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Anglia Ruskin University
MBA Top up / Advanced entry
Marketing Design and Innovation
December 2012


Kindly note that these sample answers have been
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Anglia Ruskin University Marketing Design and Innovation 2012 IPhone – Study into Its Evolution to Suit Changing Market Needs | Marketing Design and Innovation 1 .

5 Product Design See Appendix 6 .0 Introduction to Task 1 1.3 Product and Service Value 3.Design Process 3.2 Ways to Cope With Change See Appendix 1 .2 Assignment Objectives 3 3 3 3 Literature 2.9 Brand Value 3.Marketing Success and… 4 4 4 4 Analysis 3.0 Continuous Change as a Norm 2.Apple v.6 Intellectual Property and Patents See Appendix 7 . Samsung Patent-infringement Appendix 7 .Design Process Appendix 6 . Color and Imagination See Appendix 5 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen 3.1 Introduction to Product – The iPhone 1.0 Product Description – IPhone See Appendix 2 .8 Brand Excitement in Relation to Other Brands 3. Shape.Service Quality 3.Contents Page Introduction 1.Communicating Your Brand Effectively 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 Bibliography 16 Reflective Essay Introduction to Task 2 17 | Marketing Design and Innovation 2 .Service Quality Appendix 3 – Distinction between Needs and Wants Appendix 4 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen Appendix 5 .4 Design.10 Competition in Contemporary Market See Appendix 8 .iPhone translated by a product onion… See Appendix 3 .1 Assignment Problem 1.iPhone translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler Appendix 3 .1.Apple v.1 Management Theory Review 2.2 Customer Perception See Appendix 4 – Distinction between Needs and Wants 3.7 IPhones Brand Appeal 3.Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Appendix 2 .1. Samsung Patent-infringement 3.Communicating Your Brand Effectively 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 Conclusion 12 Appendix Appendix 1 .

technology and capabilities due to the change of market needs.Introduction 1. There are now six generations of iPhones”. 1. the most recent iPhone was released on 2012. 1. 1.1. The research questions consist of. “The iPhone is a line of smartphones designed/marketed by Apple.0 Introduction to Task 1 Written critique of the way in which characteristics of the chosen innovative product or service has altered over time in order to suit the changing needs of the market (taking account of the points made on module information).1. what changes have been made in terms of design. This entices me to investigate how/why the iPhone has altered in such a way that has met all these new customer’s needs. Millions of customers have switched from Apple’s competitors. For this reason the iPhone product has been chosen to be analysed within this assignment.2 Assignment Objectives All questions incorporated together construct the following objectives.1 Introduction to Product – The iPhone The iPhone has seen change over the few years. in relation to its image. First iPhone was released 2007.1 Assignment Problem The research problem selected is to investigate how the iPhone has evolved in order to meet the changing market needs. do these changes have an effect on their customers and performance and how they have coped against their competitors. which will be the focal assignment objectives:  By the use of literature explore whether the change is needed to cope with change in meet markets needs  What are the benefits resulted from the changes perceived by customers  What were the changes made to make the product so unique  How did brand appeal play its role in relation to their competitors | Marketing Design and Innovation 3 . Samsung and RIM to their product (including me).

