Anglia Ruskin University
MBA Top up / Advanced entry
Marketing Design and Innovation
December 2012


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Anglia Ruskin University Marketing Design and Innovation 2012 IPhone – Study into Its Evolution to Suit Changing Market Needs | Marketing Design and Innovation 1 .

6 Intellectual Property and Patents See Appendix 7 . Color and Imagination See Appendix 5 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen 3.Marketing Success and… 4 4 4 4 Analysis 3.Design Process Appendix 6 . Samsung Patent-infringement 3. Samsung Patent-infringement Appendix 7 .Communicating Your Brand Effectively 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 Bibliography 16 Reflective Essay Introduction to Task 2 17 | Marketing Design and Innovation 2 .Contents Page Introduction 1.Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Appendix 2 .1.0 Introduction to Task 1 1.1 Assignment Problem 1.iPhone translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler Appendix 3 .0 Continuous Change as a Norm 2.5 Product Design See Appendix 6 .8 Brand Excitement in Relation to Other Brands 3.Service Quality Appendix 3 – Distinction between Needs and Wants Appendix 4 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen Appendix 5 .3 Product and Service Value 3.9 Brand Value 3.1.1 Management Theory Review 2.Apple v.10 Competition in Contemporary Market See Appendix 8 .2 Customer Perception See Appendix 4 – Distinction between Needs and Wants 3.Design Process 3.0 Product Description – IPhone See Appendix 2 .Apple v.7 IPhones Brand Appeal 3.Service Quality 3. Shape.2 Ways to Cope With Change See Appendix 1 .Communicating Your Brand Effectively 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 Conclusion 12 Appendix Appendix 1 .2 Assignment Objectives 3 3 3 3 Literature 2.1 Introduction to Product – The iPhone 1.4 Design.iPhone translated by a product onion… See Appendix 3 .

in relation to its image.1. “The iPhone is a line of smartphones designed/marketed by Apple.2 Assignment Objectives All questions incorporated together construct the following objectives. what changes have been made in terms of design.0 Introduction to Task 1 Written critique of the way in which characteristics of the chosen innovative product or service has altered over time in order to suit the changing needs of the market (taking account of the points made on module information). 1. the most recent iPhone was released on 2012. There are now six generations of iPhones”.1 Assignment Problem The research problem selected is to investigate how the iPhone has evolved in order to meet the changing market needs. which will be the focal assignment objectives:  By the use of literature explore whether the change is needed to cope with change in meet markets needs  What are the benefits resulted from the changes perceived by customers  What were the changes made to make the product so unique  How did brand appeal play its role in relation to their competitors | Marketing Design and Innovation 3 . Samsung and RIM to their product (including me). For this reason the iPhone product has been chosen to be analysed within this assignment.1. This entices me to investigate how/why the iPhone has altered in such a way that has met all these new customer’s needs.1 Introduction to Product – The iPhone The iPhone has seen change over the few years. The research questions consist of. technology and capabilities due to the change of market needs. Millions of customers have switched from Apple’s competitors. 1.Introduction 1. do these changes have an effect on their customers and performance and how they have coped against their competitors. 1. First iPhone was released 2007.

