Anglia Ruskin University
MBA Top up / Advanced entry
Marketing Design and Innovation
December 2012


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Anglia Ruskin University Marketing Design and Innovation 2012 IPhone – Study into Its Evolution to Suit Changing Market Needs | Marketing Design and Innovation 1 .

2 Assignment Objectives 3 3 3 3 Literature 2.Communicating Your Brand Effectively 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 Conclusion 12 Appendix Appendix 1 .10 Competition in Contemporary Market See Appendix 8 .1 Management Theory Review 2. Shape.2 Customer Perception See Appendix 4 – Distinction between Needs and Wants 3.Marketing Success and… 4 4 4 4 Analysis 3.Apple v.0 Introduction to Task 1 1.6 Intellectual Property and Patents See Appendix 7 . Samsung Patent-infringement Appendix 7 .8 Brand Excitement in Relation to Other Brands 3.Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Appendix 2 .1 Assignment Problem 1.1.Contents Page Introduction 1.Design Process Appendix 6 .7 IPhones Brand Appeal 3.Apple v.9 Brand Value 3.iPhone translated by a product onion… See Appendix 3 .2 Ways to Cope With Change See Appendix 1 .1. Color and Imagination See Appendix 5 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen 3.1 Introduction to Product – The iPhone 1.0 Continuous Change as a Norm 2.3 Product and Service Value 3.Design Process 3.5 Product Design See Appendix 6 .4 Design. Samsung Patent-infringement 3.Service Quality 3.iPhone translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler Appendix 3 .Communicating Your Brand Effectively 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 Bibliography 16 Reflective Essay Introduction to Task 2 17 | Marketing Design and Innovation 2 .Service Quality Appendix 3 – Distinction between Needs and Wants Appendix 4 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen Appendix 5 .0 Product Description – IPhone See Appendix 2 .

There are now six generations of iPhones”.1 Assignment Problem The research problem selected is to investigate how the iPhone has evolved in order to meet the changing market needs. in relation to its image. technology and capabilities due to the change of market needs. do these changes have an effect on their customers and performance and how they have coped against their competitors.1 Introduction to Product – The iPhone The iPhone has seen change over the few years.2 Assignment Objectives All questions incorporated together construct the following objectives. Millions of customers have switched from Apple’s competitors. Samsung and RIM to their product (including me). what changes have been made in terms of design.Introduction 1. 1. the most recent iPhone was released on 2012. which will be the focal assignment objectives:  By the use of literature explore whether the change is needed to cope with change in meet markets needs  What are the benefits resulted from the changes perceived by customers  What were the changes made to make the product so unique  How did brand appeal play its role in relation to their competitors | Marketing Design and Innovation 3 . This entices me to investigate how/why the iPhone has altered in such a way that has met all these new customer’s needs. “The iPhone is a line of smartphones designed/marketed by Apple. 1. For this reason the iPhone product has been chosen to be analysed within this assignment. First iPhone was released 2007.0 Introduction to Task 1 Written critique of the way in which characteristics of the chosen innovative product or service has altered over time in order to suit the changing needs of the market (taking account of the points made on module information). 1.1.1. The research questions consist of.

