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DIMENSIONAL & HYDRAULIC

MODEL ANALYSIS

FLOWS WITH GRAVITY FORCES

The condition for similarity of flows of the gravitational force is, the ratio of
inertia to gravity forces.

Froude number similarity

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Ex 2

A model showing local conditions on a river is to be built to a scale 1:49. The


maximum rate of discharge of the river is 2500 m3/s. Estimate
1.

the velocity scale

2.

the time scale

3.

the rate of discharge required from a pump which supplies water for the
model

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FLOWS WITH VISCOUS FORCES

If the flow is in a completely closed conduit such as pipe flows, inertia and
viscous force is chosen for dynamic similarity.

Reynolds number similarity

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Ex 3

A pipe of diameter 1.5 m is required to transport an oil of relative density 0.9


and kinematic viscosity of 3 x 10-2 stoke at a rate of 3.0 m3/s. If a 15 cm
diameter pipe with water ( = 0.01 stoke) is used to model the above flow, find
the velocity and discharge in the model.

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1.8 MODELLING CRITERIA

Geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarities are mutually independent.

Existence of one does not imply the existence of another similarity.

The geometric similarity is complete when the surface roughness profiles are
also in the scale ratio.

The kinematic similarity is even more difficult because the flow patterns
around small objects tend to be quantitatively different from those around
large objects. Flow Pattern

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Flow Pattern

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DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND SIMILARITY

Consider automobile
experiment

Drag force is F = f (V, , , L)

Through dimensional analysis,


we can reduce the problem
to

where
and

= CD
=Re

The Reynolds number is the most well known and useful


dimensionless parameter in all of fluid mechanics.

EX 4 : Similarity between Model and Prototype


Cars
The aerodynamic drag of a new sports
car is to be predicted at a speed of
100.0 km/h at an air temperature of
25C. Automotive engineers build a
one-fifth scale model of the car to test
in a wind tunnel. It is winter and the
wind tunnel is located in an unheated
building; the temperature of the wind
tunnel air is only about 5C. Determine
how fast the engineers should run the
wind tunnel in order to achieve
similarity between the model and the
prototype.
Take 25=1.184 kg/m3 5=1.269 kg/m3

25 = 1.849 x 10-5 kg/m.s


5 = 1.754 x 10-5 kg/m.s

Solution

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SOLUTION
1.754 x10 5 kg / m.s 1.184kg / m 3

5
100km / h
5
3
1.849 x10 kg / m.s 1.269kg / m
442.5km / h
Discussion
This speed is quite high, and the wind tunnel may
not be able to run at that speed. Furthermore,
the incompressible approximation may come into
question at this high speed.
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EX 5 : Prediction of Aerodynamic Drag Force on the Prototype Car


This example is a follow-up to
Example 4. Suppose the engineers
run the wind tunnel at 442.5
km/h
to
achieve
similarity
between the model and the
prototype. The aerodynamic drag
force on the model car is
measured with a drag balance.
Several drag readings are recorded,
and the average drag force on the
model is
90 N. Predict the
aerodynamic drag force on the
prototype (at 100 km/h and 25C).

Solution

FD,p = 107.2 N

DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND SIMILARITY

In Examples 3 and 4 use a water tunnel instead of a wind tunnel to


test their one-fifth scale model. Using the properties of water at
room temperature (20C is assumed), the water tunnel speed
required to achieve similarity is easily calculated as

1.002 x10 3 kg / m.s 1.184kg / m 3

5
100km / h
5
3
1.849 x10 kg / m.s 1000kg / m
32.08km / h

The required water tunnel speed is much lower than that required
for a wind tunnel using the same size model.

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Ex 6
A 1/20 scale model of a spillway studied in the laboratory requires 5 m3/s
discharge and a hydraulic jump formed therein dissipates 500 W. Calculate:
1.

the velocity ratio between the two flows

2.

the discharge in the spillway, neglecting viscous and surface tension effects

3.

the power lost in the spillway jump

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1.9 DISTORTED MODELS

In rivers and harbours the area is very much larger than the depth.