2 Ways to Cope With Change Thompson & Gamble (2010) in ‘The Top Ten Things You Need to Know about Ways to Cope with Rapid Change’ says “The market is a fast paced place full of change and competition. innovation. including churches. The statement that change is a norm. schools. They are continually shaped and reshaped by social forces and institutions. Although people’s needs are few.0 Continuous Change as a Norm Continuous change as a norm says “companies are like any living organism. the future will not look after you.Literature 2. a similar theory to the statement made by Gates. applies to all successful companies. it's hard to look ahead" [Online].Available from: <http://it4b. and those attributes are constantly changing due to factors such as economic. “The ability to understand changes and cope with the process can make an organization stand out with its consumers as well as its competitors.html> [accessed November 2012] 2.icsti. If you're too focused on your current business. their wants are many. social and mental variables. Marketing concept holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists of being more effective than competitors in integrating marketing activities toward determining and satisfying the needs and wants of target markets”. and it is those who innovate very well that get the high level of recognition by clients and customers which leads to increased sales revenue as seen with the iPhone product from 2007 to present. families and business corporations”. must become learning organizations that change and adapt to suit their changing business environment”. “if you don't practice the change management that looks after the future. Having the ability to cope with and handle the change can either help or hinder the organizations ability to maintain market share”. 2. thus from a marketing and business point of view it only makes sense to innovate as Gates says.1 Management Theory Review Kotler (2009) says “a market consists of all the potential customers sharing a particular need or want who might be willing and able to engage in exchange to satisfy that need or want. “Wants are desires for specific satisfiers of needs. As time passes more technology is updated and new resources utilized and etc. Bill Gates quoted. There are many different ways an organization can go about dealing with the change. and aggressive research and development techniques”. it is why Apple have been very innovative in their variety of products including the iPhone which in turn tells us that yes change is needed in order to cope with market’s Kotler describes customers with wants and needs. It is why products need to evolve within such variables to suit customers constantly changing wants and needs. respond with differentiation. such as. | Marketing Design and Innovation 4 .

Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Changing a product is all part of its life cycle. changing to market needs should not be just a necessity but a key to survival. as they mention that the market is full of change and competition. Thus in order to maintain market share. It bought into the market. grows and matures and then when the market is tired of the product.Appendix 1 . Thompson & Gamble (2010) also agree with such a life cycle. | Marketing Design and Innovation 5 . it declines out and replaced by something new. and the level of change all depends on how complex the markets needs and wants are as described by Mason (2003).

and ideas’ as stated by Philip Kotler. such as screen size and button placement 3G cellular network capabilities and GPS location Faster processor and a higher-resolution camera that could record video at 480p Higher-resolution 960 × 640 retina display. Appendix 2 .5-inch display [Online]. and established design precedents.Available from: <http://en. and a natural language voice control system called Siri New A6 processor. customers or recipients> [accessed November 2012] IPhone is an integrated mobile phone and media player developed and marketed by Apple made purposely as a consumer good (classed as specialty goods. Whereas a service is an act (intangible usually) that one party offers.0 Product Description – IPhone A product is “A thing that can be offered to satisfy a need or want”. a dualcore processor. which as expensive and infrequently purchased) and not an industrial good. holds a 4-inch Retina display that is larger than its predecessor's 3. Original iPhone iPhone 3G iPhone 3GS iPhone 4 iPhone 4S iPhone 5 GSM phone. a higher-resolution rear-facing camera and a lower-resolution front-facing camera for video calling Added an 8-megapixel camera with 1080p video recording.iPhone translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler | Marketing Design and Innovation 6 . It can consist of three components: physical goods.Analysis IPhone’s benefits & value derived by the clients. combining functions of several electronic gadgets in a single device all with a shared interface and integration between them.wikipedia. service.

perception from others to the capabilities it has due to the change in economy. thus customers are more likely to give their money to Apple in exchange for their product. They have dominated in product /personnel/service and image value.2 Customer Perception One needs a mobile phone to communicate for work or personal reasons. these are some of the values and benefits of constant innovation of a product. some employers even have benefits such as a new work mobile being the iPhone to attract them to the job. such as the technical support. [Online]. as some may say they need a phone.Available from: <http://www. Appendix 4 – Distinction between Needs and Wants 3. both personal and business have in common is that as time changes so does the norm of having the latest product in the market. As this product has changed over time. as they rather use an iPhone. The product that seems to be most popular’ is seen to be something that is wanted by most people. but that phone can be of any sort including the house phone. with Nokia dominating the phone market. the need has also become a want from customer’s perception. In modern day society the want and need is very difficult to distinguish.Service Quality 3. which is a true statement but they may also say they need a iPhone due to the functionality such as emails and PDA functions. way of living and social differences. Over the year’s apple have always been innovative and successful in providing something new for the customers to benefit from. In the 1990’s the size of phones was on average big and bulky. it would be only logical that the services that come with the product evolve in the same rate and manner. benefits include:  Latest technology  Improved and faster processor  Improved image This builds customer value to the company and creates advantage over other> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 3 . making their product extremely desirable over the years.learnmarketing. The perception that customers.Make Calls Gaming MP3 Player Video Recording Camera functionality PDA Internet… IPhone IPhone Warranty Customer service helpline Free delivery Sales Service…. slim and fast rather than a dial up house phone. The | Marketing Design and Innovation 7 . As phones have got a lot slimmer and more pleasing to look at.3 Product and Service Value IPhone has successfully delivered total customer value.

