Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of

Technology
A Project on
“Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited,
In Tomato Ketchup Category”

Submitted to: Faculty of Management Sciences
In Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (M.B.A)
Under the Supervision of:
Miss. Ayesha Shaikh
Submitted By:
Junaid Shehzad
Student ID: 4813
Majors: Marketing
Year - 2012
Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 1

CERTIFICATE
I am pleased to certify that Mr. Junaid Shehzad S/o Muhammad
Hanif has satisfactorily carried out a research work, under my
supervision on the topic of
“Effect of Brand Image on
Consumer Buying Behavior : A case study of Shangrila
Private Limited, in Tomato Ketchup Category”.

I further certify that his distinctive original research and his thesis
is worthy of presentation to the Department of Marketing, Faculty
of Management Sciences, Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of
Technology (KASBIT) for the degree of MBA majors in Marketing.

Ms. Ayesha Shaikh
Lecturer

Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 2

Table of Contents
List of Table

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List of Figures

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Dedication

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Acknowledgements

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Abstract

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5

6

7

9

Chapter

1

Introduction…….…………………………………………….

…………. 10
1.1. Background
1.2.

………….…………………………………………….………… 11
Statement

of

the

problem

…...............................................................................11
1.3. Research objective ……….……………………………………….……………...…..
12
1.4. Research Model

…..…………………………………………………………..…. 15

1.5. Research significance ………...……………………………………………….….….
17

Chapter 2 – Literature Review ……….
……………………………………. 18
2.1: Brand Image.
............................................................................................. 19
Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 3

4: Research scope and limitations ……….2: Brand Attitude.5: Customer Loyalty ………………………………………………………………….….2. 29 3. Results/Findings & Discussions ………… 30 4.4: EKB Model ………………………………………………………………….3: Purchase Intention…………….……………………………………….. Analysis of sample characteristics & demographics ……….……………………………………………….1. 20 2.2: Sampling ………………………………………………………..2.. 22 2.…….…………………………………………….1: Research design ………………………………………………………… 28 3.3: Data collection instruments ………..………………… 30 4. 24 2.………………………... ……………. 29 3.. 25 Chapter 3 – Research Methodology …………………………………… 27 3..……………………….… 36 Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 4 . Different test ………. 29 Chapter 4 – Data Analysis..………………………………………………………………..

. ……….Chapter 5 – Conclusions …………………………………………………..Reliability Statistics Table 2: – Z Test for Brand Image and Consumer Buying Behavior Table 3: – Z Test for Product Quality Table 4 :– Z Test for Product Knowledge Table 5: – Z Test for Loyalty Intention Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 5 . 47 Chapter 6 – Recommendations ………………………………………… 53 Appendix / …………………………………………….………………………………….56 Bibliography Annexes ……….…………………… 58 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: ...

Market Share with Gender Figure 6: Importance of Brand Image Figure 7: Importance of Low Quality Brand Image Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 6 .LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Gender Demographics Figure 2: Demographics Gender Age Scale Figure 3: Demographics Consumption Segmentation Figure 4: Shangrila Brand Choice. Market Share Figure 5: Shangrila Brand Choice.

Figure 8: Importance of Product Knowledge DEDICATION “My Beloved Family & Especially to My Lovely Mother” (Late) Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 7 .

B. I would like to thank my project supervisor Ms.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Words are short to thanks & acknowledge many important peoples whose shore up was precious throughout the project process. Also thanks to my university friends. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 8 . They were also always helpful and guided me through every stage of the project requirement formalities that had to fulfill. for her guidance. wisdom. which smooth my learning process. Ayesha Shaikh. in my view. The support and cooperation of the staff of M. First.A Program in Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of Technology (KASBIT) absolutely has done their great jobs. group members who supported me to achieve all goals of MBA degree. and assistance in all phases of the project.

Does the Brand Image really give a competitive advantage to an industry by making standout from its competitors? Does it be use as marketing tool for promotion/attraction? This major factor will identify in this case study. Is consumer likely to buy branded products considering the brand image either it is more expensive. which caused to purchase by the consumers. I would like to thanks to My Family members specially pray for my Mother May Allah TabarakWatallah give her place in his paradise. identify that the brand image really plays a role to attract the suspect and prospect customers. switch to others brand on Brand perception. My Mother always encouraged me to go forward and accomplished this task successfully. or image? In addition. Is brand image can change the consumer choice. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 9 . which will fulfill my carrier path. They were always stand for me in order to encourage me in all my work and same as my Teacher (Ms. Ayesha Sheikh) ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior. My all-family member’s blessings have always led to me to the path of success and achievement. or opposite it most of the cases consumers switch to others brand due to increasing the prices impact or out of budgeting.In the end.

