnthropology",AmericanAntiquity28(4):217225,doi:10.2307/278380
(https://dx.doi.org/10.2307%2F278380),JSTOR278380(https://www.jstor.org/stable/278380)
Denning,K.(2004),"TheStormofProgress'andArchaeologyforanOnlinePublic",InternetArchaeology15
Ebrey,PatriciaBuckley(1999),TheCambridgeIllustratedHistoryofChina,Cambridge:CambridgeUniversity
Press,ISBN0521435196,OCLC2234278703304724459615754
(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/223427870+33047244+59615754)
Flannery,K.V.(1967),"CultureHistoryv.CultureProcess:ADebateinAmericanarchaeology",Scientific
American217(2):119122,doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0867119
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1038%2Fscientificamerican0867119)
Flannery,K.V.(1982),"TheGoldenMarshalltown:AParablefortheArchaeologyofthe1980s",American
Anthropologist84(2):265278,doi:10.1525/aa.1982.84.2.02a00010
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1525%2Faa.1982.84.2.02a00010)
Fraser,JuliusThomasandFrancisC.Haber.(1986),Time,Science,andSocietyinChinaandtheWest,Amherst:
UniversityofMassachusettsPress
Frison,G.C.(1989),"ExperimentalUseofClovisWeaponryandToolsonAfricanElephants",American
Antiquity54(4):766784,doi:10.2307/280681(https://dx.doi.org/10.2307%2F280681),JSTOR280681
(https://www.jstor.org/stable/280681)
Glascock,M.D.,Neff,H.,Stryker,K.S.&Johnson,T.N.(1994),"SourcingArchaeologicalObsidianbyan
AbbreviatedNAAProcedure",JournalofRadioanalyticalandNuclearChemistry180:2935,
doi:10.1007/BF02039899(https://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2FBF02039899)
GiffordGonzalez,D.P.,Damrosch,D.B.,Damrosch,D.R.,Pryor,J.&Thunen,R.L.(1985),"TheThird
DimensioninSiteStructure:AnExperimentinTramplingandVerticalDispersal",AmericanAntiquity50(4):
803818,doi:10.2307/280169(https://dx.doi.org/10.2307%2F280169),JSTOR280169
(https://www.jstor.org/stable/280169)
Gladfelter,B.G.(1977),"Geoarchaeology:TheGeomorphologistandArchaeology",AmericanAntiquity42(4):
519538,doi:10.2307/278926(https://dx.doi.org/10.2307%2F278926),JSTOR278926
(https://www.jstor.org/stable/278926)
Gould,R.(1971a),"TheArchaeologistasEthnographer:ACasefromtheWesternDesertofAustralia",World
Archaeology3(2):143177,doi:10.1080/00438243.1969.9979499
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F00438243.1969.9979499)
Gould,R.,Koster,D.A.&Sontz,A.H.L.(1971b),"TheLithicAssemblageoftheWesternDesertAborigines
ofAustralia",AmericanAntiquity36(2):149169,doi:10.2307/278668(https://dx.doi.org/10.2307%2F278668),
JSTOR278668(https://www.jstor.org/stable/278668)
Gould,R.&Yellen,J.(1987),"MantheHunted:DeterminantsofHouseholdSpacinginDesertandTropical
ForagingSocieties",JournalofAnthropologicalArchaeology6:77,doi:10.1016/02784165(87)900171
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2F02784165%2887%29900171)
Haviland,WilliamA.Prins,HaraldE.L.McBride,BunnyWalrath,Dana(2010),CulturalAnthropology:The
HumanChallenge(13thed.),CengageLearning,ISBN0495810827
Hodder,I.(1982),SymbolsinAction,Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress
Hodder,I.(1985),"PostProcessualArchaeology",inSCHIFFER,M.B.,AdvancesinArchaeologicalMethod
andTheory,NewYork:AcademicPress
Hodder,I.,ed.(1987),TheArchaeologyofContextualMeaning,NewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress
Hodder,I.(1990),"StyleasHistoricalQuality",inHASTORF,M.C.A.C.,TheUsesofStyleinArchaeology,
Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress
Hodder,I.(1991),"InterpretiveArchaeologyandItsRole",AmericanAntiquity56(1):718,doi:10.2307/280968
(https://dx.doi.org/10.2307%2F280968),JSTOR280968(https://www.jstor.org/stable/280968)
Hodder,I.(1992),TheoryandPracticeinArchaeology,London:Routeldge
Kuznar,L,ed.(2001),EthnoarchaeologyofAndeanSouthAmerica,AnnArbor:InternationalMonographsin
Prehistory

