You are on page 1of 8

8/25/15

CAMPBELL

BIOLOGY

TENTH
EDITION

Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson

Concept 1.1: The study of life reveals common


themes
Biology is a subject of enormous scope
There are five unifying themes
Organization
Information

Evolution, the
Themes of Biology,
and Scientific Inquiry

Energy and matter


Interactions
Evolution

Lecture Presentation by
Nicole Tunbridge and
Kathleen Fitzpatrick
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 1.3

Theme: New Properties Emerge at Successive


Levels of Biological Organization

7 Tissues

1 The Biosphere

Life can be studied at different levels, from


molecules to the entire living planet

6 Organs
and Organ
Systems

2
Ecosystems

This enormous range can be divided into different


levels of biological organization

10
Molecules

3
Communities

8
Cells

5
Organisms

9 Organelles
4 Populations
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Emergent Properties
Emergent properties result from the arrangement
and interaction of parts within a system
Emergent properties characterize nonbiological
entities as well
For example, a functioning bicycle emerges only
when all of the necessary parts connect in the
correct way

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Reductionism is the reduction of complex systems


to simpler components that are more manageable
to study
For example, studying the molecular structure of
DNA helps us to understand the chemical basis of
inheritance

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

8/25/15

The Cell: An Organisms Basic Unit of Structure


and Function
To explore emergent properties, biologists
complement reductionism with systems biology,
analysis of the interactions among the parts of a
biological system

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

The cell is the lowest level of organization that can


perform all activities required for life
Every cell is enclosed by a membrane that
regulates passage of materials between the cell
and its environment

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 1.4

Prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cell

A eukaryotic cell has membrane-enclosed


organelles, the largest of which is usually the
nucleus

Membrane

DNA
(no nucleus)
Membrane

Cytoplasm

By comparison, a prokaryotic cell is simpler and


usually smaller, and does not contain a nucleus or
other membrane-enclosed organelles
Nucleus
(membraneenclosed)
Membraneenclosed organelles
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Theme: Lifes Processes Involve the Expression


and Transmission of Genetic Information

DNA, the Genetic Material

Within cells, structures called chromosomes


contain genetic material in the form of DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid)

DNA (throughout
nucleus)

1 m

Each chromosome has one long DNA molecule


with hundreds or thousands of genes
Genes encode information for building the
molecules synthesized within the cell
Genes are the units of inheritance
DNA controls the development and maintenance
of organisms

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

8/25/15

Figure 1.6

Figure 1.6a

Nuclei containing DNA


Sperm cell

Egg cell

Fertilized egg
with DNA from
both parents

Embryos cells
with copies of
inherited DNA
Offspring with
traits inherited
from both parents

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Each DNA molecule is made up of two long chains


arranged in a double helix
Each chain is made up of four kinds of chemical
building blocks called nucleotides and nicknamed
A, G, C, and T

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Genes control protein production indirectly


DNA is transcribed into RNA, which is then
translated into a protein
Gene expression is the process of converting
information from gene to cellular product

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 1.8

Genomics: Large-Scale Analysis of DNA


Sequences

(b) How do lens cells make crystallin proteins?


Crystallin gene

(a) Lens cells are


tightly packed
with transparent
proteins called
crystallin.

Lens
cell
DNA

G A

G G

G C

The human genome and those of many other


organisms have been sequenced

TRANSCRIPTION

mRNA

An organisms genome is its entire set of genetic


instructions

G G

U G

G C

Genomics is the study of sets of genes within and


between species

TRANSLATION
Chain of amino
acids
PROTEIN FOLDING

Proteomics is the study of whole sets of proteins


encoded by the genome (known as proteomes)

Protein
Crystallin protein
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

8/25/15

Theme: Life Requires the Transfer and


Transformation of Energy and Matter
The genomics approach depends on

The input of energy from the sun and the


transformation of energy from one form to another
make life possible

High-throughput technology, which yields


enormous amounts of data
Bioinformatics, which is the use of computational
tools to process a large volume of data

When organisms use energy to perform work,


some energy is lost to the surroundings as heat

Interdisciplinary research teams

As a result, energy flows through an ecosystem,


usually entering as light and exiting as heat

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 1.9

ENERGY FLOW
Chemicals
pass to
organisms
that eat the
plants.

