Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of

Technology
A Project on
“Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited,
In Tomato Ketchup Category”

Submitted to: Faculty of Management Sciences
In Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (M.B.A)
Under the Supervision of:
Miss. Ayesha Shaikh
Submitted By:
Junaid Shehzad
Student ID: 4813
Majors: Marketing
Year - 2012
Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 1

CERTIFICATE
I am pleased to certify that Mr. Junaid Shehzad S/o Muhammad
Hanif has satisfactorily carried out a research work, under my
supervision on the topic of
“Effect of Brand Image on
Consumer Buying Behavior : A case study of Shangrila
Private Limited, in Tomato Ketchup Category”.

I further certify that his distinctive original research and his thesis
is worthy of presentation to the Department of Marketing, Faculty
of Management Sciences, Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of
Technology (KASBIT) for the degree of MBA majors in Marketing.

Ms. Ayesha Shaikh
Lecturer

Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 2

Table of Contents
List of Table

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List of Figures

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Dedication

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Acknowledgements

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Abstract

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5

6

7

9

Chapter

1

Introduction…….…………………………………………….

…………. 10
1.1. Background
1.2.

………….…………………………………………….………… 11
Statement

of

the

problem

…...............................................................................11
1.3. Research objective ……….……………………………………….……………...…..
12
1.4. Research Model

…..…………………………………………………………..…. 15

1.5. Research significance ………...……………………………………………….….….
17

Chapter 2 – Literature Review ……….
……………………………………. 18
2.1: Brand Image.
............................................................................................. 19
Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 3

3: Purchase Intention……………. Different test ………..……………………….1: Research design ………………………………………………………… 28 3. 22 2.2.……………………………………………….3: Data collection instruments ………... Results/Findings & Discussions ………… 30 4.. 29 Chapter 4 – Data Analysis.……………………………………………. 29 3.………………… 30 4.... Analysis of sample characteristics & demographics ………..1.……. ……………..2.……………………….………………………………………………………………. 29 3.4: Research scope and limitations ……….….5: Customer Loyalty ………………………………………………………………….4: EKB Model …………………………………………………………………. 24 2.2: Sampling ………………………………………………………. 20 2.………………………………………. 25 Chapter 3 – Research Methodology …………………………………… 27 3..2: Brand Attitude.… 36 Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 4 .

……….…………………… 58 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: ..Chapter 5 – Conclusions …………………………………………………..Reliability Statistics Table 2: – Z Test for Brand Image and Consumer Buying Behavior Table 3: – Z Test for Product Quality Table 4 :– Z Test for Product Knowledge Table 5: – Z Test for Loyalty Intention Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 5 . 47 Chapter 6 – Recommendations ………………………………………… 53 Appendix / …………………………………………….56 Bibliography Annexes ………...………………………………….

Market Share with Gender Figure 6: Importance of Brand Image Figure 7: Importance of Low Quality Brand Image Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 6 . Market Share Figure 5: Shangrila Brand Choice.LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Gender Demographics Figure 2: Demographics Gender Age Scale Figure 3: Demographics Consumption Segmentation Figure 4: Shangrila Brand Choice.

Figure 8: Importance of Product Knowledge DEDICATION “My Beloved Family & Especially to My Lovely Mother” (Late) Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 7 .

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Words are short to thanks & acknowledge many important peoples whose shore up was precious throughout the project process. They were also always helpful and guided me through every stage of the project requirement formalities that had to fulfill. group members who supported me to achieve all goals of MBA degree. in my view. which smooth my learning process.B. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 8 . Ayesha Shaikh. for her guidance. The support and cooperation of the staff of M. First. I would like to thank my project supervisor Ms. wisdom. Also thanks to my university friends. and assistance in all phases of the project.A Program in Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of Technology (KASBIT) absolutely has done their great jobs.

or image? In addition. Is consumer likely to buy branded products considering the brand image either it is more expensive. which caused to purchase by the consumers. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 9 . My all-family member’s blessings have always led to me to the path of success and achievement. I would like to thanks to My Family members specially pray for my Mother May Allah TabarakWatallah give her place in his paradise.In the end. Is brand image can change the consumer choice. switch to others brand on Brand perception. which will fulfill my carrier path. Does the Brand Image really give a competitive advantage to an industry by making standout from its competitors? Does it be use as marketing tool for promotion/attraction? This major factor will identify in this case study. identify that the brand image really plays a role to attract the suspect and prospect customers. My Mother always encouraged me to go forward and accomplished this task successfully. or opposite it most of the cases consumers switch to others brand due to increasing the prices impact or out of budgeting. Ayesha Sheikh) ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior. They were always stand for me in order to encourage me in all my work and same as my Teacher (Ms.

One of the highest contributed industries in an economy is FMCG industry. It’s producing the Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 10 . The firms sustain their loyal customers and overcome the challenge for the continued existence and growth. This growth becomes the industrial growth which is reflects to the national growth. This industrial sector is playing a major role in today’s business environment and the economy because this is concern about every individual citizen’s daily consumption goods for middle. middle upper class. The dependency of the successful business is totally on their loyal customer satisfaction in terms of fulfillment of their desire need and demands. of the country. The FMCG industry meant for daily consumption of goods.The study will examine the case of Brand Image of Shangrila Private Limited. discuss the process it followed and discover features and benefits of this approach. Products quality. Today’s majors firms are frequently focusing on the understanding the customers and consumers desire needs and trying to fetch prospect customers. and satisfaction of the customers. CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION The boundless opportunity in the worldwide market throughout the competitive advantages services.

currently the competition in multinational and national firms in Pakistan are involves to provide their better services and products and continues service improvement to their customers desired needs and wants. Pickles. Ketchup. One of the Leading brand Shangrila surviving since last two decades and dealing in Foodstuff category of FMCG Industry. Imli Ginger Sauce. Chilli Sauce. and Seasoning deal in Bar B. Sauces. The price offering of each product almost similar or litter mid differ with their competitors. dinner. lunch. Bakers. General items. The target market of Shangrila is households and Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 11 . Orange. and Apple flavors. Guava.ready meals or others products to use faster like you can easily have meal in breakfast. Here all above products on going products and firms are enjoying their highest volumes of business in the Pakistan. Peach. Drinks. or refreshment i. Ready Meal (Fast Foods). Juices. Tooth Paste. Seasonings. Seasons. and Tomato Ketchup. 1. etc. Shangrila brands deal in the foodstuff for cooking and snacks refreshment juices. and Juices and its variant is Sauces deal in Soy Sauce. Vinegar. Confectionary. The Brand Image has found in the literature to be a competitive tool for many companies and their perception and brand image.e. Juices produce in Mango. Burger. Pickles. Garlic Chilli Sauce.Q Sauce. The product category in contained on Sauces. Shampoo. Bath Soap. soft drinks.1 BACKGROUND The FMCG stand for “Fast Moving Consumer Goods” and it’s contained numerous sectors like Food Stuff. Third one Ketchup and Pickles has a vast range in their SKUs.

