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Archimedes Principle - Structure Question 1

Diagram (a) above shows a metal block supported by a spring balance. Diagram (b) shows
the block partially immerses in water while diagram (c) shows the block fully immerses in
water.
a.

What is the mass of the metal block?


W = mg
(20) = m(10)
m = 2kg

b.

In diagram b), the reading of the balance became 14N.

i.

What is the effective weight loss of the block when partially immense in water
as shown in diagram (b)?
Weight loss = 20 14 = 6N

ii.

What is the value of the upthrust that act on the block?


6N

iii.

Find the weight of the displaced water?

6N
c.

In diagram c), when the block is fully immerse in water, the reading of the spring
balance became 10N.
i.

Name 3 forces that acted on the block.


Weight, tension of the string, upthrust

ii.

State and explain the relationship between the forces in (c) (i)
Both the tension and the upthrust act upward, the weight acts downward. The block
doesnt move. Therefore, all forces are in equilibrium.
Weight = Tension of the String + Upthrust

Find the volume of the block. [Density of water = 1000 kg m-3]

iii.

Mass of the displaced water = 1 kg

iv.

Name the principle you used in the calculation in question (c) (iii).
Archimedes Principle

v.

What will happen to the reading of the spring balance if the water is replaced
with cooking oil.
Increase

vi.

Explain your answer in (c) (v)


The upthrust produced is directly proportional to the density.

The cooking has lower density. Therefore the upthrust produced is lower. As a result,
the weight loss caused by the upthrust will decrease and the reading of the spring
balance will increase.

Archimedes Principle - Example 3

Figure above shows an empty boat floating at rest on water. Given that the mass of the boat is 150kg.
Find
a.

the upthrust acting on the boat.

b.

The mass of the water displaced by the boat.

c.

The maximum mass that the boat can load safely if the volume of the boat at the safety level

is 3.0 m.
Answer:
a. According to the principle of flotation, the upthrust is equal to the weight of the boat.
Upthrust,
F = Weight of the boat
= mg = (150)(10) = 1500N
b. According to the Archimedes' Principle, the weight of the water displaced = Upthrust
Weight of the displaced water,
W = mg
(1500) = m(10)
m = 150kg
c.
Maximum weight can be sustained by the boat

F=VgF=(1000)(3)(10)=30,000N

Maximum weight of the load


= Maximum weight sustained - Weight of the boat
= 30,000 1,500 = 28,500N
Maximum mass of the load
= 28500/10 = 2850 kg

A hot air balloon with a total mass of fabric, basket and pilot is 480 kg. It is filled with hot air
of density 0.95 kg m-3. If the volume of the balloon is 2000 m3, what is the lifting force
exerted on the balloon when the surrounding air has a density of 1.20 kg m-3?
ANS:
Weight of cold air displaced
= gV
= 1.20 x 10 x 2000
= 24000 N
Weight of hot air balloon + weight of basket
= gV + mg
= 0.95 x 10 x 2000 + 480 x 10
= 19000 + 4800
= 23800
Lifting force
= 24000 23800
= 200 N
OR
Lifting force
= (1.2 0.95) x 10 x 2000 4800
= 200 N