Kotler describes customers with wants and needs. If you're too focused on your current business. social and mental variables. their wants are many. “Wants are desires for specific satisfiers of needs.html> [accessed November 2012] 2. Although people’s needs are few. applies to all successful companies. families and business corporations”. It is why products need to evolve within such variables to suit customers constantly changing wants and needs. schools. and aggressive research and development techniques”. respond with differentiation. Bill Gates quoted.0 Continuous Change as a Norm Continuous change as a norm says “companies are like any living organism. and those attributes are constantly changing due to factors such as economic.2 Ways to Cope With Change Thompson & Gamble (2010) in ‘The Top Ten Things You Need to Know about Ways to Cope with Rapid Change’ says “The market is a fast paced place full of change and competition. such as.1 Management Theory Review Kotler (2009) says “a market consists of all the potential customers sharing a particular need or want who might be willing and able to engage in exchange to satisfy that need or want. There are many different ways an organization can go about dealing with the change. As time passes more technology is updated and new resources utilized and etc. must become learning organizations that change and adapt to suit their changing business environment”. Marketing concept holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists of being more effective than competitors in integrating marketing activities toward determining and satisfying the needs and wants of target markets”.Available from: <http://it4b. a similar theory to the statement made by Gates. They are continually shaped and reshaped by social forces and institutions. thus from a marketing and business point of view it only makes sense to innovate as Gates says. innovation. 2. including churches. it's hard to look ahead" [Online]. The statement that change is a norm.icsti. it is why Apple have been very innovative in their variety of products including the iPhone which in turn tells us that yes change is needed in order to cope with market’s | Marketing Design and Innovation 4 . “The ability to understand changes and cope with the process can make an organization stand out with its consumers as well as its competitors.Literature 2. the future will not look after you. Having the ability to cope with and handle the change can either help or hinder the organizations ability to maintain market share”. “if you don't practice the change management that looks after the future. and it is those who innovate very well that get the high level of recognition by clients and customers which leads to increased sales revenue as seen with the iPhone product from 2007 to present.

it declines out and replaced by something new. | Marketing Design and Innovation 5 . grows and matures and then when the market is tired of the product. as they mention that the market is full of change and competition.Appendix 1 . and the level of change all depends on how complex the markets needs and wants are as described by Mason (2003). Thus in order to maintain market share.Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Changing a product is all part of its life cycle. changing to market needs should not be just a necessity but a key to survival. It bought into the market. Thompson & Gamble (2010) also agree with such a life cycle.

Original iPhone iPhone 3G iPhone 3GS iPhone 4 iPhone 4S iPhone 5 GSM phone. and a natural language voice control system called Siri New A6 processor. holds a 4-inch Retina display that is larger than its predecessor's 3. and established design precedents.Available from: <http://en. service. customers or recipients> [accessed November 2012] IPhone is an integrated mobile phone and media player developed and marketed by Apple made purposely as a consumer good (classed as specialty goods.iPhone translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler | Marketing Design and Innovation 6 . Appendix 2 . and ideas’ as stated by Philip Kotler.wikipedia. which as expensive and infrequently purchased) and not an industrial good. a higher-resolution rear-facing camera and a lower-resolution front-facing camera for video calling Added an 8-megapixel camera with 1080p video recording. such as screen size and button placement 3G cellular network capabilities and GPS location Faster processor and a higher-resolution camera that could record video at 480p Higher-resolution 960 × 640 retina display.0 Product Description – IPhone A product is “A thing that can be offered to satisfy a need or want”. It can consist of three components: physical goods. Whereas a service is an act (intangible usually) that one party offers. a dualcore processor.Analysis IPhone’s benefits & value derived by the clients.5-inch display [Online]. combining functions of several electronic gadgets in a single device all with a shared interface and integration between them.

In the 1990’s the size of phones was on average big and bulky. benefits include:  Latest technology  Improved and faster processor  Improved image This builds customer value to the company and creates advantage over other competitors. such as the technical support. way of living and social> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 3 . but that phone can be of any sort including the house phone. [Online]. slim and fast rather than a dial up house phone.3 Product and Service Value IPhone has successfully delivered total customer value. some employers even have benefits such as a new work mobile being the iPhone to attract them to the job. it would be only logical that the services that come with the product evolve in the same rate and manner. both personal and business have in common is that as time changes so does the norm of having the latest product in the market.Make Calls Gaming MP3 Player Video Recording Camera functionality PDA Internet… IPhone IPhone Warranty Customer service helpline Free delivery Sales Service…. As this product has changed over time. The perception that customers. making their product extremely desirable over the years. as they rather use an iPhone. In modern day society the want and need is very difficult to distinguish. The | Marketing Design and Innovation 7 .learnmarketing. Over the year’s apple have always been innovative and successful in providing something new for the customers to benefit from. these are some of the values and benefits of constant innovation of a product. thus customers are more likely to give their money to Apple in exchange for their product.Service Quality 3. Appendix 4 – Distinction between Needs and Wants 3. with Nokia dominating the phone market. as some may say they need a phone. the need has also become a want from customer’s perception. As phones have got a lot slimmer and more pleasing to look at. The product that seems to be most popular’ is seen to be something that is wanted by most people. perception from others to the capabilities it has due to the change in economy. They have dominated in product /personnel/service and image value.Available from: <http://www. which is a true statement but they may also say they need a iPhone due to the functionality such as emails and PDA functions.2 Customer Perception One needs a mobile phone to communicate for work or personal reasons.