2 PROBLEM STATEMENT The problem statement formulated for the research is. Juices category targeting to the teenagers. and under 16 to 25 ages. 1. “To determine whether the brand image of product has an impact on the consumer decision making and buying behavior. This objective implies Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 12 .  Determine the positive relationship between satisfaction and loyalty intention.women are under 18-30 ages. research methodologies and data collection methods and methods of analysis would be most appropriate to research the problem in question. 1. The specific research objectives are:  Determine the relationship between strong brand image & the effect on consumer purchase intention & behavior. health conscious peoples.  Determine the relationship between the high product knowledge decreases the effect of brand image.  Determine the relationship between the product quality & effect on consumer buying behavior.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The research’s primary aim is to establish how Brand Image Effect to the Consumer Buying Behavior Patterns in the FMCG sector.  To investigate which research paradigms.

slogan-describing organization’s business in brief and brand identifier supporting the key values. Brand Image conveys emotional value and not just a mental Image. Consumers develop various associations with the brand.  To construct (design) a research instrument that will canvass the opinions of stakeholders of the perceived brand image of the Shangrila. if any. it is nothing but the consumers’ perception about the product.  To make recommendations regarding which dimensions. It is a set of beliefs held about a specific brand. Brand image is the overall impression in consumers’ mind that formed from all sources. as shaped by brand identity. Brand Image is nothing but an organization’s character. It signifies what the brand presently stands for. It can define as a unique bundle of associations within the minds of target customers. It is an accumulation of contact and observation by people external to an organization. It is the manner in which a specific brand positioning in the market. Based on Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 13 . Brand image is the current view of the customers about a brand. The main elements of positive brand image are unique logo reflecting organization’s image. It should highlight an organization’s mission and vision to all. This objective requires an in-depth analysis of secondary sources dealing with brand identity.that the appropriate overall research design for the study must be determined. In short.  To source primary data to gauge the opinions of stakeholders perceived Shangrila Brand Image.  To analyze the data and report on possible disparities (“Gaps”) between the expectations linked to the Shangrila brand image and the actual experience of this brand. brand image and related concepts. of the Shangrila Brand identity need to addressed to enhance the image of the institution.

The idea behind brand image is that the consumer is not purchasing just the product/service but also the image associated with that product/service. emotional benefits . but is automatically formed. Brand image is actually brand content. Brand Image has not to be created. They can be specific or conceptual benefits are the rationale for the purchase decision. they form brand image.these associations. ease of use.why do I believe you (more than others). other promotional tools. word of mouth publicity. The brand image consists of various associations in consumers’ mind attributes. Brand image is the objective and mental feedback of the consumers when they purchase a product. and overall value. An image is formed about the brand based on subjective perceptions of association’s bundle that the consumers have about the brand Volvo is associated with safety. Toyota is associated with reliability. The brand image includes products' appeal. benefits and attributes. unique and instant. Brand Images can be strengthened using brand communications like advertising. they are also purchasing its image. Brand Image develops and conveys the product’s character in a unique manner different from its competitor’s image. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 14 . Brand Images should be positive. When the consumers purchase the product. functionality. packaging. etc. There are three types of benefits: Functional benefits what do you do better (than others) do. Brand attributes are consumers overall assessment of a brand.how do you make me feel better (than others). and rational benefits/support . Brand Attributes are the functional and mental connections with the brand that the customers have. fame.

Positive brand image enhances the goodwill and brand value of an organization. the following research model have been developed: Independent Variables Brand Image Reputation Relevance Performance Product Knowledge Promotions Price discount Dependent Variables Consumer Loyalty Consumer Buying Behavior Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 15 . “Brand image” is the customer’s net extract from the brand. 1.4 RESEARCH MODEL To achieve the research objectives. To sum up.Positive brand image is exceeding the customers’ expectations.

The following hypotheses have developed to test the relationships between the dependent and independent variables: H1: There is a relationship between positive Brand Image and consistent consumer Buying Behavior. H3: High product knowledge decreases the effect of brand images. H4: There is a positive relationship between satisfaction and loyalty Intention FIGURE: 1. H2: Different brand images lead to differ product quality things. CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE RESEARCH MODEL Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 16 .

Satisfaction.5 RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE As recent era of business industry is the one of in FMCG the dominant industry for the last decades comparing others industry in the worlds although the similarly this industry has a competition in the nationwide. Therefore. This competitive environment caused brand consciousness among subscribers and potential buyers. loyalty. In the contemporary environment. Purchase intention. businesses have to develop different strategies in order to survive in long run.1. the only constant is change. and senses of belongingness towards brands of any kind but sometimes customers themselves are unaware of the reasons for the brand preferences. Researches show that numerous factors impart in creating the awareness. One of the best strategies is about creating the best brand image in considering the consumers mind that ensure a long-term growth of business. Product knowledge. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 17 .

& MacInnis. Shangrila private limited will gain this research objective and will found the causes. Although the result will be beneficial for the organization to make an action plan throughout the competitive strategy for the competitor in terms of knowledge how brand becomes more attractive. Pan. The main purpose of this research study is to investigate the key variables that are having strong influence on customer satisfaction in foodstuff manufacturer sector and influence purchasing decision of customers.g. brand. "a successful brand image enables consumers to identify the needs that the brand satisfies and to differentiate the brand from its competitors. brand equity Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 18 .e. Since satisfied customer is the core concern of any organization. sustainable competitive advantage. would definitely gain a better position in the market. which constantly holds a favorable image by the public. 252). This is research helps to identity the factors. 1986).Currently the organizations are striving to retaining their customers and constantly finding the caused ways to enter the customer mind and their black box. 2003. Kandampully & Suhartanto. which is influence to move the brand choice to reduce the turnover rate. therefore they pay close attention toward the factors that influence a customer’s decision towards brand. A company or its product services. and increase market share or performance (Park. CHAPTER 2 .LITERATURE REVIEW According to Hsieh. Jaworski. Nguyen & LeBlanc. which is influence to buy their branded products. several empirical findings have confirmed that a favorable image (i. 1998). 2000. and consequently increases the likelihood that consumers will purchase the brand" (p. and Setiono (2004). In addition. Koo. store/retail) will lead to loyalty (e.

"brand associations” comprise of brand attributes. Faircloth et al. and ordered" (p. 8). Faircloth et al. 1995. Zooming into Keller's (1993) conceptualization of brand image. Reynolds (1965) noted that "an image is the mental construct developed by the consumer on the basis of a few selected impressions among the flood of the total impressions.e. and overall brand attitudes. Hsieh et al. & Alford. it considered a perception about a brand as reflected by the brand associations held in consumers' memory. 2001). 1992. Aaker. 273). 1984. 2003. embellished. or using Malhotra's (1981) brand image scale (i. Kandampully & Suhartanto. Kotler (2001) defined image as "the set of beliefs. Bhat & Reddy. purchase behavior (Hsieh et al. 1991. 69). and impression that a person holds regarding an object" (p. it comes into being through a creative process in which these selected impressions are elaborated. 1998). Capella. Keller (1993) considered brand image as "a set of perceptions about a brand as reflected by brand associations in consumer's memory" (p. Roth.(Faircloth.e.e. 2004.. whereby brand image is referred to as "a set of associations. On the other hand. usually organized in some meaningful way" (p.. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 19 . 2004) and brand performance (Roth. brand benefits values (i. 1995).. ideas. 2. He suggested. Measuring image based on the above definition would help marketers to identify the strengths and weaknesses of their brand as well as consumers' perceptions toward their product or services. Keller.. 2001. brand benefits. Koo. 109). Biel.1 : Brand Image Brand image has conceptualized and operationalized in several ways (Reynolds & Gutman. 2001). It has been measured based on attributes (i. 1993). 3) A Similar definition to Keller's was proposed by Aaker (1991). Biel (1992) however defined brand image as "a cluster of attributes and associations that consumers connect to the brand name" (p. 2000).

