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Mathematical

Formulas

6th Edition

Murfreesboro, TN

Updated January 13, 2011

Index

Area ..............................................................................3

Carbonate and Noncarbonate Hardness ....................14

Chemical Feeders ................................................11, 12

Chlorination ..........................................................12, 13

Coagulation/Flocculation ..............................................8

Conversion Factors ......................................................1

Corrosion Control .......................................................17

Density .......................................................................12

Detention Time ...........................................................12

Dosage .........................................................................5

Filtration ......................................................................10

Flow ..............................................................................3

Flow Conversion Chart .................................................4

Fluoridation .................................................................16

Jar Testing ....................................................................9

Lime Dosage ................................................................9

Metric Conversions .......................................................2

Mixing Energy ...............................................................9

Pounds .........................................................................5

Pounds/gal to mg/mL Conversions ...............................2

Power ...........................................................................6

Preliminary Treatment ..................................................8

Pumps ......................................................................6, 7

Sedimentation.............................................................10

Softening ....................................................................15

Solution Preparation .....................................................7

Specific Gravity...........................................................12

Substitution of Bleach for HTH, etc.............................13

Temperature .................................................................1

Volume .........................................................................3

Well Formulas...............................................................5

Conversion Factors

Length

1 yard (yd) ....................................................... 3 feet (ft)

1 mile (mi) ................................................. 5,280 feet (ft)

Area

1 acre (ac) ................................. 43,560 square feet (ft2)

1 square foot (ft2) ....................... 144 square inches (in2)

Volume

1 ft3 ..................................................... 7.48 gallons (gal)

1 gallon ........................................ 231 cubic inches (in3)

1 gallon .................................................. 3.785 Liters (L)

1 liter ...............................................1,000 milliliters (mL)

1 acre/foot (ac-ft) ..........................43,560 cubic feet (ft3)

1 acre-foot (ac-ft) ....................... 325,828.8 gallons (gal)

Weight and Mass

1 gallon of water ................................. 8.34 pounds (lbs)

1 cubic foot of water (ft3) .................................... 62.4 lbs

1 pound (lb) ......................................... 453.6 grams (g)

1 kilogram (kg) ...................................... 1,000 grams (g)

1 gram ......................................... 1,000 milligrams (mg)

1% ............................. 10,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L)

1 mg/L ..................................... 0.0584 grains per gallon

1 grain per gallon ........................................ 17.118 mg/L

Pressure and Head

1 foot of head.............. 0.433 pounds per square in (psi)

1 pound per square inch (psi) .............. 2.31 feet of head

Temperature Conversions

C ............................................................ 0.556 (F-32)

F ............................................................... 1.8(C) + 32

Power

1 Horsepower ................................................. 746 watts

1 Horsepower ......................................... 0.746 kilowatts

Water Treatment Formulas

To use this diagram: First, find the box that coincides with the beginning units (i.e. mg/mL).

Then, find the box that coincides with the desired ending units (i.e. lbs/gal). The numbers

between the starting point and ending point are the conversion factors. When moving from a

smaller box to a larger box, multiply by the factor between them. When moving from a larger

box to a smaller box, divide by the factor between them. For final number, divide top number by

bottom number.

Metric Conversions

Area

Rectangle:

Circle:

Volume

Rectangle, ft3:

Cylinder, ft3:

Wedge:

Volume, ft 3

Volume, gallons

Diameter , ft

0.608 (Length, ft)

Height, ft

2

3

3

Flow

Q AV

OR

Q (Area) (Velocity)

Q (Pipeline), ft 3 / sec (0.785) (Diameter, ft) (Velocity, ft/sec)

2

Velocity, ft/sec

Velocity, ft/sec

Flow, ft 3 /sec

(0.785) (Diameter, ft)2

Distance, ft

Time, sec

Number of Daily Flows

Number of Monthly Average Daily Flows

Total Number of People Served

Flow Conversions

cfs

gps

cfm

gpm

cfd

gpd

To use this diagram: First, find the box that coincides with the beginning units (i.e. gpm). Then,

find the box that coincides with the desired ending units (i.e. cfs). The numbers between the

starting point and ending point are the conversion factors. When moving from a smaller box to a

larger box, multiply by the factor between them. When moving from a larger box to a smaller

box, divide by the factor between them.

Dosage

Dosage, mg/L

Dosage, mg/L

Dosage, mg/L

(Flow, gal/min) (3.785 L/gal)

Pounds

Chemical Fed, lbs (Dose, mg/L) (Volume, MG) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Chemical Fed, lbs

Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal

Feed Rate, lbs/day

Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal

(Time Pumped, min) (1,000 mg/g) (453.6 g/lb)

Well Formulas

Well Yield, gal/min

Volume, gal

Time, min

Drawdown, ft

Power

Power, watts (Volts) (Amps)

Amps, single - phase

Horsepower

(Volts) (Efficiency, %, as decimal) (Power Factor)

(1.732)(Volts) (Efficiency, %, as decimal) (Power Factor)

(Volts )(Amps)

(746 watts/HP)

