Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of

Technology
A Project on
“Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited,
In Tomato Ketchup Category”

Submitted to: Faculty of Management Sciences
In Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (M.B.A)
Under the Supervision of:
Miss. Ayesha Shaikh
Submitted By:
Junaid Shehzad
Student ID: 4813
Majors: Marketing
Year - 2012
Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 1

CERTIFICATE
I am pleased to certify that Mr. Junaid Shehzad S/o Muhammad
Hanif has satisfactorily carried out a research work, under my
supervision on the topic of
“Effect of Brand Image on
Consumer Buying Behavior : A case study of Shangrila
Private Limited, in Tomato Ketchup Category”.

I further certify that his distinctive original research and his thesis
is worthy of presentation to the Department of Marketing, Faculty
of Management Sciences, Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of
Technology (KASBIT) for the degree of MBA majors in Marketing.

Ms. Ayesha Shaikh
Lecturer

Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 2

Table of Contents
List of Table

……………………….………………………………………..…

List of Figures

……………………….………………………………………..…

Dedication

……………………….………………………………………..…

Acknowledgements

……………………….……………………………….…..……… 8

Abstract

…..……………………………………………………………......

5

6

7

9

Chapter

1

Introduction…….…………………………………………….

…………. 10
1.1. Background
1.2.

………….…………………………………………….………… 11
Statement

of

the

problem

…...............................................................................11
1.3. Research objective ……….……………………………………….……………...…..
12
1.4. Research Model

…..…………………………………………………………..…. 15

1.5. Research significance ………...……………………………………………….….….
17

Chapter 2 – Literature Review ……….
……………………………………. 18
2.1: Brand Image.
............................................................................................. 19
Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 3

………………………..………………………. 22 2..2: Brand Attitude. 29 3. 24 2. 29 Chapter 4 – Data Analysis.2: Sampling ……………………………………………………….……………………………………………….4: EKB Model ………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………….4: Research scope and limitations ……….1: Research design ………………………………………………………… 28 3..………………………………………. ……………. Different test ………. Results/Findings & Discussions ………… 30 4.2.………………… 30 4.5: Customer Loyalty …………………………………………………………………...1.…….3: Purchase Intention……………...….. 29 3.. 20 2..2.………………………………………………………………. 25 Chapter 3 – Research Methodology …………………………………… 27 3.3: Data collection instruments ……….… 36 Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 4 . Analysis of sample characteristics & demographics ……….

.…………………………………...56 Bibliography Annexes ………. 47 Chapter 6 – Recommendations ………………………………………… 53 Appendix / …………………………………………….…………………… 58 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: .Reliability Statistics Table 2: – Z Test for Brand Image and Consumer Buying Behavior Table 3: – Z Test for Product Quality Table 4 :– Z Test for Product Knowledge Table 5: – Z Test for Loyalty Intention Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 5 ..Chapter 5 – Conclusions …………………………………………………. ……….

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Gender Demographics Figure 2: Demographics Gender Age Scale Figure 3: Demographics Consumption Segmentation Figure 4: Shangrila Brand Choice. Market Share Figure 5: Shangrila Brand Choice. Market Share with Gender Figure 6: Importance of Brand Image Figure 7: Importance of Low Quality Brand Image Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 6 .

Figure 8: Importance of Product Knowledge DEDICATION “My Beloved Family & Especially to My Lovely Mother” (Late) Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 7 .

in my view. The support and cooperation of the staff of M. wisdom. Also thanks to my university friends. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 8 . which smooth my learning process. Ayesha Shaikh. group members who supported me to achieve all goals of MBA degree.A Program in Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of Technology (KASBIT) absolutely has done their great jobs.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Words are short to thanks & acknowledge many important peoples whose shore up was precious throughout the project process. First.B. They were also always helpful and guided me through every stage of the project requirement formalities that had to fulfill. for her guidance. and assistance in all phases of the project. I would like to thank my project supervisor Ms.

switch to others brand on Brand perception.In the end. Does the Brand Image really give a competitive advantage to an industry by making standout from its competitors? Does it be use as marketing tool for promotion/attraction? This major factor will identify in this case study. I would like to thanks to My Family members specially pray for my Mother May Allah TabarakWatallah give her place in his paradise. which will fulfill my carrier path. They were always stand for me in order to encourage me in all my work and same as my Teacher (Ms. which caused to purchase by the consumers. or opposite it most of the cases consumers switch to others brand due to increasing the prices impact or out of budgeting. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 9 . My all-family member’s blessings have always led to me to the path of success and achievement. Is consumer likely to buy branded products considering the brand image either it is more expensive. identify that the brand image really plays a role to attract the suspect and prospect customers. Is brand image can change the consumer choice. My Mother always encouraged me to go forward and accomplished this task successfully. or image? In addition. Ayesha Sheikh) ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior.

The study will examine the case of Brand Image of Shangrila Private Limited. and satisfaction of the customers. It’s producing the Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 10 . This industrial sector is playing a major role in today’s business environment and the economy because this is concern about every individual citizen’s daily consumption goods for middle. of the country. discuss the process it followed and discover features and benefits of this approach. The firms sustain their loyal customers and overcome the challenge for the continued existence and growth. Today’s majors firms are frequently focusing on the understanding the customers and consumers desire needs and trying to fetch prospect customers. middle upper class. One of the highest contributed industries in an economy is FMCG industry. Products quality. The dependency of the successful business is totally on their loyal customer satisfaction in terms of fulfillment of their desire need and demands. The FMCG industry meant for daily consumption of goods. CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION The boundless opportunity in the worldwide market throughout the competitive advantages services. This growth becomes the industrial growth which is reflects to the national growth.

Vinegar. General items.e. Shangrila brands deal in the foodstuff for cooking and snacks refreshment juices. Seasons. Imli Ginger Sauce. lunch. One of the Leading brand Shangrila surviving since last two decades and dealing in Foodstuff category of FMCG Industry. and Seasoning deal in Bar B. Orange. Confectionary. Ready Meal (Fast Foods). Garlic Chilli Sauce. The Brand Image has found in the literature to be a competitive tool for many companies and their perception and brand image. Third one Ketchup and Pickles has a vast range in their SKUs. Bakers. currently the competition in multinational and national firms in Pakistan are involves to provide their better services and products and continues service improvement to their customers desired needs and wants. Guava. Juices.1 BACKGROUND The FMCG stand for “Fast Moving Consumer Goods” and it’s contained numerous sectors like Food Stuff. etc. Here all above products on going products and firms are enjoying their highest volumes of business in the Pakistan. Pickles. and Apple flavors. Ketchup. Seasonings. Drinks. Chilli Sauce.Q Sauce. The price offering of each product almost similar or litter mid differ with their competitors. Shampoo. Bath Soap. and Tomato Ketchup. Sauces. The target market of Shangrila is households and Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 11 . or refreshment i. dinner. Juices produce in Mango. Tooth Paste. The product category in contained on Sauces. Peach. 1. and Juices and its variant is Sauces deal in Soy Sauce. soft drinks.ready meals or others products to use faster like you can easily have meal in breakfast. Burger. Pickles.