Keller (1993) described that this image benefits can be classified into functional. user and usage imagery). price. what consumers think the product or service can do for them" (p. For example. experiential and symbolic benefits. (1986). the functional benefits are related to the intrinsic advantages of product or services consumption and usually correspond to the product related attributes.2 Brand Attitude Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 20 . these is considered "the personal value consumers attach to the product or service attributes – that is. 2. As for benefits. packaging or product appearance information. while symbolic benefits were associated with the underlying needs for social approval or personal expression and outer-directed self-esteem and corresponded to non-product related attributes. Attributes can classified into product-related attributes and non product-related attributes (i. attributes are "descriptive features that characterized a product or service – what a consumer thought the product or service is or has and what is involved with its purchase or consumption". Product-related attributes refer to the ingredients necessary for performing the product or service function sought by consumers while non product-related attributes refer to the external aspects of the product or services that relate to its purchase or consumption. Here.e. 4). which was originally derived from the work of Park et al.To Keller (1993). experiential benefits refer to "what it felt like to use the product or services and usually correspond to the product related attributes".

Brand image represents an important aspect of marketing activities. generating reasons to buy. b) argued that these associations could originate from Customers direct experience or from information obtained on a market Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 21 .Overall. Dobni and Zinkhan. 2003). gives positive feelings. Keller. But just as stereotypes prevail in a variety of social situations. brand identity precedes brand image. branding and market offering with varied definition and approaches to its conceptualization (Burleigh and Sidney. A widely accepted view is that brand image represents customers’ perceptions of a brand as reflected by the brand associations held in consumer memory (Herzog. Creating and maintaining image of the brand is an important part of a firm's marketing Program (Roth. b). 2006). 2007). 1993. 1990. but also in times of elections. so do image effects occur in different persuasive contexts: not only at consuming goods. Keller (1993) referred to Wilkie's (1986) definition of brands Attitudes which was "consumers' overall evaluations of a brand" (p. 1993a. Aaker. it is very important to understand the development of image formation and its consequences such as satisfaction and loyalty. image can generate value in terms of helping customer to process Information.For brand attitude. differentiating the brand. or when charitable donations are given to humanitarian. 1955. Therefore. nongovernmental organizations (Morf. Based on the views of Kapferer (2004:98). Martinez and Pina. The influence of the independent variables on brand identity and its shaping of brand image. which is the modified conceptual model supporting this research. 1991). when the “products” of political parties are rated by voters (Keller. Keller (1993a. The focus of my dissertation is on the appearance of image effects in the domain of consumer psychology. and providing a basis for extensions (Aaker. 1991). 1995) and branding strategy (Keller. 1963. 4).

consumers are able to recognize a product. Keller and Davey. design or all the above. based upon some intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of a market offering resulting to perceived quality. Nike adopts a check mark as its brand image. relative to alternatives (Zeithaml. lower purchase risks. 2004). Padgett and Allen. 1997. Where perceived quality refers to the customer’s Perception of the overall quality or superiority of a product or service with respect to its intended purpose. but is something brought out by promotions. 1991. Brand image is. Garcia Rodriguez and Bergantinos. Aaker. the mental picture or perception of a brand or a branded product or service and includes symbolic meanings that consumers associate with the specific attributes of a product or service (Dobni and Zinkhan. Through brand image. a positive brand image may make up for an inferior image of the origin country and raise the possibility of the product being selected Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 22 . How much is a brand worth? How does a brand represent the product? Kotler (2000) contends that brand is a name. or users. 1994. 352) a set of beliefs held by customers about a particular brand. 2001). symbol. When it comes to experiential product evaluation. 1990. Brand image represents “the reasoned or emotional perceptions consumers attach to specific brands” (Low and Lamb. Thus. Keller (1993) defines a brand image as an association or perception consumers make based on their memory toward a product. p. and obtain certain experience and satisfaction out of product differentiation. and customer satisfaction (Aaker. evaluate the quality.offering or due to the impact a pre-existing association with an organization had on consumer. For example. 2001). 1988. 2000. brand image does not exist in the technology. therefore. term. which creates a positive effect indicating approval. features or the actual product itself. advertisements. Aperia and Back. and is used to distinguish one’s products and services from competitors.

Krishnan. businesses often use promotions to stimulate purchase intention and increase sales. McCarthy and Perreault (1984) think promotion is different from advertisement or public report and eventually can stir up interest or intention among (potential) buyers to make a purchase. when being reduced by economic incentives. Rao and Monroe (1988) also support this argument. According to Grewal. the greater the promotion is. To counter fierce competition. Dick and Jain. Since consumers usually make an immediate purchase. stimulate desires. Therefore. maintain consumer loyalty and raise sales volume (Pride and Ferrell. 2000). and Borin (1998). Akaah and Korgaonkar (1988) conclude that consumers are more likely to purchase well-known brand products with positive brand image as a way to lower purchase risks. brand image is often used as an extrinsic cue to make a purchase decision (Richardson. promotion aims to create product exposure. Baker. consumers generally believe they can make a satisfying purchase by choosing well-known brands and lower any purchase risks by doing so. A brand with a more positive image does have the effect of lowering consumer products perception risks and increasing positive feedback from the consumers. Consumers respond to the incentive of saving when they see products are being sale at a lower price.(Thakor and Katsanis.3 Purchase Intention Consumers are usually limited in regards to the amount of time and product knowledge to make an informed purchase decision when facing similar products to choose from as a result. and increase their purchase intention. 1997). Thus. the more response it Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 23 . 1994). 2. the more Recognition consumers give to its product quality. Kotler (2000) considers that promotion is a combination of various incentives to stimulate consumers or retailers to stir up immediate purchasing reaction toward a product or service within a short time period. the better a brand image is.

Dodson. Purchase intention means a subjective inclination consumers have towards a certain product. The Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 24 .generates. When consumers are presenting with great incentives. This indicates promotion has great incentive values. price discounts may attract consumers with economic incentives. Prior to purchasing. and make a purchase decision after comparison and judgment. To sum up. The model stresses that consumer behavior is a continuing process. including recognition of a problem. consumers start the assessment and evaluation process. they are likely to choose promotional items. solution evaluation. Tybout. Kollat and Blackwell (1984). and Sternthal (1978) have proven that when facing various brand products with similar functions and qualities. Price discount may attract consumers to try out different brands. information gathering. but may expose them to inferior products with lower quality. consumers begin by collecting product information based on personal experience and external environment. and has been prove a key factor to predict consumer behavior (Fishbein and Ajzen. developed by Engel. 1975).4 EKB Model The EKB model. When the amount of information reaches a certain level. is a process used to evaluate consumers’ decision making. which in the end will write off the benefit of the sales increase (Raghubir and Corfman. however. after the promotion is over price discount may also lower the purchase intention because of associating price discount with lower quality. 1999). and decision making. Therefore. 2. promotional items usually end up selling better and even attract loyal consumers of other brands. purchase intention is often use to analyze consumer behavior in related studies.