org/wiki/IPhone> [accessed November 2012] Change in shape is due to the constant change in what customers perceive to be Product Design “Apple design process is actually an ordinary product development process. [Online].com/iphone/design> [accessed November 2012] The iPhone has changed shape eloquently over the years. Less time spent in sketching but more on building prototypes and mock-ups”. Color and Imagination “IPhone 5 is just 7.value for this phone has increased so much that annual sales for the iPhone show customers are willing to pay more in order to be reassured that their product is safe. which allows the phone to resist shattering’. IPhone’s Uniqueness of Its Design Elements 3. Shape. either white or black which customers are happy with. which is 44 percent smaller than a micro-SIM”.wikipedia. thus looking at it you can’t resist but perceive the superb chamfer round the display.6 millimeters thin. color and usefulness of the phone must all be considered and effective. “Apple redesigned the antenna in the iPhone 4S after some original iPhone 4 users reported signal problems”. so the shape.Available from: <http://www. [Online]. ensuring their implementation is more stylish then their competitors in respects of design and technology. They created a nano-SIM card. Never has the telecommunication market seen this level of expert quality been harnessed into phone. 3. Appendix 5 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen The imagination put into designing the iPhone enabled it to be the best sellers in the country.4 Design. more demands were made such as the phone being thin. It is often dependent on the customer perception of its worth rather than its intrinsic value. | Marketing Design and Innovation 8 . light weight but now do not mind it being slightly bigger as internet surfing is more easier. People first wanted a phone that is touch screen but as time went on. thought and consideration has gone into their product which goes well beyond design. the only difference was they made their processes with intense and almost perfect prototypes. with a glossy plastic back with tapered edges and metal buttons”. IPhone 5. redesigned to use an aluminum frame. IPhone 5 is 20 percent lighter than iPhone 4S. It has maintained the same original colour scheme throughout.Available from: <http://en.5 inches glass multi-touch touchscreen display to the 3GS which retained the design of the 3G. The shape of the phone has gone from the bulkier/curved phone “centered on a ‘3. backed up and etc. Apple engineers had to think small. as internet on the phone is extremely popular. IPhone has had to take these demands and ensure they change their shape according to the needs of their customer.

The texture.html> [accessed November 2012] A design process which us usually used by most companies. is shown in Appendix 6 with more information on design process. such as its brand and the name. whilst the most innovative idea from Nokia has been that wireless charging is the way of the future.Apple v. [Online]. This has led to their phones being relevant and useful for the customer. fitting and appearance are vital in the experience of the consumer. also used to describe a “product or service made distinctive by its positioning relative to the competition and by its personality in the context of the target market” (Hankinson & Cowling).html#!/2009/06/apple-design-process. [Online]. iPad and so on due to the name it represents.6 Intellectual Property and Patents Along with the sheer brilliant design of the iPhone. but apples mac laptop.Apple has found that initial prototypes help designers envision their invention from the start.Available from: <http://bgr. Appendix 7 .com/2012/09/20/iphone-patent-shake-to-chargebattery-apple/> [accessed November 2012] Apples iPhone is a registered trademark as well as registering their designs as someone would process. iPod. thus the customer is always happy to either upgrade to either the next new version of the iPhone (rarely do iPhone users switch to another manufacturer) as they are pleased with the outcomes of the design of the phones. As customers now like to own not just the iPhone. it ensure their competitors do not replicate any similar ideas into their products created by the apple’s design team. which some customers believe says quality and craftsmanship.Available from: <http://appleindustrialdesign. franchise it and etc. There is a long document in place which patents Apples utility and design features for the iPhone.7 IPhones Brand Appeal Brand could be viewed as a personality that differentiates a the intellectual properties that come with it are also that factors that drive the market customers to buy it. Apple have also been recognised as one of the best global brands in 2012 (daily telegraph. which are all protected. 3. 2012). in terms of all the features the phone has. Trademarks:  Discourage others from using a trade mark without permission  Easier to legal action against people using trademark without permission  Allows the owner to sell it. Its brand appeal in relation to competitors in contemporary markets 3. | Marketing Design and Innovation 9 . Samsung Patent-infringement The latest patent being a concept for shaking an iPhone to charge it’ this evolution is one that the apple team believe is moving towards to the future and adapting to the new technological market.

