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abutment design

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From the STAAD Analysis, Class 70R Tracked loading is found to be critical and

hence, the same is considered for abutment design, i.e. 535kN

Design

Ther analysis and design of the PCC ABUTMENT is based on following data

1 Geometric data

No. of spans

=

Roadway fo bridge

=

Carriage way of bridge

=

Span C/C of expansion in square

=

Span C/C of expansion in skew

=

Effective span in square

=

Effective span in skew

=

Width of seating in span direction

=

Width of seating in roadway direction

=

Type of super structure

=

Thickness of super structure @ center

=

Thickness of super structure @ edges

=

Thickness of wc @ center

=

Thickness of wc @ edges

=

Values

unit

7

8.4

m

7.5

m

9.44

m

9.44

m

9.04

m

9.04

m

0.4

m

8.4

m

RCC Solid deck slab

0.8

m

0.7

m

0.075

m

0.075

m

:width

Kerb depth above road level at road side

Kerb depth above road level at outer side

hand rail vertical square post c/s

area(0.3*0.3) =

hand rail vertical square post

height =

C/C of vertical handrail post

=

=

=

No of Vertical post(span/spacing) =

Handrail horizontal square Post

c/s area(0.25*0.25) =

No of horizontal post =

0.45

0.25

0.25

m

m

m

0.09

1.1

1.5

m

m

0.0625

3

m

m

102.775

Afflux

0.15

Bottom of deck level in meters

1.2

101.9

m

m

100.55

flood condition

Sill level in meters

Depth of footing

Founding levels in meters

=

=

=

=

4.4

96.15

3.5

92.65

m

m

m

m

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

5.5

0.71

2.510

0.42

0.3

0.25

0.02

3.94

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

=

=

0.72

0

m

degree

degree

Equivalent Radian

Front (River side)batter in abutment

Rear ( road side )batter in abutment

Width of bearing portion

Width of dirt wall portion

Thickness of bed block

Expansion gap

Abutment widht at sill level

Abutment widht at

top@ 5.5ht

Skew angle

Soil parameters:Backfill Soil Assumption

Angle of repose

Angle of wall friction

Angle of surcharge

=

=

=

30

20

0

0.52

0.35

0.00

19

kN/m3

2 Loading data(Amendment two clause no. 204 of IRC : 6 - 2010 ---(referred as IRC 6:2010 A))

No. of lanes

Loading Class

Class A wheeled

204 note under fig2no.2 )

Class 70 R tracked

204 note under fig1 - no.2

)

Class 70 R wheeled

Exposure

Grade of concrete for PCC

=

=

Moderate

M25

204 note under fig1 - no.2

)

( Considered conservatively for design but min. allowable grade for construction should be M20(severe),as per table-5A,IRC21-2000 )

6.25

0.61

Mpa

From IRC:21table 9

Mpa

From IRC:21table 11

As per CI.710.1.1 when surface reinforcement are not provided the permissble stresses level shall be kept only upto 90% of the

allowable stresses

factor

=

=

Unit weight of RCC

Unit weight of PCC

=

DESIGN NOTES

The design is based on the provisions of the following IRC codes:

1. IRC:5-1998

2. IRC:6-2000

3. IRC:78-2000

4.IRC: 21-2001

5.625

Mpa

0.549

25

24

Mpa

kN/m3

kN/m3

8.4

8.4

1.06

=

Dead load reaction from superstructure

=

Intensity of load per metre

=

=

Stress at Toe(river side)

Stress at Heel(road soil side)

m

(conservatively

assumed)

m

895.3

106.6

kN

kN

70.7

kN/m2

-16.6

kN/m2

Impact Allowance

Live Load from Super Structure

Live load reaction from superstructure

Intensity of load per metre

Stress at Toe(river side)

Stress at Heel(road soil side)

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

1

535

535

63.7

710.1.2IRC78:2014

kN

kN/m

42.3

kN/m2

-9.9

kN/m2

6.1 STRESSES DUE TO VERTICAL REACTION INDUCED DUE TO BRAKING( 211.3-IRC 6-2014)

710.1.2IRC78:2014

Impact Allowance

=

1

=

Live Load from Super Structure

700

Live Load from Super Structure

=

700.0

Braking forces @ 20% of Live Load

=

140.0

This load acts at 1.2m above the road level

Moment due to Braking Force

=

290.5

Vertical Reaction at abutment

=

32.1

Vertical Recation at abutment per metre

=

3.8

Stress @ Toe(River side)

=

16.6

Stress @ Heel(Road side)