Light
energy

Chemical
energy

Heat

Theme: From Ecosystems to Molecules,


Interactions Are Important in Biological
Systems
Interactions between the components of the
system ensure smooth integration of all the parts
This holds true equally well for components of an
ecosystem and the molecules in a cell

Plants take
up chemicals
from the soil
and air.
Chemicals

Decomposers
return
chemicals
to the soil.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 1.10

Ecosystems: An Organisms Interactions with


Other Organisms and the Physical Environment
At the ecosystem level, each organism interacts
continuously with other organisms

Sunlight
Leaves absorb light
energy from the sun.

CO2 Leaves take in


carbon dioxide
from the air and
release oxygen.
O2

These interactions may be beneficial or harmful to


one or both of the organisms
Organisms also interact continuously with the
physical factors in their environment, and the
environment is affected by the organisms living
there

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Leaves fall to the


ground and are
decomposed by
organisms that
return minerals
to the soil.
Water and
minerals in
the soil are
taken up
by the tree
through its
roots.

Animals eat leaves


and fruit from the tree,
returning nutrients
and minerals to the
soil in their waste
products.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

8/25/15

Figure 1.11

Molecules: Interactions Within Organisms

STIMULUS: High
blood glucose level

Interactions between componentsorgans,


tissues, cells, and moleculesthat make up living
organisms are crucial to their smooth operation

Negative feedback

Insulin-producing
cell in pancreas

Cells are able to coordinate various chemical


pathways through a mechanism called feedback

Insulin
Circulation
throughout
body via
blood

Liver and
muscle cells

RESPONSE: Glucose
uptake by liver and
muscle cells
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Animation: Negative Feedback


In feedback regulation the output, or product of a
process, regulates that very process
The most common form of regulation in living
organisms is negative feedback, in which the
response reduces the initial stimulus
Feedback is a regulatory motif common to life at
all levels

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 1.16

Evolution, the Core Theme of Biology


Evolution is the one idea that makes logical sense
of everything we know about living organisms
The scientific explanation for both the unity and
diversity of organisms is the concept that living
organisms are modified descendants of common
ancestors
Many kinds of evidence support the occurrence of
evolution

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

8/25/15

Video: Albatross Courtship Ritual


Charles Darwin published On the Origin of
Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859
Darwin made two main points
Species showed evidence of descent with
modification from common ancestors
Natural selection is the mechanism behind
descent with modification

Darwins theory explained the duality of unity and


diversity
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Darwin observed that

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Darwin inferred that

Individuals in a population vary in their traits, many


of which are heritable

Individuals that are best suited to their environment


are more likely to survive and reproduce

More offspring are produced than survive, and


competition is inevitable

Over time, more individuals in a population will have


the advantageous traits

Species generally suit their environment

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Evolution occurs as the unequal reproductive


success of individuals

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 1.18-1

In other words, the environment selects for the


propagation of beneficial traits
Darwin called this process natural selection

1 Population

with varied
inherited
traits

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

8/25/15

Figure 1.18-2

1 Population

with varied
inherited
traits

Figure 1.18-3

2 Elimination

1 Population

of individuals
with certain
traits

with varied
inherited
traits

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2 Elimination

of individuals
with certain
traits

3 Reproduction

of survivors

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 1.18-4

A Case Study in Scientific Inquiry: Investigating


Coat Coloration in Mouse Populations
Color patterns of animals vary widely in nature,
sometimes even between members of the same
species

1 Population

with varied
inherited
traits

2 Elimination

of individuals
with certain
traits

3 Reproduction

of survivors

4 Increasing

frequency
of traits that
enhance
survival

Two populations of mice belonging to the same


species (Peromyscus polionotus) but with different
color patterns are found in different environments
The beach mouse lives on white sand dunes with
sparse vegetation; the inland mouse lives on
darker soil

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Concept 1.4: Science benefits from a


cooperative approach and diverse viewpoints

Science, Technology, and Society

Most scientists work in teams, which often include


graduate and undergraduate students

The goal of science is to understand natural


phenomena

Good communication is important in order to share


results through seminars, publications, and
websites

The goal of technology is to apply scientific


knowledge for some specific purpose
Science and technology are interdependent
Biology is marked by discoveries, while
technology is marked by inventions

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

8/25/15

The combination of science and technology has


dramatic effects on society
For example, the discovery of DNA by James
Watson and Francis Crick allowed for advances in
DNA technology such as testing for hereditary
diseases

Ethical issues can arise from new technology, but


have as much to do with politics, economics, and
cultural values as with science and technology

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.