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IPASJ International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (IIJME)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJME/IIJME.htm


Email: editoriijme@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-6441

A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015

Archard and Kirks Lubricant Film Thickness


for Deep Groove Ball Bearing 6008
Sheetal Gajjalwar1, Surendra Pal Singh Matharu2
1

Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Raipur (C.G.), India
492001

Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Raipur (C.G.), India 492001

ABSTRACT
A machines performance could be seriously obstructed if the defects take place in the bearings during its service. Rolling
element bearings are one of the most essential parts of rotating machinery. Hence early prediction of the defects, therefore, is
very crucial for the prevention of damage and a total failure of the associated large system. One of the major defect arises due
to the insufficient lubricant between the rolling elements of a bearing, which leads to the early failure of the bearings. In the
present paper, the lubricant film thickness for the deep groove ball bearing 6008 series, is calculated for various lubricants,
based on the theory proposed by Archard and Kirk. An on-line condition monitoring of the rolling element bearing can be
carried out by using the developed formula (proposed by Archard and Kirk).

Keywords: On-line Condition Monitoring, Deep Groove Ball Bearing, Minimum Lubricant Film Thickness, friction,
Rolling Elements, Expected life.

1. INTRODUCTION
A sufficient amount of lubrication for the rolling elements bearings is essential for the smooth functioning of the
machine. Hence, in order to avoid metal to metal contact between the rolling elements of a bearing, a lubricant film,
which separates the rolling elements of a bearing should be there, to prevent the damage of the bearing as well as the
total failure of the associated large system. Hence, estimation of the minimum lubricant film thickness is essential for
optimum performance of the bearing. Therefore, the present work deals with the determination of the minimum
lubricant film thickness for the deep groove ball bearing, 6008, with the lubricants designated as A,B,C, and D, based
on the formula developed by Archard and Kirk.
.

2. METHODOLOGY
Archard and Kirk [2] proposed the non-dimensional minimum lubricant film thickness for ball bearing, as,

' 0.741
0.84(U )
H0
,
' 0.074
(Q )
' 0.741
0.84(U )
or , h0
xRi
' 0.074
(Q )

(1)

Where,
H0 = Non-dimensional lubricant film thickness = h 0/R,
h0 = minimum lubricant film thickness (mm) = H0xR ,
, U, Q are the dimensionless parameters, which are given as below,
= E; E = E/(1-2) ; U = 0 U/ 2ER ; U = U1 + U2 ; U1 = diN/60 ; U2 = 0 ; Q = Q/ER2 ;
= 0.1122 (0/104)0.163 ;
1.35 ; [6]
3
0 2.20x10 (SSU)

SSU

( for SSU>100) ;
Where,
= Pressure coefficient of viscosity, mm2/N,

Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015

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IPASJ International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (IIJME)


Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJME/IIJME.htm
Email: editoriijme@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-6441

A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015

For steel, = 0.3, and E = 206900 N/mm2,


0 = Oil viscosity at atmospheric pressure, N-s/mm2,
U = Entrainment velocity, mm/s,
U1 = Entrainment velocity of Inner race, mm/s ;
U2 = Entrainment velocity of Outer race, mm/s,
Q = Force/ load acting on the balls, N
E = E/(1-2) = Equivalent modulus of Elasticity, N/mm2,
Thus, after the determination of the above said parameters, and the bearing dimensions, and for the known lubricant,
the dimensionless lubricant film thickness can be obtained from equation no.(1). In the present paper, the
determination of the minimum lubricant film thickness is done for various lubricants, which are designated as A, B, C
and D.
The Viscosities of these lubricants [3] for the calculations of the lubricant film thickness is given in Table 1.
Table 1: Viscosities of the Lubricants A, B, C and D.
Viscosity
0 (in cp)
0 (in Ns/mm2)
SSU

Lubricant A
111.23
111.23 x 10-

Lubricant B
173
173 x 10-9

Lubricant C
287
287 x 10-9

Lubricant D
348.75
348.75 x 10-

581.23

800

1330

1708.525

The Bearing
parameters/dimensions used in the analysis, for the deep groove ball bearing 6008, is given in Table 2.
Table 2: Bearing Dimensions for 6008 series.
Deep Groove Ball
Ri ( in mm)
bearing
6008 series
3.75
Ri = Equivalent contact Radius of Inner Race,
Ro = Equivalent Contact Radius of Outer Race,
di = Contact diameter of Inner Race.