=

13.5

kN

kN

kN

kNm

kN

kN

kN/m2

kN/m2

6 7,211.3,211.4,211.5,211.5.1.2)

Dead load reaction from superstructure

Frictional Force due to tractive effect

Where = coefficient of friction at the movable bearing

and it is taken as 0.50

Ref. CI.706.3.4 of IRC : 78-2000

Thereforce frictional force

Total live load on the span

Horizontal force@20% of LL

Longitudinal Force per support

(this force acts at bearing level)

Therefore, the design Horizontal force

Intensity of load per metre

Moment due to this force per meter

Stress due to this moment

=

=

895.3

0.5

=

=

=

=

=

=

447.6

kN

700.0

140

kN

kN

70

kN

=

=

=

447.6

kN

53.29

kN

=

=

=

306.42

kNm

118.43

kN/m2

kN

Stress at Heel(road soil side)

=

=

118.43

-118.43

kN/m2

kN/m2

The intensity of earth pressure is calculated using coulomb's formula and coeffiecients of active earth

pressure are calculated as follows and the lever arm for the earth pressure is taken as 0.42h(214.1-IRC

6-2014)

coeffiecient of active pressure, Ka is given by

sin2 ( + )

1

1

k a = sin2 ( ) * (1+ k )2 * sin( )

sin( + ) X sin( )

k =

sin( ) X sin( + )

where

= angle of wall friction

= angle of surcharge

= sat.unit weight of soil

Interior angle of heel wall with horizontal, = tan1(ht/rear batter)

= 65.46

Degree

= 65.46

1.14

o

cos(90 - +)= 44.54

degree

= 44.54

0.77697556

k= 0.7685297

ka= 0.5377544

Radians

Radians

29.43kNm

2.4

6.625

=

=

=

416.10

3.79

29.43

kN

m ( from sill)

kN

7.633

408.47kNm

earth pressure

location of earth pressure

earth pressure for height h- 1.2 m

(IRC 6 clause 217.1)

For 1.2m eq. earthfill,centre of pressure will be at a

height

effect

(this will act at a height)

=

=

408.47

3.31

kN

from the sill

291.26

kN

moment

964.48

kNm

Stress at Toe(river side)

= (+)

(+/-) M/Z

372.779061

kN/m2

vertical component

acting at a distance

= (-)

=

=

eccentericity

stress at heel

stress at toe

net stress at toe side

net stress at heel side

calculation of stresses under span loaded condition

earth pressure

Distacne from the sill

Horizontal component of earth pressure

moment

Stress at Toe(river side)

Stress at Heel(road soil side)

vertical component

acting at a distance

eccentericity

stress at heel

stress at toe

net stress at toe (River)side

net stress at heel(soil) side

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

= (+)

= (-)

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

372.779061

kN/m2

286.390

kN

1.51

m

(from heel)

0.459

m

123.47

kN/m2

21.91

kN/m2

394.68

kN/m2

-249.31

kN/m2

224.22

2.7825

160

444.86

171.9

171.9

157.2

1.51

0.5

67.78

12.02

183.97

-104.17

kN

m

kN

kNm

kN/m2

kN/m2

kN

m

m

kN/m2

kN/m2

kN/m2

kN/m2

the stresses due to fluid pressure is calculated as per the

provisions under clause 214.1 of IRC:6-2014

intensity of fluid pressure

force due to fluid pressure

moment due to this force

stresses due to this moment

net stress at toe (River)side

net stress at heel(soil) side

=

=

=

=

=

=

4.8

105.3

232.6

89.91

89.91

-89.91

kN/m3

kN

kN-m

kN/m2

kN/m2

kN/m2

since this stress are less than the stress due to earth pressure,earth pressure governs the design

9 STRESSES DUE TO BUOYANCY FORCES

width of abutment at sill level

Ht of HFL above sill Level

=

=

volume of abutment submerged

Unit weight of water

For full Bouyancy,reduced weight of abutment

15% of reduction in weight

=

=

=

=

=

net stress at heel(soil) side

=

=

3.94

4.4

m

m

1.36

m

11.67

m3

10.00

kN/m3

117

kN

17.50

kN

(213.3:IRC6:2014)

4.44

kN/m2

-4.44

-4.44

kN/m2

kN/m2

10 SELF WEIGHT

SI NO

Description

Weight/RM

Lever arm(

from toe end

point)

Moment

KN"

46.9

95.0

"m'

