Anglia Ruskin University
MBA Top up / Advanced entry
Marketing Design and Innovation
December 2012


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Anglia Ruskin University Marketing Design and Innovation 2012 IPhone – Study into Its Evolution to Suit Changing Market Needs | Marketing Design and Innovation 1 .

Service Quality 3.Design Process 3. Samsung Patent-infringement Appendix 7 .4 Design.Contents Page Introduction 1.Communicating Your Brand Effectively 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 Conclusion 12 Appendix Appendix 1 .Communicating Your Brand Effectively 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 Bibliography 16 Reflective Essay Introduction to Task 2 17 | Marketing Design and Innovation 2 .0 Continuous Change as a Norm 2.10 Competition in Contemporary Market See Appendix 8 .1.3 Product and Service Value 3.Design Process Appendix 6 .iPhone translated by a product onion… See Appendix 3 .8 Brand Excitement in Relation to Other Brands 3.1 Assignment Problem 1. Color and Imagination See Appendix 5 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen 3.2 Ways to Cope With Change See Appendix 1 .Marketing Success and… 4 4 4 4 Analysis 3.Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Appendix 2 .1 Management Theory Review 2.Apple v.iPhone translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler Appendix 3 .5 Product Design See Appendix 6 .0 Introduction to Task 1 1.0 Product Description – IPhone See Appendix 2 . Shape.Service Quality Appendix 3 – Distinction between Needs and Wants Appendix 4 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen Appendix 5 .1 Introduction to Product – The iPhone 1. Samsung Patent-infringement 3.1.Apple v.9 Brand Value 3.7 IPhones Brand Appeal 3.6 Intellectual Property and Patents See Appendix 7 .2 Customer Perception See Appendix 4 – Distinction between Needs and Wants 3.2 Assignment Objectives 3 3 3 3 Literature 2.

“The iPhone is a line of smartphones designed/marketed by Apple. There are now six generations of iPhones”. For this reason the iPhone product has been chosen to be analysed within this assignment.1 Introduction to Product – The iPhone The iPhone has seen change over the few years. This entices me to investigate how/why the iPhone has altered in such a way that has met all these new customer’s needs.1. Samsung and RIM to their product (including me). do these changes have an effect on their customers and performance and how they have coped against their competitors. what changes have been made in terms of design. 1.2 Assignment Objectives All questions incorporated together construct the following objectives.1 Assignment Problem The research problem selected is to investigate how the iPhone has evolved in order to meet the changing market needs.Introduction 1. 1. Millions of customers have switched from Apple’s competitors. The research questions consist of.1. in relation to its image. which will be the focal assignment objectives:  By the use of literature explore whether the change is needed to cope with change in meet markets needs  What are the benefits resulted from the changes perceived by customers  What were the changes made to make the product so unique  How did brand appeal play its role in relation to their competitors | Marketing Design and Innovation 3 . technology and capabilities due to the change of market needs. First iPhone was released 2007. the most recent iPhone was released on 2012. 1.0 Introduction to Task 1 Written critique of the way in which characteristics of the chosen innovative product or service has altered over time in order to suit the changing needs of the market (taking account of the points made on module information).