The specific research objectives are:  Determine the relationship between strong brand image & the effect on consumer purchase intention & behavior.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT The problem statement formulated for the research is. Juices category targeting to the teenagers.  Determine the relationship between the product quality & effect on consumer buying behavior. 1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The research’s primary aim is to establish how Brand Image Effect to the Consumer Buying Behavior Patterns in the FMCG sector.  Determine the positive relationship between satisfaction and loyalty intention. This objective implies Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 12 . and under 16 to 25 ages. research methodologies and data collection methods and methods of analysis would be most appropriate to research the problem in question.women are under 18-30 ages.  To investigate which research paradigms. “To determine whether the brand image of product has an impact on the consumer decision making and buying behavior. health conscious peoples. 1.  Determine the relationship between the high product knowledge decreases the effect of brand image.

It should highlight an organization’s mission and vision to all. Brand Image is nothing but an organization’s character. It is the manner in which a specific brand positioning in the market.that the appropriate overall research design for the study must be determined. Brand Image conveys emotional value and not just a mental Image. It can define as a unique bundle of associations within the minds of target customers. Based on Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 13 . The main elements of positive brand image are unique logo reflecting organization’s image.  To construct (design) a research instrument that will canvass the opinions of stakeholders of the perceived brand image of the Shangrila. it is nothing but the consumers’ perception about the product. Consumers develop various associations with the brand. slogan-describing organization’s business in brief and brand identifier supporting the key values. as shaped by brand identity.  To make recommendations regarding which dimensions. It signifies what the brand presently stands for. Brand image is the current view of the customers about a brand.  To source primary data to gauge the opinions of stakeholders perceived Shangrila Brand Image. In short.  To analyze the data and report on possible disparities (“Gaps”) between the expectations linked to the Shangrila brand image and the actual experience of this brand. It is an accumulation of contact and observation by people external to an organization. of the Shangrila Brand identity need to addressed to enhance the image of the institution. brand image and related concepts. This objective requires an in-depth analysis of secondary sources dealing with brand identity. if any. It is a set of beliefs held about a specific brand. Brand image is the overall impression in consumers’ mind that formed from all sources.

The brand image includes products' appeal. The brand image consists of various associations in consumers’ mind attributes. Brand attributes are consumers overall assessment of a brand. they are also purchasing its image. other promotional tools. When the consumers purchase the product. fame. ease of use. Brand Images should be positive. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 14 . An image is formed about the brand based on subjective perceptions of association’s bundle that the consumers have about the brand Volvo is associated with safety.why do I believe you (more than others).these associations. Brand image is actually brand content. and rational benefits/support . Brand Image develops and conveys the product’s character in a unique manner different from its competitor’s image. Brand image is the objective and mental feedback of the consumers when they purchase a product. Toyota is associated with reliability. Brand Image has not to be created. etc. they form brand image. emotional benefits . word of mouth publicity. but is automatically formed. and overall value. unique and instant. functionality. benefits and attributes. The idea behind brand image is that the consumer is not purchasing just the product/service but also the image associated with that product/service. Brand Attributes are the functional and mental connections with the brand that the customers have. Brand Images can be strengthened using brand communications like advertising. packaging. They can be specific or conceptual benefits are the rationale for the purchase decision.how do you make me feel better (than others). There are three types of benefits: Functional benefits what do you do better (than others) do.

To sum up. the following research model have been developed: Independent Variables Brand Image Reputation Relevance Performance Product Knowledge Promotions Price discount Dependent Variables Consumer Loyalty Consumer Buying Behavior Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 15 .4 RESEARCH MODEL To achieve the research objectives. Positive brand image enhances the goodwill and brand value of an organization. “Brand image” is the customer’s net extract from the brand. 1.Positive brand image is exceeding the customers’ expectations.

H2: Different brand images lead to differ product quality things. H4: There is a positive relationship between satisfaction and loyalty Intention FIGURE: 1. H3: High product knowledge decreases the effect of brand images. CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE RESEARCH MODEL Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 16 .The following hypotheses have developed to test the relationships between the dependent and independent variables: H1: There is a relationship between positive Brand Image and consistent consumer Buying Behavior.

One of the best strategies is about creating the best brand image in considering the consumers mind that ensure a long-term growth of business. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 17 . Therefore.1. and senses of belongingness towards brands of any kind but sometimes customers themselves are unaware of the reasons for the brand preferences. Product knowledge. In the contemporary environment. businesses have to develop different strategies in order to survive in long run. the only constant is change. Researches show that numerous factors impart in creating the awareness. loyalty. Purchase intention.5 RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE As recent era of business industry is the one of in FMCG the dominant industry for the last decades comparing others industry in the worlds although the similarly this industry has a competition in the nationwide. This competitive environment caused brand consciousness among subscribers and potential buyers. Satisfaction.

sustainable competitive advantage. This is research helps to identity the factors. therefore they pay close attention toward the factors that influence a customer’s decision towards brand. Although the result will be beneficial for the organization to make an action plan throughout the competitive strategy for the competitor in terms of knowledge how brand becomes more attractive. CHAPTER 2 . Kandampully & Suhartanto. Jaworski. Pan. brand. Shangrila private limited will gain this research objective and will found the causes. The main purpose of this research study is to investigate the key variables that are having strong influence on customer satisfaction in foodstuff manufacturer sector and influence purchasing decision of customers. and consequently increases the likelihood that consumers will purchase the brand" (p. store/retail) will lead to loyalty (e. 2000. Nguyen & LeBlanc. Since satisfied customer is the core concern of any organization. and increase market share or performance (Park.Currently the organizations are striving to retaining their customers and constantly finding the caused ways to enter the customer mind and their black box.LITERATURE REVIEW According to Hsieh. 1998). which is influence to buy their branded products. which constantly holds a favorable image by the public. & MacInnis. Koo.g. 2003. "a successful brand image enables consumers to identify the needs that the brand satisfies and to differentiate the brand from its competitors. which is influence to move the brand choice to reduce the turnover rate. and Setiono (2004).e. would definitely gain a better position in the market. 252). In addition. several empirical findings have confirmed that a favorable image (i. brand equity Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 18 . 1986). A company or its product services.