1 Management Theory Review Kotler (2009) says “a market consists of all the potential customers sharing a particular need or want who might be willing and able to engage in exchange to satisfy that need or want. the future will not look after you. must become learning organizations that change and adapt to suit their changing business environment”. it is why Apple have been very innovative in their variety of products including the iPhone which in turn tells us that yes change is needed in order to cope with market’s needs. such as. They are continually shaped and reshaped by social forces and institutions. applies to all successful companies. thus from a marketing and business point of view it only makes sense to innovate as Gates says.2 Ways to Cope With Change Thompson & Gamble (2010) in ‘The Top Ten Things You Need to Know about Ways to Cope with Rapid Change’ says “The market is a fast paced place full of change and competition. Bill Gates quoted. social and mental variables. respond with differentiation. 2. As time passes more technology is updated and new resources utilized and etc. Having the ability to cope with and handle the change can either help or hinder the organizations ability to maintain market share”. Marketing concept holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists of being more effective than competitors in integrating marketing activities toward determining and satisfying the needs and wants of target markets”. and aggressive research and development techniques”. and those attributes are constantly changing due to factors such as economic. Although people’s needs are few. It is why products need to evolve within such variables to suit customers constantly changing wants and “The ability to understand changes and cope with the process can make an organization stand out with its consumers as well as its competitors.Available from: <http://it4b. a similar theory to the statement made by Gates.Literature 2. including churches. and it is those who innovate very well that get the high level of recognition by clients and customers which leads to increased sales revenue as seen with the iPhone product from 2007 to present.html> [accessed November 2012] 2. “if you don't practice the change management that looks after the future.icsti.0 Continuous Change as a Norm Continuous change as a norm says “companies are like any living organism. There are many different ways an organization can go about dealing with the change. it's hard to look ahead" [Online]. | Marketing Design and Innovation 4 . The statement that change is a norm. schools. families and business corporations”. innovation. If you're too focused on your current business. Kotler describes customers with wants and needs. their wants are many. “Wants are desires for specific satisfiers of needs.

Thompson & Gamble (2010) also agree with such a life cycle. It bought into the market. it declines out and replaced by something new. | Marketing Design and Innovation 5 . changing to market needs should not be just a necessity but a key to survival. as they mention that the market is full of change and competition. and the level of change all depends on how complex the markets needs and wants are as described by Mason (2003).Appendix 1 . grows and matures and then when the market is tired of the product. Thus in order to maintain market share.Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Changing a product is all part of its life cycle.

Original iPhone iPhone 3G iPhone 3GS iPhone 4 iPhone 4S iPhone 5 GSM phone. Appendix 2 . Whereas a service is an act (intangible usually) that one party offers. and ideas’ as stated by Philip Kotler. and a natural language voice control system called Siri New A6 processor. a higher-resolution rear-facing camera and a lower-resolution front-facing camera for video calling Added an 8-megapixel camera with 1080p video recording. such as screen size and button placement 3G cellular network capabilities and GPS location Faster processor and a higher-resolution camera that could record video at 480p Higher-resolution 960 × 640 retina display.Analysis IPhone’s benefits & value derived by the clients. customers or recipients 3.iPhone translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler | Marketing Design and Innovation 6 . It can consist of three components: physical goods. and established design precedents. holds a 4-inch Retina display that is larger than its predecessor's 3.5-inch display [Online].0 Product Description – IPhone A product is “A thing that can be offered to satisfy a need or want”. service. which as expensive and infrequently purchased) and not an industrial good.wikipedia. combining functions of several electronic gadgets in a single device all with a shared interface and integration between them.Available from: <http://en. a dualcore> [accessed November 2012] IPhone is an integrated mobile phone and media player developed and marketed by Apple made purposely as a consumer good (classed as specialty goods.

The perception that customers. As phones have got a lot slimmer and more pleasing to look> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 3 . it would be only logical that the services that come with the product evolve in the same rate and manner. which is a true statement but they may also say they need a iPhone due to the functionality such as emails and PDA functions. They have dominated in product /personnel/service and image value. In the 1990’s the size of phones was on average big and bulky. Over the year’s apple have always been innovative and successful in providing something new for the customers to benefit from.Available from: <http://www. perception from others to the capabilities it has due to the change in economy. the need has also become a want from customer’s perception. way of living and social differences. some employers even have benefits such as a new work mobile being the iPhone to attract them to the job.Service Quality 3. As this product has changed over time. The | Marketing Design and Innovation 7 . making their product extremely desirable over the years. thus customers are more likely to give their money to Apple in exchange for their product.3 Product and Service Value IPhone has successfully delivered total customer value. both personal and business have in common is that as time changes so does the norm of having the latest product in the market. Appendix 4 – Distinction between Needs and Wants 3. such as the technical support. [Online].Make Calls Gaming MP3 Player Video Recording Camera functionality PDA Internet… IPhone IPhone Warranty Customer service helpline Free delivery Sales Service….2 Customer Perception One needs a mobile phone to communicate for work or personal reasons. benefits include:  Latest technology  Improved and faster processor  Improved image This builds customer value to the company and creates advantage over other competitors. The product that seems to be most popular’ is seen to be something that is wanted by most people. these are some of the values and benefits of constant innovation of a product.learnmarketing. as some may say they need a phone. In modern day society the want and need is very difficult to distinguish. slim and fast rather than a dial up house phone. with Nokia dominating the phone market. but that phone can be of any sort including the house phone. as they rather use an iPhone.