2008). 1999). Price discount (Alford and Biswas. a retailer.process is also affected by both internal and external factors like information input. information gathering and environmental stimulation are two crucial influential factors in the final decision making. 2. These factors include choosing a product. 2002). which creates advantages for customers so that they keep on increasing their purchase from the same organization. 2006) and by 5% increases in Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 25 . Likewise. general motives. According to Kotler (2000). we can examine the following factors that may affect purchase intention: 1. This relationship established if parties feel that there are special advantages for them and they can attract each other like two poles. consumer behavior occurs when consumers are stimulating by external factors and come to a purchase decision based on their personal Characteristics and decision making process. In fact. and quantity. 3. Real customer’s commitment is established when he/she is motivate to purchase without any encouragement. Among these factors. timing. 2. the cost to acquire a new customer is 15 times of retaining an existing customer (Fahimi. This means consumers’ purchasing behavior affected by their choice of product and brand. Product characteristics are relates to product knowledge (Sultan. This definition may be limited. Thus. 1984). 2009). Loyal customer does not only focus on prices but also he/she acts like a fan of organization and. etc. environment. Consumers’ increase of product familiarity (Johnson and Russo.5 Customer Loyalty Richard Oliver (1977) defines loyalty as: “it is a strong commitment to superior services or goods repurchase in future to acquire the same brand despite of marketing efforts by potential rivals and their impacts (Hamidizadeh and Ghamkhary. customer’s commitment is the outcome of an organization. brand. as a result. helps to attract new customers (Zare. information process.

When consumers are considering purchasing a product.customers’ loyalty. their purchase intention will be determined based on Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 26 . At the outset. the profit increases 25 – 85 percent (Hamidizadeh and Ghamkhary. 1993). They support Holbrook (1994) who said customer’s value is a fundamental base for marketing activities. the goal is to enhance the relationship between customer and organization in the condition of passing different steps of managing the relations with customer. which leads customer to loyalty enhancement. Jaccobi et al (1974) state that brand loyalty differ from brand habit or view though these can determine brand loyalty in next steps. Hence. Then. Kim et al (2008) findings on affecting factors on customers’ view in hospitals indicate that such factors as customer satisfaction. communicational commitments and confidence have a remarkable impact on brand loyalty and awareness and a positive impact on customer’s view to hospital. With regard to customer’s loyalty. If organization continues to meet customer’s needs and to provide its services in a manner which motivates permanent demand. To acquire customers’ loyalty. 2009). it uses any relation as an opportunity to establish loyalty. Findings of Sirdeshmukh et al (2002) indicate that customer’s value is a key affecting factor on customers’ loyalty in airlines. Churchill (1997) states that brand loyalty are customer’s preference to buy a certain brand. This is the same thing. one should initially have an image of the customer. then a bilateral value will be established and the final target namely customer’s dependency or strategic management of relations with customer will be achievable (Colwell et al. feelings and expectations towards certain brands as they learn. Customer’s conception Brand image is established when consumers develop ideas. Figure 2 outlines conceptual model and hypotheses of present study. 2009). the organization has one customer and protects him/her by respect and mediation. memorize and become accustomed to them (Keller. customer’s satisfaction grows and the value of relations will increase among parties.

they are more likely to make the purchase (Dickson and Sawyer.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The nature of the research is descriptive since the objective of conducting the research project is to determine what impact do each of the determinants of brand loyalty identified in the theoretical framework have on Brand Loyalty.the perception of its value given by its brand. they are likely to have higher perception of value (Monroe. which is used to collect data from the relevant unit of analysis Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 27 . It usually depends upon the use of a well-constructed questionnaire. 1990). Brand image no doubt remains an important cue during the process of consumers’ purchase decision making. Specifically. The questionnaire will predominantly consist of closed ended questions to save the time of respondents and ensure a high response rate. survey based questionnaires will be used as the primary tool for data collection. when consumers benefit more from purchasing the brand product than the price paid. they survey method will be employed for data collection. The central objective of survey design is to search for relationships between variables. 1990). Since the nature of research is descriptive. The data gathered will be both quantitative and qualitative in nature. Aaker and Keller’s (1990) research discovers that a brand with positive image improves consumer loyalty and trust and strengthens consumers’ purchase intention. When consumers have a higher opinion on the quality of a certain brand product. CHAPTER 3 . additionally. and consequently on the Consumer Purchase Behavior in the FMCG sector.

relatively brief time period (i. Customer Satisfaction. 3. and furthermore..e. In crosssectional research. this study does not attempt to examine trends. For the purpose of this study. the nature of the research is descriptive. an individual. and for ease of purpose will be cross sectional and not longitudinal in nature. a cross sectional study is the appropriate technique as opposed to a longitudinal study due to time constraints. interview sessions will also be conducted with the Marketing and Product Development Department of Shangrila. Brand and Corporate Image. usually. data are collected from the research participants at a single point in time or during a single. Thus this research can depict the relationship(s) of certain variables of Service Quality. the survey based questionnaires will be circulated amongst the users of tomato ketchup of Shangrila brand in Karachi. RESEARCH DESIGN As specified earlier. a period long enough to collect data from all of the participants selected to be in the study). and CRM Strategies. the sample size determined for the research is 100 Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 28 . The major advantage of cross-sectional research is that data can be collected on many different kinds of people in a relatively short time period. By adopting the convenience sampling approach. To supplement the quantitative data collected via the questionnaires.1. Since the research is consumer centric. The population for the research includes both male and female users of the Tomato Ketchup of Shangrila brand in Pakistan.under study.

3. DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 29 . The rating based questions in the survey will utilize an ordinal scale. Convenience sampling is one of the non-probability sampling designs that are being use in this research. As its name implies. In addition. Statistical Tests including probability based z and t tests will be performed on the data collected. descriptive statistical measures such as measures of central tendency will be use to report and analyze overall trends discovered through the research study. 3. As its name impulse. convenience sampling involves collecting information from members of the population who are conveniently available to provide this information. The sampling units selected for analysis are both male and female Tomato Ketchup consumers specially those who uses Shangrila Tomato Ketchup. SAMPLING Sampling is the act. convenience sampling involves collecting information from members of the population who are conveniently available to provide this information.2. with higher numbers coded to represent higher values. Convenience sampling is one of the nonprobability sampling designs that are being used in this research.3. process or technique of selecting a suitable sample. The sampling units selected for analysis are both Male and Female user of Tomato Ketchup customers in Karachi.respondents residing in Karachi. or a representative put of a population for the purpose of determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population.