It has maintained the same original colour scheme throughout. [Online].Available from: <http://www. IPhone has had to take these demands and ensure they change their shape according to the needs of their customer. thought and consideration has gone into their product which goes well beyond design.value for this phone has increased so much that annual sales for the iPhone show customers are willing to pay more in order to be reassured that their product is safe. Appendix 5 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen The imagination put into designing the iPhone enabled it to be the best sellers in the country. [Online]. color and usefulness of the phone must all be considered and effective. redesigned to use an aluminum frame. either white or black which customers are happy with. Less time spent in sketching but more on building prototypes and mock-ups”.wikipedia. light weight but now do not mind it being slightly bigger as internet surfing is more easier. with a glossy plastic back with tapered edges and metal buttons”. which is 44 percent smaller than a micro-SIM”. They created a nano-SIM card. “Apple redesigned the antenna in the iPhone 4S after some original iPhone 4 users reported signal problems”. which allows the phone to resist shattering’. IPhone’s Uniqueness of Its Design Elements 3.5 inches glass multi-touch touchscreen display to the 3GS which retained the design of the 3G. Never has the telecommunication market seen this level of expert quality been harnessed into phone. The shape of the phone has gone from the bulkier/curved phone “centered on a ‘3.4 Design. IPhone 5 is 20 percent lighter than iPhone 4S. as internet on the phone is extremely popular.5 Product Design “Apple design process is actually an ordinary product development process. | Marketing Design and Innovation 8 . more demands were made such as the phone being thin. Apple engineers had to think small. thus looking at it you can’t resist but perceive the superb chamfer round the display. It is often dependent on the customer perception of its worth rather than its intrinsic value. so the shape. People first wanted a phone that is touch screen but as time went on.Available from: <http://en. backed up and etc. ensuring their implementation is more stylish then their competitors in respects of design and technology.> [accessed November 2012] The iPhone has changed shape eloquently over the years. Color and Imagination “IPhone 5 is just 7. the only difference was they made their processes with intense and almost perfect> [accessed November 2012] Change in shape is due to the constant change in what customers perceive to be stylish. IPhone 5.6 millimeters 3.

There is a long document in place which patents Apples utility and design features for the it ensure their competitors do not replicate any similar ideas into their products created by the apple’s design team. is shown in Appendix 6 with more information on design process. [Online].Apple has found that initial prototypes help designers envision their invention from the start. iPad and so on due to the name it> [accessed November 2012] Apples iPhone is a registered trademark as well as registering their designs as someone would expect.6 Intellectual Property and Patents Along with the sheer brilliant design of the iPhone. but apples mac laptop. The texture. Trademarks:  Discourage others from using a trade mark without permission  Easier to legal action against people using trademark without permission  Allows the owner to sell it. Apple have also been recognised as one of the best global brands in 2012 (daily telegraph. such as its brand and the name. [Online].Apple v. franchise it and etc. thus the customer is always happy to either upgrade to either the next new version of the iPhone (rarely do iPhone users switch to another manufacturer) as they are pleased with the outcomes of the design of the phones. the intellectual properties that come with it are also that factors that drive the market customers to buy it.Available from: <http://appleindustrialdesign. 3. 2012). As customers now like to own not just the iPhone. iPod. which some customers believe says quality and process.html> [accessed November 2012] A design process which us usually used by most companies. in terms of all the features the phone has. also used to describe a “product or service made distinctive by its positioning relative to the competition and by its personality in the context of the target market” (Hankinson & Cowling). Appendix 7 . which are all protected. | Marketing Design and Innovation 9 .Available from: <http://bgr. Samsung Patent-infringement The latest patent being a concept for shaking an iPhone to charge it’ this evolution is one that the apple team believe is moving towards to the future and adapting to the new technological market. Its brand appeal in relation to competitors in contemporary markets 3.blogspot. whilst the most innovative idea from Nokia has been that wireless charging is the way of the future. This has led to their phones being relevant and useful for the customer.html#!/2009/06/apple-design-process. fitting and appearance are vital in the experience of the consumer.7 IPhones Brand Appeal Brand could be viewed as a personality that differentiates a company.

