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What is a Fusion Weld?

Arc Welding Methods and


Processes
Harry Sadler
Manager Military and
Shipbuilding Sales

A metallurgical bond resulting from the

localized coalescence of base metal.


This generally requires the addition of
energy and may or may not use a
supplemental filler metal that intermixes
with the base metal.

Cross Section of a Groove Weld

Whats the source of energy?


In arc welding, its the heat generated by

an electric arc.

Transformer Rectifier

Inverter

Reactor

Inductance Coil

Selects Output
Welding Current

Smoothes / Filters
DC Output

DC - Smooth
High Voltage
Low Amperage

AC - 20,000 Hz DC - Rippled
Low Voltage
Low Voltage
High Amperage High Amperage

DC - Rippled
AC - 50/60 Hz
High Voltage
High Voltage
Low Amperage Low Amperage

Transformer

Bridge Rectifier

Single Phase Input


High Volts
High Amps
Low Amps
Low Volts

Changes AC to DC

DC - Smooth
Low Voltage
High Amperage

AC - 20,000 Hz
High Voltage
Low Amperage

Iron at 200,000 Cycles


F (Hz)

Benefits

Wt (Kg)

60
1,740
10,000
50,000
100,000
200,000

Eff (%)

19.5
3.05
2.7
1.9
1.7
1.5

90
96
97
98.1
98.2
98.3
Alex Anderson, EFW
November 10, 1911
Paper Presented to AIEE

More Efficient

Lower Cost Operation

Lighter Weight

More Portable

Smaller Size

More Compact

Advanced Desig

Superior Output

DCEP (Reverse) Polarity

DCEN (Straight) Polarity

Direct Current

DC -

+
Heat Concentrated at

Heat Concentrated at

Workpiece

Electrode

Forceful, Digging Arc

Lower Penetration

Medium to Deep

Penetration

+
Increased Deposition

Rates
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AC Polarity

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Transformer Welding Power Sources


AC - 225

AC/DC - 225/125

Alternating Current
AC - 225C

Medium Penetration
Medium Travel

Speeds

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Transformer Rectifier Welding Power


Sources
R3R - 400

Inverter Welding Power Sources


V350V350-PRO

PWPW-355M

R3R - 500

IDEALARC 250

V275V275-S

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Engine Driven Power Sources

Engine Driven Power Sources


VANTAGE 500

AIR VANTAGE 500

RANGER GXT

RANGER 10,000

RANGER 33-Phase

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Constant Current

Constant Voltage

Welding Circuit

Welding Circuit

Consists of Power
Source, Electrode and
Work Cables/Leads
The Power Source
Keeps the Current as
Constant as Possible
even when the Operator
Varies the Arc Length
Voltage is Proportional
to Arc Length
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Consists of Power
Source, Wire Feeder,
and Work and Electrode
Cables/Leads
Voltage is Proportional
to Arc Length
Current Changes
Dramatically to Maintain
Constant Arc Length
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Arc
Welding Processes

REQUIREMENTS FOR FUSION:


1. Atomic Cleanliness
2. Atomic Closeness

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SHIELDING OF MOLTEN PUDDLE


Shield

from nitrogen, oxygen


Shield with slags
Displace atmosphere with gases

Arc Welding Processes


Shielded Metal Arc (SMAW)
Flux Cored Arc (FCAW)
Gas Metal Arc (GMAW)
Submerged Arc (SAW)
Gas Tungsten Arc (GTAW)

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Shielded Metal Arc (SMAW)

SMAW

Electrode

Extruded covering

Gaseous shield

Molten pool

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Slag

Arc stream

Weld

Base metal

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Advantages

Limitations

Low Start Up
Low Efficiency

Costs
Portability
Outdoor
All Position
Welding
Variety of
Materials
Mechanical
Properties

(65%)
Operating Factor
Operator Skill
Restarts
Amperage Limit
Slag
Spatter
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FCAW-G
AWS Numbering System-SMAW

E7018
Electrode
Tensile Strength (ksi)
Position
Type of coating & current
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FCAW-S
FCAW-g

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Wire Feeders

FCAW-g

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Advantages

Limitations

Bead Appearance

Smoke and Fumes

Little to No Spatter

Portability

High Deposition

Rates
Mechanical
Properties
High Efficiencies
(90+%)
Easy Re-strike
All Position Welding
Low Hydrogen Weld
Deposits

Outdoor Weldability
Potential

for Gas

Marks
High Radiated Heat
Slag

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Advantages

Outdoor Usability

FCAW-s

Minimize Restarts

No Shielding Gas

Costs

High Deposition

Rates

Mechanical Properties

Effective Smoke

Removal

Dirty Steels & Off

Analysis Steels

All Position Welding


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Limitations

AWS Classification

E7XT-Y

Smoke and Fumes

Electrode

Spatter

70,000 psi Min. Tensile Strength

Slag (Cleaning

Welding Position

Time)
Break Electrode to
Restrike

(0=Flat & Horizontal, 1= All Position)

Tubular (Flux Cored Electrode)


Usability & Performance Capabilities

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Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

GMAW

Solid or metal core electrode


Shielding gas

Gas nozzle

Arc

Contact tube

Weld metal
Base metal
Weld pool
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Advantages

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Limitations

Variety of Metals
Various Thickness

Cost

of Materials
High Efficiency
Applications
High Radiated Heat
All Position Welding
Quality Welds
Little to No Slag
Low Spatter

Portability

Outdoor Welding

Clean Base Material

Potential for Cold Lap

Potential for Undercut

Operator Skill

High Radiated Heat

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AWS Classification

AWS Classification

ER70S-X
Electrode
Rod
70,000 psi Min. Tensile Strength
Solid
Chemistry, Amount of Deoxidizers (Silicon,
Manganese and/or Aluminum, Zirconium and
Titanium) X=2,3,4,6,7 or G

E70C-Y
Electrode
70,000 psi Min. Tensile Strength
Metal Core Electrode
Usability & Performance Capabilities

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Submerged Arc Welding

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Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)


Flux Hopper
Flux Feed Tube

SAW

Contact Tube
Slag

Flux

Weld

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Automatic

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Mechanized SAW

Mechanized

SAW

SAW

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Mechanized
SAW:
Mechanized

Semiautomatic

Handheld SAW

SAW

SAW

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Advantages

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Limitations continued

Portability

High Deposition

Downhand Welding

Rates

Typically Deep
Penetration

High Operating Factor

Low Hydrogen Welds

Fast Welding Speeds

High Operator Appeal

Only

Tight Fit-Up Required

Abrasive Nature of

Flux on Machinery

Housekeeping and

Storage of Flux

Slag

High Quality Welds

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GTAW
AWS Classification
Electrodes & Fluxes

FXYZ-EM12K-Ni1

Flux
Min. Tensile Strength
Type of Heat Treatment
Low Temp Impact Strength
Solid Electrode Wire
Level of Manganese
Nominal Carbon Content
Silicon Killed Steel
Type and Amount of Alloy in the Weld Deposit
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GTAW

GTAW

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Process Selection/Application

GTAW

Typically best left to those doing the


welding
SAW: long, big, automatic
FCAWFCAW-g: semiauto in shop
FCAWFCAW-s: semiauto in field
SMAW: small, miscellaneous,
repair, tacking
GMAW: semiauto in shop
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