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# Faculty of Engineering

## Electrical Engineering Department

Course Code: EE 306B Lab (P-11)
Course Title: Circuit Analysis 2
Section: 3ECE-A
Group no: 6

Members:
Razon, Cedric Gerard
Revilla, Juan Franco
Santos, Chantel Kim

Experiment No: 1
DC & AC Source
I.

Introduction
Electrical current can flow through a circuit in either of two ways; in AC or DC.
Alternating current (AC) occurs when charge carriers periodically reverse their
direction of movement.
Direct (DC) current is no different electrically from
alternating current except for the fact that it flows in the same direction at all times.
As we move from our study of DC and AC circuits, we must consider two other types
of passive component, ones that behave very differently from resistors, namely, the
inductors and capacitors. The resistor immediately dissipates the energy from itself
to the environment and the voltage drop across it stays constant through time; in
contrast, both capacitors and inductors accumulate energy into themselves and the
voltage drops across them vary through time.
The capacitor is a component that has the ability or capacity to store energy
in the form of an electrical field. The unit is measured in Farads (F). At DC, a
capacitor has infinite (open-circuit) impedance (X C), while at very high frequencies
(or in AC) a capacitor has zero impedance (short-circuit). An inductor is a passive
device that stores energy in its magnetic Field and returns energy to the circuit
whenever required. An Inductor is formed by a cylindrical core with many turns of
conducting wire with its value is measured in Henry (H). At DC an inductor has zero
impedance (short-circuit), while in high frequencies it has infinite (open-circuit)
impedance, ( XL ).

II.

## Data and Results

Lamp 1 - 220 V, 50 W
Lamp 2 220 V, 100 W
Figure 1.1

220 V AC

10 F capacitor
1 H inductor
Figure 1.2

220 V AC

VOM
Bridge Rectifier
Figure 1.3

220 V AC

220 V DC

220 V DC

220 V DC

Fig. 1.1

220 V AC

IT
VLamp1
VLamp2

185 mA
171.7 V
43.65 V

220 V
DC
209 mA
166.2 V
43.45 V

## 2. Figure 1.2 using Lamp 1 (50 W)

Fig. 1.2
220 V
220 V
AC
DC
IT
210 mA
0A
VLamp1
210.2 V
0V
VCapacitor
56.89 V
343.3 V
3. Figure 1.3 using Lamp 1
Fig. 1.3
220 V
220 V
AC
DC
IT
198 mA
230 mA
VLamp1
192.8 V
210.6 V
VInductor
83.2 V
7.43 V
III.

Computations
No computation is needed in this experiment. All gathered data are measured
and recorded.

IV.

Analysis of Results
In Figure 1.1, we tested how the readings would differ in each lamp,
which are in series, given that we changed the source between 200V AC and
200V DC. We can see that the readings of voltage and current through each
lamp is almost the same under AC or DC conditions. There is a slight
difference though in the total current for the 200V DC gave a much higher
reading compared to that of the 200V AC.
In Figure 1.2, we did the same as done in figure 1.1 except we removed
the 100W lamp and replaced it with a 10 F capacitor. When we used used
AC to power the circuit, we got the readings of the lamp and the capacitor
and it showed 210.2 V and 56.89V respectively. If the voltage readings are
added, we get 267.09V which is much higher than our 220V source. This is
because AC periodically reverses the direction of current flow. During its
positive and negative cycles, (since the capacitor has 2 plates in it) one plate
accumulates electrons and the other depletes. Due to this we can verify that
capacitors store energy in the electric field set up between the oppositely
charged plates. On the other hand, when used with DC source, the total
current and voltage reading on the lamp were both zero. This is because a
capacitor blocks DC once it is fully charged while still giving a voltage reading
greater than the voltage source.
In Figure 1.3, the inductor acts as a short in DC. The current level
remains constant so no induced voltage is produced. In AC, the opposition to
the current flowing through the coils windings not only depends upon the
inductance of the coil but also the frequency of the applied voltage waveform
as it varies from its positive to negative values. The magnetic field generated
by the alternating current gives rise to an induced voltage and prevents
changes in the current level.

V.

Conclusion
After the experiment, we were able to compare DC and AC voltage and
current behavior running through passive elements in a circuit. First, we
started with two lamps (50 W & 100 W). When we applied 220 V AC and
compared it to 220 V DC, the total current of the same circuit is slightly
higher in AC.
When a DC source is connected to a capacitor, current flows in the
circuit until the capacitor is fully charged and then the current stops. Thus,
the voltage of the lamp and total current in the circuit is zero. Positive
charges build on one plate of the capacitor and negative charges build on the

other. The charges will remain until the capacitor is discharged. Henceforth,
the voltage of the capacitor is greater than the supply voltage in DC because
of the charges stored in its plates. In case of AC, there will be continuous
fluctuation in each cycle causing the charges to be attracted and depleted to
the plates of the capacitor. This results to the charging and discharging of the
capacitor and the opposing of voltage.
In an inductor, both AC and DC have almost the same voltage reading
in the 50 W lamp. The total current is higher in the DC source. The voltage of
the inductor in the AC powered circuit is significantly higher than that of the
DC powered circuit. This is due to the reactance of the inductor opposing the
changes in current and no induced voltage in direct current. However in AC,
the oscillating current causes a magnetic field to bring about an induced
voltage and oppose further changes in the current.
By the end of this experiment, we have successfully observed and
analyzed the behavior of passive components in AC and DC circuits. A
capacitor opposes a change in the voltage of a circuit, while an inductor
opposes a change in its current. Inductors act as a short in DC while
capacitors do the opposite; capacitors are shorted in AC while inductors do
otherwise.