and it is those who innovate very well that get the high level of recognition by clients and customers which leads to increased sales revenue as seen with the iPhone product from 2007 to present. it is why Apple have been very innovative in their variety of products including the iPhone which in turn tells us that yes change is needed in order to cope with market’s needs. and aggressive research and development techniques”. | Marketing Design and Innovation 4 . It is why products need to evolve within such variables to suit customers constantly changing wants and needs. such as. There are many different ways an organization can go about dealing with the change. innovation. social and mental variables. Kotler describes customers with wants and needs. Marketing concept holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists of being more effective than competitors in integrating marketing activities toward determining and satisfying the needs and wants of target markets”. respond with differentiation. a similar theory to the statement made by Gates. it's hard to look ahead" [Online].Available from: < must become learning organizations that change and adapt to suit their changing business environment”. thus from a marketing and business point of view it only makes sense to innovate as Gates says. “if you don't practice the change management that looks after the future.Literature 2. Although people’s needs are few. If you're too focused on your current business. and those attributes are constantly changing due to factors such as economic. the future will not look after you. “Wants are desires for specific satisfiers of needs. their wants are many. 2. including churches. families and business corporations”. applies to all successful companies.html> [accessed November 2012] 2. Having the ability to cope with and handle the change can either help or hinder the organizations ability to maintain market share”. The statement that change is a norm. They are continually shaped and reshaped by social forces and institutions. schools.1 Management Theory Review Kotler (2009) says “a market consists of all the potential customers sharing a particular need or want who might be willing and able to engage in exchange to satisfy that need or want.0 Continuous Change as a Norm Continuous change as a norm says “companies are like any living organism. Bill Gates quoted. “The ability to understand changes and cope with the process can make an organization stand out with its consumers as well as its competitors. As time passes more technology is updated and new resources utilized and etc.2 Ways to Cope With Change Thompson & Gamble (2010) in ‘The Top Ten Things You Need to Know about Ways to Cope with Rapid Change’ says “The market is a fast paced place full of change and competition.icsti.

it declines out and replaced by something new. and the level of change all depends on how complex the markets needs and wants are as described by Mason (2003). Thus in order to maintain market share. It bought into the market.Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Changing a product is all part of its life cycle. | Marketing Design and Innovation 5 . Thompson & Gamble (2010) also agree with such a life cycle. grows and matures and then when the market is tired of the product. as they mention that the market is full of change and competition. changing to market needs should not be just a necessity but a key to survival.Appendix 1 .

such as screen size and button placement 3G cellular network capabilities and GPS location Faster processor and a higher-resolution camera that could record video at 480p Higher-resolution 960 × 640 retina> [accessed November 2012] IPhone is an integrated mobile phone and media player developed and marketed by Apple made purposely as a consumer good (classed as specialty goods.0 Product Description – IPhone A product is “A thing that can be offered to satisfy a need or want”. Appendix 2 . It can consist of three components: physical goods. customers or recipients 3.Available from: <http://en. holds a 4-inch Retina display that is larger than its predecessor's 3. Whereas a service is an act (intangible usually) that one party offers. a higher-resolution rear-facing camera and a lower-resolution front-facing camera for video calling Added an 8-megapixel camera with 1080p video recording. service.Analysis IPhone’s benefits & value derived by the clients. and established design precedents. and a natural language voice control system called Siri New A6 processor. a dualcore processor. Original iPhone iPhone 3G iPhone 3GS iPhone 4 iPhone 4S iPhone 5 GSM phone. combining functions of several electronic gadgets in a single device all with a shared interface and integration between them.wikipedia.5-inch display [Online].iPhone translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler | Marketing Design and Innovation 6 . which as expensive and infrequently purchased) and not an industrial good. and ideas’ as stated by Philip Kotler.

2 Customer Perception One needs a mobile phone to communicate for work or personal reasons. Over the year’s apple have always been innovative and successful in providing something new for the customers to benefit from.3 Product and Service Value IPhone has successfully delivered total customer value. The | Marketing Design and Innovation 7 . slim and fast rather than a dial up house phone. As phones have got a lot slimmer and more pleasing to look at. As this product has changed over time. as they rather use an iPhone. [Online]. way of living and social differences. The product that seems to be most popular’ is seen to be something that is wanted by most people.Available from: <http://www. They have dominated in product /personnel/service and image value. In the 1990’s the size of phones was on average big and bulky. benefits include:  Latest technology  Improved and faster processor  Improved image This builds customer value to the company and creates advantage over other competitors. such as the technical> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 3 .Service Quality 3. both personal and business have in common is that as time changes so does the norm of having the latest product in the market. which is a true statement but they may also say they need a iPhone due to the functionality such as emails and PDA functions. making their product extremely desirable over the years. In modern day society the want and need is very difficult to distinguish. The perception that customers.Make Calls Gaming MP3 Player Video Recording Camera functionality PDA Internet… IPhone IPhone Warranty Customer service helpline Free delivery Sales Service…. with Nokia dominating the phone market.learnmarketing. thus customers are more likely to give their money to Apple in exchange for their product. but that phone can be of any sort including the house phone. perception from others to the capabilities it has due to the change in economy. these are some of the values and benefits of constant innovation of a product. Appendix 4 – Distinction between Needs and Wants 3. some employers even have benefits such as a new work mobile being the iPhone to attract them to the job. as some may say they need a phone. it would be only logical that the services that come with the product evolve in the same rate and manner. the need has also become a want from customer’s perception.