which allows the phone to resist shattering’. IPhone’s Uniqueness of Its Design Elements 3. light weight but now do not mind it being slightly bigger as internet surfing is more easier. Less time spent in sketching but more on building prototypes and mock-ups”. Shape. IPhone 5. 3. [Online].Available from: <http://www. IPhone 5 is 20 percent lighter than iPhone 4S. which is 44 percent smaller than a micro-SIM”. color and usefulness of the phone must all be considered and effective. with a glossy plastic back with tapered edges and metal buttons”. Color and Imagination “IPhone 5 is just 7. so the shape. redesigned to use an aluminum frame. Apple engineers had to think small. | Marketing Design and Innovation 8 . People first wanted a phone that is touch screen but as time went on. [Online]. They created a nano-SIM card. ensuring their implementation is more stylish then their competitors in respects of design and It has maintained the same original colour scheme throughout. more demands were made such as the phone being thin. thus looking at it you can’t resist but perceive the superb chamfer round the display. The shape of the phone has gone from the bulkier/curved phone “centered on a ‘> [accessed November 2012] The iPhone has changed shape eloquently over the years. the only difference was they made their processes with intense and almost perfect prototypes. either white or black which customers are happy with. Appendix 5 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen The imagination put into designing the iPhone enabled it to be the best sellers in the country. backed up and etc.wikipedia. IPhone has had to take these demands and ensure they change their shape according to the needs of their customer. It is often dependent on the customer perception of its worth rather than its intrinsic value.6 millimeters thin.4 Design.Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] Change in shape is due to the constant change in what customers perceive to be stylish.5 Product Design “Apple design process is actually an ordinary product development process.value for this phone has increased so much that annual sales for the iPhone show customers are willing to pay more in order to be reassured that their product is safe. Never has the telecommunication market seen this level of expert quality been harnessed into phone. “Apple redesigned the antenna in the iPhone 4S after some original iPhone 4 users reported signal problems”.5 inches glass multi-touch touchscreen display to the 3GS which retained the design of the 3G. thought and consideration has gone into their product which goes well beyond design. as internet on the phone is extremely popular.

7 IPhones Brand Appeal Brand could be viewed as a personality that differentiates a company. in terms of all the features the phone has. such as its brand and the name. fitting and appearance are vital in the experience of the is shown in Appendix 6 with more information on design process. iPad and so on due to the name it represents. [Online]. which some customers believe says quality and> [accessed November 2012] Apples iPhone is a registered trademark as well as registering their designs as someone would expect. Its brand appeal in relation to competitors in contemporary markets process.html#!/2009/06/apple-design-process. | Marketing Design and Innovation 9 .Available from: <http://appleindustrialdesign.Available from: <http://bgr. iPod. the intellectual properties that come with it are also that factors that drive the market customers to buy it. Trademarks:  Discourage others from using a trade mark without permission  Easier to legal action against people using trademark without permission  Allows the owner to sell it. it ensure their competitors do not replicate any similar ideas into their products created by the apple’s design team. The texture. 2012). 3. This has led to their phones being relevant and useful for the customer. Samsung Patent-infringement The latest patent being a concept for shaking an iPhone to charge it’ this evolution is one that the apple team believe is moving towards to the future and adapting to the new technological market. also used to describe a “product or service made distinctive by its positioning relative to the competition and by its personality in the context of the target market” (Hankinson & Cowling). Appendix 7 . but apples mac laptop.6 Intellectual Property and Patents Along with the sheer brilliant design of the iPhone. There is a long document in place which patents Apples utility and design features for the iPhone. franchise it and etc. which are all protected. whilst the most innovative idea from Nokia has been that wireless charging is the way of the future.html> [accessed November 2012] A design process which us usually used by most companies.Apple v. [Online]. Apple have also been recognised as one of the best global brands in 2012 (daily telegraph. thus the customer is always happy to either upgrade to either the next new version of the iPhone (rarely do iPhone users switch to another manufacturer) as they are pleased with the outcomes of the design of the phones.Apple has found that initial prototypes help designers envision their invention from the start. As customers now like to own not just the iPhone.blogspot.

