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Water Treatment

Mathematical
Formulas
6th Edition

Fleming Training Center


Murfreesboro, TN
Updated January 13, 2011

Water Treatment Math Formulas Fleming Training Center

Index
Area ..............................................................................3
Carbonate and Noncarbonate Hardness ....................14
Chemical Feeders ................................................11, 12
Chlorination ..........................................................12, 13
Coagulation/Flocculation ..............................................8
Conversion Factors ......................................................1
Corrosion Control .......................................................17
Density .......................................................................12
Detention Time ...........................................................12
Dosage .........................................................................5
Filtration ......................................................................10
Flow ..............................................................................3
Flow Conversion Chart .................................................4
Fluoridation .................................................................16
Jar Testing ....................................................................9
Lime Dosage ................................................................9
Metric Conversions .......................................................2
Mixing Energy ...............................................................9
Pounds .........................................................................5
Pounds/gal to mg/mL Conversions ...............................2
Power ...........................................................................6
Preliminary Treatment ..................................................8
Pumps ......................................................................6, 7
Sedimentation.............................................................10
Softening ....................................................................15
Solution Preparation .....................................................7
Specific Gravity...........................................................12
Substitution of Bleach for HTH, etc.............................13
Temperature .................................................................1
Volume .........................................................................3
Well Formulas...............................................................5

Water Treatment Formulas

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Conversion Factors
Length
1 yard (yd) ....................................................... 3 feet (ft)
1 mile (mi) ................................................. 5,280 feet (ft)
Area
1 acre (ac) ................................. 43,560 square feet (ft2)
1 square foot (ft2) ....................... 144 square inches (in2)
Volume
1 ft3 ..................................................... 7.48 gallons (gal)
1 gallon ........................................ 231 cubic inches (in3)
1 gallon .................................................. 3.785 Liters (L)
1 liter ...............................................1,000 milliliters (mL)
1 acre/foot (ac-ft) ..........................43,560 cubic feet (ft3)
1 acre-foot (ac-ft) ....................... 325,828.8 gallons (gal)
Weight and Mass
1 gallon of water ................................. 8.34 pounds (lbs)
1 cubic foot of water (ft3) .................................... 62.4 lbs
1 pound (lb) ......................................... 453.6 grams (g)
1 kilogram (kg) ...................................... 1,000 grams (g)
1 gram ......................................... 1,000 milligrams (mg)
1% ............................. 10,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L)
1 mg/L ..................................... 0.0584 grains per gallon
1 grain per gallon ........................................ 17.118 mg/L
Pressure and Head
1 foot of head.............. 0.433 pounds per square in (psi)
1 pound per square inch (psi) .............. 2.31 feet of head
Temperature Conversions
C ............................................................ 0.556 (F-32)
F ............................................................... 1.8(C) + 32
Power
1 Horsepower ................................................. 746 watts
1 Horsepower ......................................... 0.746 kilowatts
Water Treatment Formulas

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Converting lbs/gal to mg/mL

To use this diagram: First, find the box that coincides with the beginning units (i.e. mg/mL).
Then, find the box that coincides with the desired ending units (i.e. lbs/gal). The numbers
between the starting point and ending point are the conversion factors. When moving from a
smaller box to a larger box, multiply by the factor between them. When moving from a larger
box to a smaller box, divide by the factor between them. For final number, divide top number by
bottom number.