The dependency of the successful business is totally on their loyal customer satisfaction in terms of fulfillment of their desire need and demands. middle upper class. This growth becomes the industrial growth which is reflects to the national growth. This industrial sector is playing a major role in today’s business environment and the economy because this is concern about every individual citizen’s daily consumption goods for middle.The study will examine the case of Brand Image of Shangrila Private Limited. discuss the process it followed and discover features and benefits of this approach. The FMCG industry meant for daily consumption of goods. It’s producing the Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 10 . Today’s majors firms are frequently focusing on the understanding the customers and consumers desire needs and trying to fetch prospect customers. One of the highest contributed industries in an economy is FMCG industry. Products quality. of the country. The firms sustain their loyal customers and overcome the challenge for the continued existence and growth. and satisfaction of the customers. CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION The boundless opportunity in the worldwide market throughout the competitive advantages services.

and Apple flavors. Juices. One of the Leading brand Shangrila surviving since last two decades and dealing in Foodstuff category of FMCG Industry. Shampoo. dinner. etc. Ready Meal (Fast Foods). Shangrila brands deal in the foodstuff for cooking and snacks refreshment juices. Orange. currently the competition in multinational and national firms in Pakistan are involves to provide their better services and products and continues service improvement to their customers desired needs and wants. Ketchup. Chilli Sauce. Pickles. Bath Soap. Seasons. Here all above products on going products and firms are enjoying their highest volumes of business in the Pakistan. Sauces. Peach. Bakers. General items. Vinegar. and Seasoning deal in Bar B. Seasonings. and Juices and its variant is Sauces deal in Soy Sauce. Burger. Imli Ginger Sauce. Third one Ketchup and Pickles has a vast range in their SKUs. Pickles. The product category in contained on Sauces. Drinks. The price offering of each product almost similar or litter mid differ with their competitors. Garlic Chilli Sauce.1 BACKGROUND The FMCG stand for “Fast Moving Consumer Goods” and it’s contained numerous sectors like Food Stuff. 1. and Tomato Ketchup. Guava. Tooth Paste. The Brand Image has found in the literature to be a competitive tool for many companies and their perception and brand image. lunch. or refreshment i.e. The target market of Shangrila is households and Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 11 .ready meals or others products to use faster like you can easily have meal in breakfast.Q Sauce. Confectionary. Juices produce in Mango. soft drinks.

women are under 18-30 ages. Juices category targeting to the teenagers. health conscious peoples.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The research’s primary aim is to establish how Brand Image Effect to the Consumer Buying Behavior Patterns in the FMCG sector. and under 16 to 25 ages.  Determine the relationship between the product quality & effect on consumer buying behavior. The specific research objectives are:  Determine the relationship between strong brand image & the effect on consumer purchase intention & behavior. research methodologies and data collection methods and methods of analysis would be most appropriate to research the problem in question. 1.  Determine the positive relationship between satisfaction and loyalty intention. This objective implies Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 12 .2 PROBLEM STATEMENT The problem statement formulated for the research is.  To investigate which research paradigms. 1.  Determine the relationship between the high product knowledge decreases the effect of brand image. “To determine whether the brand image of product has an impact on the consumer decision making and buying behavior.

that the appropriate overall research design for the study must be determined. of the Shangrila Brand identity need to addressed to enhance the image of the institution. In short. Brand Image conveys emotional value and not just a mental Image. It is the manner in which a specific brand positioning in the market. slogan-describing organization’s business in brief and brand identifier supporting the key values.  To make recommendations regarding which dimensions. It can define as a unique bundle of associations within the minds of target customers. This objective requires an in-depth analysis of secondary sources dealing with brand identity. It is an accumulation of contact and observation by people external to an organization. brand image and related concepts. Brand image is the current view of the customers about a brand.  To source primary data to gauge the opinions of stakeholders perceived Shangrila Brand Image. if any. Brand Image is nothing but an organization’s character. as shaped by brand identity.  To construct (design) a research instrument that will canvass the opinions of stakeholders of the perceived brand image of the Shangrila. it is nothing but the consumers’ perception about the product. Based on Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 13 . It should highlight an organization’s mission and vision to all. It signifies what the brand presently stands for. Consumers develop various associations with the brand. Brand image is the overall impression in consumers’ mind that formed from all sources. It is a set of beliefs held about a specific brand. The main elements of positive brand image are unique logo reflecting organization’s image.  To analyze the data and report on possible disparities (“Gaps”) between the expectations linked to the Shangrila brand image and the actual experience of this brand.