Despite the fact that Apple has ground breaking unrivaled product. The physical brand Appeal due to engineering marvels are what makes the brand solid. it helps position products in the market and importantly it creates a character for the iPhone and this character has been highly valued by customers which in turn creates loyalty.10 Competition in Contemporary Market Over the past 5-10 years the level of competition for iPhone has varied from going to high level of competition when Apples | Marketing Design and Innovation 10 . Samsung and HTC in keeping their customers hyped and on the edge. When customers purchase the iPhone they get filled with excitement which is why they keep coming back. Not excepting second best is what makes your customers believe they are purchasing hours and hours of perfection”.9 Brand Value IPhone’s brand values are the main driver to victory and are what builds the brand appeal a factor on drawing the majority towards them. 3.The iPhones falls under the term manufacturer brand. When you raise the bar.8 Brand Excitement in Relation to Other Brands Most effective factor with branding is the loyalty it promotes within customers.tumblr. such as with Samsung and Blackberry and it helps with positioning and targeting the iPhone product in the telecommunication market. the brand raises with it. the only way is to give customers a brand appeal like no other. loyalty). Businesses should not infer on what the customer is nor do customers want to be told who they are. “Brands that give you physical bliss like Apple with their iPhone. they also have brand appeal. “Apple has delivered the goods on countless occasions with regards to its product ranges. Other competitors have not been able to build this character with their products as iPhone has done so. which is just made by excitement and that outlook of what’s next. Other benefits are that it defends against competition. as the level of customer loyalty reflects the high number of customers sticking with the iPhone brand. it’s fair to say that at times. [Online]. the Apple brand / logo have carried a sizeable chunk of total sales”. 3. Apple have been successful then their> [accessed November 2012] 3. and attractive to people. customers get cognitively attached to them (manufacturer benefit.Available from: <http://beyrouti. Nokia. The benefits the iPhone has with branding is that customers find it easier to identify their products. iPad and Mac Books are so pleasing.

triumph might not come as simply as it has in years earlier and the aggressive competition might have somewhat to do with that. [Online]. and the iPhone has been able to cater for those needs more well then its competitors. | Marketing Design and Innovation 11 . The change has come due to the change in market needs.Available from: <http://www. Reason is because the iPhone is the iPhone and IPhone’s brand value here represents the additional money that an organisation could earn from its products purely due to its brand name. Android is> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 8 . but also doing so at the right time. maturity and decline of each iPhone. growth. It is identified that customers are willing to pay more for a brand than a product.product has not been the market leader to less competition as Apple as gown to dominate the market. However. During the introduction. 4G LTE is here and Windows Phone looks enormously assuring.Communicating Your Brand Effectively Apple has been good at not only promoting their product to their target markets. IPhone is the most sold handset in the UK in 2011. loyal customers will remain and as sales is going up. so does this mean that the customers will switch from Apple product? Yes and no.