When you raise the bar. it’s fair to say that at times.8 Brand Excitement in Relation to Other Brands Most effective factor with branding is the loyalty it promotes within customers. they also have brand appeal. customers get cognitively attached to them (manufacturer benefit. Other competitors have not been able to build this character with their products as iPhone has done so. The benefits the iPhone has with branding is that customers find it easier to identify their products.The iPhones falls under the term manufacturer brand. Despite the fact that Apple has ground breaking unrivaled product. such as with Samsung and Blackberry and it helps with positioning and targeting the iPhone product in the telecommunication market. Nokia. When customers purchase the iPhone they get filled with excitement which is why they keep coming back. it helps position products in the market and importantly it creates a character for the iPhone and this character has been highly valued by customers which in turn creates loyalty. Businesses should not infer on what the customer is nor do customers want to be told who they are. Not excepting second best is what makes your customers believe they are purchasing hours and hours of perfection”. “Brands that give you physical bliss like Apple with their iPhone. loyalty). as the level of customer loyalty reflects the high number of customers sticking with the iPhone brand. and attractive to> [accessed November 2012] 3. “Apple has delivered the goods on countless occasions with regards to its product ranges.tumblr. which is just made by excitement and that outlook of what’s next. Samsung and HTC in keeping their customers hyped and on the edge. the brand raises with it.Available from: <http://beyrouti. 3. 3. Apple have been successful then their competition. Other benefits are that it defends against competition.9 Brand Value IPhone’s brand values are the main driver to victory and are what builds the brand appeal a factor on drawing the majority towards them. the Apple brand / logo have carried a sizeable chunk of total sales”. The physical brand Appeal due to engineering marvels are what makes the brand solid. iPad and Mac Books are so pleasing.10 Competition in Contemporary Market Over the past 5-10 years the level of competition for iPhone has varied from going to high level of competition when Apples | Marketing Design and Innovation 10 . the only way is to give customers a brand appeal like no other. [Online].

Available from: <http://www. growth. loyal customers will remain and as sales is going up. Reason is because the iPhone is the iPhone and IPhone’s brand value here represents the additional money that an organisation could earn from its products purely due to its brand name. | Marketing Design and Innovation 11 . [Online].com/sites/darcytravlos/2012/09/11/competition-sets-a-high-bar-forapples-iphone-5/> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 8 . It is identified that customers are willing to pay more for a brand than a product. maturity and decline of each iPhone. The change has come due to the change in market needs. 4G LTE is here and Windows Phone looks enormously assuring. Android is huge.product has not been the market leader to less competition as Apple as gown to dominate the market. However. and the iPhone has been able to cater for those needs more well then its competitors.forbes. During the introduction. but also doing so at the right time.Communicating Your Brand Effectively Apple has been good at not only promoting their product to their target markets. IPhone is the most sold handset in the UK in 2011. triumph might not come as simply as it has in years earlier and the aggressive competition might have somewhat to do with that. so does this mean that the customers will switch from Apple product? Yes and no.