There are three types of benefits: Functional benefits what do you do better (than others) do. but is automatically formed.why do I believe you (more than others). Brand image is actually brand content. Brand attributes are consumers overall assessment of a brand. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 14 .how do you make me feel better (than others). Brand Image has not to be created. unique and instant. word of mouth publicity. ease of use. etc. fame. The brand image includes products' appeal. and overall value. benefits and attributes. The idea behind brand image is that the consumer is not purchasing just the product/service but also the image associated with that product/service. Brand image is the objective and mental feedback of the consumers when they purchase a product. The brand image consists of various associations in consumers’ mind attributes. they form brand image. packaging.these associations. When the consumers purchase the product. emotional benefits . Brand Images can be strengthened using brand communications like advertising. Brand Images should be positive. Toyota is associated with reliability. Brand Image develops and conveys the product’s character in a unique manner different from its competitor’s image. They can be specific or conceptual benefits are the rationale for the purchase decision. Brand Attributes are the functional and mental connections with the brand that the customers have. and rational benefits/support . An image is formed about the brand based on subjective perceptions of association’s bundle that the consumers have about the brand Volvo is associated with safety. functionality. other promotional tools. they are also purchasing its image.

Positive brand image is exceeding the customers’ expectations. “Brand image” is the customer’s net extract from the brand.4 RESEARCH MODEL To achieve the research objectives. To sum up. Positive brand image enhances the goodwill and brand value of an organization. 1. the following research model have been developed: Independent Variables Brand Image Reputation Relevance Performance Product Knowledge Promotions Price discount Dependent Variables Consumer Loyalty Consumer Buying Behavior Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 15 .

CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE RESEARCH MODEL Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 16 . H2: Different brand images lead to differ product quality things.The following hypotheses have developed to test the relationships between the dependent and independent variables: H1: There is a relationship between positive Brand Image and consistent consumer Buying Behavior. H4: There is a positive relationship between satisfaction and loyalty Intention FIGURE: 1. H3: High product knowledge decreases the effect of brand images.

Product knowledge. and senses of belongingness towards brands of any kind but sometimes customers themselves are unaware of the reasons for the brand preferences. Purchase intention. Therefore. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 17 . loyalty.1. businesses have to develop different strategies in order to survive in long run. Satisfaction. the only constant is change. This competitive environment caused brand consciousness among subscribers and potential buyers.5 RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE As recent era of business industry is the one of in FMCG the dominant industry for the last decades comparing others industry in the worlds although the similarly this industry has a competition in the nationwide. In the contemporary environment. Researches show that numerous factors impart in creating the awareness. One of the best strategies is about creating the best brand image in considering the consumers mind that ensure a long-term growth of business.

1998). CHAPTER 2 . "a successful brand image enables consumers to identify the needs that the brand satisfies and to differentiate the brand from its competitors. would definitely gain a better position in the market. The main purpose of this research study is to investigate the key variables that are having strong influence on customer satisfaction in foodstuff manufacturer sector and influence purchasing decision of customers. Although the result will be beneficial for the organization to make an action plan throughout the competitive strategy for the competitor in terms of knowledge how brand becomes more attractive. A company or its product services. brand equity Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 18 . Jaworski. which is influence to move the brand choice to reduce the turnover rate. Koo. sustainable competitive advantage. In addition. and consequently increases the likelihood that consumers will purchase the brand" (p. & MacInnis. 2003. several empirical findings have confirmed that a favorable image (i. and Setiono (2004).Currently the organizations are striving to retaining their customers and constantly finding the caused ways to enter the customer mind and their black box. 2000. Since satisfied customer is the core concern of any organization.LITERATURE REVIEW According to Hsieh. Pan. which is influence to buy their branded products. Nguyen & LeBlanc. store/retail) will lead to loyalty (e. 252).g. Kandampully & Suhartanto. and increase market share or performance (Park. which constantly holds a favorable image by the public. therefore they pay close attention toward the factors that influence a customer’s decision towards brand. Shangrila private limited will gain this research objective and will found the causes. This is research helps to identity the factors. 1986). brand.e.

