Anglia Ruskin University
MBA Top up / Advanced entry
Marketing Design and Innovation
December 2012


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Anglia Ruskin University Marketing Design and Innovation 2012 IPhone – Study into Its Evolution to Suit Changing Market Needs | Marketing Design and Innovation 1 .

Communicating Your Brand Effectively 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 Conclusion 12 Appendix Appendix 1 .6 Intellectual Property and Patents See Appendix 7 .2 Assignment Objectives 3 3 3 3 Literature 2.Apple v.0 Product Description – IPhone See Appendix 2 .iPhone translated by a product onion… See Appendix 3 .Apple v.2 Customer Perception See Appendix 4 – Distinction between Needs and Wants 3.7 IPhones Brand Appeal 3.Design Process Appendix 6 .9 Brand Value 3.Contents Page Introduction 1.2 Ways to Cope With Change See Appendix 1 .4 Design.Service Quality 3. Samsung Patent-infringement Appendix 7 .5 Product Design See Appendix 6 .Design Process 3.Communicating Your Brand Effectively 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 Bibliography 16 Reflective Essay Introduction to Task 2 17 | Marketing Design and Innovation 2 .1 Management Theory Review 2.1.iPhone translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler Appendix 3 . Samsung Patent-infringement 3.1.0 Introduction to Task 1 1. Color and Imagination See Appendix 5 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen 3.Marketing Success and… 4 4 4 4 Analysis 3.1 Introduction to Product – The iPhone 1.0 Continuous Change as a Norm 2. Shape.Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Appendix 2 .3 Product and Service Value 3.8 Brand Excitement in Relation to Other Brands 3.1 Assignment Problem 1.Service Quality Appendix 3 – Distinction between Needs and Wants Appendix 4 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen Appendix 5 .10 Competition in Contemporary Market See Appendix 8 .

do these changes have an effect on their customers and performance and how they have coped against their competitors.1. technology and capabilities due to the change of market needs. 1. the most recent iPhone was released on 2012.1.Introduction 1. Samsung and RIM to their product (including me). Millions of customers have switched from Apple’s competitors.0 Introduction to Task 1 Written critique of the way in which characteristics of the chosen innovative product or service has altered over time in order to suit the changing needs of the market (taking account of the points made on module information). The research questions consist of. 1. This entices me to investigate how/why the iPhone has altered in such a way that has met all these new customer’s needs. which will be the focal assignment objectives:  By the use of literature explore whether the change is needed to cope with change in meet markets needs  What are the benefits resulted from the changes perceived by customers  What were the changes made to make the product so unique  How did brand appeal play its role in relation to their competitors | Marketing Design and Innovation 3 . For this reason the iPhone product has been chosen to be analysed within this assignment. First iPhone was released 2007. in relation to its image. There are now six generations of iPhones”.1 Assignment Problem The research problem selected is to investigate how the iPhone has evolved in order to meet the changing market needs. “The iPhone is a line of smartphones designed/marketed by Apple.1 Introduction to Product – The iPhone The iPhone has seen change over the few years.2 Assignment Objectives All questions incorporated together construct the following objectives. 1. what changes have been made in terms of design.