Samsung and HTC in keeping their customers hyped and on the edge. Businesses should not infer on what the customer is nor do customers want to be told who they are. Apple have been successful then their competition. customers get cognitively attached to them (manufacturer benefit.10 Competition in Contemporary Market Over the past 5-10 years the level of competition for iPhone has varied from going to high level of competition when Apples | Marketing Design and Innovation 10 .tumblr. When you raise the bar. The benefits the iPhone has with branding is that customers find it easier to identify their products. 3. iPad and Mac Books are so pleasing.The iPhones falls under the term manufacturer brand. as the level of customer loyalty reflects the high number of customers sticking with the iPhone brand. [Online]. the Apple brand / logo have carried a sizeable chunk of total sales”.8 Brand Excitement in Relation to Other Brands Most effective factor with branding is the loyalty it promotes within customers. Despite the fact that Apple has ground breaking unrivaled product. the brand raises with it. it helps position products in the market and importantly it creates a character for the iPhone and this character has been highly valued by customers which in turn creates loyalty. it’s fair to say that at times. the only way is to give customers a brand appeal like no other. they also have brand appeal.9 Brand Value IPhone’s brand values are the main driver to victory and are what builds the brand appeal a factor on drawing the majority towards them.Available from: <http://beyrouti. which is just made by excitement and that outlook of what’s next. Nokia. loyalty).com/post/31732170665/its-all-aboutbrand-appeal-people-ask-all> [accessed November 2012] 3. and attractive to people. “Brands that give you physical bliss like Apple with their iPhone. Not excepting second best is what makes your customers believe they are purchasing hours and hours of perfection”. When customers purchase the iPhone they get filled with excitement which is why they keep coming back. Other competitors have not been able to build this character with their products as iPhone has done so. “Apple has delivered the goods on countless occasions with regards to its product ranges. such as with Samsung and Blackberry and it helps with positioning and targeting the iPhone product in the telecommunication market. 3. The physical brand Appeal due to engineering marvels are what makes the brand solid. Other benefits are that it defends against competition.

com/sites/darcytravlos/2012/09/11/competition-sets-a-high-bar-forapples-iphone-5/> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 8 . growth. Android is huge.Communicating Your Brand Effectively Apple has been good at not only promoting their product to their target markets. [Online]. so does this mean that the customers will switch from Apple product? Yes and no. triumph might not come as simply as it has in years earlier and the aggressive competition might have somewhat to do with that. and the iPhone has been able to cater for those needs more well then its competitors. During the introduction. but also doing so at the right time. Reason is because the iPhone is the iPhone and IPhone’s brand value here represents the additional money that an organisation could earn from its products purely due to its brand name.forbes.Available from: <http://www. maturity and decline of each iPhone. IPhone is the most sold handset in the UK in 2011. It is identified that customers are willing to pay more for a brand than a product. The change has come due to the change in market needs. However. loyal customers will remain and as sales is going up.product has not been the market leader to less competition as Apple as gown to dominate the market. 4G LTE is here and Windows Phone looks enormously assuring. | Marketing Design and Innovation 11 .