brand benefits values (i. Kotler (2001) defined image as "the set of beliefs. 1998). brand benefits. 1984. and ordered" (p. 2. it comes into being through a creative process in which these selected impressions are elaborated. usually organized in some meaningful way" (p. Biel (1992) however defined brand image as "a cluster of attributes and associations that consumers connect to the brand name" (p. and impression that a person holds regarding an object" (p. Zooming into Keller's (1993) conceptualization of brand image.. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 19 . 2001). On the other hand. whereby brand image is referred to as "a set of associations.1 : Brand Image Brand image has conceptualized and operationalized in several ways (Reynolds & Gutman. 2003. 273). Capella. and overall brand attitudes. 2000).. 1991. 3) A Similar definition to Keller's was proposed by Aaker (1991). Hsieh et al. 1992. 1995). Measuring image based on the above definition would help marketers to identify the strengths and weaknesses of their brand as well as consumers' perceptions toward their product or services. 1995. Koo. 69). 109). Bhat & Reddy. Reynolds (1965) noted that "an image is the mental construct developed by the consumer on the basis of a few selected impressions among the flood of the total impressions. Aaker. & Alford.e.. 1993). or using Malhotra's (1981) brand image scale (i.(Faircloth.. purchase behavior (Hsieh et al. Faircloth et al.e. 2004. it considered a perception about a brand as reflected by the brand associations held in consumers' memory. "brand associations” comprise of brand attributes. Kandampully & Suhartanto. He suggested. Roth. Faircloth et al. Biel. 8). embellished. 2001). Keller.e. 2001. 2004) and brand performance (Roth. Keller (1993) considered brand image as "a set of perceptions about a brand as reflected by brand associations in consumer's memory" (p. It has been measured based on attributes (i. ideas.

what consumers think the product or service can do for them" (p. 4).e. the functional benefits are related to the intrinsic advantages of product or services consumption and usually correspond to the product related attributes. For example. (1986).2 Brand Attitude Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 20 .To Keller (1993). 2. these is considered "the personal value consumers attach to the product or service attributes – that is. attributes are "descriptive features that characterized a product or service – what a consumer thought the product or service is or has and what is involved with its purchase or consumption". user and usage imagery). experiential and symbolic benefits. Keller (1993) described that this image benefits can be classified into functional. As for benefits. experiential benefits refer to "what it felt like to use the product or services and usually correspond to the product related attributes". Attributes can classified into product-related attributes and non product-related attributes (i. Here. price. while symbolic benefits were associated with the underlying needs for social approval or personal expression and outer-directed self-esteem and corresponded to non-product related attributes. Product-related attributes refer to the ingredients necessary for performing the product or service function sought by consumers while non product-related attributes refer to the external aspects of the product or services that relate to its purchase or consumption. which was originally derived from the work of Park et al. packaging or product appearance information.

2006). image can generate value in terms of helping customer to process Information. b) argued that these associations could originate from Customers direct experience or from information obtained on a market Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 21 . Dobni and Zinkhan. 1991). 1993. 1993a. generating reasons to buy. 1990. it is very important to understand the development of image formation and its consequences such as satisfaction and loyalty. 1991). But just as stereotypes prevail in a variety of social situations. Brand image represents an important aspect of marketing activities. The focus of my dissertation is on the appearance of image effects in the domain of consumer psychology. 2007). Creating and maintaining image of the brand is an important part of a firm's marketing Program (Roth. 2003). The influence of the independent variables on brand identity and its shaping of brand image. Keller. when the “products” of political parties are rated by voters (Keller. 1963. which is the modified conceptual model supporting this research. and providing a basis for extensions (Aaker. but also in times of elections. nongovernmental organizations (Morf. differentiating the brand. b). Keller (1993) referred to Wilkie's (1986) definition of brands Attitudes which was "consumers' overall evaluations of a brand" (p. A widely accepted view is that brand image represents customers’ perceptions of a brand as reflected by the brand associations held in consumer memory (Herzog. 1995) and branding strategy (Keller. Based on the views of Kapferer (2004:98). Therefore.Overall. Aaker.For brand attitude. gives positive feelings. branding and market offering with varied definition and approaches to its conceptualization (Burleigh and Sidney. so do image effects occur in different persuasive contexts: not only at consuming goods. Keller (1993a. or when charitable donations are given to humanitarian. 1955. 4). Martinez and Pina. brand identity precedes brand image.

1988. Brand image represents “the reasoned or emotional perceptions consumers attach to specific brands” (Low and Lamb. Where perceived quality refers to the customer’s Perception of the overall quality or superiority of a product or service with respect to its intended purpose. Aaker. Aperia and Back. Padgett and Allen. lower purchase risks. features or the actual product itself. 2001). relative to alternatives (Zeithaml. Brand image is. or users. the mental picture or perception of a brand or a branded product or service and includes symbolic meanings that consumers associate with the specific attributes of a product or service (Dobni and Zinkhan. brand image does not exist in the technology. Through brand image. design or all the above. symbol. and is used to distinguish one’s products and services from competitors. 1990. and obtain certain experience and satisfaction out of product differentiation. Thus. 1991. 1994. Keller (1993) defines a brand image as an association or perception consumers make based on their memory toward a product. Keller and Davey.offering or due to the impact a pre-existing association with an organization had on consumer. When it comes to experiential product evaluation. but is something brought out by promotions. and customer satisfaction (Aaker. 2001). p. Garcia Rodriguez and Bergantinos. 2000. therefore. How much is a brand worth? How does a brand represent the product? Kotler (2000) contends that brand is a name. which creates a positive effect indicating approval. based upon some intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of a market offering resulting to perceived quality. 352) a set of beliefs held by customers about a particular brand. advertisements. term. evaluate the quality. a positive brand image may make up for an inferior image of the origin country and raise the possibility of the product being selected Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 22 . Nike adopts a check mark as its brand image. For example. 1997. 2004). consumers are able to recognize a product.

Therefore. Consumers respond to the incentive of saving when they see products are being sale at a lower price. the better a brand image is. the more Recognition consumers give to its product quality. businesses often use promotions to stimulate purchase intention and increase sales. 1994). According to Grewal. Baker. Rao and Monroe (1988) also support this argument. 2000). Krishnan. consumers generally believe they can make a satisfying purchase by choosing well-known brands and lower any purchase risks by doing so. 2. when being reduced by economic incentives. A brand with a more positive image does have the effect of lowering consumer products perception risks and increasing positive feedback from the consumers. Thus. promotion aims to create product exposure.(Thakor and Katsanis. Dick and Jain. stimulate desires. and Borin (1998). maintain consumer loyalty and raise sales volume (Pride and Ferrell. the greater the promotion is. Kotler (2000) considers that promotion is a combination of various incentives to stimulate consumers or retailers to stir up immediate purchasing reaction toward a product or service within a short time period. To counter fierce competition.3 Purchase Intention Consumers are usually limited in regards to the amount of time and product knowledge to make an informed purchase decision when facing similar products to choose from as a result. 1997). and increase their purchase intention. Since consumers usually make an immediate purchase. Akaah and Korgaonkar (1988) conclude that consumers are more likely to purchase well-known brand products with positive brand image as a way to lower purchase risks. the more response it Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 23 . brand image is often used as an extrinsic cue to make a purchase decision (Richardson. McCarthy and Perreault (1984) think promotion is different from advertisement or public report and eventually can stir up interest or intention among (potential) buyers to make a purchase.

after the promotion is over price discount may also lower the purchase intention because of associating price discount with lower quality. consumers begin by collecting product information based on personal experience and external environment. To sum up. and Sternthal (1978) have proven that when facing various brand products with similar functions and qualities. 2. The Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 24 . information gathering. is a process used to evaluate consumers’ decision making. Purchase intention means a subjective inclination consumers have towards a certain product. and has been prove a key factor to predict consumer behavior (Fishbein and Ajzen. When consumers are presenting with great incentives. which in the end will write off the benefit of the sales increase (Raghubir and Corfman. 1999). and make a purchase decision after comparison and judgment. consumers start the assessment and evaluation process. but may expose them to inferior products with lower quality. Prior to purchasing. Therefore. The model stresses that consumer behavior is a continuing process. however. and decision making. developed by Engel. Dodson. including recognition of a problem. purchase intention is often use to analyze consumer behavior in related studies. When the amount of information reaches a certain level. they are likely to choose promotional items. Kollat and Blackwell (1984). This indicates promotion has great incentive values. 1975).generates. solution evaluation. price discounts may attract consumers with economic incentives. promotional items usually end up selling better and even attract loyal consumers of other brands. Tybout. Price discount may attract consumers to try out different brands.4 EKB Model The EKB model.