and aggressive research and development techniques”. respond with differentiation. Having the ability to cope with and handle the change can either help or hinder the organizations ability to maintain market share”.icsti.html> [accessed November 2012] 2.2 Ways to Cope With Change Thompson & Gamble (2010) in ‘The Top Ten Things You Need to Know about Ways to Cope with Rapid Change’ says “The market is a fast paced place full of change and 2. | Marketing Design and Innovation 4 . it is why Apple have been very innovative in their variety of products including the iPhone which in turn tells us that yes change is needed in order to cope with market’s needs. As time passes more technology is updated and new resources utilized and etc. “The ability to understand changes and cope with the process can make an organization stand out with its consumers as well as its competitors. If you're too focused on your current business. It is why products need to evolve within such variables to suit customers constantly changing wants and needs. applies to all successful companies. thus from a marketing and business point of view it only makes sense to innovate as Gates says. a similar theory to the statement made by Gates. social and mental variables. “Wants are desires for specific satisfiers of needs.0 Continuous Change as a Norm Continuous change as a norm says “companies are like any living organism. their wants are many. “if you don't practice the change management that looks after the future. and those attributes are constantly changing due to factors such as economic. There are many different ways an organization can go about dealing with the change.1 Management Theory Review Kotler (2009) says “a market consists of all the potential customers sharing a particular need or want who might be willing and able to engage in exchange to satisfy that need or want. Marketing concept holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists of being more effective than competitors in integrating marketing activities toward determining and satisfying the needs and wants of target markets”. Although people’s needs are few. The statement that change is a norm. Bill Gates quoted. innovation. the future will not look after you. 2. families and business corporations”. Kotler describes customers with wants and needs. such as. schools.Available from: <http://it4b. it's hard to look ahead" [Online]. must become learning organizations that change and adapt to suit their changing business environment”. They are continually shaped and reshaped by social forces and institutions. and it is those who innovate very well that get the high level of recognition by clients and customers which leads to increased sales revenue as seen with the iPhone product from 2007 to present. including churches.

| Marketing Design and Innovation 5 . Thus in order to maintain market share.Appendix 1 . it declines out and replaced by something new. as they mention that the market is full of change and competition. Thompson & Gamble (2010) also agree with such a life cycle. and the level of change all depends on how complex the markets needs and wants are as described by Mason (2003).Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Changing a product is all part of its life cycle. It bought into the market. grows and matures and then when the market is tired of the product. changing to market needs should not be just a necessity but a key to survival.

Analysis IPhone’s benefits & value derived by the clients. Original iPhone iPhone 3G iPhone 3GS iPhone 4 iPhone 4S iPhone 5 GSM phone. customers or recipients 3.0 Product Description – IPhone A product is “A thing that can be offered to satisfy a need or want”.> [accessed November 2012] IPhone is an integrated mobile phone and media player developed and marketed by Apple made purposely as a consumer good (classed as specialty goods.wikipedia. which as expensive and infrequently purchased) and not an industrial good. Appendix 2 . and ideas’ as stated by Philip Kotler. and a natural language voice control system called Siri New A6 processor. such as screen size and button placement 3G cellular network capabilities and GPS location Faster processor and a higher-resolution camera that could record video at 480p Higher-resolution 960 × 640 retina display. Whereas a service is an act (intangible usually) that one party offers.iPhone translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler | Marketing Design and Innovation 6 . a higher-resolution rear-facing camera and a lower-resolution front-facing camera for video calling Added an 8-megapixel camera with 1080p video recording. a dualcore processor. It can consist of three components: physical goods.Available from: <http://en. holds a 4-inch Retina display that is larger than its predecessor's 3. and established design precedents.5-inch display [Online]. combining functions of several electronic gadgets in a single device all with a shared interface and integration between them.

net> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 3 . these are some of the values and benefits of constant innovation of a product. as they rather use an iPhone. way of living and social differences.learnmarketing. Appendix 4 – Distinction between Needs and Wants 3. the need has also become a want from customer’s perception.Service Quality 3. The | Marketing Design and Innovation 7 . The perception that customers. slim and fast rather than a dial up house phone. thus customers are more likely to give their money to Apple in exchange for their product. perception from others to the capabilities it has due to the change in economy. In the 1990’s the size of phones was on average big and bulky. but that phone can be of any sort including the house phone. which is a true statement but they may also say they need a iPhone due to the functionality such as emails and PDA functions.2 Customer Perception One needs a mobile phone to communicate for work or personal reasons. both personal and business have in common is that as time changes so does the norm of having the latest product in the market. As phones have got a lot slimmer and more pleasing to look at.3 Product and Service Value IPhone has successfully delivered total customer value. In modern day society the want and need is very difficult to distinguish. [Online]. making their product extremely desirable over the years. it would be only logical that the services that come with the product evolve in the same rate and manner. as some may say they need a phone. some employers even have benefits such as a new work mobile being the iPhone to attract them to the job. As this product has changed over time. with Nokia dominating the phone market. such as the technical support.Make Calls Gaming MP3 Player Video Recording Camera functionality PDA Internet… IPhone IPhone Warranty Customer service helpline Free delivery Sales Service…. They have dominated in product /personnel/service and image value. Over the year’s apple have always been innovative and successful in providing something new for the customers to benefit from. The product that seems to be most popular’ is seen to be something that is wanted by most people. benefits include:  Latest technology  Improved and faster processor  Improved image This builds customer value to the company and creates advantage over other competitors.Available from: <http://www.