1.0

1.6

KN-m

46

149

2.8

1.6

1.8

458

7

10

670.2

1

2

front batter

below bed block

3

4

5

rear batter

bed block

dirt wall

total

165.7

4.3

5.8

317.64

Therefore eccentricity

Stress at toe

stress at heel

2.11

0.36

124.83

36.41

m

on toe side

2

kN/m

kN/m2

Description of loading

SI NO

Stresses due to

1 D L of super structure

live load from super

2

structure

5

6

7

8

9

to longitudinal force

cum friction

Horizontal

longitudinal force cum

friction

earth / fluid pressure

and live load

surcharge

self weight of

substructure

total stresses in dry

condition

buoyancy effect

total stresses in wet

condition

@

@

Toe

heel

KN/sqm

KN/sqm

@

@

toe

heel

KN/sqm

KN/sqm

70.7

-16.6

70.7

-16.6

42.3

-9.9

0.0

0.0

16.6

13.5

16.6

13.5

118.4

-118.4

118.4

-118.4

184.0

-104.2

394.7

-249.3

124.8

36.4

124.8

36.4

556.8

-4.44

-199.2

-4.44

725.3

-4.44

-334.4

-4.44

552.4

maximum stress developed is

maximum tensile stress developed

-203.7

720.9

-338.9

725.3

KN/sqm

0.725

MPa

338.9

KN/sqm

0.339

MPa

Max. Comp. Stress is within limits

Tensile stress is within limits

The stresses are well with in the permisible limits of the grade of concrete(M25) adopted in the

design. The section in safe at sill level and does not require revision

1 details of foundation

u/s cut water

0.71

0.71

Front offset

Rear Offset

u/s offset-along length

d/s offset-along length

Height

total width of footing

length of footing

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

1

4.94

10.82

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Front offset

Rear Offset

u/s offset-along length

d/s offset-along length

Height

total width of footing

length of footing

0.5

0

0.5

0.5

1

5.44

11.82

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Front offset

Rear Offset

u/s offset-along length

d/s offset-along length

Height

total width of footing

length of footing

0.5

0

0.5

0.5

1

5.94

12.82

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Rear Offset

u/s offset-along length

d/s offset-along length

Height

total width of footing

length of footing

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

6.94

13.82

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Front offset

Rear Offset

u/s offset-along length

d/s offset-along length

Height

total width of footing

0

0

0

0

0

6.94

m

m

m

m

m

m

I footing

II footing

III footing

IV footing

V footing

length of footing

13.82

Rear Offset

u/s offset-along length

d/s offset-along length

Height

total width of footing

length of footing

0

0

0

0

0

6.94

13.82

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Rear Offset

u/s offset-along length

d/s offset-along length

Height

total width of footing

length of footing

0

0

0

0

0

6.94

13.82

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

VI footing

VII footing

VIII footing

Front offset

0

Rear Offset

0

u/s offset-along length

0

d/s offset-along length

0

Height

0

total width of footing

6.94

length of footing 13.82

width of abutment at foundation level

6.94

length of abutment at foundation level 13.82

Depth of footing

3.5

eccentricity of vertical loads

0.56

Rear Offset of last footing

0.5

2 STRESSES DUE TO DEAD LOAD FROM SUPER STRUCTURE

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

intensity of load per metre

895.3

64.78

kN

KN

stress at toe

13.85

kN/m2

stress at heel

4.82

kN/m2

m

m

live load reaction from super structure

535

intensity of load per metre

38.7

kN

kN

stress at toe

8.3

kN/m2

stress at heel

2.9

kN/m2

6.1 STRESSES DUE TO VERTICAL REACTION INDUCED DUE TO BRAKING( 211.3-IRC 6-2014)

Live Load from Super Structure

=

700.0

kN

Braking forces @ 20% of Live Load

=

140.0

kN

This load acts at 1.2m above the road level

Moment due to Braking Force

=

290.5

kNm

Vertical Recation at abutment

=

32.1

kN

Vertical Reaction at abutment per metre

=

2.3

kN

Stress @ Toe(River side)

=

0.5

kN/m2

Stress @ Heel(Road side)

=

0.2

kN/m2

6 7,211.3,211.4,211.5,211.5.1.2)

Dead load reaction from superstructure

Frictional Force due to tractive effect

=

=

895.3

0.5

=

=

=

=

=

=

447.6

kN

700.0

140

kN

kN

70

kN

=

=

=

447.6

kN

32.39

kN

299.61

kNm

=

=

=

37.32

kN/m2

Stress at Heel(road soil side)