5 Customer Loyalty Richard Oliver (1977) defines loyalty as: “it is a strong commitment to superior services or goods repurchase in future to acquire the same brand despite of marketing efforts by potential rivals and their impacts (Hamidizadeh and Ghamkhary. 2. Among these factors. helps to attract new customers (Zare. Real customer’s commitment is established when he/she is motivate to purchase without any encouragement. According to Kotler (2000). information gathering and environmental stimulation are two crucial influential factors in the final decision making. In fact. general motives. Likewise. etc. 2002). Product characteristics are relates to product knowledge (Sultan. we can examine the following factors that may affect purchase intention: 1. Price discount (Alford and Biswas. as a result.process is also affected by both internal and external factors like information input. a retailer. and quantity. This relationship established if parties feel that there are special advantages for them and they can attract each other like two poles. 2006) and by 5% increases in Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 25 . consumer behavior occurs when consumers are stimulating by external factors and come to a purchase decision based on their personal Characteristics and decision making process. which creates advantages for customers so that they keep on increasing their purchase from the same organization. the cost to acquire a new customer is 15 times of retaining an existing customer (Fahimi. 3. This definition may be limited. These factors include choosing a product. customer’s commitment is the outcome of an organization. Thus. Consumers’ increase of product familiarity (Johnson and Russo. information process. 2009). environment. Loyal customer does not only focus on prices but also he/she acts like a fan of organization and. This means consumers’ purchasing behavior affected by their choice of product and brand. 2. 2008). brand. 1984). 1999). timing.

When consumers are considering purchasing a product. Then. This is the same thing. To acquire customers’ loyalty. the organization has one customer and protects him/her by respect and mediation. Hence. Jaccobi et al (1974) state that brand loyalty differ from brand habit or view though these can determine brand loyalty in next steps. If organization continues to meet customer’s needs and to provide its services in a manner which motivates permanent demand. 2009). Findings of Sirdeshmukh et al (2002) indicate that customer’s value is a key affecting factor on customers’ loyalty in airlines. memorize and become accustomed to them (Keller. Churchill (1997) states that brand loyalty are customer’s preference to buy a certain brand. then a bilateral value will be established and the final target namely customer’s dependency or strategic management of relations with customer will be achievable (Colwell et al. At the outset. customer’s satisfaction grows and the value of relations will increase among parties. the goal is to enhance the relationship between customer and organization in the condition of passing different steps of managing the relations with customer. which leads customer to loyalty enhancement. one should initially have an image of the customer. They support Holbrook (1994) who said customer’s value is a fundamental base for marketing activities. 2009). feelings and expectations towards certain brands as they learn. With regard to customer’s loyalty. Customer’s conception Brand image is established when consumers develop ideas. the profit increases 25 – 85 percent (Hamidizadeh and Ghamkhary.customers’ loyalty. 1993). their purchase intention will be determined based on Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 26 . Kim et al (2008) findings on affecting factors on customers’ view in hospitals indicate that such factors as customer satisfaction. it uses any relation as an opportunity to establish loyalty. Figure 2 outlines conceptual model and hypotheses of present study. communicational commitments and confidence have a remarkable impact on brand loyalty and awareness and a positive impact on customer’s view to hospital.

CHAPTER 3 . they are more likely to make the purchase (Dickson and Sawyer. Specifically.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The nature of the research is descriptive since the objective of conducting the research project is to determine what impact do each of the determinants of brand loyalty identified in the theoretical framework have on Brand Loyalty. survey based questionnaires will be used as the primary tool for data collection. 1990). they are likely to have higher perception of value (Monroe. It usually depends upon the use of a well-constructed questionnaire. and consequently on the Consumer Purchase Behavior in the FMCG sector. which is used to collect data from the relevant unit of analysis Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 27 . they survey method will be employed for data collection.the perception of its value given by its brand. additionally. when consumers benefit more from purchasing the brand product than the price paid. The data gathered will be both quantitative and qualitative in nature. 1990). The central objective of survey design is to search for relationships between variables. The questionnaire will predominantly consist of closed ended questions to save the time of respondents and ensure a high response rate. Aaker and Keller’s (1990) research discovers that a brand with positive image improves consumer loyalty and trust and strengthens consumers’ purchase intention. Brand image no doubt remains an important cue during the process of consumers’ purchase decision making. Since the nature of research is descriptive. When consumers have a higher opinion on the quality of a certain brand product.

. RESEARCH DESIGN As specified earlier. By adopting the convenience sampling approach. and for ease of purpose will be cross sectional and not longitudinal in nature. and furthermore. 3. The population for the research includes both male and female users of the Tomato Ketchup of Shangrila brand in Pakistan. Thus this research can depict the relationship(s) of certain variables of Service Quality. and CRM Strategies. this study does not attempt to examine trends.under study. the survey based questionnaires will be circulated amongst the users of tomato ketchup of Shangrila brand in Karachi.e. Customer Satisfaction. Since the research is consumer centric.1. For the purpose of this study. the sample size determined for the research is 100 Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 28 . In crosssectional research. a cross sectional study is the appropriate technique as opposed to a longitudinal study due to time constraints. the nature of the research is descriptive. a period long enough to collect data from all of the participants selected to be in the study). The major advantage of cross-sectional research is that data can be collected on many different kinds of people in a relatively short time period. data are collected from the research participants at a single point in time or during a single. interview sessions will also be conducted with the Marketing and Product Development Department of Shangrila. an individual. To supplement the quantitative data collected via the questionnaires. Brand and Corporate Image. relatively brief time period (i. usually.

Convenience sampling is one of the non-probability sampling designs that are being use in this research. As its name implies. Statistical Tests including probability based z and t tests will be performed on the data collected. process or technique of selecting a suitable sample.respondents residing in Karachi. convenience sampling involves collecting information from members of the population who are conveniently available to provide this information. convenience sampling involves collecting information from members of the population who are conveniently available to provide this information. with higher numbers coded to represent higher values. In addition. The sampling units selected for analysis are both Male and Female user of Tomato Ketchup customers in Karachi. 3.2. The rating based questions in the survey will utilize an ordinal scale. The sampling units selected for analysis are both male and female Tomato Ketchup consumers specially those who uses Shangrila Tomato Ketchup.3. or a representative put of a population for the purpose of determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population. descriptive statistical measures such as measures of central tendency will be use to report and analyze overall trends discovered through the research study. DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 29 . As its name impulse. Convenience sampling is one of the nonprobability sampling designs that are being used in this research. SAMPLING Sampling is the act. 3.