Metric Conversions

Water Treatment Formulas

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Area
Rectangle:

Area, ft 2 (Length, ft)(Width, ft)

Circle:

Area, ft 2 (0.785) (Diameter, ft)

Volume
Rectangle, ft3:

Volume, ft 3 (Length, ft)(Width, ft)(Depth, ft)

Cylinder, ft3:

Volume, ft 3 (0.785) (Diameter, ft) (Depth or Length, ft)

Segment of Cylinder, ft3:

Volume, ft 3 1.333 (Height)

Wedge:

Volume, ft 3

Volume, gallons

Diameter , ft
0.608 (Length, ft)
Height, ft

(Length, ft)(Width, ft)(Depth, ft)


2
3

Volume, gal ( Volume, ft )(7.48ga / ft )


3

Flow
Q AV

OR

Q (Area) (Velocity)

Q (Channel), ft3 / sec (Width, ft)(Depth, ft)(Velocity, ft/sec)


Q (Pipeline), ft 3 / sec (0.785) (Diameter, ft) (Velocity, ft/sec)
2

Velocity, ft/sec

Velocity, ft/sec

Flow, ft 3 /sec
(0.785) (Diameter, ft)2

Distance, ft
Time, sec

Average Daily Flow, MGD

Sum of All Daily Flows, MGD


Number of Daily Flows

Annual Average Daily Flow, MGD

Daily Flow, gal/day/capita

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Sum of All Monthly Average Daily Flows, MGD


Number of Monthly Average Daily Flows

Water Used, gal/day


Total Number of People Served

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Flow Conversions

cfs

cubic feet per second

gps

gallons per second

cfm

cubic feet per minute

gpm

gallons per minute

cfd

cubic feet per day

gpd

gallons per day

To use this diagram: First, find the box that coincides with the beginning units (i.e. gpm). Then,
find the box that coincides with the desired ending units (i.e. cfs). The numbers between the
starting point and ending point are the conversion factors. When moving from a smaller box to a
larger box, multiply by the factor between them. When moving from a larger box to a smaller
box, divide by the factor between them.

Water Treatment Formulas

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Dosage
Dosage, mg/L

Chemical Feed Rate, lb/day

Dosage, mg/L

(Chemical Feed Rate, lbs/day) (Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal)

Dosage, mg/L

(Feed Rate, grams/min) (1,000 mg/gram)


(Flow, gal/min) (3.785 L/gal)

(Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

(Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Pounds
Chemical Fed, lbs (Dose, mg/L) (Volume, MG) (8.34 lbs/gal)
Chemical Fed, lbs

(Dose, mg/L) (Volume, MG) (8.34 lbs/gal)


Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal

Feed Rate, lbs/day (Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)


Feed Rate, lbs/day

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)


Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal

Feed Rate, lbs/day

(Concentra tion, mg/mL)(Vol ume Pumped, mL) (1,440 min/day)


(Time Pumped, min) (1,000 mg/g) (453.6 g/lb)

Well Formulas
Well Yield, gal/min

Volume, gal
Time, min

Drawdown, ft Pumping Water Level, ft - Static Wat er Level, ft

Specific Capacity, gal/min/ft

Water Treatment Formulas

Well Yield, gal/min


Drawdown, ft

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Power
Power, watts (Volts) (Amps)
Amps, single - phase

Amps, three - phase

Horsepower

(746 watts/HP) (Horsepowe r)


(Volts) (Efficiency, %, as decimal) (Power Factor)

(746 watts/HP) (Horsepower)


(1.732)(Volts) (Efficiency, %, as decimal) (Power Factor)

(Volts )(Amps)
(746 watts/HP)

Kilowatts, single - phase

Kilowatts, three - phase

Power Factor

(Volts) (Amps) (Power Factor)


1,000 watts/kil owatt

(Volts) (Amps) (Power Factor) (1.732)


1,000 watts/kil owatt

Watts
(Volts)(Amps)

Pumps

Pumping Rate, gal/min

Volume, gal
Time, min

Pumping Rate, gal/min

(Length, ft)(Width, ft)(Depth, ft)(7.48 gal/ ft3 )


Time, min

Pumping Rate, gal/min

(0.785) (Diameter, ft) (Depth, ft)(7.48 gal/ ft 3 )


Time, min

Time to Fill, min

Tank Volume, gal


Flow Rate, gal/min

Water HP

(Flow, gal/min) (Head, ft)


3960

Brake HP

(Flow, gal/min) (Head, ft)