If the depth is represented in same scale as that of length and width, it will be
found that the depth of the model is extremely small.

The effects of this are

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The depth in the model will be too small for the model to function
properly

The Re of the model becomes very low to be in the laminar region while
that of the prototype is in the turbulent region.

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Incomplete Similarity Flows with Free Surfaces

For the case of model testing of flows with free surfaces (boats and
ships, floods, river flows, aqueducts, hydroelectric dam spillways,
interaction of waves with piers, soil erosion, etc.), complications
arise that preclude complete similarity between model and prototype.

For example, if a model river is built to study flooding, the model is


often several hundred times smaller than the prototype due to limited
lab space. This may cause, for instance,

Increase the effect of surface tension

Turbulent flow laminar flow

To avoid these problems, researchers often use a distorted model in


which the vertical scale of the model (e.g., river depth) is
exaggerated in comparison to the horizontal scale of the model (e.g.,
river width).

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Ex 7

A model is to be constructed of 5.8 km length of a river. For the normal


discharge of 70 m3/s, it is known that the average depth and width of the
river are 2.5 m and 30 m respectively. The length of the lab channel is 30 m.
Recommend suitable scales for the model.
Assume = 1.14 x 10-3 Ns/m2

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1.10 MODEL TESTING OF SHIPS


Total drag force /
Resistance on ships

Wave
resistance
(inertia)
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Frictional
resistance
(viscous)
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Incomplete Similarity Flows with Free Surfaces

In many practical problems


involving free surfaces,
both the Reynolds number
and Froude number appear
as relevant independent
groups in the dimensional
analysis.

It
is
difficult
(often
impossible) to match both
of these dimensionless
parameters simultaneously.

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Incomplete Similarity Flows with Free Surfaces

For a free-surface flow, the Reynolds number and Froude number


are matched between model and prototype when
and

To match both Re and Fr simultaneously, we require length scale


factor Lm/Lp satisfy

From the results, we would need to use a liquid whose


kinematic viscosity satisfies the equation. Although it is
sometimes possible to find an appropriate liquid for use with
the model, in most cases it is either impractical or impossible.

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Ex 8

An 1 : 8 model of a boat is towed in water of kinematic viscosity 10-6 m2/s.


What should be the speed of model to simulate a speed of 3.5 m/s if the
resistance is due to

Internal friction only and

Waves only

Calculate the kinematic viscosity of the liquid in which model should be


tested if the resistance due to internal friction and waves are to be
considered.

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TESTING OF SHIP MODELS


Test the model based on Froudes numbr

Calculate skin friction resistance for the model

Find model wave resistance

Determine corresponding wave resistance in the prototype

Calculate skin friction for the prototype

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TESTING OF SHIP MODELS

Skin friction resistance,

For Re < 2 x 107

For For Re > 2 x 107

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0.01

Total drag = skin friction resistance + wave resistance


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Ex 9
A 1:25 scale model of a ship has a submerged area of 6 m2, a length of 5 m and
experiences a total drag of 25 N when towed through water with a velocity of 1.2
m/s. Estimate the total drag on the prototype when cruising at the corresponding
speed.
Assume = 1 x 10-3 Pa.s and = 1030 kg/m3 for both model and the prototype.

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Ex 10

A proposed ocean going vessel is to have a length of 125 m at the water line
& wetted surface of 1600 m. Its steady speed is to be 35 km /hour. Tests on
the model of the vessel to a scale of 1:25 were made in a towing tank at a
velocity corresponding to wave making resistance. The total drag resistance
of the model was 25.2 N. Calculate the total drag of the prototype .

m = 1000 kg/m3
m = 1.115 x 10-2 cm2/s

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p = 1027 kg/m3
p = 1.121 x 10-2 cm2/s

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