The nature of research is descriptive survey based questionnaire have been used as a primary tool for data collection from a sample size of 100 participant. extensive secondary research will be used to provide a global context to the research. convenience sampling has been adopted. 3. Due to time and budget limitation.4. RESEARCH SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS The Brand selected for the research study is Shangrila Brand Image and customer loyalty and Buying Behavior will be analyzed. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 30 . and the sample will comprise on females with sample size 100 primarily between the ages of eighteen to fifty. Geographic and demographic limitations of the research will have a slight impact on the results obtained and research findings quoted in the study. Statistical test has been applied on the data that was collected to either except or reject the null or alternative hypothesis that were develop for the research project. To overcome these limitations. RESULTS/FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS The captioned chapter is concerned with working on analysis of the data collection that have been taken from the survey through questionnaires. Following the testing interpretations has been provided for each hypothesis. CHAPTER 4 – DATA ANALYSIS. For ease in research and time constraints. the research will be conducted only in Karachi and therefore the result may be skewed and not hundred percent applicable to other cities.

they can be used to develop a marketing strategy and marketing plan. The five types of demographics for marketing are age.4. secondly to create a clear and complete picture of the characteristics of a typical member of each segment. race. which include males and females. employment status. Commonly examined demographics include gender. The sample size of survey questionnaire is 100. age. and marketing. income level.1 ANALYSIS OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS AND DEMOGRAPHICS Demographics are the most contemporary statistical characteristics of a population. home ownership. mobility. disabilities. race and ethnicity. FIGURE 1: GENDER DEMOGRAPHICS Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 31 . gender. and even location. Demographic trends describe the historical changes in demographics in a population over time (for example. Once these profiles are constructed. Both distributions and trends of values within a demographic variable are of interest. Researchers typically have two objectives in this regard: first to determine what segments or subgroups exist in the overall population. These types of data are used widely in sociology (and especially in the subfield of demography). the average age of a population may increase or decrease over time). Demographics are about the population of a region and the culture of the people. public policy.

Demogeraphic _Total of Gender Female 35 35% Male Female Male 65 65% The captioned chart is describing the gender analysis of males and Females. which is (65% Males and 35% Females). FIGURE 2: DEMOGRAPHICS GENDER AGE SCALE Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 32 .

Males have contributed 65% and females contributes 35% share of the survey. FIGURE 3: DEMOGRAPHICS CONSUMPTION SEGMENTATION Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 33 . the most participative in the ages of 21 years to 30 years.70 65 60 53 50 40 35 Male 30 Female 27 20 10 7 8 0 21 To 30 Years 31 To 40 Years 5 0 41 To 50 Years Total Age of gender This chart is presenting the age scale of Male and Female participant of the survey.

MARKET SHARE Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 34 . FIGURE 4: SHANGRILA BRAND CHOICE. However.The customers in different ages who are consume Tomato Ketchup in different occasions. Here is statically defined demographics consumption segmentation chart of the Tomato Ketchup consumption segment. the highest ranking of the male is weekly basis. It means there is a number of gender isolation in the usage of Tomato Ketchup. 65 Gender 35 1 Never0 20 Occasionally 17 Female Male 14 Monthly 5 21 Weekly 5 9 8 Daily 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 The cumulative male and female data is describing that the mostly consumers of the Tomato Ketchup are consumes occasionally.

17% Shangrila .Knorr. 5% Others. 45% Shangrila National National. 1% Mitchels. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 35 . 32% Mitchels Knorr Others The total market share of the Shangrila is 45% as per the marked responded which is highest market share contribution in the competition in the market.

4.2 DIFFERENCT TEST Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 36 .FIGURE 5: SHANGRILA BRAND CHOICE. MARKET SHARE WITH GENDER 30 25 24 23 21 20 Male 15 Femal 12 10 9 5 5 5 1 0 Shangrla National Mitchels Knorr0 0 Others The gender wise market share of the Shangrila described that the market share of Shangrila is grater then others brands.

it is important to determine the reliability of the data by calculating the Cronbach’s alpha constant.857 11 The Cronbach’s Alpha is the coefficient of reliability. The value of Cronbach’s alpha is 0.When we know the mean and standard deviation in a single population. Now the statistical analysis on the data can be performed with a high degree of accuracy and the reliability of results. the data collected through the questionnaires is reliable and valid and that there are no discrepancies involved in it.RELIABILITY STATISTICS Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items . TABLE 1 . The one–independent sample z test is a statistical procedure used to test hypotheses concerning the mean in a single population with a known variance.854. the data collected is considered to be reliable and accurate which would in turn lead to reliable test results and effective recommendations to be made from the research. If the value of the constant lies between 0 and 1. which shows the pretty higher reliability of the results. we can use the one–independent sample z test. Theoretically the value of alpha is varies from 0 to 1. Before performing the statistical analysis of the data gathered. The following table shows the calculations for the Cronbach’s alpha constant and reveals that since the value is between 0 and 1. The z test of hypothesis for the mean follows the following formula and notations: Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 37 .879 .

It means that the brand images doesn’t go well and its reputation is not consider as positive image in that market so would you like to purchase it (YES. TABLE 2: Z Test for Brand Image and Consumer Buying Behavior Data Null Hypothesis = Level of Significance Population Standard Deviation 1.H1: There is a relationship between positive Brand Image and consistent consumer buying behavior. No).314466038 Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 38 . Ho: Positive Brand Image has no impact on consumer buying behavior Ha: Positive Brand Image has impact on consumer buying behavior The Question is asking to the respondents that If Brand Image/Product Price/Reputation/Performance does not go well will you buy it.05 0.5 0. This test is the relationship between Positive Brand Image and consistently consumer buying behavior.

Sample Size
Sample Mean

100
0.11

Intermediate Calculations
Standard Error of the
Mean
0.031446604
Z Test Statistic
-44.2019116
Upper-Tail Test
Upper Critical Value
p-Value
Reject the null
hypothesis

1.644853627
0.04

Since the p value calculated is less than 5% for the calculated sample mean
and population standard deviation, and the z test statistic lies in the rejection
region, the null hypothesis has rejected.
This implies that positive brand image and reputation is positively
related in creating a consistently consumer buying behavior.