(3960) (Pump Efficiency, %, expressed as a decimal)

Water Treatment Formulas

Water Treatment Math Formulas


Motor HP

(Flow, gal/min) (Head, ft)


(3960) (Pump Eff., %, expressed as decimal) (Motor Eff., %, expressed as decimal)

Brake HP

(Water Horsepower )
Pump Efficiency, %, expressed as a decimal

Motor HP

(Brake Horsepower)
Motor Efficiency, %, expressed as a decimal

Motor Efficiency, %

Brake Horsepower
X 100%
Motor Horsepower

Pump Efficiency, %

Water Horsepower
X 100%
Brake Horsepower

Efficiency, %

Horsepower Output
X 100%
Horsepower Supplied

Overall Efficiency, %

Water Horsepower
X 100%
Motor Horsepower

Wire - to - Water Efficiency, % (Pump Eff., %, as decimal) (Motor Eff., %, as decimal) (100%)
Static Head, ft Suction Lift, ft Discharge Head, ft
Static Head, ft Discharge Head, ft - Suction Head, ft

Friction Loss, ft (0.1) (Static Head, ft) **use this formula in absence of other data
Total Dynamic Head, ft Static Head, ft Friction Losses, ft
Cost, $/hr (Motor Horsepower) (0.746 kW/HP)(Cos t, $/kW - hr)

Solution Preparation
Percent Strength, % (by weight)

Concentrat ion, %

Weight of Chemical, lbs


X 100%
(Weight of Water, lbs Weight of Chemical, lbs)

Concentrat ion, lbs/gal


X 100%
Density, lbs/gal

(Concentration1 ) (Volume1 ) (Concentration 2 ) (Volume 2 )


(Normality1 ) (Volume1 ) (Normality 2 ) (Volume 2 )
Chemical, lbs

(Water Volume, gal X 8.34 lbs/gal) (Desired Concentrat ion, %)


(100% - Desired Concentrat ion, %)

Water Volume, gal

(Chemical, lbs) (100% - Desired Concentrat ion, %)

Water Treatment Formulas

(Desired Concentrat ion, %) (8.34 lbs/gal)

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Preliminary Treatment
Total Alkalinity<50 mg/L as CaCO3 : Copper Sulfate, lbs (0.9 lbs/acre - ft)(Volume , acre - ft)
Total Alkalinity>50 mg/L as CaCO3 : Copper Sulfate, lbs (Surface Area, acre)(5.4 lbs/acre)
Copper Sulfate, lbs (as Copper)

Citric Acid, lbs

Area, acres

(Dosage, mg/L) (Volume, MG) (8.34 lbs/gal)


(Copper, %, expressed as a decimal)

(Copper Sulfate, lbs)


2

(Length, ft)(Width, ft)


43,560 ft 2 / acre

Volume, acre - ft (Area, acres) (Depth, ft)


Pond Volume, acre - ft

(Length, ft)(Width, ft)(Depth, ft)


43,560 ft 2 / acre

Pond Volume, gal (Volume, acre - ft)( 43,560ft / acre)(7.48gal / ft3 )


2

Pond Volume, gal (Area, acres)(Depth, ft)(43560 ft 2 / acre )(7.48 gal/ ft 3 )

Coagulation/Flocculation
Design Criteria
Detention Time, sec

(Volume, gal) (1,440 min/day) (60 sec/min)


Flow, gal/day

Detention Time, min

(Volume, gal) (1,440 min/day)


Flow, gal/day

Lime Dosage
Lime Dosage, mg/L (Alum Dosage, mg/L) (0.37)
Lime Feed Rate, grams/min

Lime Dosage, lbs/day

(Lime Dosage, mg/L) (Flow, gal/day) (3.785 L/gal)


(1,440 min/day) (1,000 mg/gram)

(Alum Feed Rate, lbs/day) (0.37)