=

=

37.32

-37.32

kN/m2

kN/m2

and it is taken as 0.50

Ref. CI.211.5.1.2 of IRC : 6-2014

Thereforce frictional force

Total live load on the span

Horizontal force@20% of LL

Longitudinal Force per support

(this force acts at bearing level)

Therefore, the design Horizontal force

Intensity of load per metre

Moment due to this force per meter

kN

coeffiecient of active pressure, Ka is given by

ka =

where

(1 sin )

(1 + sin )

90

1.57

degress

radians

= angle of wall friction

= angle of surcharge

= sat.unit weight of soil

ka= 0.3335377

calculation of stresses under span unloaded condition

18.3kNm

2.4

10.125

earth pressure

497.08

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

4.13

kN

m ( from footing

bottom)

18.25

kN

10.917

=

=

=

478.83

kN

3.87

bottom

478.83kNm

(IRC 6 clause 217.1)

centre of pressure will be at a height

total pressure exerted by back fill including the surcharge

effect

478.83

kN

moment

1855.30

kNm

Stress at Toe(river side)

Stress at Heel(road soil side)

(+/-) M/Z

231.12438

-231.12438

kN/m2

kN/m2

231.12

kN/m2

-231.12

kN/m2

=

=

=

= (+)

= (-)

=

=

=

=

324.83

3.34125

1085.34

135.207226

-135.20723

kN

m

kNm

kN/m2

kN/m2

135.21

kN/m2

-135.21

kN/m2

=

=

=

4.8

246.0

830.4

kN/cu.m

kN

kN-m

103.44

kN/m2

=

=

=

103.44

kN/m2

-103.44

kN/m2

net stress at heel side

calculation of stresses under span loaded condition

earth pressure

Distacne from the sill

moment

Stress at Toe(river side)

Stress at Heel(road soil side)

net stress at toe (River)side

net stress at heel(soil) side

6 STRESSES DUE TO FLUID PRESSURE

the stresses due to fluid pressure is calculated as per the

provisions under clause 214.1 of IRC:6-2014

intensity of fluid pressure

force due to fluid pressure

moment due to this force

stresses due to this moment

= (+)

= (-)

=

=

=

=

since this stress is more than the stress due to earth pressure,fluid pressure governs the design

The intensity of earth pressure is calculated using Rankine's formula and coeffiecients of passive earth

pressure are calculated as follows

coeffiecient of active pressure, Kp is given by

Kp

1 + sin

1 sin

where

here = angle of internal friction

= sat.unit weight of soil

kp=

3.0

0.00kNm

flood)

earth pressure

location of earth pressure

moment

stresses due to this moment

Stress at Toe(river side)

Stress at Heel(road soil side)

0.00

=

=

=

=

= (-)

= (+)

0.00

0.00

kN

m ( from footing

bottom)

kNm

(+/-) M/Z

0

0

kN/m2

kN/m2

8 SELF WEIGHT

SI NO

1

2

4

5

6

7

8

8.1

9

10

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Lever

arm(from toe

end point of

Description Weight/RM footing level)

KN"

front batter 46.86

below bed block 95.04

rear batter 165.66

bed block

4.32

dirt wall

5.76

earth over rear batter triangular

portion 131.1475

earth over rear batter rectangular

portion 50.0745

LL Equi. Surcharge 160.056

earth over footing on rear side / I

footing offfset 62.225

earth over footing on rear side /

last footing offset 95.475

weight of cc footing below sill /I

footing 118.56

weight of cc footing below sill /II

footing 130.56

weight of cc footing below sill

/III footing 142.56

weight of cc footing below sill

/IV footing 83.28

weight of cc footing below sill /V

footing

0

weight of cc footing below sill

/VI footing

0

weight of cc footing below sill

/VII footing

0

weight of cc footing below sill

/VIII footing

0

total 1291.6

Moment

"m'

2.47

3.07

4.27

3.07

3.28

KN-m

115.9

291.8

706.8

13.3

18.9

4.27

559.6

4.69

5.19

234.6

829.9

6.19

385.2

6.69

638.7

3.97

470.7

3.72

485.7

3.47

494.7

3.47

289.0

3.47

0.0

3.47

0.0

3.47

0.0

3.47

0.0

5534.6

Span Unloaded

Resultant Load acts at a distance =

4.3

Therefore eccentricity =

0.82

level

m

kN/m2

Span loaded (without LL Equi. Surcharge)