FIGURE: 6. IMPORTANCE OF BRAND IMAGE

Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 39

31
No
55

4
Yes
9

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

The figure represents the result from survey questionnaire, which has the
sample size 100. The blue color shows the male responded answer and red
color shows the answer of Female.
The result depict that that 86% of the responded replied and agree to shift
from those brand who are going not well and their reputation considering
negative image.
It obviously is evidence for that the respondents agree that if the brand image
and its reputation does not go well so they will not go to buy this products.
The main objective of the consumer to buy product is product quality and its
prices and reputation. It has asked to the responded that the brand quality
and its reputation is not considering in good brand as compare to the product
competitors. The above figures represent the answer of the responded is No.
it means that the result represent the desire of the consumers that they will
not desire to buy this products.
H2: Different brand images lead to Differ product quality things.
The test shows the relation between the brand image of Shangrila perceived
by the customers and how it influence lead to the product quality things
Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 40

Ho:
Ha:

Brand image has no lead to differ product quality
Brand image has leaded to differ product quality

The question asking to the respondent that, do low quality and less offers
prices increase the brand image? It means that a brand reduces their product
quality and offers low prices as compare to their competitors so the brand
image will increase do you (strongly Agree, Agree, Agree Neither Disagree,
Disagree, Strongly Disagree).
TABLE 3: Z Test for Product Quality
Data
Null Hypothesis
=
Level of Significance
Population Standard
Deviation
Sample Size
Sample Mean

3
0.05
1.333749935
100
3.17

Intermediate Calculations
Standard Error of the Mean
0.133374993
Z Test Statistic
1.274601749
Upper-Tail Test
Upper Critical Value
p-Value
Reject the null
hypothesis

1.644853627
0.04

Since the p value calculated is less than 5% for the calculated sample mean
and population standard deviation, and the z test statistic lies in the rejection
region, the null hypothesis has been rejected.

FIGURE: 7. IMPORTANCE OF LOW QUALITY BRAND IMAGE

Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 41

The dark blue color shows the Male answers and the red color shows the female answers. The last option was agree and strongly agree about that if the product quality reduces with low prices that brand image will Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 42 . The first option is strongly disagree where as 8% Male rating in survey and 5% females are strongly disagreed. which has the sample size 100. Here is one option is remain which is agree or neither agree. This option given to choose those participants who are not confident about the question answer so they have chosen this option that was 21% Male and 17% Female. The total cumulative contribution in the option not agrees that was only 19% Male and 11% females and the total gender is 30% of the survey. 11% Male disagree and 7% female disagree. therefore the result reflects the highest contribution of males which is very dynamics. It is middle options who are not agreeing or disagree that was 21% male and 17% female. Somewhere male rating is high and somewhere female rating higher.Strongly Disagreed Disgreed 8 5 11 7 10 Neither Agreed nor Disagreed Female Agreed Strongly Agreed 0% 4 Male 21 17 15 2 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% The figure depicts the result from survey questionnaire. As the responded ratio of male is 65% which grater then females. Now let us elaborate above found result of the survey. Secondly.

lead. It clearly shows that the respondents agree with that the Brand image can lead to differs product quality. We got the result of last option agree and strongly agree that was 36% Male and 19% Female the cumulative contribution of this answer 55% of total gender which is highly contribution of the result. No. TABLE 4 : Z test for Product Knowledge Data Null Hypothesis = 1. that the how it is impact on brand image in all the levels of consumer buying behavior. H3: High product knowledge decreases the effect of brand images.5 Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 43 . Ho: Ha: Product knowledge has no impact on Brand image Product knowledge has impact on Brand image The question is asking to the respondents that will you identity the quality difference between different brandsYes. This test shows the relationship between the product knowledge with the brand image.

FIGURE: 8.287623491 100 0. IMPORTANCE OF PORODUCT KNOWLEDGE Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 44 . the null hypothesis has been rejected.644853627 0.05 0.028762349 Z Test Statistic -20.91 Intermediate Calculations Standard Error of the Mean 0.51292811 Upper-Tail Test Upper Critical Value p-Value Reject the null hypothesis 1.04 Since the p value calculated is less than 5% for the calculated sample mean and population standard deviation.Level of Significance Population Standard Deviation Sample Size Sample Mean 0. and the z test statistic lies in the rejection region.

Female 35 0 No Yes Male 57 0% 8 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% The figure depicts the result from survey questionnaire. which has the sample size 100. The dark blue color shows the option of YES. The total cumulative contribution of the total gender is 92% who are agree that they can identify the product quality difference with others brands. H4: There is a positive relationship between satisfaction and loyalty Intention. It is clearly shows that the responded has a product knowledge and it will increase the brand image because they have a product knowledge and can identify the produce difference with others brands. There was 35% females has participant and the 100% females replied that she can identify the product quality with others brands and 57% males also replied that they can identify the difference product quality with other brand although 8% male replied opposite of that but it is very low contribution of this question. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 45 . which describes that responded can identify the product quality difference in between others brands.

Ho: Satisfaction has no impact on Loyalty intention. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 46 .479372485 100 0. and the z test statistic lies in the rejection region.73151413 Upper-Tail Test Upper Critical Value p-Value Reject the null hypothesis 1.65 Intermediate Calculations Standard Error of the Mean 0.047937249 Z Test Statistic -17. This question asks the respondents that Do you switch to others brand if it is provide the promotion and discount. Ha: Satisfaction has impact on Loyalty intention. No. TABLE 5: Z Test for Loyalty Intention Data Null Hypothesis = Level of Significance Population Standard Deviation Sample Size Sample Mean 1. Yes.04 Since the p value calculated is less than 5% for the calculated sample mean and population standard deviation.644853627 0.5 0. the null hypothesis has been rejected.This test shows the relationship between the consumer satisfactions and his loyalty intention with the brand.05 0.

which has the sample size 100. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 47 . And 28% male replied they will never switch to others band if they are offering some promotional discounts. IMPORTANCE OF LOYALTY INTENTION Female 29 6 No Yes Male 37 0% 10% 20% 30% 28 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% The figure depicts the result from survey questionnaire.FIGURE: 7. The dark blue color shows the option yes. So the cumulative result that the 66% participant replied to switch others brand if they will switch to others brand if they will offers promotional discount. It is clearly shows that the respondents will prefer to switch others brand if they will avail promotion discounts. It means there is a positive relationship in between satisfaction of loyalty intention with the brand if they are satisfied then they will grow their loyalty intention with the brands. which describes that the respondents have the rating to switch others brand if its offers the some promotion discount that was the 29% female replied yes out of 36% and 37% male replied yes out of 65% of the total survey participants.

Most of the results of the statistical analysis confirmed the existing theories of consumer buying behavior in the product of Tomato Ketchup. why consumer behavior is important. through the questionnaires and the statistical analysis performed. The background of this research describes that why Shangrila brand is important. Overview of the foodstuff Industries in Pakistan. Basically some interesting factors that came to light through the research were the relationship between the overall Brand Image and feelings consumer buying behavior. it was shown that there are five factors of brand loyalty. when Shangrila was establish in Pakistan. which are the Brand Image. The findings revealed that Brand Image and its reputation.CHAPTER 5 . The 1st chapter basically stands as the introduction and the overall information of my topic. Performance. etc. of M/s Shangrila Brand Image of consumer buying behavior. through the background. It can focused on the various sides that can be draw from the data collected. Reputation. Performance. From the analysis of this study. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 48 . consumers’ thirst for variety. Product quality. All these factors showed positive relationships with consumer buying behavior. preferably promotional discount plays a significant role in influencing consumer’s decision-making and emphasis to buy products. Relevance. Promotional Price Discount. The research showed that it was not easy to identify the factors that are effects on of brand images and the behavior of the consumers for a company’s products because there were many forces drawing consumers away such as competition. and why Brand Image is important.CONCLUSIONS This chapter is the conclusion of my research. Product Knowledge.