Conclusion Business to survive within in its target market. it needs to practice innovation and change within its marketing and management system. So the conclusion is yes. The phone has changed its image and capabilities according to how the market. ensuring they also provide the most up to date functionality. If iPhone do not their competitors such as Samsung. where they all state that without change and innovation there is no future for a company. such as retina display within their phones. Other competitors have not been able to build this character with their products as well as. Nokia and Blackberry will drive them out. success might not come as easily as it has in years previous and the fierce competition might have something to do with that. as they feel they are buying the finest product that is available in this ever changing market. IPhone’s branding helps customers find it easier to identify their products. When customers purchase the iPhone they get filled with excitement which is why they keep coming back to the brand over and over again. Currently the iPhone 5 is the thinnest phone in the market. thinner and lighter than any other phone. Kotler (2009) and Thompson & Gamble (2010). And functionality wise it provides customers with immense power and capability with a touch of a button.g. economy and social life style have developed. The iPhone has changed its shape and design over the years a great deal. change is most certainly required to cope with changes within the market. The iPhone has been strong in being most up to date with their technology use and the look of their product e. | Marketing Design and Innovation 12 . technology. However. This encourages loyalty within new and existing customers. it creates a character for the iPhone and this character has been highly valued by customers which in turn creates loyalty. as agreed with theorists such as Gates. offering products and services (newer and better phones) that are more elite then theirs or due to the fact that customers are less willing to buy due to their product being too outdated. The changes made to the iPhone during each model were very unique in terms of image and functionality. which customers want in their phones.

net> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 3 . The service quality for the iPhone has been rated highly. [Online].g. and warranty provided by apple that makes the actual product more appealing to buy.Available from: <Biblioteca. The actual product. level 3. case study> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 2 . their technical team is rated one of the best in the mobile phone sector. video recording. His conclusion was that. Data was collected via depth interviews and document analysis from four companies”. internet. are what apple would like their product to offer buyers.iPhone translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler The iPhone can be translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler.learnmarketing. The augmented product. “successful companies in simple and stable environments use stabilising marketing tactics. these are all the functionality such as making calls. which is one of the factors that must also change over time with the product evolution according to the changing market needs. is the additional non tangible benefits that a product can offer. level 2.Appendix Appendix 1 . warranty and etc. “using a qualitative. This is all part of service quality.Available from: <http://www. such as help lines. is about interpreting the list of core product benefits into a product that people will buy which is the iPhone itself.universia. The core productslevel 1.Service Quality IPhone classified as tangible goods with accompanying services e. The support | Marketing Design and Innovation 13 .Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Mason (2003) from Rhodes University. Make Calls Gaming MP3 Player Video Recording Camera functionality PDA Internet… IPhone IPhone Warranty Customer service helpline Free delivery Sales Service…. taking pictures. regardless of industry habits. investigated relationships between marketing success and the level of external environmental complexity and turbulence. His study was exploratory. gaming and listening to music. [Online]. management preferences or market sector”. while more successful companies in complex and turbulent environments use destabilising tactics.

Once the concept is finalised. the design team think of ways of fulfilling the requirement in the study. reporting directly to the CEO Steve Jobs.Apples Design Process Summary Study . different ways in which basic needs are satisfied. Investigation .At this stage. for fear they'd catch a glimpse of some upcoming product. clothing and has evolved from knowing something really simple about this iPhone.A product concept is an approximate product description of the technology. Appendix 6 . Concept . needs are basic living essentials. apple develop a 3 dimensional model of this concept. promoting positive customer perception in both benefits and value. Appendix 5 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen In regards to shape of the iPhone product an Apple spokesman said: “All the images are genuine. market gaps and competitor offerings. Needs are common for all human beings and mainly include food. Thanks to cutting-edge technology smashing the laws of physics. as most other phones on the market has same or similar functionality such as mp3 player. While wants are defined as. wants will be unlimited. Whilst needs will be numbered.Mobile phone that is slimmer and best looking than any other on the market.By looking at market. small things. the engineering staff will create the necessary electrical. mechanical and software components and produce an approximation of the final product Apple have design Guru. The Rough and Prototype . such as the iPhone can be triggered by marketers and can be influenced by different social institutions and key figures. even the one where it looks like a busload of Scouts. These transformations will happen completely at random and without warning. Research . Kotler (2009) defines needs as “a state of deprivation of some basic satisfaction”. working principles and the form of the product. Many Apple employees aren't allowed in. communicate and analyse together in a large open studio with little personal space but great privacy in order to deign functions that customers want and need in a phone. so that no one can copy the design”. “40 year old Jony Ive heads the design team at Apple. | Marketing Design and Innovation 14 . which they are very good at. company and customer aspects. Appendix 4 – Distinction between Needs and Wants A customer either needs a phone or wants a phone for their disposal. inanimate objects and animals. The definition of both are.” Ive's team consist of skills to visualize.Research should be undertaken to identify customer needs. to a lot as phone has evolved.Modifications can be in the form of changes to the design or changes to the concept that has been chosen Implement and Present . the iPhone 5 will constantly shift on a molecular level – becoming big things. Wants. Test then Modify .