Power Factor

1,000 watts/kil owatt

1,000 watts/kil owatt

Watts

(Volts)(Amps)

Pumps

Volume, gal

Time, min

Time, min

Time, min

Flow Rate, gal/min

Water HP

3960

Brake HP

(3960) (Pump Efficiency, %, expressed as a decimal)

Motor HP

(3960) (Pump Eff., %, expressed as decimal) (Motor Eff., %, expressed as decimal)

Brake HP

(Water Horsepower )

Pump Efficiency, %, expressed as a decimal

Motor HP

(Brake Horsepower)

Motor Efficiency, %, expressed as a decimal

Motor Efficiency, %

Brake Horsepower

X 100%

Motor Horsepower

Pump Efficiency, %

Water Horsepower

X 100%

Brake Horsepower

Efficiency, %

Horsepower Output

X 100%

Horsepower Supplied

Overall Efficiency, %

Water Horsepower

X 100%

Motor Horsepower

Wire - to - Water Efficiency, % (Pump Eff., %, as decimal) (Motor Eff., %, as decimal) (100%)

Static Head, ft Suction Lift, ft Discharge Head, ft

Static Head, ft Discharge Head, ft - Suction Head, ft

Friction Loss, ft (0.1) (Static Head, ft) **use this formula in absence of other data

Total Dynamic Head, ft Static Head, ft Friction Losses, ft

Cost, $/hr (Motor Horsepower) (0.746 kW/HP)(Cos t, $/kW - hr)

Solution Preparation

Percent Strength, % (by weight)

Concentrat ion, %

X 100%

(Weight of Water, lbs Weight of Chemical, lbs)

X 100%

Density, lbs/gal

(Normality1 ) (Volume1 ) (Normality 2 ) (Volume 2 )

Chemical, lbs

(100% - Desired Concentrat ion, %)

Preliminary Treatment

Total Alkalinity<50 mg/L as CaCO3 : Copper Sulfate, lbs (0.9 lbs/acre - ft)(Volume , acre - ft)

Total Alkalinity>50 mg/L as CaCO3 : Copper Sulfate, lbs (Surface Area, acre)(5.4 lbs/acre)

Copper Sulfate, lbs (as Copper)

Area, acres

(Copper, %, expressed as a decimal)

2

43,560 ft 2 / acre

Pond Volume, acre - ft

43,560 ft 2 / acre

2

Coagulation/Flocculation

Design Criteria

Detention Time, sec

Flow, gal/day

Flow, gal/day

Lime Dosage

Lime Dosage, mg/L (Alum Dosage, mg/L) (0.37)

Lime Feed Rate, grams/min

(1,440 min/day) (1,000 mg/gram)

Commercial Purity, % , expressed as a decimal

Mixing Energy

(550) (P)

( )(V)

Mechanical Mixers

Where: P = (hp)(0.90)

= density of water, (lbs)(sec)/ft2

(62.4) (H)

( )(T)

Hydraulic Jump

= density of water, (lb)(sec)/ft2

T = time, sec

G2

Variable Speed

(G1 )

N1

N

2

3/2

G1 = max velocity gradient unit can achieve, sec-1

N1 = maximum rpm

N2 = new rpm

T1

Correction

(G2 ) (T2 )

G1

G2 = calculated velocity gradient, sec-1

T2 =detention time for unit process, sec

G1 = maximum G for jar test machine, sec-1

(1440 min/day)(929 cm2 / ft 2 )

Jar Testing

Liquid Solution, gram

Concentration, mg/mL

Dose, L

Concentration, % , expressed as a decimal

(Concentration, lb/gal)(453,600 mg/lb)

3,785 mL/gal

(Specific Gravity)(Concentration, %, expressed as a decimal)

Dosage, mg/L

(Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Sedimentation

Detention Time, hr

Flow, gal/day

Flow, gal/day

Surface Area, ft 2

Flow, gal/day

Weir Length, ft

Length of Rectangula r Weir, ft (2)(Weir Length, ft) ( 2)(Weir Width, ft)

Filtration

Hook Gauge

Volume, gal (Filter Bay Length, ft)(Filter Bay Width, ft)(Water Drop, ft)(7.48 gal/ ft3 )

Average Time, sec

Number of Tests (n)

60 sec/min

Filtration Rate, gal/min

Volume, gal

Average Time, min

Sand Area, ft 2

Filter Production Rate, gal/min (Filtration Rate, gal/min/ ft 2 )(Filter Area, ft 2 )

Filter Production Rate, gal/day (Filtration Production Rate, gal/min) (1,440 min/day)

Backwash Water Volume, gal (Backwash Rate, gal/min/ ft 2 )(Backwash Time, min)(Filter Area, ft 2 )

Backwash Water, %

10

X 100%

Water Filtered, gal

Dry Feeders

Feeder Calibration

Average Sample Mass, grams

n (number of samples)

Sample Collection Time, min

453.6 grams/lb

(1,440 min/day) (1,000 mg/gram)

Liquid Feeders

Feeder Calibration

Average Sample Volume, mL

n (number of samples)

