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Original Title: Fluid Mechanics Engineering

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MODEL ANALYSIS

The condition for similarity of flows of the gravitational force is, the ratio of

inertia to gravity forces.

WCDKF-KDU

Ex 2

maximum rate of discharge of the river is 2500 m3/s. Estimate

1.

2.

3.

the rate of discharge required from a pump which supplies water for the

model

WCDKF-KDU

If the flow is in a completely closed conduit such as pipe flows, inertia and

viscous force is chosen for dynamic similarity.

WCDKF-KDU

Ex 3

and kinematic viscosity of 3 x 10-2 stoke at a rate of 3.0 m3/s. If a 15 cm

diameter pipe with water ( = 0.01 stoke) is used to model the above flow, find

the velocity and discharge in the model.

WCDKF-KDU

The geometric similarity is complete when the surface roughness profiles are

also in the scale ratio.

The kinematic similarity is even more difficult because the flow patterns

around small objects tend to be quantitatively different from those around

large objects. Flow Pattern

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Flow Pattern

WCDKF-KDU

Consider automobile

experiment

we can reduce the problem

to

where

and

= CD

=Re

dimensionless parameter in all of fluid mechanics.

Cars

The aerodynamic drag of a new sports

car is to be predicted at a speed of

100.0 km/h at an air temperature of

25C. Automotive engineers build a

one-fifth scale model of the car to test

in a wind tunnel. It is winter and the

wind tunnel is located in an unheated

building; the temperature of the wind

tunnel air is only about 5C. Determine

how fast the engineers should run the

wind tunnel in order to achieve

similarity between the model and the

prototype.

Take 25=1.184 kg/m3 5=1.269 kg/m3

5 = 1.754 x 10-5 kg/m.s

Solution

WCDKF-KDU

10

SOLUTION

1.754 x10 5 kg / m.s 1.184kg / m 3

5

100km / h

5

3

1.849 x10 kg / m.s 1.269kg / m

442.5km / h

Discussion

This speed is quite high, and the wind tunnel may

not be able to run at that speed. Furthermore,

the incompressible approximation may come into

question at this high speed.

WCDKF-KDU

11

This example is a follow-up to

Example 4. Suppose the engineers

run the wind tunnel at 442.5

km/h

to

achieve

similarity

between the model and the

prototype. The aerodynamic drag

force on the model car is

measured with a drag balance.

Several drag readings are recorded,

and the average drag force on the

model is

90 N. Predict the

aerodynamic drag force on the

prototype (at 100 km/h and 25C).

Solution

FD,p = 107.2 N

test their one-fifth scale model. Using the properties of water at

room temperature (20C is assumed), the water tunnel speed

required to achieve similarity is easily calculated as

5

100km / h

5

3

1.849 x10 kg / m.s 1000kg / m

32.08km / h

The required water tunnel speed is much lower than that required

for a wind tunnel using the same size model.

WCDKF-KDU

14

Ex 6

A 1/20 scale model of a spillway studied in the laboratory requires 5 m3/s

discharge and a hydraulic jump formed therein dissipates 500 W. Calculate:

1.

2.

the discharge in the spillway, neglecting viscous and surface tension effects

3.

WCDKF-KDU

15

In rivers and harbours the area is very much larger than the depth.

If the depth is represented in same scale as that of length and width, it will be

found that the depth of the model is extremely small.

WCDKF-KDU

The depth in the model will be too small for the model to function

properly

The Re of the model becomes very low to be in the laminar region while

that of the prototype is in the turbulent region.

16

For the case of model testing of flows with free surfaces (boats and

ships, floods, river flows, aqueducts, hydroelectric dam spillways,

interaction of waves with piers, soil erosion, etc.), complications

arise that preclude complete similarity between model and prototype.

often several hundred times smaller than the prototype due to limited

lab space. This may cause, for instance,

which the vertical scale of the model (e.g., river depth) is

exaggerated in comparison to the horizontal scale of the model (e.g.,

river width).

WCDKF-KDU

17

Ex 7

discharge of 70 m3/s, it is known that the average depth and width of the

river are 2.5 m and 30 m respectively. The length of the lab channel is 30 m.

Recommend suitable scales for the model.

Assume = 1.14 x 10-3 Ns/m2

WCDKF-KDU

18

Total drag force /

Resistance on ships

Wave

resistance

(inertia)

WCDKF-KDU

Frictional

resistance

(viscous)

19

involving free surfaces,

both the Reynolds number

and Froude number appear

as relevant independent

groups in the dimensional

analysis.

It

is

difficult

(often

impossible) to match both

of these dimensionless

parameters simultaneously.

WCDKF-KDU

20

are matched between model and prototype when

and

factor Lm/Lp satisfy

kinematic viscosity satisfies the equation. Although it is

sometimes possible to find an appropriate liquid for use with

the model, in most cases it is either impractical or impossible.

WCDKF-KDU

21

Ex 8

What should be the speed of model to simulate a speed of 3.5 m/s if the

resistance is due to

Waves only

tested if the resistance due to internal friction and waves are to be

considered.

WCDKF-KDU

22

Test the model based on Froudes numbr

WCDKF-KDU

23

WCDKF-KDU

0.01

24

Ex 9

A 1:25 scale model of a ship has a submerged area of 6 m2, a length of 5 m and

experiences a total drag of 25 N when towed through water with a velocity of 1.2

m/s. Estimate the total drag on the prototype when cruising at the corresponding

speed.

Assume = 1 x 10-3 Pa.s and = 1030 kg/m3 for both model and the prototype.

WCDKF-KDU

25

Ex 10

A proposed ocean going vessel is to have a length of 125 m at the water line

& wetted surface of 1600 m. Its steady speed is to be 35 km /hour. Tests on

the model of the vessel to a scale of 1:25 were made in a towing tank at a

velocity corresponding to wave making resistance. The total drag resistance

of the model was 25.2 N. Calculate the total drag of the prototype .

m = 1000 kg/m3

m = 1.115 x 10-2 cm2/s

WCDKF-KDU

p = 1027 kg/m3

p = 1.121 x 10-2 cm2/s

26

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