color and usefulness of the phone must all be considered and effective. [Online]. IPhone has had to take these demands and ensure they change their shape according to the needs of their customer. which is 44 percent smaller than a micro-SIM”. backed up and etc. Never has the telecommunication market seen this level of expert quality been harnessed into phone. the only difference was they made their processes with intense and almost perfect prototypes. Apple engineers had to think small. so the shape. Appendix 5 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen The imagination put into designing the iPhone enabled it to be the best sellers in the country.Available from: <http://www.wikipedia. thought and consideration has gone into their product which goes well beyond design. either white or black which customers are happy with. which allows the phone to resist shattering’. thus looking at it you can’t resist but perceive the superb chamfer round the display. [Online].5 Product Design “Apple design process is actually an ordinary product development process.Available from: <http://en. more demands were made such as the phone being thin.4 | Marketing Design and Innovation 8 .org/wiki/IPhone> [accessed November 2012] Change in shape is due to the constant change in what customers perceive to be stylish. It is often dependent on the customer perception of its worth rather than its intrinsic value.5 inches glass multi-touch touchscreen display to the 3GS which retained the design of the 3G. with a glossy plastic back with tapered edges and metal buttons”.value for this phone has increased so much that annual sales for the iPhone show customers are willing to pay more in order to be reassured that their product is safe. ensuring their implementation is more stylish then their competitors in respects of design and technology. The shape of the phone has gone from the bulkier/curved phone “centered on a ‘3. light weight but now do not mind it being slightly bigger as internet surfing is more easier. People first wanted a phone that is touch screen but as time went on.> [accessed November 2012] The iPhone has changed shape eloquently over the years. as internet on the phone is extremely popular. IPhone 5 is 20 percent lighter than iPhone 4S. They created a nano-SIM card. IPhone 5. Less time spent in sketching but more on building prototypes and mock-ups”. IPhone’s Uniqueness of Its Design Elements 3. 3. redesigned to use an aluminum frame. It has maintained the same original colour scheme throughout. “Apple redesigned the antenna in the iPhone 4S after some original iPhone 4 users reported signal problems”.6 millimeters thin. Color and Imagination “IPhone 5 is just 7.

Apple have also been recognised as one of the best global brands in 2012 (daily telegraph. which are all protected. fitting and appearance are vital in the experience of the consumer. thus the customer is always happy to either upgrade to either the next new version of the iPhone (rarely do iPhone users switch to another manufacturer) as they are pleased with the outcomes of the design of the> [accessed November 2012] Apples iPhone is a registered trademark as well as registering their designs as someone would expect.html#!/2009/06/apple-design-process. Samsung Patent-infringement The latest patent being a concept for shaking an iPhone to charge it’ this evolution is one that the apple team believe is moving towards to the future and adapting to the new technological market.Available from: <http://appleindustrialdesign.Apple v. iPad and so on due to the name it represents.blogspot. [Online]. As customers now like to own not just the iPhone.Available from: <http://bgr. | Marketing Design and Innovation 9 . it ensure their competitors do not replicate any similar ideas into their products created by the apple’s design team. Appendix 7 . which some customers believe says quality and craftsmanship. 3. The texture.Apple has found that initial prototypes help designers envision their invention from the start. iPod. also used to describe a “product or service made distinctive by its positioning relative to the competition and by its personality in the context of the target market” (Hankinson & Cowling). There is a long document in place which patents Apples utility and design features for the process. is shown in Appendix 6 with more information on design Its brand appeal in relation to competitors in contemporary markets 3. whilst the most innovative idea from Nokia has been that wireless charging is the way of the future. Trademarks:  Discourage others from using a trade mark without permission  Easier to legal action against people using trademark without permission  Allows the owner to sell it. [Online]. franchise it and etc.6 Intellectual Property and Patents Along with the sheer brilliant design of the iPhone.html> [accessed November 2012] A design process which us usually used by most companies. but apples mac laptop. 2012). the intellectual properties that come with it are also that factors that drive the market customers to buy it. such as its brand and the name.7 IPhones Brand Appeal Brand could be viewed as a personality that differentiates a company. in terms of all the features the phone has. This has led to their phones being relevant and useful for the customer.