They have used mediums such as:     Advertising – within stores. Samsung patent-infringement lawsuit and was awarded $1. the prices and design process of their product and then what the best ways they can communicate to those target markets. less innovation and potentially higher prices. billboards and etc Media – such as television and radio Internet – Facebook and other popular website Sales promotion and etc | Marketing Design and Innovation 15 .Available from: < http://www.Communicating Your Brand Effectively Apple has used the following mediums very effectively to promote the iPhone. Here's what Samsung said following the verdict”. It is unfortunate that patent law can be manipulated to give one company a monopoly over rectangles with rounded corners. It will lead to fewer choices.S.051 billion in damages by a U. Samsung patent-infringement lawsuit and was awarded $1. [Online].Apple v.051 billion in damages by a California jury”. Apple had the last laugh in the epic Apple v. or technology that is being improved every day by Samsung and other companies”.com/apple-vs-samsung-lawsuit-how-techgiants-responded-1-billion-verdict-full-list-infringed-products> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 8 . but as a loss for the American consumer. "Today's verdict should not be viewed as a win for Apple. “Scoring a huge victory over its arch-rival Samsung on Friday. jury. Samsung Patent-infringement “Apple had the last laugh in its epic Apple v.ibtimes. Within their marketing process they define who their target market is.Appendix 7 .> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: <http://beyrouti.Available from: <Biblioteca.learnmarketing.ibtimes.Available from: <http://www.Available from: < from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].icsti.Bibliography Book and Journals Kotler (2009) Management Theory Review Thompson & Gamble (2010) ‘The Top Ten Things You Need to Know About Ways to Cope with Rapid Change’ Mason (2003) Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Online [Online].com/2012/09/20/iphone-patent-shake-to-chargebattery-apple/> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].org/wiki/IPhone> [accessed November 2012] [Online].net> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: <http://www.Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].net> [accessed November 2012] | Marketing Design and Innovation 16 .Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].tumblr.universia.html#!/2009/06/> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: < process.html> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: <http://appleindustrialdesign.

and while some aspects of the module seemed like a process of trial and error. to outdo competitors. In particular. thoughts rotated in five ways of perception. What was conveyed. assessing the instruction methodology. and I often waited for an idea to filter. Perception Being on this module could be described as a plateau with intermittent troughs and horizons. oiled. describe how the course challenged your thinking. or presented approaches to the topic with which you may have disagreed. peer-reviewed and reflected upon if there is to be a positive result from expenses involved. I found my journey of aligning those experiences to theories and models. further. was the marketing design process is a state of flux: the marketing machine is a technical beast that must be primed. and few stones left unturned. and so I expected many highs. as it related to my topic. at the other end of the spectrum incremental steps. or concepts. since the product type is something I have been involved with. contrary to some views. I chose the subject for investigation. set within the context of the learning outcomes. reviewed. B. It was a lengthy process of organisation. A. Instruction It was evident resource material was not short in abundance. since the innovator had on record that she endured experiences as any less known chef would. evaluating dichotomies and disagreements. to be insightful. On a technical course. Much patience was required than normally expected for a Master’s module. it was a physical move to the keyboard that progressed the assignment. Alternatively. At the course’s end. developing new ideas. there were bursts of intricate cohesion. I felt I had deconstructed it. In a good business. times when the work had to be put aside. though this may be attributed to the range of angles from which marketing can be addressed. proverbially falling on paper. brought you to new and interesting ideas. as well as bracing for surprises.1 TASK 2 Write a critical reflective essay on your journey of discovery through the module. and rebuilt it in a coherent fashion. What was also possible. Perhaps a way of implementation or challenges is routine. current. was to demonstrate a link between international flair that the . cutting edge or unique in some way. then in the middle. things are often changing to remain relevant.