Commercial Purity, % , expressed as a decimal

Water Treatment Formulas

Water Treatment Math Formulas


Mixing Energy
(550) (P)
( )(V)

Mechanical Mixers

Where: P = (hp)(0.90)
= density of water, (lbs)(sec)/ft2

V = volume of flash mix, ft3

(62.4) (H)
( )(T)

Hydraulic Jump

Where: H = head loss or drop, ft


= density of water, (lb)(sec)/ft2

T = time, sec

G2

Variable Speed

(G1 )

N1
N
2

3/2

Where: G2 = velocity gradient at N2 rpm, sec-1


G1 = max velocity gradient unit can achieve, sec-1
N1 = maximum rpm
N2 = new rpm

T1

Jar Test RPM


Correction

(G2 ) (T2 )
G1

Where: T1 = Time to equate velocity gradient correction, sec


G2 = calculated velocity gradient, sec-1
T2 =detention time for unit process, sec
G1 = maximum G for jar test machine, sec-1

Settling Velocity, cm/min

(SOR, gpd/ ft 2 )(3785 cm3 / gal)


(1440 min/day)(929 cm2 / ft 2 )

Jar Testing
Liquid Solution, gram

Concentration, mg/mL

Dose, L

Liquid Solution, grams required


Concentration, % , expressed as a decimal
(Concentration, lb/gal)(453,600 mg/lb)
3,785 mL/gal

(Dose, mg/L)(Jar Test Beaker Volume, L)


(Specific Gravity)(Concentration, %, expressed as a decimal)

Dosage, mg/L

Chemical Feed Rate, lb/day


(Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Water Treatment Formulas

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Sedimentation
Detention Time, hr

(Volume, gal) (24 hr/day)


Flow, gal/day

Surface Overflow Rate (SOR), gal/day/ft 2

Flow, gal/day
Surface Area, ft 2

Weir Overflow Rate (WOR), gal/day/lineal ft

Flow, gal/day
Weir Length, ft

Length of CIrcular Weir, ft (3.14) (Weir Diameter, ft)


Length of Rectangula r Weir, ft (2)(Weir Length, ft) ( 2)(Weir Width, ft)

Filtration
Hook Gauge
Volume, gal (Filter Bay Length, ft)(Filter Bay Width, ft)(Water Drop, ft)(7.48 gal/ ft3 )
Average Time, sec

Test1, sec Test 2, sec ... Test n, sec


Number of Tests (n)

Average Time, min

Average Time, sec


60 sec/min

Sand Area, ft 2 (Sand Bed Length, ft)(Sand Bed Width, ft)


Filtration Rate, gal/min

Volume, gal
Average Time, min

Filtration Rate, gal/min/ ft 2

Filtration Rate, gal/min


Sand Area, ft 2

Filter Production Rate


Filter Production Rate, gal/min (Filtration Rate, gal/min/ ft 2 )(Filter Area, ft 2 )
Filter Production Rate, gal/day (Filtration Production Rate, gal/min) (1,440 min/day)

Filter Backwash Rate


Backwash Water Volume, gal (Backwash Rate, gal/min/ ft 2 )(Backwash Time, min)(Filter Area, ft 2 )

Backwash Water, %

10

Backwash Water, gal


X 100%
Water Filtered, gal

Water Treatment Formulas

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Dry Feeders
Feeder Calibration
Average Sample Mass, grams

Sample 1 , grams Sample 2 , grams Sample n , grams


n (number of samples)

Average Feed Rate, grams/min

Average Feed Rate, lbs/day

Feeder Setting, grams/min

Total Sample Mass, grams


Sample Collection Time, min

(Average Feed Rate, grams/min) (1,440 min/day)


453.6 grams/lb

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, gal/day) (3.785 Liters/gal)


(1,440 min/day) (1,000 mg/gram)