And functionality wise it provides customers with immense power and capability with a touch of a button. IPhone’s branding helps customers find it easier to identify their products. The changes made to the iPhone during each model were very unique in terms of image and functionality. which customers want in their phones.Conclusion Business to survive within in its target market. it needs to practice innovation and change within its marketing and management system. The iPhone has been strong in being most up to date with their technology use and the look of their product e. technology. So the conclusion is yes. ensuring they also provide the most up to date functionality. change is most certainly required to cope with changes within the market. However. thinner and lighter than any other phone. This encourages loyalty within new and existing customers. economy and social life style have developed. Nokia and Blackberry will drive them out. it creates a character for the iPhone and this character has been highly valued by customers which in turn creates loyalty.g. Kotler (2009) and Thompson & Gamble (2010). success might not come as easily as it has in years previous and the fierce competition might have something to do with that. Currently the iPhone 5 is the thinnest phone in the market. such as retina display within their phones. as agreed with theorists such as Gates. | Marketing Design and Innovation 12 . When customers purchase the iPhone they get filled with excitement which is why they keep coming back to the brand over and over again. offering products and services (newer and better phones) that are more elite then theirs or due to the fact that customers are less willing to buy due to their product being too outdated. The phone has changed its image and capabilities according to how the market. Other competitors have not been able to build this character with their products as well as. If iPhone do not their competitors such as Samsung. where they all state that without change and innovation there is no future for a company. The iPhone has changed its shape and design over the years a great deal. as they feel they are buying the finest product that is available in this ever changing market.

Service Quality IPhone classified as tangible goods with accompanying services e. [Online]. case study technique. warranty and etc. “successful companies in simple and stable environments use stabilising marketing tactics.Appendix Appendix 1 .iPhone translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler The iPhone can be translated by a product onion devised by Philip> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 2 . video recording. which is one of the factors that must also change over time with the product evolution according to the changing market needs.Available from: <http://www. gaming and listening to music. investigated relationships between marketing success and the level of external environmental complexity and turbulence.Available from: <Biblioteca.Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Mason (2003) from Rhodes University.learnmarketing. “using a qualitative. these are all the functionality such as making calls. taking pictures. their technical team is rated one of the best in the mobile phone sector. is the additional non tangible benefits that a product can offer. [Online].net> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 3 . regardless of industry habits. is about interpreting the list of core product benefits into a product that people will buy which is the iPhone itself. management preferences or market sector”. Make Calls Gaming MP3 Player Video Recording Camera functionality PDA Internet… IPhone IPhone Warranty Customer service helpline Free delivery Sales Service…. This is all part of service quality. and warranty provided by apple that makes the actual product more appealing to buy. His conclusion was that. internet. while more successful companies in complex and turbulent environments use destabilising tactics. The augmented product. His study was exploratory. The support | Marketing Design and Innovation 13 . The actual product. The core productslevel 1. level 3.g. such as help lines. The service quality for the iPhone has been rated highly.universia. Data was collected via depth interviews and document analysis from four companies”. are what apple would like their product to offer buyers. level 2.

The Rough and Prototype .Once the concept is finalised. needs are basic living essentials. which they are very good at. so that no one can copy the design”. | Marketing Design and Innovation 14 . Research . promoting positive customer perception in both benefits and value.Research should be undertaken to identify customer needs. Test then Modify .Apples Design Process Summary Study . to a lot as phone has evolved. even the one where it looks like a busload of Scouts. for fear they'd catch a glimpse of some upcoming product. Appendix 6 . clothing and shelter.At this stage. “40 year old Jony Ive heads the design team at Apple. different ways in which basic needs are satisfied. working principles and the form of the product. Investigation . small things. Wants. communicate and analyse together in a large open studio with little personal space but great privacy in order to deign functions that customers want and need in a phone. market gaps and competitor offerings. The definition of both are. While wants are defined as.Mobile phone that is slimmer and best looking than any other on the market. Many Apple employees aren't allowed in. company and customer aspects. Appendix 5 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen In regards to shape of the iPhone product an Apple spokesman said: “All the images are genuine.A product concept is an approximate product description of the technology. Thanks to cutting-edge technology smashing the laws of physics. such as the iPhone can be triggered by marketers and can be influenced by different social institutions and key figures. Concept . the engineering staff will create the necessary electrical. Needs are common for all human beings and mainly include food.Modifications can be in the form of changes to the design or changes to the concept that has been chosen Implement and Present . the iPhone 5 will constantly shift on a molecular level – becoming big things. reporting directly to the CEO Steve Jobs. Kotler (2009) defines needs as “a state of deprivation of some basic satisfaction”.” Ive's team consist of skills to visualize. as most other phones on the market has same or similar functionality such as mp3 player. Appendix 4 – Distinction between Needs and Wants A customer either needs a phone or wants a phone for their disposal. Whilst needs will be numbered. inanimate objects and animals.By looking at market. wants will be has evolved from knowing something really simple about this iPhone. These transformations will happen completely at random and without warning. mechanical and software components and produce an approximation of the final product Apple have design Guru. apple develop a 3 dimensional model of this concept. the design team think of ways of fulfilling the requirement in the study.