The lines of market segmentation can be easily blurred. I found something new almost every day I visited the retail shop. I believe whatever angle is taken. it is given that products go through changes. and to share them with whomever. with regards to what defines a product and ramifications of market segmentation and distribution. accepted that each day is different. I was aware the shop didn’t fully represent how successful or not the cakes were in the market. it appeared unremarkable. this opened a forum for a much wider and dynamic approach to marketing design than is often the case. Dichotomies and Disagreements With change often comes even greater choice. New ideas Considering the range of literature I engaged with. depending on the platform on which the product is launched. in particular. say for example for a technological gadget. applications. How the cupcake was defined. there can be laggards who have not joined in. read the innovators blogs. perhaps simply for convenience. One could say the product has diffused but according to Roger’s theory. I disagree in that there is an adoption process for any item. can now decide to make them. and the stream of customers jostling for space. I also had to be creative if market data wasn’t available. customers who wanted a simple cupcake. rather than skeletonise marketing. observations and configuration for refinement. growth strategy. and get an approximation of sales by checking the capacity of cake boxes. and the way she approached food as well as its cultural ‘fashions’. or didn’t stimulate the senses enough for interest in the first instance. provided there is a good marketing plan based on customer’s perceived need. and tried getting the whole plot of the cupcakes’ journey. as indicated below. I kept abreast of goings-on in the media. baking shows and standardisation in television’s “My Kitchen Rules” all of which convey expertise and class. So. To create new ideas. D. the ideas still fall in a general pool of literature that requires more funnelling. C. or the allure and lucrative nature of public profiling. suggests the innovator cannot always be separated from the innovation. as original module information and assessment guidelines intimated. though at first glance. the number of empty boxes over a day. Simultaneously. morph into a new form that in theory left the original behind. there should also be a novel triangulated way of evaluation. Yet. how many. I saw the innovation. The item may not have piqued the interest due to personal choice. although the instructor claimed that anything can be sold. or may . Having access to a best-selling baking book.2 innovator has.

was the idea projected in lectures that every product has a masculine or feminine slant. and importance is placed on brand identity and equity. this allows healthy growth. packaging and having a chat with comfortable customers. had to be seen to be believed. and indeed some things like the simply attractive display in a very small space. and compared observations of patronage over several weeks. light and mostly presentable cakes. Not only were men purchasing alone. F. ultimately finding a place in the hearts of faithful and new customers. as a cup of tea and cupcake for £2. There are no absolute answers to what may be seen as a marketing hurdle. but a male was also serving. This reifies some discussions about cost and loss leadership being stronger points. or with their wives. the company secretary are male. families or group of friends.3 not have passed the re-evaluation phase of the adoption process. and the reasons for non . and a space where innovations expand or contract. doesn’t have all answers. and a plethora of perspectives available. WORD COUNT: 1100 . value is added if there are open fora. seemingly it was one of the few words one knew and loved. although the brand has gone through a change of name for legal reasons. Further. If I used the study example of delicately designed. Further research also indicates that a 51% shareholder and. or just needs time for more processing. frilly. E. there is little indication the product is not recognisable: a large group of French girls amicably hailed it by the original name “Ella’s!” before making an average spend of £4 per person.adoption cannot always be explained by logic. A good innovator like Ms Pascale. I would be forced to disagree. Surprises What was certainly unexpected. The ambience of involvement in the cake experience and camaraderie extended by shop staff was also all inclusive.60 went down well with either gender. Summary While there are successful entrepreneurs who may also be public figures.