The benefits the iPhone has with branding is that customers find it easier to identify their products. the brand raises with it. and attractive to people. Businesses should not infer on what the customer is nor do customers want to be told who they are. [Online]. Samsung and HTC in keeping their customers hyped and on the edge. such as with Samsung and Blackberry and it helps with positioning and targeting the iPhone product in the telecommunication market. Not excepting second best is what makes your customers believe they are purchasing hours and hours of perfection”. as the level of customer loyalty reflects the high number of customers sticking with the iPhone brand. The physical brand Appeal due to engineering marvels are what makes the brand solid. customers get cognitively attached to them (manufacturer benefit.10 Competition in Contemporary Market Over the past 5-10 years the level of competition for iPhone has varied from going to high level of competition when Apples | Marketing Design and Innovation 10 . loyalty). “Apple has delivered the goods on countless occasions with regards to its product ranges. iPad and Mac Books are so pleasing.8 Brand Excitement in Relation to Other Brands Most effective factor with branding is the loyalty it promotes within customers. When customers purchase the iPhone they get filled with excitement which is why they keep coming> [accessed November 2012] 3.The iPhones falls under the term manufacturer brand. 3. Nokia. they also have brand appeal.tumblr. Apple have been successful then their competition. 3. the Apple brand / logo have carried a sizeable chunk of total sales”. it’s fair to say that at times. Other competitors have not been able to build this character with their products as iPhone has done so. the only way is to give customers a brand appeal like no other. which is just made by excitement and that outlook of what’s next. “Brands that give you physical bliss like Apple with their iPhone. Despite the fact that Apple has ground breaking unrivaled product.9 Brand Value IPhone’s brand values are the main driver to victory and are what builds the brand appeal a factor on drawing the majority towards them. it helps position products in the market and importantly it creates a character for the iPhone and this character has been highly valued by customers which in turn creates loyalty. Other benefits are that it defends against competition.Available from: <http://beyrouti. When you raise the bar.

Reason is because the iPhone is the iPhone and IPhone’s brand value here represents the additional money that an organisation could earn from its products purely due to its brand name.Available from: <http://www. During the introduction. growth. maturity and decline of each iPhone. | Marketing Design and Innovation 11 .forbes. triumph might not come as simply as it has in years earlier and the aggressive competition might have somewhat to do with that. so does this mean that the customers will switch from Apple product? Yes and no. but also doing so at the right time.Communicating Your Brand Effectively Apple has been good at not only promoting their product to their target markets. IPhone is the most sold handset in the UK in 2011. However. loyal customers will remain and as sales is going up. It is identified that customers are willing to pay more for a brand than a product. Android is huge. 4G LTE is here and Windows Phone looks enormously assuring.product has not been the market leader to less competition as Apple as gown to dominate the market. The change has come due to the change in market> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 8 . and the iPhone has been able to cater for those needs more well then its competitors. [Online].