ibtimes. Here's what Samsung said following the verdict”.Appendix 7 .Apple v. but as a loss for the American consumer. or technology that is being improved every day by Samsung and other companies”. "Today's verdict should not be viewed as a win for Apple. Samsung patent-infringement lawsuit and was awarded $1. Within their marketing process they define who their target market is. Apple had the last laugh in the epic Apple v.Available from: < http://www.051 billion in damages by a California jury”. jury. billboards and etc Media – such as television and radio Internet – Facebook and other popular website Sales promotion and etc | Marketing Design and Innovation 15 . “Scoring a huge victory over its arch-rival Samsung on Friday.051 billion in damages by a U. the prices and design process of their product and then what the best ways they can communicate to those target> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 8 . It is unfortunate that patent law can be manipulated to give one company a monopoly over rectangles with rounded corners.S. less innovation and potentially higher prices. [Online]. Samsung patent-infringement lawsuit and was awarded $1.Communicating Your Brand Effectively Apple has used the following mediums very effectively to promote the iPhone. It will lead to fewer choices. Samsung Patent-infringement “Apple had the last laugh in its epic Apple v. They have used mediums such as:     Advertising – within stores.

co.Available from: <http://www.wikipedia.Available from: <http://www.blogspot.wikipedia.html#!/2009/06/> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].su/1000ventures_e/business_guide/> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: <http://en.Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] | Marketing Design and Innovation 16 .Available from: <http://it4b.Available from: <http://beyrouti.Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].net> [accessed November 2012] [Online].org/wiki/IPhone> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: < http://www.forbes.html> [accessed November 2012] [Online]> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Bibliography Book and Journals Kotler (2009) Management Theory Review Thompson & Gamble (2010) ‘The Top Ten Things You Need to Know About Ways to Cope with Rapid Change’ Mason (2003) Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Online [Online].com/post/31732170665/its-all-aboutbrand-appeal-people-ask-all> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: <Biblioteca.html> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: <http://en.Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online] process.

there were bursts of intricate cohesion. and so I expected many highs. and while some aspects of the module seemed like a process of trial and error. developing new ideas. In particular. and I often waited for an idea to filter. I felt I had deconstructed it. it was a physical move to the keyboard that progressed the assignment. contrary to some views. then in the middle. On a technical course. describe how the course challenged your thinking. proverbially falling on paper. It was a lengthy process of organisation. set within the context of the learning outcomes. current. was the marketing design process is a state of flux: the marketing machine is a technical beast that must be primed. and rebuilt it in a coherent fashion. reviewed. A. to be insightful. or presented approaches to the topic with which you may have disagreed. Perception Being on this module could be described as a plateau with intermittent troughs and horizons. since the innovator had on record that she endured experiences as any less known chef would. I found my journey of aligning those experiences to theories and models. oiled. as well as bracing for surprises. In a good business. to outdo competitors. At the course’s end. Instruction It was evident resource material was not short in abundance. as it related to my topic. and few stones left unturned. Alternatively. brought you to new and interesting ideas. times when the work had to be put aside.1 TASK 2 Write a critical reflective essay on your journey of discovery through the module. assessing the instruction methodology. though this may be attributed to the range of angles from which marketing can be addressed. or concepts. What was also possible. What was conveyed. things are often changing to remain relevant. cutting edge or unique in some way. B. was to demonstrate a link between international flair that the . Much patience was required than normally expected for a Master’s module. further. Perhaps a way of implementation or challenges is routine. at the other end of the spectrum incremental steps. since the product type is something I have been involved with. peer-reviewed and reflected upon if there is to be a positive result from expenses involved. thoughts rotated in five ways of perception. I chose the subject for investigation. evaluating dichotomies and disagreements.