it considered a perception about a brand as reflected by the brand associations held in consumers' memory. embellished. brand benefits values (i.. Koo. He suggested. and impression that a person holds regarding an object" (p. 2. Reynolds (1965) noted that "an image is the mental construct developed by the consumer on the basis of a few selected impressions among the flood of the total impressions. Faircloth et al. 1993). 2003. and overall brand attitudes. Hsieh et al. 2004.e. Roth. 8). Bhat & Reddy. Kandampully & Suhartanto. 1995. 1991. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 19 . purchase behavior (Hsieh et al. & Alford. 1995). 3) A Similar definition to Keller's was proposed by Aaker (1991). whereby brand image is referred to as "a set of associations. Aaker.(Faircloth. Keller (1993) considered brand image as "a set of perceptions about a brand as reflected by brand associations in consumer's memory" (p. On the other hand. Kotler (2001) defined image as "the set of beliefs... 2001. Measuring image based on the above definition would help marketers to identify the strengths and weaknesses of their brand as well as consumers' perceptions toward their product or services. Zooming into Keller's (1993) conceptualization of brand image. Biel (1992) however defined brand image as "a cluster of attributes and associations that consumers connect to the brand name" (p. 1984. brand benefits.1 : Brand Image Brand image has conceptualized and operationalized in several ways (Reynolds & Gutman. Biel.. 1998). 2001). Capella. 273). 2000). Faircloth et al. "brand associations” comprise of brand attributes. usually organized in some meaningful way" (p. or using Malhotra's (1981) brand image scale (i.e.e. Keller. It has been measured based on attributes (i. 69). 2004) and brand performance (Roth. and ordered" (p. 109). it comes into being through a creative process in which these selected impressions are elaborated. 1992. ideas. 2001).

these is considered "the personal value consumers attach to the product or service attributes – that is.e. experiential and symbolic benefits. price. attributes are "descriptive features that characterized a product or service – what a consumer thought the product or service is or has and what is involved with its purchase or consumption". Here. 4). As for benefits. experiential benefits refer to "what it felt like to use the product or services and usually correspond to the product related attributes". what consumers think the product or service can do for them" (p. packaging or product appearance information. (1986). while symbolic benefits were associated with the underlying needs for social approval or personal expression and outer-directed self-esteem and corresponded to non-product related attributes. For example. the functional benefits are related to the intrinsic advantages of product or services consumption and usually correspond to the product related attributes.To Keller (1993).2 Brand Attitude Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 20 . Product-related attributes refer to the ingredients necessary for performing the product or service function sought by consumers while non product-related attributes refer to the external aspects of the product or services that relate to its purchase or consumption. 2. user and usage imagery). Keller (1993) described that this image benefits can be classified into functional. Attributes can classified into product-related attributes and non product-related attributes (i. which was originally derived from the work of Park et al.

1993a. 2006). brand identity precedes brand image. so do image effects occur in different persuasive contexts: not only at consuming goods. it is very important to understand the development of image formation and its consequences such as satisfaction and loyalty.For brand attitude. which is the modified conceptual model supporting this research. 1991). 1993. The focus of my dissertation is on the appearance of image effects in the domain of consumer psychology. 1990. 1963. b). or when charitable donations are given to humanitarian. 2007). Therefore. 1955. Keller (1993) referred to Wilkie's (1986) definition of brands Attitudes which was "consumers' overall evaluations of a brand" (p. Based on the views of Kapferer (2004:98). Keller (1993a. nongovernmental organizations (Morf. But just as stereotypes prevail in a variety of social situations. Dobni and Zinkhan. and providing a basis for extensions (Aaker. Creating and maintaining image of the brand is an important part of a firm's marketing Program (Roth. Martinez and Pina. 4). The influence of the independent variables on brand identity and its shaping of brand image. Aaker. differentiating the brand. 1995) and branding strategy (Keller. 2003). A widely accepted view is that brand image represents customers’ perceptions of a brand as reflected by the brand associations held in consumer memory (Herzog. gives positive feelings. but also in times of elections. image can generate value in terms of helping customer to process Information.Overall. Brand image represents an important aspect of marketing activities. Keller. branding and market offering with varied definition and approaches to its conceptualization (Burleigh and Sidney. when the “products” of political parties are rated by voters (Keller. 1991). generating reasons to buy. b) argued that these associations could originate from Customers direct experience or from information obtained on a market Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 21 .