Total Sample Volume, mL

3,785 mL/gal

Concentration, lbs/gal

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD)

(Concentration, %, expressed as a decimal) (Specific Gravity)

11

Liquid Chemical Characteristics

Density, lbs/gal (Specific Gravity)(8.34 lbs/gal)

Specific Gravity

8.34 lbs/gal

Concentration, mg/mL

Concentration, %

3,785 mL/gal

Concentration, lbs/gal

X 100%

Density, lbs/gal

Detention Time

Detention Time, sec

Flow, gal/day

Flow, gal/day

Detention Time, hr

Flow, gal/day

Volume, gal

Flow, gal/day

Chlorination

Chlorine Demand, mg/L Chlorine Dose, mg/L - Chlorine Residual, mg/L

Total Chlorine Residual, mg/L Combined Residual, mg/L Free Residual, mg/L

Free Chlorine Residual, mg/L Total Residual, mg/L - Combined Residual, mg/L

Combined Chlorine Residual, mg/L Total Residual, mg/L - Free Residual, mg/L

Chlorine Feed Rate, lbs/day

Dosage, mg/L

12

Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal

(Flow, MGD)(8.34 lbs/gal)

General Bleach Formulas

Chlorine Dose, mg/L

Flow, MGD

(Chlorine Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD)

Bleach Dilutions

Desired Available Chlorine Concentrat ion Desired

Volume, gal

%, expressed as s decimal

Bleach Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal

Available Chlorine, %

X 100%

Desired Volume, gal

HTH

(Desired Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (Desired Volume, gal) (8.34 lb/gal)

HTH, lbs

(solution mix)

HTH Available Chlorine, % expressed as a decimal

(HTH Feed Rate, lb/day)

expressed as a decimal

Chlorine Dosage, mg/L

(Flow, MGD)(8.34 lbs/gal)

Available Chlorine, %

X 100%

(Hypochlorite Solution, gal) (8.34 lb/gal)

Chlorine, lb (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (Bleach Volume, gal) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Chlorine, lb (HTH, lb) (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal)

HTH, lb

Chlorine, lb

Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal

HTH, lb

HTH, Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal

Bleach, gal

Chlorine, lb

(Bleach Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (8.34 lb/gal)

Bleach, gal

(Bleach Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (8.34 lb/gal)

13

Laboratory Results

TH = Total Hardness

TA = Total Alkalinity

Noncarbonate

Hardness

(Lime & Soda Ash

used)

Carbonate

Lime Dosage

Hardness

Formula

To be Used

TH

(2) TH = TA

TH

TH TA

TA

II

( ) means concentration of

II

Soda Ash Dosage, mg/L (Total Hardness) - (HCO 3 ) (Excess)

Total Hardness (Calcium Hardness) (Magnesium Hardness)

Chemical Required, lbs/day

14

(% Commercial Purity, expressed as a decimal)

Softening

Alkalinity Constituents

Alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3

Titration Results

Bicarbonate

Carbonate

Hydroxide

P=0

P is less than T

T (2)(P)

(2)(P)

P=T

(2)(P)

P is greater than T

(2)(T) (2)(P)

(2)(P) T

P=T

Where

T = total alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3

Alkalinity

Phenolphth alein Alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3

Where:

(A)(N)(50,000)

Sample Volume, mL

Sample Volume, mL

acid normality

15

Fluoridation

Chemical

Formula

Sodium Fluoride

NaF

98%

0.980

45.2%

0.452

Sodium

Fluorosilicate

Na2SiF6

98.5%

0.985

60.7%

0.607

Fluorosilicic Acid

H2SiF6

23%

0.230

79.2%

0.792

(AFI, expressed as decimal) (Purity, expressed as a decimal)

(1,000,000) (AFI, expressed as decimal) (Purity, expressed as a decimal)

(1440 min/day)

(18,000 mg/L)

(Saturator)

16

Purity

Percent

Decimal

(AFI)

Percent

Decimal

(Flow, gal/dayl)

Corrosion Control

Langelier Index (LI) pH - pHs

pH of Saturation (pHS ) A B - log Calcium Hardness - log Total Alkalinity

Aggressive Index (AI) pH log Calcium Hardness log Total Alkalinity

Values of A for various

Temperatures, C

as CaCO3 in mg/L

Temperature, C

mg/L

log10

2.34

10

1.00

2.27

20

1.30

10

2.2

30

1.48

15

2.12

40

1.60

20

2.04

50

1.70

25

1.98

60

1.78

30

1.91

70

1.84

40

1.76

80

1.90

50

1.62

90

1.95

60

1.47

100

2.00

200

2.30

300

2.48

TDS, mg/L

400

2.60

9.63

500

2.70

50

9.72

600

2.78

100

9.75

700

2.84

200

9.8

800

2.90

400

9.86

900

2.95

800

9.94

1,000

3.00

1,600

10.04

Corrosive Characteristics Langelier Index (LI) Aggressive Index (AI)

Highly Aggressive

< - 2.0

< 10.0

Moderately Aggressive

Non-aggressive

> 0.0

> 12.0

17

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