which allows the phone to resist shattering’.5 Product Design “Apple design process is actually an ordinary product development process.4 Design. 3. as internet on the phone is extremely popular. | Marketing Design and Innovation 8 . IPhone 5. Color and Imagination “IPhone 5 is just 7. People first wanted a phone that is touch screen but as time went on.5 inches glass multi-touch touchscreen display to the 3GS which retained the design of the 3G. backed up and They created a nano-SIM card. It is often dependent on the customer perception of its worth rather than its intrinsic value. Appendix 5 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen The imagination put into designing the iPhone enabled it to be the best sellers in the country. IPhone’s Uniqueness of Its Design Elements 3. the only difference was they made their processes with intense and almost perfect prototypes. with a glossy plastic back with tapered edges and metal buttons”. thought and consideration has gone into their product which goes well beyond design. redesigned to use an aluminum frame. color and usefulness of the phone must all be considered and effective.Available from: <http://www. more demands were made such as the phone being thin. light weight but now do not mind it being slightly bigger as internet surfing is more easier. [Online]. Apple engineers had to think small.value for this phone has increased so much that annual sales for the iPhone show customers are willing to pay more in order to be reassured that their product is safe. Less time spent in sketching but more on building prototypes and mock-ups”. IPhone 5 is 20 percent lighter than iPhone 4S. ensuring their implementation is more stylish then their competitors in respects of design and technology. Shape. [Online].org/wiki/IPhone> [accessed November 2012] Change in shape is due to the constant change in what customers perceive to be stylish.6 millimeters thin. “Apple redesigned the antenna in the iPhone 4S after some original iPhone 4 users reported signal problems”. Never has the telecommunication market seen this level of expert quality been harnessed into phone. The shape of the phone has gone from the bulkier/curved phone “centered on a ‘3.wikipedia. either white or black which customers are happy> [accessed November 2012] The iPhone has changed shape eloquently over the years. thus looking at it you can’t resist but perceive the superb chamfer round the display. which is 44 percent smaller than a micro-SIM”. so the shape. IPhone has had to take these demands and ensure they change their shape according to the needs of their customer.Available from: <http://en. It has maintained the same original colour scheme throughout.

This has led to their phones being relevant and useful for the customer. Appendix 7 . | Marketing Design and Innovation 9 .com/2012/09/20/iphone-patent-shake-to-chargebattery-apple/> [accessed November 2012] Apples iPhone is a registered trademark as well as registering their designs as someone would expect. it ensure their competitors do not replicate any similar ideas into their products created by the apple’s design team.6 Intellectual Property and Patents Along with the sheer brilliant design of the iPhone.blogspot. fitting and appearance are vital in the experience of the consumer. Its brand appeal in relation to competitors in contemporary markets 3. [Online]. The texture. Samsung Patent-infringement The latest patent being a concept for shaking an iPhone to charge it’ this evolution is one that the apple team believe is moving towards to the future and adapting to the new technological market. but apples mac from: <http://appleindustrialdesign. thus the customer is always happy to either upgrade to either the next new version of the iPhone (rarely do iPhone users switch to another manufacturer) as they are pleased with the outcomes of the design of the phones. in terms of all the features the phone has. whilst the most innovative idea from Nokia has been that wireless charging is the way of the future. the intellectual properties that come with it are also that factors that drive the market customers to buy it. iPad and so on due to the name it represents. also used to describe a “product or service made distinctive by its positioning relative to the competition and by its personality in the context of the target market” (Hankinson & Cowling).7 IPhones Brand Appeal Brand could be viewed as a personality that differentiates a company. such as its brand and the name.Available from: <http://bgr. There is a long document in place which patents Apples utility and design features for the iPhone. is shown in Appendix 6 with more information on design process. Trademarks:  Discourage others from using a trade mark without permission  Easier to legal action against people using trademark without permission  Allows the owner to sell it.html#!/2009/06/apple-design-process.html> [accessed November 2012] A design process which us usually used by most companies. which are all protected. 3. 2012). Apple have also been recognised as one of the best global brands in 2012 (daily telegraph. iPod.Apple has found that initial prototypes help designers envision their invention from the start. [Online]. franchise it and etc.Apple process. As customers now like to own not just the iPhone. which some customers believe says quality and craftsmanship.