Promotion Price Discount. Product Knowledge. Convenience sampling is one of the nonprobability sampling designs that are being used in this research. dependent Variables: Consumer Loyalty. which will work for the statistical analysis.. in which each and every variable (dependent or independent) described briefly. Foodstuff product manufacturers. Performance. The sample Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 49 . These dependent and independent variables will help in creating and maintaining the statement. The research design and their limitations tell us about the age brackets that in what age my research based on. Performance. The objective of this study was to establish how Brand image affects the consumer buying behavior and their decision in the foodstuff Industry. The 2nd chapter describes the literature review of my research. Reputation. These variables also described with the conceptualized research model. Basically convenience sampling was used in this study. Product Knowledge. The 3rd chapter describes the research methodology in which the theoretical framework have conducted. It may describes or modify the topic further. Relevance. The benefits of this research are lies on the research significance. Consumer Buying Behavior). (Independent Variables: Brand Image. Reputation. current popularity of Tomato Ketchup among youth. Brand Image.The 2nd thing which I have done in chapter – 1 is to create the problem statement: “To determine whether the brand image of product has an impact on the consumer decision making and buying behavior. the revenues and the competitors. Data was collected using structured questionnaire and personally administered. relevance. The research model describes by identifying the dependent and independent variables in my research. Promotional Price Discount.

Monthly. Second one is demographic gender age scale in this segment statistical analysis explain the gender respondent’s lies in age scale that is Male were 53% who are under age on 21-30. Researchers characteristically have two objectives in this observe first to conclude what subdivision or subgroups continue living in the overall population. and 0% 4-50 it means there were also highest contribution in females who are lies in under 21 – 30 which is similar to male. 7% 31-40. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 50 . income level. are under the age of (21 -50). and 5% 4-50. gender. 8% 31-40. which concern are in Karachi. Weekly. I have drawn the bar chart which explain the consumers consumption segment who are using Tomato Ketchup Daily. The areas. The chapter 4 has described the data collection analysis. If we add both gender under age 21-30 so it will participate 80% in these survey. Data is being collected through the survey questionnaires. although about female 27% who are under age on 21-30. they can be worn to expand a marketing strategy and marketing plan. in this chapter I have analyses the data that is collected through the survey questionnaires. race and ethnicity. It means that total highest responded were youth. And in that chart males are about to 65% and females are about to 35% included.will comprise mainly of Sec A and Sec B males and females primarily between the ages of eighteen to fifty. Occasionally. the sample size of 100 consumers who are using the Tomato Ketchup. and secondly to generate an understandable and absolute portrait of the characteristics of a distinctive associate of each of segment. I have drawn I simple pie chart in order to describe the sample size of males and females. Once these profiles are constructing. In this case. The five types of demographics for marketing are age. Third one.

The tests which are involved in this research were stands in two different terms. Statement 1: H1: The positive brand optimistically related with consistent consumer buying behavior. I have inter-linked it with the testing tools. The other thing which came in this chapter was the analysis of different tests. through bar charts and by taking different tests of statistical inferences. that how the statistical analysis on the data can be performed with a high degree of accuracy and the reliability of results. 5% Knor. how they inter-linked with each other. The last one statistical analysis is to segregate the brand user in gender wise. we got the 45% of Shangrila user in which 24% Male and 21% Females. This session basically describes the overall variables which I have mention above. The other brand is national got the share by the responded 23% Male and 9% Females third one was Mitchels got the share by the responded 12% Male and 5% Females the second last is Knorr just male which is only 5% and last one was 1% of other brand in Male only. Which is explaining the 45% Shangrila. and only 1% is others brands customers. Including the question from the questionnaire. which are included in order to describes to overall statement along with the briefly explanations.Fourth. null and alternative. 17% Mitchels. This statement has described that the relationship between the Shangrila has a positive brand Image with their consistent customers. one is where I have described the analysis of Market share of Shangrila Brand compared with its competitors in the markets among the responded. 32% National. Which is grater then others brands in both gender. How the Shangrila positive brand image reflects Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 51 . That. or create/develop the relationship with each other.

in this statement have described the relationship between high product knowledge with the Brand image. It means that how the Shangrila Product knowledge reflects the Brand image of Shangrila. In order to describe this process I have drawn a bar chart. Will they buy product? Yes or No. Agree. it has been rejected. The question asking to the responded that. which shows the results along with the statistical tools framework. Strongly Disagree). performance. which describes the null statement. do low quality and less offer prices Increase the brand image? (Strongly Agree. In order to describe Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 52 . Statement 2: H2: Different brand images lead to differ product quality things.on its consistent consumers. Statement 3: H3: High product knowledge decreases the effect of brand images. It means that how the Shangrila Brand Image reflects the product quality of shangrila. Disagree. it has been rejected. reputation. According to the tests it shows the results in the negative. In addition. In order to describe the process I have drawn the bar chart. the results have been shown that the majority of respondents are included in the No Around 86% of respondents are involved. and its prices does not going well. The bar chart depicts the result that the respondents 55% agree with this statement. which describes the null statement. which is depicts the results. Neither agree disagree. According to the tests it shows the results in the negative. In this statement has described the relationship between the Shangrila Brand image with the product quality. The bar chart describes that how the consumer will behave if the brand image.

it has been rejected. Yes_No. Statement 4: H4: There is a positive relationship between satisfaction and loyalty intention. The question describes that will you identify the quality difference between different brands Yes. It means that how the Shangrila Promotional discount reflects the customer loyalty of Shangrila In order to describe this process I have drawn a bar chart. The consumer loyalty and consumer buying decision is important for an organization to ensure that its products is always keeps in the minds of consumers and prevent them from switching to other brands. According to the tests it shows the results in the negative. It means there is a positive relationship in between satisfaction of loyalty intention with the brand if they are satisfied then they will grow their loyalty intention with the brands. In this statement have described the relationship between the Satisfaction with the Loyalty intention. This question asks the respondents that Do you switch to others brand if it is provide the promotion and discount.RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendation means something (as a course of action) that is recommendation as advisable. The purpose of this research is to investigate how the respondents influenced by factors of consumer buying behavior. No. which describes the null statement. The results clearly shows that the responded has a product knowledge and it will increase the brand image because they have a product knowledge and can identify the produce difference with others brands. The result definitely describe that the customer will prefer to switch other brand if they will avail promotional discounts.this process I have drawn a bar chart. Something that recommends (expresses Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 53 . which describes the null statement. it has been rejected. According to the tests it shows the results in the negative. The question relates with the promotional discount rating point-of-view. CHAPTER 6 .