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

21/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Prehistory
Miller,D.&Tilley,C.(1984),"Ideology,PowerandPrehistory:AnIntroduction",inMiller,D.&Tilley,C.,
Ideology,Power,andPrehistory,Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,ISBN0521255260,
OCLC2415992099827625(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/241599209+9827625)
Miller,D.,Rowlands,M.,Tilley,C.,ed.(1989),DominionandResistance,NewYork:Routledge
Munson,C.A.,Jones,M.M.&Fry,R.E.(1995),"TheGEMound:AnARPACaseStudy",American
Antiquity60(1):131159,doi:10.2307/282080(https://dx.doi.org/10.2307%2F282080),JSTOR282080
(https://www.jstor.org/stable/282080)
Ogundele,S.O.(2005),"EthnoarchaeologyofDomesticSpaceandSpatialBehaviourAmongtheTivand
UngwaiofCentralNigeria",AfricanArchaeologicalReview22:2554,doi:10.1007/s1043700531582
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs1043700531582)
Pauketat,T.R.(2001),"PracticeandHistoryinArchaeology:AnEmergingParadigm",AnthropologicalTheory
1:7398,doi:10.1177/14634990122228638(https://dx.doi.org/10.1177%2F14634990122228638)
Redman,C.L.(1974),ArchaeologicalSamplingStrategies,Binghamton:StateUniversityofNewYorkat
Binghamton
Renfrew,C.&Bahn,P.G.(1991),Archaeology:Theories,Methods,andPractice,London:Thamesand
HudsonLtd,ISBN0500278679,OCLC18580820034521234
(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/185808200+34521234)
Saraydar,S.&Shimada,I.(1971),"AQuantitativeComparisonofEfficiencyBetweenAStoneAxeandASteel
Axe",AmericanAntiquity36(2):216217,doi:10.2307/278680(https://dx.doi.org/10.2307%2F278680),
JSTOR278680(https://www.jstor.org/stable/278680)
Saraydar,S.C.&Shimada,I.(1973),"ExperimentalArchaeology:ANewOutlook",AmericanAntiquity38(3):
344350,doi:10.2307/279722(https://dx.doi.org/10.2307%2F279722),JSTOR279722
(https://www.jstor.org/stable/279722)
Sellet,F.,Greaves,R.&Yu,P.L.(2006),ArchaeologyandEthnoarchaeologyofMobility,Gainesville:
UniversityPressofFlorida
Shanks,M.&Tilley,C.(1987),ReconstructingArchaeology,NewYork:CambridgeuniversityPress
Shanks,M.&Tilley,C.(1988),SocialTheoryandArchaeology,Albuquerque:UniversityofNewMexicoPress,
ISBN0745601847,OCLC16465065185783860(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/16465065+185783860)
Shanks,M.(1991),"Somerecentapproachestostyleandsocialreconstructioninclassicalarchaeology",
ArchaeologicalReviewfromCambridge10:164174
Shanks,M.(1993),"StyleandthedesignofaperfumejarfromanArchaicGreekcitystate",Journalof
EuropeanArchaeology1:77106,doi:10.1179/096576693800731190
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1179%2F096576693800731190)
Sheets,P.D.(1973),"ThePillageofPrehistory",AmericanAntiquity38(3):317320,doi:10.2307/279718
(https://dx.doi.org/10.2307%2F279718),JSTOR279718(https://www.jstor.org/stable/279718)
Shott,M.J.&Sillitoe,P.(2005),"UselifeandcurationinNewGuineaexperimentalusedflakes",Journalof
ArchaeologicalScience32(5):653663,doi:10.1016/j.jas.2004.11.012
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.jas.2004.11.012)
Tassie,G.J.,Owens,L.S.(2010),StandardsofArchaeologicalExcavations:AFieldguidetotheMethology,
RecordingTechniquesandConventions,London:GHP,ISBN9781906137175
Taylor,W.W.(1948),AStudyofArchaeology,Menasha:AmericanAnthropologicalAssociation,ISBN0
906367123,OCLC9714935(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/9714935)
Tilley,Christopher,ed.(1993),InterpretiveArchaeology,Oxford:Berg,ISBN0854968423,
OCLC18549400126263158(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/185494001+26263158)
Trigger,B.G.(1989),AHistoryofArchaeologicalThought,Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress
Watters,M.R.(1992),PrinciplesofGeoarchaeology:ANorthAmericanPerspective,Tucson:TheUniversityof
ArizonaPress
Watters,M.R.(2000),"AlluvialstratigraphyandgeoarchaeologyintheAmericanSouthwest",Geoarchaeology
15(6):537557,doi:10.1002/15206548(200008)15:6<537::AIDGEA5>3.0.CO2E
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1002%2F15206548%28200008%2915%3A6%3C537%3A%3AAID
GEA5%3E3.0.CO%3B2E)
Willey,G.R.(1953),PrehistoricSettlementPatternsintheVirValley,Per,WashingtonDC
Willey,G.(1968),SettlementArchaeology,PaloAlto:NationalPress
Wylie,A.(1985),"TheReactionAgainstAnalogy",inSchiffer,MichaelB.,AdvancesinArchaeologicalMethod