which is just made by excitement and that outlook of what’s next. the only way is to give customers a brand appeal like no other. they also have brand appeal. Apple have been successful then their competition. Not excepting second best is what makes your customers believe they are purchasing hours and hours of perfection”.tumblr. Other benefits are that it defends against competition.The iPhones falls under the term manufacturer brand.Available from: <http://beyrouti. iPad and Mac Books are so pleasing. When you raise the bar. 3. When customers purchase the iPhone they get filled with excitement which is why they keep coming back. Other competitors have not been able to build this character with their products as iPhone has done so. 3. Businesses should not infer on what the customer is nor do customers want to be told who they are. it helps position products in the market and importantly it creates a character for the iPhone and this character has been highly valued by customers which in turn creates> [accessed November 2012] 3. “Apple has delivered the goods on countless occasions with regards to its product ranges. “Brands that give you physical bliss like Apple with their iPhone. Despite the fact that Apple has ground breaking unrivaled product. Samsung and HTC in keeping their customers hyped and on the edge. and attractive to people. [Online]. such as with Samsung and Blackberry and it helps with positioning and targeting the iPhone product in the telecommunication market. The benefits the iPhone has with branding is that customers find it easier to identify their products. it’s fair to say that at times. loyalty). Nokia. customers get cognitively attached to them (manufacturer benefit. the brand raises with it.9 Brand Value IPhone’s brand values are the main driver to victory and are what builds the brand appeal a factor on drawing the majority towards them.10 Competition in Contemporary Market Over the past 5-10 years the level of competition for iPhone has varied from going to high level of competition when Apples | Marketing Design and Innovation 10 . the Apple brand / logo have carried a sizeable chunk of total sales”. as the level of customer loyalty reflects the high number of customers sticking with the iPhone brand.8 Brand Excitement in Relation to Other Brands Most effective factor with branding is the loyalty it promotes within customers. The physical brand Appeal due to engineering marvels are what makes the brand solid.

loyal customers will remain and as sales is going up. Android is huge.forbes. [Online].com/sites/darcytravlos/2012/09/11/competition-sets-a-high-bar-forapples-iphone-5/> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 8 . However. During the introduction. and the iPhone has been able to cater for those needs more well then its competitors. IPhone is the most sold handset in the UK in 2011. so does this mean that the customers will switch from Apple product? Yes and no.product has not been the market leader to less competition as Apple as gown to dominate the market.Available from: <http://www. maturity and decline of each iPhone. Reason is because the iPhone is the iPhone and IPhone’s brand value here represents the additional money that an organisation could earn from its products purely due to its brand name. growth. The change has come due to the change in market needs. It is identified that customers are willing to pay more for a brand than a product. triumph might not come as simply as it has in years earlier and the aggressive competition might have somewhat to do with that.Communicating Your Brand Effectively Apple has been good at not only promoting their product to their target markets. but also doing so at the right time. 4G LTE is here and Windows Phone looks enormously assuring. | Marketing Design and Innovation 11 .