positive brand image is a very important attribute. Every statement has a recommendation. because the positive Brand image is the identity of Shangrila products. desirable. any quality. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 54 . The overview about the effect of positive brand image should be fear however because consumer reactions to a brand differential clearly depend on the magnitude of the differential as well as the brand loyalty which are considered. associating with the brand name all the attributes and satisfaction experienced by the purchase and use of the product. For many consumers. The recommendations will focus on the positive initiatives that Shangrila can take in order to remain the market leader in the Foodstuff Industry. Consumers tend to perceive the products from an overall perspective. thing as worthy. or characteristic that gains a person a favorable reception or acceptance or admission. The First hypothesis was the “positive brand image” and it has rejected because it is the null hypothesis. Shangrila Brand Name is one of its major components in the foodstuff Industry.recommendation) of a person. If the statement is null statement is rejected this means relationship between variables (dependent or independent) does not exist and the respondents do not give importance to the variables been discussed. The relationship between Positive Brand image and consistently consumer buying behavior exactly will understand. The attribute brand image and its reputation in the market can definitely be more important on consumer decision making than that of Product Price/Reputation/Performance others. which is totally depend upon the results of statement. Brand Image is important for the firm to attract customers to purchase the product and influence repeat purchasing behavior.

get the competitive edge. all knows that a product fulfils the customer’s expectations and desired. The Third hypothesis was the “Product knowledge” and it was rejected because it is the null hypothesis. If the customer has product knowledge. This means that the quality of a product defined as “its ability to fulfill the customer’s needs and expectations”. Product Knowledge is refers to product quality or its taste as concerned with the product. Although somewhere it observed that that firms take a risk to reduces their product quality and offers the low prices to take an advantage and retain the regular customers and attract the prospect customers. so he can identify the products quality and its taste. Shangrila brand has an individual identity in the market regarding the product quality because they are maintaining their product quality but as it has identify that if the company reduces their products quality and low offers prices so they can lose their customers. As we. It is a powerful source of identity and helps to project the intended image of the product against the competition and in the process of positioning a brand in the minds of the target audience. Customer’s satisfaction in Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 55 . Product quality with other brands plays a crucial role.The Second hypothesis was the “Product quality differs with other brands” and it was rejected because it is the null hypothesis. the customer will consider that the product is of low quality. If his or her expectations are not fulfill. The Fourth hypothesis was the “Satisfaction and loyalty intention” and it has rejected because it is the null hypothesis. There is need to educate to all Shangrila customers and consumers about their product knowledge to differentiate with others brands product. the customer will be pleased and consider that the product is of acceptable or even high quality. So they have to maintain their customers with affordable prices. and sustain their customers if there is a difference in prices with others brands.

Customer would become more loyal and satisfy to your product if company will also keen about their priority and satisfaction. Either they take a seriously or not. Because customers satisfaction build the customer relationship and grow up the perfect brand image in customers mind. If company takes it seriously. Although customers loyalty intention is plays a very important role in the business world. This is a business terminology to evaluate as how much a promotional discount can offer by the company has been able to satisfy or please the customers. PPENDIX/ANNEXES RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE This Questionnaire is to be used to conduct a research on “Effect of Brand Image on consumers buying behavior”. Most of the times customers are very much keen about the behavior of the company towards their complains about the promotional discounts.30 Age 31 . According to the survey this thing has proved that if the loyal customers of any company avail the some promotional discount to others company he will move abruptly even though he is concerned and has loyalty intention with his brand. it can increase customer satisfaction because customer can think that company cares about them.terms of financial benefits has a core business concept.50 Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 56 . Name (Optional) Gender: Male Female Age 21 .40 Age 41 . You are kind requested to fill this Questionnaire with best of your Knowledge and Experience.

Do you switch to others brand if it’s provide the promotion and discount Yes_ No Q7. How frequently do you use Tomato Ketchup? (Daily. Yes _ No Q6. Super Market) Q2. Q4. Please tick the answer of your choice against each question. In which brand are you loyal customer in Tomato Ketchup? (Shangrila. Strongly Agreed 4. Strongly disagreed Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 57 . If Brand Image/Product Price/Reputation/Performance doesn’t go well will you buy it? Yes _ No 1. Wholesaler. Occasionally) Q3. National. Will you identity the quality difference between different brands Yes _ No Q8. Please encircle your answer. Weekly. Others) 2. Do you believe that brand image is the important aspect of every product Yes _ No Q5. Does packaging affect the brand image of a product? Yes _ No Yes _ No Q10. Disagreed 1. Agreed 3. From where you usually purchase Tomato Ketchup? (Retailer. Do you switch to others brand if its provide the good quality of the products. Mitchel’s. Please put the number as per your choice in the blank box given below.1. 5. Super Store. Neither Agreed nor disagreed 2. Will you purchase those brands which has a good reputation in the market Q9. Monthly. Q1.

on Clothing: Comparison between China and the UK’s Consumers pp 1– 96. Q12. Q14. Do low quality and less offers prices increase the brand image .Q11. Q15. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 58 . BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Does brand ambassadors or referral power increase its brands image and customer loyalty .(2007). Effect of brand image on consumer purchasing behavior. keung. Tam. How much do you agree that Brand reputation influence to buy product . How much do you agree that product and its performance create the Good brand Image . kwok. Q13 Do u agrees that maintain the product quality build the relationship in b/w Loyal Customer .

Kuang. and knowledge in explaining consumer purchase behavior of counterfeits Direct and indirect effects pp 1 – 26. (2010). R. Casadesus. (2009). Charlene. Khaled. pp 1-14. chi Hsin. 10. The impact of brand on Thai female consumer in purchase decision of foreign makeup product pp 1-64. 5. The Impact of Brand Awareness on Consumer Purchase Intention the Mediating Effect of Perceived Quality and Brand Loyalty pp 1– 10 3. Hong. (2009). Ponbamrungwong. Khasawneh. Nan. The role of brand image. Hsiao. 6. BRAND IMAGE AND LOYALTY: A STUDY IN A BUSINESS-TOBUSINESS context. 8. Matthew. product involvement. Xuemei. The Effect of Familiar Brand Names on Consumer Behavior: A Jordanian perspective. Consumer Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction in Apparel Online Shopping at the Product-Receiving Stage: The Effects of Brand Image and product performance pp 1 – 172. (2011). Ogba.2. (2008). Ike-Elechi. Marti. 9. Venkat. Ramesh. The Effect of Brand Image and Product Knowledge on Purchase Intention Moderated by Price Discount. IMPACT OF CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE ON SATISFACTION. Lin. pp 1-25. Lin. (2007). (2009). The influence of brand preference on brand image transfer A research on brand event congruity in sponsorships pp 1-30 7. Fa. (2009). Does brand image or taste have more influence on consumer preference for energy drinks. Moore. (2007). (2007). pp 1-7 Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 59 . 12. pp 1-13. (2009). The Impact of Brand Equity on Purchase Intention and Brand Preference-the Moderating Effects of Country of Origin image. pp 1-12 4. 11. Exploring the impact of brand image on customer loyalty and commitment in china. Bian. Chedi. Ling. Anantaya. pp 1-26.

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