And functionality wise it provides customers with immense power and capability with a touch of a button. This encourages loyalty within new and existing customers. Other competitors have not been able to build this character with their products as well as. So the conclusion is yes. offering products and services (newer and better phones) that are more elite then theirs or due to the fact that customers are less willing to buy due to their product being too outdated. The iPhone has been strong in being most up to date with their technology use and the look of their product e. Nokia and Blackberry will drive them out. | Marketing Design and Innovation 12 . When customers purchase the iPhone they get filled with excitement which is why they keep coming back to the brand over and over again. it creates a character for the iPhone and this character has been highly valued by customers which in turn creates loyalty. The phone has changed its image and capabilities according to how the market. as they feel they are buying the finest product that is available in this ever changing market. economy and social life style have developed. However. as agreed with theorists such as Gates. such as retina display within their phones. thinner and lighter than any other phone.Conclusion Business to survive within in its target market. where they all state that without change and innovation there is no future for a company. technology. The changes made to the iPhone during each model were very unique in terms of image and functionality. Currently the iPhone 5 is the thinnest phone in the market. If iPhone do not their competitors such as Samsung. The iPhone has changed its shape and design over the years a great deal. which customers want in their phones. it needs to practice innovation and change within its marketing and management system.g. success might not come as easily as it has in years previous and the fierce competition might have something to do with that. change is most certainly required to cope with changes within the market. Kotler (2009) and Thompson & Gamble (2010). ensuring they also provide the most up to date functionality. IPhone’s branding helps customers find it easier to identify their products.

g. The core productslevel 1. video recording.Available from: <http://www. level 3. internet. level 2. case study> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 3 .Service Quality IPhone classified as tangible goods with accompanying services e. which is one of the factors that must also change over time with the product evolution according to the changing market needs. investigated relationships between marketing success and the level of external environmental complexity and turbulence. and warranty provided by apple that makes the actual product more appealing to buy. The support | Marketing Design and Innovation 13 . The service quality for the iPhone has been rated highly. management preferences or market sector”. Make Calls Gaming MP3 Player Video Recording Camera functionality PDA Internet… IPhone IPhone Warranty Customer service helpline Free delivery Sales Service…. gaming and listening to music. is the additional non tangible benefits that a product can offer.iPhone translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler The iPhone can be translated by a product onion devised by Philip Kotler.universia. The augmented product. The actual product.Available from: <Biblioteca.Appendix Appendix 1 . while more successful companies in complex and turbulent environments use destabilising tactics. Data was collected via depth interviews and document analysis from four companies”. is about interpreting the list of core product benefits into a product that people will buy which is the iPhone itself.learnmarketing. are what apple would like their product to offer buyers. taking pictures. This is all part of service quality. His study was exploratory.Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Mason (2003) from Rhodes University. [Online]. “using a qualitative. regardless of industry habits. His conclusion was that. such as help> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 2 . [Online]. these are all the functionality such as making calls. “successful companies in simple and stable environments use stabilising marketing tactics. their technical team is rated one of the best in the mobile phone sector. warranty and etc.

as most other phones on the market has same or similar functionality such as mp3 player. Appendix 6 . Thanks to cutting-edge technology smashing the laws of physics. needs are basic living essentials. | Marketing Design and Innovation 14 . different ways in which basic needs are satisfied. Appendix 4 – Distinction between Needs and Wants A customer either needs a phone or wants a phone for their disposal. the engineering staff will create the necessary electrical.At this stage.By looking at market. working principles and the form of the product. The Rough and Prototype . Kotler (2009) defines needs as “a state of deprivation of some basic satisfaction”. Concept . Appendix 5 – Design comment from Apple’s spokesmen In regards to shape of the iPhone product an Apple spokesman said: “All the images are genuine. “40 year old Jony Ive heads the design team at Apple. Needs are common for all human beings and mainly include food.Modifications can be in the form of changes to the design or changes to the concept that has been chosen Implement and Present . Investigation . company and customer aspects. Many Apple employees aren't allowed in. which they are very good at. Research .” Ive's team consist of skills to visualize. communicate and analyse together in a large open studio with little personal space but great privacy in order to deign functions that customers want and need in a phone. Whilst needs will be numbered. mechanical and software components and produce an approximation of the final product Apple have design Guru.A product concept is an approximate product description of the technology. The definition of both are.Research should be undertaken to identify customer needs. Wants. market gaps and competitor offerings. Test then Modify . reporting directly to the CEO Steve Jobs. While wants are defined has evolved from knowing something really simple about this iPhone. for fear they'd catch a glimpse of some upcoming product. small things. such as the iPhone can be triggered by marketers and can be influenced by different social institutions and key figures. inanimate objects and animals.Apples Design Process Summary Study . so that no one can copy the design”.Once the concept is finalised. the design team think of ways of fulfilling the requirement in the study. These transformations will happen completely at random and without warning. apple develop a 3 dimensional model of this concept. even the one where it looks like a busload of Scouts. wants will be unlimited. the iPhone 5 will constantly shift on a molecular level – becoming big things. promoting positive customer perception in both benefits and value. clothing and shelter. to a lot as phone has evolved.Mobile phone that is slimmer and best looking than any other on the market.