thinner and lighter than any other phone. technology. Currently the iPhone 5 is the thinnest phone in the market. When customers purchase the iPhone they get filled with excitement which is why they keep coming back to the brand over and over again. The iPhone has been strong in being most up to date with their technology use and the look of their product e. where they all state that without change and innovation there is no future for a company. offering products and services (newer and better phones) that are more elite then theirs or due to the fact that customers are less willing to buy due to their product being too outdated. success might not come as easily as it has in years previous and the fierce competition might have something to do with that. which customers want in their phones. such as retina display within their phones. Nokia and Blackberry will drive them out. However. IPhone’s branding helps customers find it easier to identify their products.g. as agreed with theorists such as Gates. as they feel they are buying the finest product that is available in this ever changing market. change is most certainly required to cope with changes within the market. | Marketing Design and Innovation 12 . Kotler (2009) and Thompson & Gamble (2010). it needs to practice innovation and change within its marketing and management system. And functionality wise it provides customers with immense power and capability with a touch of a button. economy and social life style have developed. The changes made to the iPhone during each model were very unique in terms of image and functionality. The phone has changed its image and capabilities according to how the market. The iPhone has changed its shape and design over the years a great deal. If iPhone do not their competitors such as Samsung. Other competitors have not been able to build this character with their products as well as.Conclusion Business to survive within in its target market. This encourages loyalty within new and existing customers. it creates a character for the iPhone and this character has been highly valued by customers which in turn creates loyalty. ensuring they also provide the most up to date functionality. So the conclusion is yes.

Available from: <http://www. His conclusion was that. which is one of the factors that must also change over time with the product evolution according to the changing market needs. gaming and listening to music. case study technique. The support | Marketing Design and Innovation 13 . [Online]. Data was collected via depth interviews and document analysis from four companies”.Available from: <Biblioteca. level 3. is the additional non tangible benefits that a product can offer. management preferences or market sector”. This is all part of service quality.Appendix Appendix 1 . while more successful companies in complex and turbulent environments use destabilising tactics.learnmarketing. “successful companies in simple and stable environments use stabilising marketing tactics. The augmented product. regardless of industry> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 2 .universia. The core productslevel 1. and warranty provided by apple that makes the actual product more appealing to buy. these are all the functionality such as making calls. [Online]. “using a qualitative.g. The service quality for the iPhone has been rated highly. taking pictures. investigated relationships between marketing success and the level of external environmental complexity and turbulence.Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Mason (2003) from Rhodes University. level 2. is about interpreting the list of core product benefits into a product that people will buy which is the iPhone itself. Make Calls Gaming MP3 Player Video Recording Camera functionality PDA Internet… IPhone IPhone Warranty Customer service helpline Free delivery Sales Service….Service Quality IPhone classified as tangible goods with accompanying services e. video recording. His study was exploratory. such as help lines. are what apple would like their product to offer buyers. warranty and etc. The actual product. internet.iPhone translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler The iPhone can be translated by a product onion devised by Philip> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 3 . their technical team is rated one of the best in the mobile phone sector.

working principles and the form of the product. promoting positive customer perception in both benefits and value. the design team think of ways of fulfilling the requirement in the study. even the one where it looks like a busload of Scouts. different ways in which basic needs are satisfied. Appendix 5 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen In regards to shape of the iPhone product an Apple spokesman said: “All the images are genuine.Research should be undertaken to identify customer needs. Appendix 6 . Needs are common for all human beings and mainly include food.Once the concept is finalised. Appendix 4 – Distinction between Needs and Wants A customer either needs a phone or wants a phone for their disposal. mechanical and software components and produce an approximation of the final product Apple have design Guru. so that no one can copy the design”. inanimate objects and has evolved from knowing something really simple about this iPhone. Research .Modifications can be in the form of changes to the design or changes to the concept that has been chosen Implement and Present . communicate and analyse together in a large open studio with little personal space but great privacy in order to deign functions that customers want and need in a phone. as most other phones on the market has same or similar functionality such as mp3 player.A product concept is an approximate product description of the technology. wants will be unlimited. Kotler (2009) defines needs as “a state of deprivation of some basic satisfaction”. clothing and shelter. Investigation . apple develop a 3 dimensional model of this concept. Concept . Test then Modify . While wants are defined as. such as the iPhone can be triggered by marketers and can be influenced by different social institutions and key figures.” Ive's team consist of skills to visualize. market gaps and competitor offerings. Thanks to cutting-edge technology smashing the laws of physics.At this stage. company and customer aspects. Whilst needs will be numbered. small things. | Marketing Design and Innovation 14 . to a lot as phone has evolved. the iPhone 5 will constantly shift on a molecular level – becoming big things.Mobile phone that is slimmer and best looking than any other on the market. Many Apple employees aren't allowed in. for fear they'd catch a glimpse of some upcoming product. needs are basic living essentials. “40 year old Jony Ive heads the design team at Apple. which they are very good at. The definition of both are.By looking at market. the engineering staff will create the necessary electrical.Apples Design Process Summary Study . reporting directly to the CEO Steve Jobs. These transformations will happen completely at random and without warning. Wants. The Rough and Prototype .