IPhone’s branding helps customers find it easier to identify their products. such as retina display within their phones. as agreed with theorists such as Gates. as they feel they are buying the finest product that is available in this ever changing market. it needs to practice innovation and change within its marketing and management system. The changes made to the iPhone during each model were very unique in terms of image and functionality. change is most certainly required to cope with changes within the market. which customers want in their phones. Nokia and Blackberry will drive them out. ensuring they also provide the most up to date functionality. The phone has changed its image and capabilities according to how the market.Conclusion Business to survive within in its target market. If iPhone do not their competitors such as Samsung. This encourages loyalty within new and existing customers. | Marketing Design and Innovation 12 .g. The iPhone has been strong in being most up to date with their technology use and the look of their product e. Currently the iPhone 5 is the thinnest phone in the market. technology. However. The iPhone has changed its shape and design over the years a great deal. thinner and lighter than any other phone. So the conclusion is yes. And functionality wise it provides customers with immense power and capability with a touch of a button. it creates a character for the iPhone and this character has been highly valued by customers which in turn creates loyalty. where they all state that without change and innovation there is no future for a company. economy and social life style have developed. success might not come as easily as it has in years previous and the fierce competition might have something to do with that. Kotler (2009) and Thompson & Gamble (2010). When customers purchase the iPhone they get filled with excitement which is why they keep coming back to the brand over and over again. Other competitors have not been able to build this character with their products as well as. offering products and services (newer and better phones) that are more elite then theirs or due to the fact that customers are less willing to buy due to their product being too outdated.

level 3. is the additional non tangible benefits that a product can offer. case study technique.Available from: <http://www. such as help lines. management preferences or market sector”. and warranty provided by apple that makes the actual product more appealing to buy. [Online].Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 2 .learnmarketing.Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Mason (2003) from Rhodes University. which is one of the factors that must also change over time with the product evolution according to the changing market needs. internet. regardless of industry habits. The support | Marketing Design and Innovation 13 . Data was collected via depth interviews and document analysis from four companies”. The core productslevel> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 3 . Make Calls Gaming MP3 Player Video Recording Camera functionality PDA Internet… IPhone IPhone Warranty Customer service helpline Free delivery Sales Service…. their technical team is rated one of the best in the mobile phone sector. The service quality for the iPhone has been rated highly. The augmented product.Service Quality IPhone classified as tangible goods with accompanying services e. gaming and listening to music. video recording. level 2. The actual product. “successful companies in simple and stable environments use stabilising marketing tactics.universia. are what apple would like their product to offer buyers.iPhone translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler The iPhone can be translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler. is about interpreting the list of core product benefits into a product that people will buy which is the iPhone itself.Appendix Appendix 1 . while more successful companies in complex and turbulent environments use destabilising tactics. His study was exploratory. these are all the functionality such as making calls. taking pictures.g. warranty and etc. This is all part of service quality. investigated relationships between marketing success and the level of external environmental complexity and turbulence. “using a qualitative. [Online]. His conclusion was that.

A product concept is an approximate product description of the technology. as most other phones on the market has same or similar functionality such as mp3 player. needs are basic living essentials. the engineering staff will create the necessary electrical. Wants.Research should be undertaken to identify customer needs. While wants are defined as. mechanical and software components and produce an approximation of the final product Apple have design Guru. Research . market gaps and competitor offerings. even the one where it looks like a busload of Scouts. Whilst needs will be numbered.Once the concept is finalised. the iPhone 5 will constantly shift on a molecular level – becoming big things.Apples Design Process Summary Study . which they are very good at. reporting directly to the CEO Steve Jobs. company and customer aspects. small things. wants will be unlimited.Modifications can be in the form of changes to the design or changes to the concept that has been chosen Implement and Present . communicate and analyse together in a large open studio with little personal space but great privacy in order to deign functions that customers want and need in a phone. clothing and shelter. the design team think of ways of fulfilling the requirement in the study. for fear they'd catch a glimpse of some upcoming product. Many Apple employees aren't allowed in. promoting positive customer perception in both benefits and value.” Ive's team consist of skills to visualize. so that no one can copy the design”. different ways in which basic needs are satisfied. Appendix 4 – Distinction between Needs and Wants A customer either needs a phone or wants a phone for their disposal. inanimate objects and animals.Mobile phone that is slimmer and best looking than any other on the market. The definition of both are. apple develop a 3 dimensional model of this concept. | Marketing Design and Innovation 14 . “40 year old Jony Ive heads the design team at Apple. The Rough and Prototype . such as the iPhone can be triggered by marketers and can be influenced by different social institutions and key figures. Test then Modify .At this stage. Thanks to cutting-edge technology smashing the laws of has evolved from knowing something really simple about this iPhone. Kotler (2009) defines needs as “a state of deprivation of some basic satisfaction”. Appendix 5 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen In regards to shape of the iPhone product an Apple spokesman said: “All the images are genuine. Concept . to a lot as phone has evolved. Needs are common for all human beings and mainly include food. Appendix 6 . working principles and the form of the product. These transformations will happen completely at random and without warning.By looking at market. Investigation .