Liquid Feeders
Feeder Calibration
Average Sample Volume, mL

Average Feed Rate, mL/min

Feed Rate, gal/day

Sample 1 , mL Sample 2 , mL Sample n , mL


n (number of samples)
Total Sample Volume, mL

Sample Collection Time, min

(Average Feed Rate, mL/min) (1,440 min/day)


3,785 mL/gal

Feeder Setting, mL/min

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, gal/day) (3.785 Liters/gal)

Feeder Setting, gal/day

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Feeder Setting, gal/day

Water Treatment Formulas

(Concentration, mg/mL) (1,440 min/day)

Concentration, lbs/gal
(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD)
(Concentration, %, expressed as a decimal) (Specific Gravity)

11

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Liquid Chemical Characteristics
Density, lbs/gal (Specific Gravity)(8.34 lbs/gal)
Specific Gravity

Density of Solution, lbs/gal


8.34 lbs/gal

Concentration, lbs/gal (Density, lbs/gal)(Concentration, %, expressed as a decimal)


Concentration, mg/mL

Concentration, %

(Concentration, lbs/gal)(453,600 mg/lb)


3,785 mL/gal

Concentration, lbs/gal
X 100%
Density, lbs/gal

Detention Time
Detention Time, sec

(Volume, gal) (24 hrs/day) ( 60 min/hr) (60 sec/min)


Flow, gal/day

Detention Time, min

(Volume, gal) (24 hrs/day) (60 min/hr)


Flow, gal/day

Detention Time, hr

(Volume, gal) (24 hr/day)

Detention Time, days

Flow, gal/day
Volume, gal
Flow, gal/day

Chlorination
Chlorine Demand, mg/L Chlorine Dose, mg/L - Chlorine Residual, mg/L
Total Chlorine Residual, mg/L Combined Residual, mg/L Free Residual, mg/L

Free Chlorine Residual, mg/L Total Residual, mg/L - Combined Residual, mg/L
Combined Chlorine Residual, mg/L Total Residual, mg/L - Free Residual, mg/L
Chlorine Feed Rate, lbs/day

Dosage, mg/L

12

(Dosage, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)


Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal

(Chlorine Feed Rate, lbs/day)(Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal)


(Flow, MGD)(8.34 lbs/gal)

Water Treatment Formulas

Water Treatment Math Formulas


General Bleach Formulas
Chlorine Dose, mg/L

(Bleach Fed, gal/day) (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal)

Hypochlorite Feed Rate, gal/day

Flow, MGD
(Chlorine Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD)

Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal

Bleach Dilutions
Desired Available Chlorine Concentrat ion Desired
Volume, gal

%, expressed as s decimal

Bleach Volume, gal


Bleach Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal
Available Chlorine, %

(Bleach, gal) (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal)


X 100%
Desired Volume, gal

HTH
(Desired Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (Desired Volume, gal) (8.34 lb/gal)
HTH, lbs

(solution mix)
HTH Available Chlorine, % expressed as a decimal

HTH Available Chlorine, %


(HTH Feed Rate, lb/day)

expressed as a decimal
Chlorine Dosage, mg/L
(Flow, MGD)(8.34 lbs/gal)
Available Chlorine, %

(HTH, lb) (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal)


X 100%
(Hypochlorite Solution, gal) (8.34 lb/gal)

Substitution of HTH or Chlorine for Bleach, etc


Chlorine, lb (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (Bleach Volume, gal) (8.34 lbs/gal)
Chlorine, lb (HTH, lb) (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal)
HTH, lb

Chlorine, lb
Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal

HTH, lb

(Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (Bleach, gal) (8.34 lb/gal)


HTH, Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal

Bleach, gal

Chlorine, lb
(Bleach Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (8.34 lb/gal)

Bleach, gal

(HTH Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (HTH, lb)


(Bleach Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (8.34 lb/gal)

Water Treatment Formulas

13

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Hardness, Carbonate and Noncarbonate


Laboratory Results
TH = Total Hardness
TA = Total Alkalinity

Noncarbonate
Hardness
(Lime & Soda Ash
used)