For ease in research and time constraints. RESEARCH SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS The Brand selected for the research study is Shangrila Brand Image and customer loyalty and Buying Behavior will be analyzed. convenience sampling has been adopted.The nature of research is descriptive survey based questionnaire have been used as a primary tool for data collection from a sample size of 100 participant. Statistical test has been applied on the data that was collected to either except or reject the null or alternative hypothesis that were develop for the research project. 3. Following the testing interpretations has been provided for each hypothesis. RESULTS/FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS The captioned chapter is concerned with working on analysis of the data collection that have been taken from the survey through questionnaires. To overcome these limitations. Due to time and budget limitation. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 30 . Geographic and demographic limitations of the research will have a slight impact on the results obtained and research findings quoted in the study. extensive secondary research will be used to provide a global context to the research. the research will be conducted only in Karachi and therefore the result may be skewed and not hundred percent applicable to other cities. and the sample will comprise on females with sample size 100 primarily between the ages of eighteen to fifty. CHAPTER 4 – DATA ANALYSIS.4.

they can be used to develop a marketing strategy and marketing plan. Both distributions and trends of values within a demographic variable are of interest. home ownership. FIGURE 1: GENDER DEMOGRAPHICS Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 31 . mobility. age. which include males and females. Demographics are about the population of a region and the culture of the people. secondly to create a clear and complete picture of the characteristics of a typical member of each segment. Commonly examined demographics include gender. income level. race and ethnicity. public policy. gender. race. The five types of demographics for marketing are age. employment status. and even location. These types of data are used widely in sociology (and especially in the subfield of demography). Demographic trends describe the historical changes in demographics in a population over time (for example.4.1 ANALYSIS OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS AND DEMOGRAPHICS Demographics are the most contemporary statistical characteristics of a population. and marketing. The sample size of survey questionnaire is 100. the average age of a population may increase or decrease over time). Researchers typically have two objectives in this regard: first to determine what segments or subgroups exist in the overall population. disabilities. Once these profiles are constructed.

FIGURE 2: DEMOGRAPHICS GENDER AGE SCALE Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 32 .Demogeraphic _Total of Gender Female 35 35% Male Female Male 65 65% The captioned chart is describing the gender analysis of males and Females. which is (65% Males and 35% Females).

Males have contributed 65% and females contributes 35% share of the survey.70 65 60 53 50 40 35 Male 30 Female 27 20 10 7 8 0 21 To 30 Years 31 To 40 Years 5 0 41 To 50 Years Total Age of gender This chart is presenting the age scale of Male and Female participant of the survey. FIGURE 3: DEMOGRAPHICS CONSUMPTION SEGMENTATION Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 33 . the most participative in the ages of 21 years to 30 years.

FIGURE 4: SHANGRILA BRAND CHOICE.The customers in different ages who are consume Tomato Ketchup in different occasions. However. 65 Gender 35 1 Never0 20 Occasionally 17 Female Male 14 Monthly 5 21 Weekly 5 9 8 Daily 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 The cumulative male and female data is describing that the mostly consumers of the Tomato Ketchup are consumes occasionally. It means there is a number of gender isolation in the usage of Tomato Ketchup. MARKET SHARE Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 34 . Here is statically defined demographics consumption segmentation chart of the Tomato Ketchup consumption segment. the highest ranking of the male is weekly basis.

17% Shangrila .Knorr. 45% Shangrila National National. 32% Mitchels Knorr Others The total market share of the Shangrila is 45% as per the marked responded which is highest market share contribution in the competition in the market. 1% Mitchels. 5% Others. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 35 .

2 DIFFERENCT TEST Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 36 .FIGURE 5: SHANGRILA BRAND CHOICE. 4. MARKET SHARE WITH GENDER 30 25 24 23 21 20 Male 15 Femal 12 10 9 5 5 5 1 0 Shangrla National Mitchels Knorr0 0 Others The gender wise market share of the Shangrila described that the market share of Shangrila is grater then others brands.

854. the data collected is considered to be reliable and accurate which would in turn lead to reliable test results and effective recommendations to be made from the research.RELIABILITY STATISTICS Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items . we can use the one–independent sample z test. Before performing the statistical analysis of the data gathered. If the value of the constant lies between 0 and 1. the data collected through the questionnaires is reliable and valid and that there are no discrepancies involved in it. The one–independent sample z test is a statistical procedure used to test hypotheses concerning the mean in a single population with a known variance. The z test of hypothesis for the mean follows the following formula and notations: Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 37 . Theoretically the value of alpha is varies from 0 to 1. The following table shows the calculations for the Cronbach’s alpha constant and reveals that since the value is between 0 and 1. it is important to determine the reliability of the data by calculating the Cronbach’s alpha constant. Now the statistical analysis on the data can be performed with a high degree of accuracy and the reliability of results. The value of Cronbach’s alpha is 0.857 11 The Cronbach’s Alpha is the coefficient of reliability. which shows the pretty higher reliability of the results. TABLE 1 .879 .When we know the mean and standard deviation in a single population.

This test is the relationship between Positive Brand Image and consistently consumer buying behavior.314466038 Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 38 . It means that the brand images doesn’t go well and its reputation is not consider as positive image in that market so would you like to purchase it (YES.5 0. Ho: Positive Brand Image has no impact on consumer buying behavior Ha: Positive Brand Image has impact on consumer buying behavior The Question is asking to the respondents that If Brand Image/Product Price/Reputation/Performance does not go well will you buy it.H1: There is a relationship between positive Brand Image and consistent consumer buying behavior.05 0. No). TABLE 2: Z Test for Brand Image and Consumer Buying Behavior Data Null Hypothesis = Level of Significance Population Standard Deviation 1.

Sample Size
Sample Mean

100
0.11

Intermediate Calculations
Standard Error of the
Mean
0.031446604
Z Test Statistic
-44.2019116
Upper-Tail Test
Upper Critical Value
p-Value
Reject the null
hypothesis

1.644853627
0.04

Since the p value calculated is less than 5% for the calculated sample mean
and population standard deviation, and the z test statistic lies in the rejection
region, the null hypothesis has rejected.
This implies that positive brand image and reputation is positively
related in creating a consistently consumer buying behavior.

FIGURE: 6. IMPORTANCE OF BRAND IMAGE

Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 39

31
No
55

4
Yes
9

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

The figure represents the result from survey questionnaire, which has the
sample size 100. The blue color shows the male responded answer and red
color shows the answer of Female.
The result depict that that 86% of the responded replied and agree to shift
from those brand who are going not well and their reputation considering
negative image.
It obviously is evidence for that the respondents agree that if the brand image
and its reputation does not go well so they will not go to buy this products.
The main objective of the consumer to buy product is product quality and its
prices and reputation. It has asked to the responded that the brand quality
and its reputation is not considering in good brand as compare to the product
competitors. The above figures represent the answer of the responded is No.
it means that the result represent the desire of the consumers that they will
not desire to buy this products.
H2: Different brand images lead to Differ product quality things.
The test shows the relation between the brand image of Shangrila perceived
by the customers and how it influence lead to the product quality things
Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 40

Ho:
Ha:

Brand image has no lead to differ product quality
Brand image has leaded to differ product quality

The question asking to the respondent that, do low quality and less offers
prices increase the brand image? It means that a brand reduces their product
quality and offers low prices as compare to their competitors so the brand
image will increase do you (strongly Agree, Agree, Agree Neither Disagree,
Disagree, Strongly Disagree).
TABLE 3: Z Test for Product Quality
Data
Null Hypothesis
=
Level of Significance
Population Standard
Deviation
Sample Size
Sample Mean

3
0.05
1.333749935
100
3.17

Intermediate Calculations
Standard Error of the Mean
0.133374993
Z Test Statistic
1.274601749
Upper-Tail Test
Upper Critical Value
p-Value
Reject the null
hypothesis

1.644853627
0.04

Since the p value calculated is less than 5% for the calculated sample mean
and population standard deviation, and the z test statistic lies in the rejection
region, the null hypothesis has been rejected.