Apple v. Here's what Samsung said following the verdict”.051 billion in damages by a U. Within their marketing process they define who their target market is. It is unfortunate that patent law can be manipulated to give one company a monopoly over rectangles with rounded corners. but as a loss for the American consumer. Samsung patent-infringement lawsuit and was awarded $1.Appendix 7 . less innovation and potentially higher prices. jury. or technology that is being improved every day by Samsung and other companies”. Apple had the last laugh in the epic Apple v. Samsung patent-infringement lawsuit and was awarded $1. They have used mediums such as:     Advertising – within> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 8 .Communicating Your Brand Effectively Apple has used the following mediums very effectively to promote the iPhone. billboards and etc Media – such as television and radio Internet – Facebook and other popular website Sales promotion and etc | Marketing Design and Innovation 15 . “Scoring a huge victory over its arch-rival Samsung on Friday.S. the prices and design process of their product and then what the best ways they can communicate to those target markets.ibtimes.Available from: < http://www. Samsung Patent-infringement “Apple had the last laugh in its epic Apple v. It will lead to fewer choices. "Today's verdict should not be viewed as a win for Apple.051 billion in damages by a California jury”. [Online].

su/1000ventures_e/business_guide/innovation_harnessing_bypd.html> [accessed November 2012] [Online].com/sites/darcytravlos/2012/09/11/competition-sets-a-high-bar-forapples-iphone-5/> [accessed November 2012] [Online].net> [accessed November 2012] [Online].com/post/31732170665/its-all-aboutbrand-appeal-people-ask-all> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: <http://appleindustrialdesign.Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].com/iphone/design> [accessed November 2012] [Online].html#!/2009/06/apple-design-process.html> [accessed November 2012] [Online]> [accessed November 2012] | Marketing Design and Innovation 16 from: <http://en.tumblr.Bibliography Book and Journals Kotler (2009) Management Theory Review Thompson & Gamble (2010) ‘The Top Ten Things You Need to Know About Ways to Cope with Rapid Change’ Mason (2003) Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Online [Online].com/apple-vs-samsung-lawsuit-how-techgiants-responded-1-billion-verdict-full-list-infringed-products> [accessed November 2012] [Online] from: <Biblioteca.Available from: <http://it4b.Available from: < http://www.Available from: <http://beyrouti.Available from: <http://www.Available from: <http://bgr.Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].ibtimes.learnmarketing.

and while some aspects of the module seemed like a process of trial and error. Alternatively. current. thoughts rotated in five ways of perception. developing new ideas. since the innovator had on record that she endured experiences as any less known chef would. At the course’s end. assessing the instruction methodology. I felt I had deconstructed it. brought you to new and interesting ideas. I chose the subject for investigation. What was also possible. evaluating dichotomies and disagreements. contrary to some views. things are often changing to remain relevant. there were bursts of intricate cohesion. it was a physical move to the keyboard that progressed the assignment. to be insightful. Instruction It was evident resource material was not short in abundance. cutting edge or unique in some way. Perhaps a way of implementation or challenges is routine. was to demonstrate a link between international flair that the . and I often waited for an idea to filter. further. reviewed.1 TASK 2 Write a critical reflective essay on your journey of discovery through the module. and few stones left unturned. though this may be attributed to the range of angles from which marketing can be addressed. then in the middle. set within the context of the learning outcomes. On a technical course. times when the work had to be put aside. as well as bracing for surprises. and rebuilt it in a coherent fashion. describe how the course challenged your thinking. at the other end of the spectrum incremental steps. was the marketing design process is a state of flux: the marketing machine is a technical beast that must be primed. since the product type is something I have been involved with. to outdo competitors. It was a lengthy process of organisation. In a good business. Much patience was required than normally expected for a Master’s module. as it related to my topic. What was conveyed. In particular. peer-reviewed and reflected upon if there is to be a positive result from expenses involved. A. or concepts. oiled. B. proverbially falling on paper. I found my journey of aligning those experiences to theories and models. Perception Being on this module could be described as a plateau with intermittent troughs and horizons. or presented approaches to the topic with which you may have disagreed. and so I expected many highs.