or technology that is being improved every day by Samsung and other companies”.Communicating Your Brand Effectively Apple has used the following mediums very effectively to promote the iPhone.Appendix 7 . It is unfortunate that patent law can be manipulated to give one company a monopoly over rectangles with rounded corners. Here's what Samsung said following the verdict”. [Online]. billboards and etc Media – such as television and radio Internet – Facebook and other popular website Sales promotion and etc | Marketing Design and Innovation 15 . the prices and design process of their product and then what the best ways they can communicate to those target markets. jury. It will lead to fewer choices.051 billion in damages by a California jury”. "Today's verdict should not be viewed as a win for Apple. They have used mediums such as:     Advertising – within stores.Available from: < http://www. Samsung patent-infringement lawsuit and was awarded $1. Within their marketing process they define who their target market is. but as a loss for the American> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 8 .Apple v. Samsung Patent-infringement “Apple had the last laugh in its epic Apple v.ibtimes.051 billion in damages by a U. Samsung patent-infringement lawsuit and was awarded $1. less innovation and potentially higher prices. Apple had the last laugh in the epic Apple v. “Scoring a huge victory over its arch-rival Samsung on Friday.> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].com/apple-vs-samsung-lawsuit-how-techgiants-responded-1-billion-verdict-full-list-infringed-products> [accessed November 2012] [Online].tumblr.Available from: <http://www.Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online]> [accessed November 2012] [Online].net> [accessed November 2012] | Marketing Design and Innovation 16 .com/sites/darcytravlos/2012/09/11/competition-sets-a-high-bar-forapples-iphone-5/> [accessed November 2012] [Online].universia.Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Bibliography Book and Journals Kotler (2009) Management Theory Review Thompson & Gamble (2010) ‘The Top Ten Things You Need to Know About Ways to Cope with Rapid Change’ Mason (2003) Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Online [Online].Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].com/2012/09/20/iphone-patent-shake-to-chargebattery-apple/> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: < from: < http://www.Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].uk/2009/06/apple-design process.Available from: <http://bgr.Available from: <http://www.Available from: <Biblioteca.html#!/2009/06/apple-design-process.

developing new ideas. contrary to some views. since the innovator had on record that she endured experiences as any less known chef would. I chose the subject for investigation. further. evaluating dichotomies and disagreements. and while some aspects of the module seemed like a process of trial and error. oiled. What was conveyed. at the other end of the spectrum incremental steps. times when the work had to be put aside. or concepts. proverbially falling on paper. current. describe how the course challenged your thinking. was to demonstrate a link between international flair that the . to be insightful. Alternatively. Much patience was required than normally expected for a Master’s module. It was a lengthy process of organisation. I felt I had deconstructed it. since the product type is something I have been involved with.1 TASK 2 Write a critical reflective essay on your journey of discovery through the module. as it related to my topic. and so I expected many highs. assessing the instruction methodology. though this may be attributed to the range of angles from which marketing can be addressed. and rebuilt it in a coherent fashion. In particular. brought you to new and interesting ideas. set within the context of the learning outcomes. to outdo competitors. cutting edge or unique in some way. A. Instruction It was evident resource material was not short in abundance. In a good business. and I often waited for an idea to filter. there were bursts of intricate cohesion. B. or presented approaches to the topic with which you may have disagreed. things are often changing to remain relevant. peer-reviewed and reflected upon if there is to be a positive result from expenses involved. and few stones left unturned. reviewed. I found my journey of aligning those experiences to theories and models. was the marketing design process is a state of flux: the marketing machine is a technical beast that must be primed. Perhaps a way of implementation or challenges is routine. thoughts rotated in five ways of perception. Perception Being on this module could be described as a plateau with intermittent troughs and horizons. as well as bracing for surprises. then in the middle. it was a physical move to the keyboard that progressed the assignment. At the course’s end. What was also possible. On a technical course.