FIGURE: 7. IMPORTANCE OF LOW QUALITY BRAND IMAGE

Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 41

Here is one option is remain which is agree or neither agree. therefore the result reflects the highest contribution of males which is very dynamics. As the responded ratio of male is 65% which grater then females. This option given to choose those participants who are not confident about the question answer so they have chosen this option that was 21% Male and 17% Female. The dark blue color shows the Male answers and the red color shows the female answers. The last option was agree and strongly agree about that if the product quality reduces with low prices that brand image will Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 42 .Strongly Disagreed Disgreed 8 5 11 7 10 Neither Agreed nor Disagreed Female Agreed Strongly Agreed 0% 4 Male 21 17 15 2 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% The figure depicts the result from survey questionnaire. The first option is strongly disagree where as 8% Male rating in survey and 5% females are strongly disagreed. Now let us elaborate above found result of the survey. Somewhere male rating is high and somewhere female rating higher. The total cumulative contribution in the option not agrees that was only 19% Male and 11% females and the total gender is 30% of the survey. which has the sample size 100. 11% Male disagree and 7% female disagree. It is middle options who are not agreeing or disagree that was 21% male and 17% female. Secondly.

This test shows the relationship between the product knowledge with the brand image. No. TABLE 4 : Z test for Product Knowledge Data Null Hypothesis = 1. We got the result of last option agree and strongly agree that was 36% Male and 19% Female the cumulative contribution of this answer 55% of total gender which is highly contribution of the result.lead. Ho: Ha: Product knowledge has no impact on Brand image Product knowledge has impact on Brand image The question is asking to the respondents that will you identity the quality difference between different brandsYes. It clearly shows that the respondents agree with that the Brand image can lead to differs product quality.5 Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 43 . H3: High product knowledge decreases the effect of brand images. that the how it is impact on brand image in all the levels of consumer buying behavior.

287623491 100 0.028762349 Z Test Statistic -20. IMPORTANCE OF PORODUCT KNOWLEDGE Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 44 . the null hypothesis has been rejected. and the z test statistic lies in the rejection region. FIGURE: 8.05 0.51292811 Upper-Tail Test Upper Critical Value p-Value Reject the null hypothesis 1.04 Since the p value calculated is less than 5% for the calculated sample mean and population standard deviation.91 Intermediate Calculations Standard Error of the Mean 0.Level of Significance Population Standard Deviation Sample Size Sample Mean 0.644853627 0.

The dark blue color shows the option of YES.Female 35 0 No Yes Male 57 0% 8 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% The figure depicts the result from survey questionnaire. which describes that responded can identify the product quality difference in between others brands. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 45 . H4: There is a positive relationship between satisfaction and loyalty Intention. There was 35% females has participant and the 100% females replied that she can identify the product quality with others brands and 57% males also replied that they can identify the difference product quality with other brand although 8% male replied opposite of that but it is very low contribution of this question. which has the sample size 100. It is clearly shows that the responded has a product knowledge and it will increase the brand image because they have a product knowledge and can identify the produce difference with others brands. The total cumulative contribution of the total gender is 92% who are agree that they can identify the product quality difference with others brands.

644853627 0.04 Since the p value calculated is less than 5% for the calculated sample mean and population standard deviation. the null hypothesis has been rejected.047937249 Z Test Statistic -17. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 46 . Ha: Satisfaction has impact on Loyalty intention. No.479372485 100 0.5 0. Ho: Satisfaction has no impact on Loyalty intention. Yes.65 Intermediate Calculations Standard Error of the Mean 0. TABLE 5: Z Test for Loyalty Intention Data Null Hypothesis = Level of Significance Population Standard Deviation Sample Size Sample Mean 1.This test shows the relationship between the consumer satisfactions and his loyalty intention with the brand.05 0. and the z test statistic lies in the rejection region. This question asks the respondents that Do you switch to others brand if it is provide the promotion and discount.73151413 Upper-Tail Test Upper Critical Value p-Value Reject the null hypothesis 1.

Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 47 . And 28% male replied they will never switch to others band if they are offering some promotional discounts. It is clearly shows that the respondents will prefer to switch others brand if they will avail promotion discounts. It means there is a positive relationship in between satisfaction of loyalty intention with the brand if they are satisfied then they will grow their loyalty intention with the brands. The dark blue color shows the option yes. IMPORTANCE OF LOYALTY INTENTION Female 29 6 No Yes Male 37 0% 10% 20% 30% 28 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% The figure depicts the result from survey questionnaire.FIGURE: 7. So the cumulative result that the 66% participant replied to switch others brand if they will switch to others brand if they will offers promotional discount. which has the sample size 100. which describes that the respondents have the rating to switch others brand if its offers the some promotion discount that was the 29% female replied yes out of 36% and 37% male replied yes out of 65% of the total survey participants.

The background of this research describes that why Shangrila brand is important. Reputation. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 48 . It can focused on the various sides that can be draw from the data collected. Performance. when Shangrila was establish in Pakistan. why consumer behavior is important. Product Knowledge.CHAPTER 5 . of M/s Shangrila Brand Image of consumer buying behavior. through the background. consumers’ thirst for variety. which are the Brand Image. From the analysis of this study. Performance. Product quality. through the questionnaires and the statistical analysis performed. The research showed that it was not easy to identify the factors that are effects on of brand images and the behavior of the consumers for a company’s products because there were many forces drawing consumers away such as competition. and why Brand Image is important. it was shown that there are five factors of brand loyalty. All these factors showed positive relationships with consumer buying behavior. Basically some interesting factors that came to light through the research were the relationship between the overall Brand Image and feelings consumer buying behavior. preferably promotional discount plays a significant role in influencing consumer’s decision-making and emphasis to buy products. Promotional Price Discount. Most of the results of the statistical analysis confirmed the existing theories of consumer buying behavior in the product of Tomato Ketchup. The findings revealed that Brand Image and its reputation. Overview of the foodstuff Industries in Pakistan. The 1st chapter basically stands as the introduction and the overall information of my topic.CONCLUSIONS This chapter is the conclusion of my research. Relevance. etc.

Data was collected using structured questionnaire and personally administered. Promotional Price Discount. The research model describes by identifying the dependent and independent variables in my research. current popularity of Tomato Ketchup among youth. the revenues and the competitors. Reputation.The 2nd thing which I have done in chapter – 1 is to create the problem statement: “To determine whether the brand image of product has an impact on the consumer decision making and buying behavior. Reputation. Product Knowledge.. These dependent and independent variables will help in creating and maintaining the statement. (Independent Variables: Brand Image. Product Knowledge. Brand Image. The benefits of this research are lies on the research significance. Consumer Buying Behavior). Relevance. The 2nd chapter describes the literature review of my research. The 3rd chapter describes the research methodology in which the theoretical framework have conducted. in which each and every variable (dependent or independent) described briefly. It may describes or modify the topic further. Performance. Basically convenience sampling was used in this study. relevance. The sample Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 49 . These variables also described with the conceptualized research model. Promotion Price Discount. which will work for the statistical analysis. The objective of this study was to establish how Brand image affects the consumer buying behavior and their decision in the foodstuff Industry. Convenience sampling is one of the nonprobability sampling designs that are being used in this research. Foodstuff product manufacturers. The research design and their limitations tell us about the age brackets that in what age my research based on. dependent Variables: Consumer Loyalty. Performance.

Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 50 . in this chapter I have analyses the data that is collected through the survey questionnaires. Occasionally. Data is being collected through the survey questionnaires. The five types of demographics for marketing are age. And in that chart males are about to 65% and females are about to 35% included.will comprise mainly of Sec A and Sec B males and females primarily between the ages of eighteen to fifty. Monthly. are under the age of (21 -50). The chapter 4 has described the data collection analysis. gender. the sample size of 100 consumers who are using the Tomato Ketchup. race and ethnicity. although about female 27% who are under age on 21-30. Second one is demographic gender age scale in this segment statistical analysis explain the gender respondent’s lies in age scale that is Male were 53% who are under age on 21-30. and secondly to generate an understandable and absolute portrait of the characteristics of a distinctive associate of each of segment. which concern are in Karachi. they can be worn to expand a marketing strategy and marketing plan. Researchers characteristically have two objectives in this observe first to conclude what subdivision or subgroups continue living in the overall population. 8% 31-40. I have drawn I simple pie chart in order to describe the sample size of males and females. 7% 31-40. Once these profiles are constructing. I have drawn the bar chart which explain the consumers consumption segment who are using Tomato Ketchup Daily. If we add both gender under age 21-30 so it will participate 80% in these survey. Weekly. In this case. income level. and 5% 4-50. It means that total highest responded were youth. Third one. The areas. and 0% 4-50 it means there were also highest contribution in females who are lies in under 21 – 30 which is similar to male.

that how the statistical analysis on the data can be performed with a high degree of accuracy and the reliability of results. through bar charts and by taking different tests of statistical inferences. This session basically describes the overall variables which I have mention above. null and alternative. Statement 1: H1: The positive brand optimistically related with consistent consumer buying behavior. and only 1% is others brands customers. How the Shangrila positive brand image reflects Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 51 . The other brand is national got the share by the responded 23% Male and 9% Females third one was Mitchels got the share by the responded 12% Male and 5% Females the second last is Knorr just male which is only 5% and last one was 1% of other brand in Male only. how they inter-linked with each other. That. Including the question from the questionnaire. This statement has described that the relationship between the Shangrila has a positive brand Image with their consistent customers. 32% National. or create/develop the relationship with each other. The tests which are involved in this research were stands in two different terms. Which is grater then others brands in both gender.Fourth. Which is explaining the 45% Shangrila. one is where I have described the analysis of Market share of Shangrila Brand compared with its competitors in the markets among the responded. we got the 45% of Shangrila user in which 24% Male and 21% Females. The last one statistical analysis is to segregate the brand user in gender wise. which are included in order to describes to overall statement along with the briefly explanations. 5% Knor. 17% Mitchels. The other thing which came in this chapter was the analysis of different tests. I have inter-linked it with the testing tools.

Statement 2: H2: Different brand images lead to differ product quality things. The bar chart depicts the result that the respondents 55% agree with this statement. In this statement has described the relationship between the Shangrila Brand image with the product quality. Agree. and its prices does not going well. it has been rejected. in this statement have described the relationship between high product knowledge with the Brand image. In order to describe this process I have drawn a bar chart. Strongly Disagree). It means that how the Shangrila Brand Image reflects the product quality of shangrila. which is depicts the results. performance. The question asking to the responded that. In order to describe the process I have drawn the bar chart.on its consistent consumers. which describes the null statement. Neither agree disagree. Will they buy product? Yes or No. the results have been shown that the majority of respondents are included in the No Around 86% of respondents are involved. reputation. In order to describe Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 52 . Disagree. According to the tests it shows the results in the negative. It means that how the Shangrila Product knowledge reflects the Brand image of Shangrila. According to the tests it shows the results in the negative. it has been rejected. The bar chart describes that how the consumer will behave if the brand image. which shows the results along with the statistical tools framework. do low quality and less offer prices Increase the brand image? (Strongly Agree. which describes the null statement. Statement 3: H3: High product knowledge decreases the effect of brand images. In addition.

it has been rejected. Something that recommends (expresses Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 53 . Yes_No. which describes the null statement. CHAPTER 6 .RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendation means something (as a course of action) that is recommendation as advisable. It means that how the Shangrila Promotional discount reflects the customer loyalty of Shangrila In order to describe this process I have drawn a bar chart. The question describes that will you identify the quality difference between different brands Yes. The purpose of this research is to investigate how the respondents influenced by factors of consumer buying behavior. According to the tests it shows the results in the negative. The results clearly shows that the responded has a product knowledge and it will increase the brand image because they have a product knowledge and can identify the produce difference with others brands. The result definitely describe that the customer will prefer to switch other brand if they will avail promotional discounts. which describes the null statement. According to the tests it shows the results in the negative. Statement 4: H4: There is a positive relationship between satisfaction and loyalty intention. This question asks the respondents that Do you switch to others brand if it is provide the promotion and discount. The consumer loyalty and consumer buying decision is important for an organization to ensure that its products is always keeps in the minds of consumers and prevent them from switching to other brands. it has been rejected.this process I have drawn a bar chart. The question relates with the promotional discount rating point-of-view. In this statement have described the relationship between the Satisfaction with the Loyalty intention. No. It means there is a positive relationship in between satisfaction of loyalty intention with the brand if they are satisfied then they will grow their loyalty intention with the brands.

Consumers tend to perceive the products from an overall perspective. desirable.recommendation) of a person. associating with the brand name all the attributes and satisfaction experienced by the purchase and use of the product. Brand Image is important for the firm to attract customers to purchase the product and influence repeat purchasing behavior. The attribute brand image and its reputation in the market can definitely be more important on consumer decision making than that of Product Price/Reputation/Performance others. The overview about the effect of positive brand image should be fear however because consumer reactions to a brand differential clearly depend on the magnitude of the differential as well as the brand loyalty which are considered. or characteristic that gains a person a favorable reception or acceptance or admission. The recommendations will focus on the positive initiatives that Shangrila can take in order to remain the market leader in the Foodstuff Industry. any quality. The First hypothesis was the “positive brand image” and it has rejected because it is the null hypothesis. which is totally depend upon the results of statement. because the positive Brand image is the identity of Shangrila products. Shangrila Brand Name is one of its major components in the foodstuff Industry. thing as worthy. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 54 . Every statement has a recommendation. positive brand image is a very important attribute. The relationship between Positive Brand image and consistently consumer buying behavior exactly will understand. For many consumers. If the statement is null statement is rejected this means relationship between variables (dependent or independent) does not exist and the respondents do not give importance to the variables been discussed.