and get an approximation of sales by checking the capacity of cake boxes. and the stream of customers jostling for space. it is given that products go through changes.2 innovator has. there can be laggards who have not joined in. there should also be a novel triangulated way of evaluation. as indicated below. Dichotomies and Disagreements With change often comes even greater choice. customers who wanted a simple cupcake. or may . The lines of market segmentation can be easily blurred. The item may not have piqued the interest due to personal choice. say for example for a technological gadget. how many. I was aware the shop didn’t fully represent how successful or not the cakes were in the market. Yet. accepted that each day is different. rather than skeletonise marketing. D. How the cupcake was defined. with regards to what defines a product and ramifications of market segmentation and distribution. the number of empty boxes over a day. I also had to be creative if market data wasn’t available. or the allure and lucrative nature of public profiling. One could say the product has diffused but according to Roger’s theory. observations and configuration for refinement. read the innovators blogs. as original module information and assessment guidelines intimated. growth strategy. suggests the innovator cannot always be separated from the innovation. and the way she approached food as well as its cultural ‘fashions’. C. morph into a new form that in theory left the original behind. although the instructor claimed that anything can be sold. and tried getting the whole plot of the cupcakes’ journey. Having access to a best-selling baking book. or didn’t stimulate the senses enough for interest in the first instance. it appeared unremarkable. I saw the innovation. though at first glance. can now decide to make them. this opened a forum for a much wider and dynamic approach to marketing design than is often the case. the ideas still fall in a general pool of literature that requires more funnelling. I disagree in that there is an adoption process for any item. depending on the platform on which the product is launched. perhaps simply for convenience. I found something new almost every day I visited the retail shop. I kept abreast of goings-on in the media. applications. and to share them with whomever. Simultaneously. I believe whatever angle is taken. So. New ideas Considering the range of literature I engaged with. To create new ideas. baking shows and standardisation in television’s “My Kitchen Rules” all of which convey expertise and class. in particular. provided there is a good marketing plan based on customer’s perceived need.

E.60 went down well with either gender. F. the company secretary are male. light and mostly presentable cakes. A good innovator like Ms Pascale. as a cup of tea and cupcake for £2. but a male was also serving. If I used the study example of delicately designed. this allows healthy growth. doesn’t have all answers. This reifies some discussions about cost and loss leadership being stronger points. Further. and indeed some things like the simply attractive display in a very small space. seemingly it was one of the few words one knew and loved. value is added if there are open fora. or just needs time for more processing. was the idea projected in lectures that every product has a masculine or feminine slant. I would be forced to disagree. The ambience of involvement in the cake experience and camaraderie extended by shop staff was also all inclusive. and a plethora of perspectives available. Surprises What was certainly unexpected. WORD COUNT: 1100 . and importance is placed on brand identity and equity. ultimately finding a place in the hearts of faithful and new customers. and compared observations of patronage over several weeks. and a space where innovations expand or contract. Further research also indicates that a 51% shareholder and. packaging and having a chat with comfortable customers. had to be seen to be believed.adoption cannot always be explained by logic. Summary While there are successful entrepreneurs who may also be public figures. families or group of friends. Not only were men purchasing alone. frilly. There are no absolute answers to what may be seen as a marketing hurdle. although the brand has gone through a change of name for legal reasons. there is little indication the product is not recognisable: a large group of French girls amicably hailed it by the original name “Ella’s!” before making an average spend of £4 per person. and the reasons for non . or with their wives.3 not have passed the re-evaluation phase of the adoption process.