baking shows and standardisation in television’s “My Kitchen Rules” all of which convey expertise and class. depending on the platform on which the product is launched. although the instructor claimed that anything can be sold. or the allure and lucrative nature of public profiling. there can be laggards who have not joined in. in particular. So. Dichotomies and Disagreements With change often comes even greater choice. The lines of market segmentation can be easily blurred. New ideas Considering the range of literature I engaged with. there should also be a novel triangulated way of evaluation. I saw the innovation. I kept abreast of goings-on in the media. and tried getting the whole plot of the cupcakes’ journey. customers who wanted a simple cupcake. as original module information and assessment guidelines intimated. I disagree in that there is an adoption process for any item. and the stream of customers jostling for space. the number of empty boxes over a day. C. accepted that each day is different. growth strategy. how many. this opened a forum for a much wider and dynamic approach to marketing design than is often the case. though at first glance. I was aware the shop didn’t fully represent how successful or not the cakes were in the market. and the way she approached food as well as its cultural ‘fashions’. it appeared unremarkable. I found something new almost every day I visited the retail shop. Having access to a best-selling baking book. Simultaneously. as indicated below. To create new ideas. read the innovators blogs. I believe whatever angle is taken. observations and configuration for refinement. Yet. morph into a new form that in theory left the original behind. or may . say for example for a technological gadget. I also had to be creative if market data wasn’t available. or didn’t stimulate the senses enough for interest in the first instance. suggests the innovator cannot always be separated from the innovation. provided there is a good marketing plan based on customer’s perceived need. One could say the product has diffused but according to Roger’s theory. and to share them with whomever. and get an approximation of sales by checking the capacity of cake boxes. it is given that products go through changes.2 innovator has. D. rather than skeletonise marketing. the ideas still fall in a general pool of literature that requires more funnelling. How the cupcake was defined. perhaps simply for convenience. with regards to what defines a product and ramifications of market segmentation and distribution. applications. The item may not have piqued the interest due to personal choice. can now decide to make them.

had to be seen to be believed. E. or with their wives. but a male was also serving. doesn’t have all answers. The ambience of involvement in the cake experience and camaraderie extended by shop staff was also all inclusive. families or group of friends. Not only were men purchasing alone. seemingly it was one of the few words one knew and loved. light and mostly presentable cakes. and indeed some things like the simply attractive display in a very small space. and the reasons for non . as a cup of tea and cupcake for £2. If I used the study example of delicately designed. WORD COUNT: 1100 . This reifies some discussions about cost and loss leadership being stronger points. and a plethora of perspectives available. F. value is added if there are open fora. Further. There are no absolute answers to what may be seen as a marketing hurdle. A good innovator like Ms Pascale. ultimately finding a place in the hearts of faithful and new customers. or just needs time for more processing. there is little indication the product is not recognisable: a large group of French girls amicably hailed it by the original name “Ella’s!” before making an average spend of £4 per person. and compared observations of patronage over several weeks. frilly. and importance is placed on brand identity and equity.adoption cannot always be explained by logic.3 not have passed the re-evaluation phase of the adoption process. the company secretary are male. was the idea projected in lectures that every product has a masculine or feminine slant. although the brand has gone through a change of name for legal reasons.60 went down well with either gender. and a space where innovations expand or contract. Further research also indicates that a 51% shareholder and. packaging and having a chat with comfortable customers. Surprises What was certainly unexpected. I would be forced to disagree. this allows healthy growth. Summary While there are successful entrepreneurs who may also be public figures.

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