It is unfortunate that patent law can be manipulated to give one company a monopoly over rectangles with rounded corners. Within their marketing process they define who their target market is. jury.Communicating Your Brand Effectively Apple has used the following mediums very effectively to promote the iPhone. Samsung patent-infringement lawsuit and was awarded $1.Apple v. Here's what Samsung said following the verdict”. the prices and design process of their product and then what the best ways they can communicate to those target markets.ibtimes. Samsung Patent-infringement “Apple had the last laugh in its epic Apple v. [Online].Available from: < http://www. They have used mediums such as:     Advertising – within stores. Apple had the last laugh in the epic Apple v.S. but as a loss for the American consumer.051 billion in damages by a California jury”. Samsung patent-infringement lawsuit and was awarded $1. or technology that is being improved every day by Samsung and other companies”. It will lead to fewer choices. “Scoring a huge victory over its arch-rival Samsung on> [accessed November 2012] Appendix 8 . "Today's verdict should not be viewed as a win for Apple. billboards and etc Media – such as television and radio Internet – Facebook and other popular website Sales promotion and etc | Marketing Design and Innovation 15 .Appendix 7 . less innovation and potentially higher prices.051 billion in damages by a U.

Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].learnmarketing.Available from: <http://appleindustrialdesign.Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] | Marketing Design and Innovation 16 .Available from: <http://en.forbes.Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].com/post/31732170665/its-all-aboutbrand-appeal-people-ask-all> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: <http://it4b.Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].html#!/2009/06/> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Bibliography Book and Journals Kotler (2009) Management Theory Review Thompson & Gamble (2010) ‘The Top Ten Things You Need to Know About Ways to Cope with Rapid Change’ Mason (2003) Marketing Success and the Level of External Environmental Complexity Online [Online].net> [accessed November 2012] [Online].universia.Available from: <http://www.html> [accessed November 2012] [Online]> [accessed November 2012] [Online].uk/2009/06/apple-design> [accessed November 2012] [Online]> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: <> [accessed November 2012] [Online].Available from: < from: < from: <http://bgr.

and few stones left unturned. brought you to new and interesting ideas. oiled. Perhaps a way of implementation or challenges is routine. evaluating dichotomies and disagreements. since the product type is something I have been involved with. as it related to my topic. assessing the instruction methodology. since the innovator had on record that she endured experiences as any less known chef would. current. and so I expected many highs. developing new ideas. at the other end of the spectrum incremental steps. or concepts. then in the middle. cutting edge or unique in some way. as well as bracing for surprises. A. to outdo competitors. was to demonstrate a link between international flair that the . Perception Being on this module could be described as a plateau with intermittent troughs and horizons. I felt I had deconstructed it. and I often waited for an idea to filter. At the course’s end. I chose the subject for investigation. It was a lengthy process of organisation. describe how the course challenged your thinking. thoughts rotated in five ways of perception. I found my journey of aligning those experiences to theories and models. it was a physical move to the keyboard that progressed the assignment. Instruction It was evident resource material was not short in abundance. further. or presented approaches to the topic with which you may have disagreed. and rebuilt it in a coherent fashion. Alternatively. peer-reviewed and reflected upon if there is to be a positive result from expenses involved. things are often changing to remain relevant. though this may be attributed to the range of angles from which marketing can be addressed. reviewed. set within the context of the learning outcomes. On a technical course. there were bursts of intricate cohesion. to be insightful. was the marketing design process is a state of flux: the marketing machine is a technical beast that must be primed.1 TASK 2 Write a critical reflective essay on your journey of discovery through the module. and while some aspects of the module seemed like a process of trial and error. In particular. times when the work had to be put aside. B. What was also possible. In a good business. contrary to some views. proverbially falling on paper. Much patience was required than normally expected for a Master’s module. What was conveyed.