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

22/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Wylie,A.(1985),"TheReactionAgainstAnalogy",inSchiffer,MichaelB.,AdvancesinArchaeologicalMethod
andTheory,Orlando,FL:AcademicPress,pp.63111
Yellen,J.&Harpending,H.(1972),"HunterGathererPopulationsandArchaeologicalInference",World
Archaeology4(2):244253,doi:10.1080/00438243.1972.9979535
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F00438243.1972.9979535)
Yellen,J.(1977),ArchaeologicalApproachestothePresent,NewYork:AcademicPress,ISBN0127703500,
OCLC2911020(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/2911020)

Furtherreading
Archaeology(magazine)
LewisBinfordNewPerspectivesinArchaeology(1968)ISBN0202330222
GlynDanielAShortHistoryofArchaeology(1991)
KevinGreeneIntroductiontoArchaeology(1983)
ThomasHester,HarryShafer,andKennethL.FederFieldMethodsinArchaeology7thedition
(1997)
IanHodder&ScottHutson"ReadingthePast"3rd.edition(2003)
RichHutchingsandMarinaLaSalle.2014.TeachingAntiColonialArchaeology.Archaeologies:
TheJournaloftheWorldArchaeologicalCongress(http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11759
0149250y)10(1):2769.
InternationalJournalofSouthAmericanArchaeologyIJSA(magazine)
InternetArchaeology,ejournal
C.U.LarsenSitesandMonuments(1992)
AdrianPraetzellisDeathbyTheory,AltaMiraPress(2000).ISBN0742503593/9780742503595
ColinRenfrew&PaulBahnArchaeology:theories,methodsandpractice,2ndedition(1996)
Smekalova,T.N.VossO.&SmekalovS.L.(2008)."MagneticSurveyinginArchaeology.More
than10yearsofusingtheOverhauserGSM19gradiometer".Wormianum.
DavidHurstThomasArchaeology,3rd.edition(1998)
RobertJ.Sharer&WendyAshmoreArchaeology:DiscoveringourPast2ndedition(1993)
BruceTrigger"AHistoryofArchaeologicalThought"2nd.edition(2007)
AlisonWylieThinkingFromThings:EssaysinthePhilosophyofArchaeology,Universityof
CaliforniaPress,BerkeleyCA,2002

Externallinks
400,000recordsofarchaeologicalsitesandarchitecturein
WikimediaCommonshas
England(http://pastscape.org.uk/)
mediarelatedto
Archaeolog.org(http://archaeolog.org/)
Archaeology.
Archaeologicalnewsupdateddaily
(http://www.archaeologynews.org/)
Wikiquotehasquotations
ArchaeologyDailyNews(http://www.archaeologydaily.com/)
relatedto:Archaeology
ArchaeologyTimes|Thetoparchaeologynewsfromaround
theworld(http://www.archaeologytimes.com/)
CouncilforBritishArchaeology(http://www.britarch.ac.uk/)
EstudiodeMuseologaRosario
(https://web.archive.org/web/20091024171735/http://geocities.com/emuseoros)
FastiOnlineanonlinedatabaseofarchaeologicalsites(http://www.fastionline.org/)
GreatArchaeology(http://www.greatarchaeology.com/)
KiteAerialPhotographersArchaeology(http://www.armadale.org.uk/kite03.htm)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

23/24

7/13/2015

ArchaeologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

NPSArcheologyProgram:VisitArcheology(Archeologytravelguides)
(http://www.nps.gov/history/archeology/visit/index.htm)
SriLankaArchaeologyNewKnowledgeinArchaeologyinSriLanka(http://www.archaeology.lk/)
TheArchaeologicalInstituteofAmerica(http://www.archaeological.org/)
TheArchaeologyChannel(http://www.archaeologychannel.org/)
TheArchaeologyDataServiceOpenaccessonlinearchiveforUKandglobalarchaeology
(http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/)
TheArchaeologyDivisionoftheAmericanAnthropologicalAssociation(http://www.aaanet.org/)
TheCanadianMuseumofCivilizationArchaeology
(http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/onlineexhibitions/archaeology)
TheSocietyforAmericanArchaeology(http://www.saa.org/)
TheWorldArchaeologicalCongress(http://www.worldarchaeologicalcongress.org/site/about.php)
USForestServiceVolunteerprogramPassportinTime(http://www.passportintime.com/)
WorldArchaeologyNewsweeklyupdatefromBBCRadioarchaeologist,WinScutt
(http://www.archaeology.ws/worldarchnews.html)
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Archaeology&oldid=670652961"
Categories: Archaeology Anthropology Auxiliarysciencesofhistory
Thispagewaslastmodifiedon9July2015,at09:24.
TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlikeLicenseadditionaltermsmay
apply.Byusingthissite,youagreetotheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.Wikipediaisa
registeredtrademarkoftheWikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anonprofitorganization.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

24/24