If the customer has product knowledge. Product quality with other brands plays a crucial role. There is need to educate to all Shangrila customers and consumers about their product knowledge to differentiate with others brands product. so he can identify the products quality and its taste. Product Knowledge is refers to product quality or its taste as concerned with the product. This means that the quality of a product defined as “its ability to fulfill the customer’s needs and expectations”. Customer’s satisfaction in Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 55 . As we. the customer will be pleased and consider that the product is of acceptable or even high quality. If his or her expectations are not fulfill. Shangrila brand has an individual identity in the market regarding the product quality because they are maintaining their product quality but as it has identify that if the company reduces their products quality and low offers prices so they can lose their customers. So they have to maintain their customers with affordable prices. It is a powerful source of identity and helps to project the intended image of the product against the competition and in the process of positioning a brand in the minds of the target audience. all knows that a product fulfils the customer’s expectations and desired. and sustain their customers if there is a difference in prices with others brands.The Second hypothesis was the “Product quality differs with other brands” and it was rejected because it is the null hypothesis. The Fourth hypothesis was the “Satisfaction and loyalty intention” and it has rejected because it is the null hypothesis. the customer will consider that the product is of low quality. The Third hypothesis was the “Product knowledge” and it was rejected because it is the null hypothesis. get the competitive edge. Although somewhere it observed that that firms take a risk to reduces their product quality and offers the low prices to take an advantage and retain the regular customers and attract the prospect customers.

Name (Optional) Gender: Male Female Age 21 . You are kind requested to fill this Questionnaire with best of your Knowledge and Experience. Because customers satisfaction build the customer relationship and grow up the perfect brand image in customers mind. Either they take a seriously or not. If company takes it seriously.30 Age 31 . Although customers loyalty intention is plays a very important role in the business world. Customer would become more loyal and satisfy to your product if company will also keen about their priority and satisfaction. it can increase customer satisfaction because customer can think that company cares about them.terms of financial benefits has a core business concept.50 Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 56 . Most of the times customers are very much keen about the behavior of the company towards their complains about the promotional discounts.40 Age 41 . According to the survey this thing has proved that if the loyal customers of any company avail the some promotional discount to others company he will move abruptly even though he is concerned and has loyalty intention with his brand. PPENDIX/ANNEXES RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE This Questionnaire is to be used to conduct a research on “Effect of Brand Image on consumers buying behavior”. This is a business terminology to evaluate as how much a promotional discount can offer by the company has been able to satisfy or please the customers.

Yes _ No Q6. Please put the number as per your choice in the blank box given below. Please encircle your answer. Strongly disagreed Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 57 . How frequently do you use Tomato Ketchup? (Daily. Do you believe that brand image is the important aspect of every product Yes _ No Q5. In which brand are you loyal customer in Tomato Ketchup? (Shangrila. Q4. Mitchel’s. Super Store. Neither Agreed nor disagreed 2. Please tick the answer of your choice against each question. Occasionally) Q3. Super Market) Q2. Strongly Agreed 4. Wholesaler. Monthly. Q1. Weekly. If Brand Image/Product Price/Reputation/Performance doesn’t go well will you buy it? Yes _ No 1. 5.1. Do you switch to others brand if it’s provide the promotion and discount Yes_ No Q7. Agreed 3. From where you usually purchase Tomato Ketchup? (Retailer. Disagreed 1. Do you switch to others brand if its provide the good quality of the products. Others) 2. National. Will you purchase those brands which has a good reputation in the market Q9. Will you identity the quality difference between different brands Yes _ No Q8. Does packaging affect the brand image of a product? Yes _ No Yes _ No Q10.

Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 58 .Q11. How much do you agree that Brand reputation influence to buy product . Q12. Q13 Do u agrees that maintain the product quality build the relationship in b/w Loyal Customer . Effect of brand image on consumer purchasing behavior.(2007). on Clothing: Comparison between China and the UK’s Consumers pp 1– 96. Does brand ambassadors or referral power increase its brands image and customer loyalty . Tam. How much do you agree that product and its performance create the Good brand Image . BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Q14. keung. Do low quality and less offers prices increase the brand image . kwok. Q15.

Ling. Xuemei. The Impact of Brand Awareness on Consumer Purchase Intention the Mediating Effect of Perceived Quality and Brand Loyalty pp 1– 10 3. Chedi. BRAND IMAGE AND LOYALTY: A STUDY IN A BUSINESS-TOBUSINESS context. pp 1-14. Moore. The impact of brand on Thai female consumer in purchase decision of foreign makeup product pp 1-64. Hong. The role of brand image. pp 1-13. Does brand image or taste have more influence on consumer preference for energy drinks. product involvement. 9. Exploring the impact of brand image on customer loyalty and commitment in china. The Impact of Brand Equity on Purchase Intention and Brand Preference-the Moderating Effects of Country of Origin image. (2009). (2009). Venkat. 12. Ogba. IMPACT OF CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE ON SATISFACTION. Kuang. Charlene. Khaled. Fa. pp 1-7 Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 59 . 6. R. Ramesh. Bian.2. (2011). Nan. (2009). 5. Ponbamrungwong. chi Hsin. (2009). The Effect of Familiar Brand Names on Consumer Behavior: A Jordanian perspective. Ike-Elechi. Consumer Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction in Apparel Online Shopping at the Product-Receiving Stage: The Effects of Brand Image and product performance pp 1 – 172. 8. The Effect of Brand Image and Product Knowledge on Purchase Intention Moderated by Price Discount. Marti. Matthew. (2008). and knowledge in explaining consumer purchase behavior of counterfeits Direct and indirect effects pp 1 – 26. Lin. (2009). Casadesus. Lin. pp 1-25. 11. Hsiao. Khasawneh. The influence of brand preference on brand image transfer A research on brand event congruity in sponsorships pp 1-30 7. 10. pp 1-26. (2007). (2007). (2007). pp 1-12 4. (2010). Anantaya.

On purchase intention. pp 1-18 14. M. pp 1-172 17. (2004). pp 1-30. (2011). pp 1-126 16. The influence of advertising endorser. abhandlung. Ogba. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 60 . Chi. (2008). Han. The Effect of the congruence between brand personality and self-image on consumers satisfaction and loyalty: A conceptual framework. and other Search Attributes 15. Kambiz. (2007). Achouri. Ike. Stephenl. The Effect of brand image and perceived public relation on consumer loyalty. Oliver. Israel. (1996). Alexandru. Elechi. Heidarzadeh. (2010). pp 1-10 24. Price Promotion. brand Image. The effect of Band image on Overall satisfaction and loyalty intention in the context of color cosmetic. Measuring the joint effect of brand and country image in consumer evaluation of global Products. (2007). Hanzaee. Dr.13. Impact of brand identity on perceived brand image of the nelson mandela metropolitan university. Mohamed. Image effects: How brand images change consumer’s product ratings. Wardi. The effect of brand image and product performance. Exploring the impact of brand image on customers loyalty and commitment in china. pp 1-26 22. ling. (2008). The Effects of Brand Name. (2006). Ying. Ali. Rajeev. The Situational impact of brand image beliefs. (1996). pp 1-16 23. SondohJr. l Nebenzah. Brand Equity. Degeratu. pp 1-95 18. Hsiao. D. Effect of brand image in acquiring sponsors Case: Floorabal club espoon Oilers. pp -1-13 20. (2010). pp 21. (2009). Hsin. Kuang. Erlangung.The Mediating Effect of Advertising Endorser. Price. Lin. Batra. pp 1-263 19. zur.

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