the ideas still fall in a general pool of literature that requires more funnelling. with regards to what defines a product and ramifications of market segmentation and distribution. I believe whatever angle is taken. and the stream of customers jostling for space. baking shows and standardisation in television’s “My Kitchen Rules” all of which convey expertise and class. To create new ideas. C. though at first glance. Simultaneously. customers who wanted a simple cupcake. say for example for a technological gadget. applications. as original module information and assessment guidelines intimated.2 innovator has. it is given that products go through changes. accepted that each day is different. I was aware the shop didn’t fully represent how successful or not the cakes were in the market. in particular. suggests the innovator cannot always be separated from the innovation. One could say the product has diffused but according to Roger’s theory. or didn’t stimulate the senses enough for interest in the first instance. there can be laggards who have not joined in. Yet. D. it appeared unremarkable. there should also be a novel triangulated way of evaluation. although the instructor claimed that anything can be sold. I also had to be creative if market data wasn’t available. morph into a new form that in theory left the original behind. I disagree in that there is an adoption process for any item. perhaps simply for convenience. read the innovators blogs. and get an approximation of sales by checking the capacity of cake boxes. provided there is a good marketing plan based on customer’s perceived need. can now decide to make them. and to share them with whomever. So. as indicated below. New ideas Considering the range of literature I engaged with. rather than skeletonise marketing. How the cupcake was defined. Dichotomies and Disagreements With change often comes even greater choice. or may . and the way she approached food as well as its cultural ‘fashions’. observations and configuration for refinement. The lines of market segmentation can be easily blurred. I kept abreast of goings-on in the media. I found something new almost every day I visited the retail shop. this opened a forum for a much wider and dynamic approach to marketing design than is often the case. or the allure and lucrative nature of public profiling. how many. I saw the innovation. Having access to a best-selling baking book. growth strategy. The item may not have piqued the interest due to personal choice. and tried getting the whole plot of the cupcakes’ journey. the number of empty boxes over a day. depending on the platform on which the product is launched.

frilly. as a cup of tea and cupcake for £2. and importance is placed on brand identity and equity. doesn’t have all answers. was the idea projected in lectures that every product has a masculine or feminine slant. packaging and having a chat with comfortable customers. although the brand has gone through a change of name for legal reasons. light and mostly presentable cakes. Summary While there are successful entrepreneurs who may also be public figures. I would be forced to disagree. seemingly it was one of the few words one knew and loved. There are no absolute answers to what may be seen as a marketing hurdle. and a space where innovations expand or contract. Further research also indicates that a 51% shareholder and. Not only were men purchasing alone. E. or just needs time for more processing. families or group of friends.60 went down well with either gender. Surprises What was certainly unexpected. and compared observations of patronage over several weeks. F. the company secretary are male. had to be seen to be believed. WORD COUNT: 1100 . value is added if there are open fora. but a male was also serving. A good innovator like Ms Pascale.3 not have passed the re-evaluation phase of the adoption process. there is little indication the product is not recognisable: a large group of French girls amicably hailed it by the original name “Ella’s!” before making an average spend of £4 per person. The ambience of involvement in the cake experience and camaraderie extended by shop staff was also all inclusive. Further. or with their wives. and a plethora of perspectives available. ultimately finding a place in the hearts of faithful and new customers. and indeed some things like the simply attractive display in a very small space. this allows healthy growth. If I used the study example of delicately designed. This reifies some discussions about cost and loss leadership being stronger points.adoption cannot always be explained by logic. and the reasons for non .

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