Carbonate

Lime Dosage

Hardness

Formula

(Lime only used)

To be Used

(1) TH less than TA

TH

(2) TH = TA

TH

TH TA

TA

II

(3) TH greater than TA

( ) means concentration of

Lime Dosage, mg/L (C0 2 ) (Total Hardness) (Mg) (Excess)

II

Lime Dosage, mg/L (C0 2 ) (HCO 3 ) (Mg) (Excess)


Soda Ash Dosage, mg/L (Total Hardness) - (HCO 3 ) (Excess)
Total Hardness (Calcium Hardness) (Magnesium Hardness)
Chemical Required, lbs/day

14

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)


(% Commercial Purity, expressed as a decimal)

Water Treatment Formulas

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Softening
Alkalinity Constituents
Alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3
Titration Results

Bicarbonate

Carbonate

Hydroxide

P=0

P is less than T

T (2)(P)

(2)(P)

P=T

(2)(P)

P is greater than T

(2)(T) (2)(P)

(2)(P) T

P=T

Where

P = phenolphthalein alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3


T = total alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3

Alkalinity
Phenolphth alein Alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3

Total Alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO 3

Where:

Water Treatment Formulas

(A)(N)(50,000)
Sample Volume, mL

(B) (N) (50,000)


Sample Volume, mL

mL of titrant used to reach pH 8.3

total mL of titrant used

acid normality

15

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Fluoridation

Chemical

Formula

Sodium Fluoride

NaF

98%

0.980

45.2%

0.452

Sodium
Fluorosilicate

Na2SiF6

98.5%

0.985

60.7%

0.607

Fluorosilicic Acid

H2SiF6

23%

0.230

79.2%

0.792

Feed Rate, lbs/day

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)


(AFI, expressed as decimal) (Purity, expressed as a decimal)

Feed Rate, lbs/min

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, gal/min) (8.34 lbs/gal)


(1,000,000) (AFI, expressed as decimal) (Purity, expressed as a decimal)

Feed Rate, grams/min

(Feed Rate, lbs/day) (453.6 grams/lb)


(1440 min/day)

Saturator Feed Rate, gal/min

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, gal/min)


(18,000 mg/L)

Calculated Dosage, mg/L

(Fluoride, lbs) (AFI, expressed as decimal) (Purity, expressed as decimal)

Calculated Dosage, mg/L

(Solution Fed, gal/day) (18,000 mg/L)

(Saturator)

16

Purity
Percent
Decimal

Available Fluoride Ion


(AFI)
Percent
Decimal

(Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

(Flow, gal/dayl)

Water Treatment Formulas

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Corrosion Control
Langelier Index (LI) pH - pHs
pH of Saturation (pHS ) A B - log Calcium Hardness - log Total Alkalinity
Aggressive Index (AI) pH log Calcium Hardness log Total Alkalinity
Values of A for various
Temperatures, C

Values of log of Ca or Alkalinity


as CaCO3 in mg/L

Temperature, C

mg/L

log10

2.34

10

1.00

2.27

20

1.30

10

2.2

30

1.48

15

2.12

40

1.60

20

2.04

50

1.70

25

1.98

60

1.78

30

1.91

70

1.84

40

1.76

80

1.90

50

1.62

90

1.95

60

1.47

100

2.00

200

2.30

300

2.48

Values for B for various levels of

TDS, mg/L

400

2.60

9.63

500

2.70

50

9.72

600

2.78

100

9.75

700

2.84

200

9.8

800

2.90

400

9.86

900

2.95

800

9.94

1,000

3.00

1,600

10.04

Corrosivity Characteristics as Addressed by Indices


Corrosive Characteristics Langelier Index (LI) Aggressive Index (AI)
Highly Aggressive

< - 2.0

< 10.0

Moderately Aggressive

- 2.0 to < 0.0

10.0 to < 12.0

Non-aggressive

> 0.0

> 12.0

Water Treatment Formulas

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