Total Selfwt = 1131.5

Total moment= 4704.7

kN/m2

kN

kNm

heel side

Resultant Load acts at a distance = 4.1578845 level

Therefore eccentricity = 0.6878845

m

heel side

2

Stress at toe = 66.079444

kN/m

9 STRESSES DUE TO BUOYANCY FORCES

volume of abutment submerged upto sill level

=

volume of footings

=

I footing

=

II footing

=

III footing

=

IV footing

=

V footing

=

VI footing

=

VII footing

=

VIII footing

=

total volume of abutment submerged

=

reduction in weight of abutment

=

15% of reduction in weight

=

stresses due to buoyancy forces

kN/m2

11.67

m3

4.94

5.44

5.94

5.44

0

0

0

0

33.43

334

50.1

m3

m3

m3

m3

m3

m3

m3

m3

m3

kN

kN

-7.2

kN/m2

SI NO Description of loading

Stresses due to

D L super structure

live load from super

2

structure

Vertical reaction due

to longitudinal force

cum friction

4

horizontal force due to

longitudinal force cum

4.1

friction

Fluid/earth pressure

self weight of

7

substructure

total stresses in dry

8

condition

9

buoyancy effect

total stresses in wet

10

condition

@

@

Toe

heel

KN/sqm

KN/sqm

@

@

toe

heel

KN/sqm

KN/sqm

13.9

4.8

13.9

4.8

8.3

2.9

0.00

0.00

0.17

0.00

0.00

37

-37

37

-37

135.21

-135.21

231.12

-231.12

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

66.1

260.0

54.9

317.3

261.2

-7.2

95.3

-7.2

337.2

-7.2

53.6

-7.2

254.0

88.1

330.0

46.4

337.2

KN/sqm

< SBC ( =

500kN/sqm)

46.4

KN/sqm

hence safe

the maximum earth pressure developed is well with in the safe bearing capacity of the soil at foundation

level . Also no tension at the founding level. Hence the section adopted is safe at founding level

lever arm for the vertical load from the superstructure

with reference to toe of the footing

2.91

m

( from toepoint at

foundation level)

188.5

kN-m

113

kN-m

Span Unloaded Condition-overturning moment due to

active earth pressure and live load surcharge(due to

horizontal component of earth pressure)

300

kN-m

1855

kN-m

active earth pressure without live load surcharge(due to

horizontal component of earth pressure)

1085.3

kN-m

loaded)

4704.7

kN-m

Unloaded)

restoring moment due to passive earth pressure

=

=

5534.6

0.0

kN-m

kN-m

CHECK FOR SLIDING

summary of the sliding forces

longitudinal horizontal force

horizontal component of earth pressure

total

=

=

=

32.4

324.8

357.2

kN

kN

kN

Self weight

vertical reaction due to braking

dead load from superstructure

live load from superstructure

direct loads

coefficient of friction between fissured rock and

concrete,(By 706.3.4-IRC78:2014)

frictional froce due to direct loads

passive earth pressure

factor of safety against sliding

(By 706.3.4-IRC78:2014)

CHECK FOR OVER TURNING

summary of over turning moment

longitudinal force

active earth pressure due to hori. Componenet

total

summary of the resisting moment

dead load from superstructure

self weight

Passive earth pressure

Restoring moment due to braking vertical reaction

live load from super structure

total

factor of safety against overturning

=

=

=

=

=

1131.5

2.3

64.8

38.7

1237.3

=

=

=

=

=

0.7

866.1

0.0

866.1

2.425

kN

kN

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

(By 706.3.4-IRC78:2014)

UNDER SPAN UNLOADED CONDITION

CHECK FOR SLIDING

summary of the sliding forces

longitudinal force

horizontal component of earth pressure

total

summary of the forces against sliding

Direct loads(selfwt+DL from Superstructure)

coefficient of friction between fissured rock and

frictional froce due to direct loads

passive earth pressure

Total forces against sliding

factor of safety against sliding

kN

kN

kN

kN

kN

299.6

1085.3

1385.0

kN-m

kN-m

kN-m

188.5

4704.7

0.0

6.8

112.7

5012.7

3.6

kN-m

kN-m

kN-m

kN-m

kN-m

kN-m

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

0.0

478.8

478.8

kN

kN

kN

1356.4

0.7

949.5

0.0

949.5

1.98

kN

kN

kN

summary of over turning moment

longitudinal force

active earth pressure due to hori. Componenet

total

summary of the resisting moment

dead load from superstructure

self weight

total

factor of safety against overturning

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

3.1

0.0

1855.3

1855.3

kN-m

kN-m

kN-m

188.5

5534.6

5723.1

kN-m

kN-m

kN-m

overturning

From the above Analysis and Design, The assumed proportioning can be

safely adopted as Abutment Dimension.

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