Ro ( in mm)

di ( in mm)

5.25

45

3. CALCULATIONS AND ANALYSIS FOR LUBRICANT FILM THICKNESS:


Calculations for the minimum lubricant film thickness for the ball bearing 6008, with the lubricant A is shown below.
And in the similar way the calculations for the lubricants B,C, and D, is performed by taking the bearing dimensions of
6008 series deep groove ball bearing, which are not shown in this paper. Finally, the minimum lubricant film thickness
for all the lubricants A,B,C, and D, with the bearing dimensions of the ball bearing 6008, is tabulated in Table 3.
For Lubricant A,
1.35
2
1.27638 cm / s
581.23
0.163
1.27638
2
( A) 0.1122
0.026017 mm / N

4
10

0,( A) ( 2.20 x10

)(581.23)

( A) 0.026017 x 227363 5915.4445

di N

60

'
14 d i N

,
U ( A)
1.280768 x10
( 2 x 227363 xR )
R
d N
'
14 d i N

7.576317 x10 11 i
( .U ) ( A) 5915.4445 x1.280768 x10
R
R
(111.23 x10

'
Q( A)

Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015

Q
2
( 227363 xR )

4.398253 x10

6 Q
(
),
2
R

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IPASJ International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (IIJME)


Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJME/IIJME.htm
Email: editoriijme@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-6441

A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015

On substituting these values in equation (1), the minimum lubricant film thickness for the contact of ball elements with
the Inner race is given as,

h0,i ( A)

' 0.741
0.84(U )
xRi
' 0.074
(Q )

0.741 xN 0.741 xRi0.407


8 d i
h0,i ( A) 6.62758 x10
0.074

(mm)

Similarly, the minimum lubricant film thickness for the contact of ball elements with the Outer race is,
0.741 xN 0.741 xR 0.407
8 d i
0
(mm)
h0,0( A) 6.62758 x10
0.074

Hence, the total lubricant film thickness, will be,


h0,T ( A) h0,i ( A) h0,0( A)
h0,T ( A) 6.62758x10

0.741 xN 0.741
0.407
0.407 d i
( mm)
( Ri
R0
)
0.074

Thus, after substituting the values of bearing dimensions for the ball bearing 6008 series,
we get,
0.741
6 N

h0,T ( A) 4.090727 x10


Q 0.074 (mm)

(2)

This is the relationship for the total lubricant film thickness while taking the lubricant A, and the deep groove ball
bearing 6008. And a similar derivation is carried out for the lubricant B,C and D with the ball bearing 6008.

4. RESULT
On observing the equation (2), it is concluded that the lubricant film thickness is directly proportional to the bearing
speed, but inversely proportional to the load acting on the bearing. The total lubricant film thickness is calculated for
the lubricants A, B, C and D, with the ball bearing 6008, and is shown in Table-3.
Table 3: Total lubricant film thickness for lubricants A, B, C and D
Deep Groove
Ball Bearing

Lubricants

0 (in cp)

SSU

6008

111.23

581.23

6008

173

800

6008

287

1330

6008

348.75

1708.525

Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015

h0,T (in mm)

h0,T ( B )

6 N

0.741

Q 0.074

0.741
N

5.898548 x10 6 0.074


Q

h0,T ( A) 4.090727 x10

N 0.741
h0,T (C ) 9.127247 x10 0.074
Q

0.741
N

h0,T ( D ) 1.0869187 x10 5 0.074


Q

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IPASJ International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (IIJME)


A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJME/IIJME.htm


Email: editoriijme@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-6441

5. CONCLUSIONS
From the above analysis it may be concluded that the lubricant film thickness is a function of bearing speed and load
acting on the bearing. The lubricant film thickness increases with the bearing speed and decreases with the load acting
on the bearing. And this is in-line with the classical theory of lubrication [1]. It can be seen that with the increase in
lubricant viscosity the total lubricant film thickness for the bearing 6008 also increases.
Hence, the above method can be linked directly with the inexpensive instruments for the on-line condition monitoring
of the rolling elements bearing, since the speed and load can be readily measured during the operation.

References
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

A. Cameron, Basic Lubrication Theory, Third Edition,Wiley Eastern Ltd,1981.


T.A., Herris, Rolling Bearing Analysis, Fourth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2001.
K. Lingaiah, Machine Design Data Book, Second Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Ltd, 2001.
PSG Design Data, , Data Book of Engineers, Revised Edition 1978, Reprinted July, 2004, Kalaikathir
Achchagam Coimbatore 641037, 2004.
[5] [5] R.K. Dewangan, and S.P.S. Matharu, Evaluation of Archard and Kirks Lubricant Film Thickness for 6007
Ball bearing, International Journal of Advances in Engineering Research, Vol. No. 03, Issue No. IV, pp. 43-46.,
April 2012.
[6] S. Londerville, and C.E. Baukal Jr., The Coen & Hamworthy Combustion Handbook: Fundamentals for Power,
Marine & Industrial Applications, C.R.C. Press, March, 2013.

AUTHOR
Sheetal Gajjalwar received the B.E. degree in Mechanical Engineering from Govt. Engg.College,
Raipur (C.G.) in 2001 and M.Tech (Hons.) in Design of Process Machines from M.N.N.I.T.,
Allahabad (U.P.). in 2003. He is a lifetime member of ISTE. He is pursuing Ph. D. from N.I.T.,
Raipur (C.G.). He is currently Associate Prof

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