I believe whatever angle is taken. I also had to be creative if market data wasn’t available. One could say the product has diffused but according to Roger’s theory. and the way she approached food as well as its cultural ‘fashions’. customers who wanted a simple cupcake. it appeared unremarkable. I found something new almost every day I visited the retail shop. in particular. applications. say for example for a technological gadget. growth strategy. accepted that each day is different. I saw the innovation. although the instructor claimed that anything can be sold. the ideas still fall in a general pool of literature that requires more funnelling. The item may not have piqued the interest due to personal choice. baking shows and standardisation in television’s “My Kitchen Rules” all of which convey expertise and class. How the cupcake was defined. read the innovators blogs. there can be laggards who have not joined in. morph into a new form that in theory left the original behind. and to share them with whomever. with regards to what defines a product and ramifications of market segmentation and distribution. it is given that products go through changes. I kept abreast of goings-on in the media. suggests the innovator cannot always be separated from the innovation. I disagree in that there is an adoption process for any item. there should also be a novel triangulated way of evaluation. or the allure and lucrative nature of public profiling. though at first glance. and tried getting the whole plot of the cupcakes’ journey. New ideas Considering the range of literature I engaged with. Having access to a best-selling baking book. how many. observations and configuration for refinement. Dichotomies and Disagreements With change often comes even greater choice. So. depending on the platform on which the product is launched.2 innovator has. can now decide to make them. the number of empty boxes over a day. The lines of market segmentation can be easily blurred. perhaps simply for convenience. C. Simultaneously. provided there is a good marketing plan based on customer’s perceived need. and the stream of customers jostling for space. and get an approximation of sales by checking the capacity of cake boxes. as indicated below. or may . as original module information and assessment guidelines intimated. this opened a forum for a much wider and dynamic approach to marketing design than is often the case. rather than skeletonise marketing. To create new ideas. I was aware the shop didn’t fully represent how successful or not the cakes were in the market. or didn’t stimulate the senses enough for interest in the first instance. Yet. D.

Surprises What was certainly unexpected. and importance is placed on brand identity and equity. I would be forced to disagree. ultimately finding a place in the hearts of faithful and new customers. This reifies some discussions about cost and loss leadership being stronger points. doesn’t have all answers. or just needs time for more processing. had to be seen to be believed. F. there is little indication the product is not recognisable: a large group of French girls amicably hailed it by the original name “Ella’s!” before making an average spend of £4 per person. or with their wives. and compared observations of patronage over several weeks. and a space where innovations expand or contract. packaging and having a chat with comfortable customers. families or group of friends. Further research also indicates that a 51% shareholder and. E. Not only were men purchasing alone. If I used the study example of delicately designed. and a plethora of perspectives available. There are no absolute answers to what may be seen as a marketing hurdle. and the reasons for non . was the idea projected in lectures that every product has a masculine or feminine slant. Further. although the brand has gone through a change of name for legal reasons.60 went down well with either gender. frilly. the company secretary are male. A good innovator like Ms Pascale. WORD COUNT: 1100 . but a male was also serving.3 not have passed the re-evaluation phase of the adoption process. this allows healthy growth. value is added if there are open fora. and indeed some things like the simply attractive display in a very small space. The ambience of involvement in the cake experience and camaraderie extended by shop staff was also all inclusive. Summary While there are successful entrepreneurs who may also be public figures. light and mostly presentable cakes. seemingly it was one of the few words one knew and loved. as a cup of tea and cupcake for £2.adoption cannot always be explained by logic.