features or the actual product itself. advertisements. 1990. Keller and Davey. therefore. Thus. 2001). brand image does not exist in the technology. a positive brand image may make up for an inferior image of the origin country and raise the possibility of the product being selected Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 22 . and obtain certain experience and satisfaction out of product differentiation. or users. but is something brought out by promotions.offering or due to the impact a pre-existing association with an organization had on consumer. the mental picture or perception of a brand or a branded product or service and includes symbolic meanings that consumers associate with the specific attributes of a product or service (Dobni and Zinkhan. and is used to distinguish one’s products and services from competitors. 352) a set of beliefs held by customers about a particular brand. which creates a positive effect indicating approval. 1997. Where perceived quality refers to the customer’s Perception of the overall quality or superiority of a product or service with respect to its intended purpose. Nike adopts a check mark as its brand image. and customer satisfaction (Aaker. Garcia Rodriguez and Bergantinos. 1994. consumers are able to recognize a product. 2001). 1988. 2000. based upon some intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of a market offering resulting to perceived quality. How much is a brand worth? How does a brand represent the product? Kotler (2000) contends that brand is a name. Brand image is. symbol. 2004). p. Padgett and Allen. term. Aperia and Back. Keller (1993) defines a brand image as an association or perception consumers make based on their memory toward a product. relative to alternatives (Zeithaml. 1991. When it comes to experiential product evaluation. Through brand image. lower purchase risks. design or all the above. For example. Aaker. evaluate the quality. Brand image represents “the reasoned or emotional perceptions consumers attach to specific brands” (Low and Lamb.

stimulate desires. Rao and Monroe (1988) also support this argument. According to Grewal. A brand with a more positive image does have the effect of lowering consumer products perception risks and increasing positive feedback from the consumers. Consumers respond to the incentive of saving when they see products are being sale at a lower price. and increase their purchase intention. consumers generally believe they can make a satisfying purchase by choosing well-known brands and lower any purchase risks by doing so. To counter fierce competition. 2000). the better a brand image is. and Borin (1998). 1997). Baker. maintain consumer loyalty and raise sales volume (Pride and Ferrell. McCarthy and Perreault (1984) think promotion is different from advertisement or public report and eventually can stir up interest or intention among (potential) buyers to make a purchase. businesses often use promotions to stimulate purchase intention and increase sales.3 Purchase Intention Consumers are usually limited in regards to the amount of time and product knowledge to make an informed purchase decision when facing similar products to choose from as a result. Kotler (2000) considers that promotion is a combination of various incentives to stimulate consumers or retailers to stir up immediate purchasing reaction toward a product or service within a short time period.(Thakor and Katsanis. 1994). brand image is often used as an extrinsic cue to make a purchase decision (Richardson. the more Recognition consumers give to its product quality. Since consumers usually make an immediate purchase. the more response it Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 23 . Therefore. 2. the greater the promotion is. promotion aims to create product exposure. when being reduced by economic incentives. Krishnan. Thus. Akaah and Korgaonkar (1988) conclude that consumers are more likely to purchase well-known brand products with positive brand image as a way to lower purchase risks. Dick and Jain.

When the amount of information reaches a certain level. Price discount may attract consumers to try out different brands. 2. 1975). To sum up. price discounts may attract consumers with economic incentives. is a process used to evaluate consumers’ decision making. and has been prove a key factor to predict consumer behavior (Fishbein and Ajzen. including recognition of a problem. information gathering.generates. but may expose them to inferior products with lower quality.4 EKB Model The EKB model. developed by Engel. after the promotion is over price discount may also lower the purchase intention because of associating price discount with lower quality. which in the end will write off the benefit of the sales increase (Raghubir and Corfman. Purchase intention means a subjective inclination consumers have towards a certain product. they are likely to choose promotional items. Prior to purchasing. Therefore. The Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 24 . Tybout. 1999). solution evaluation. however. and Sternthal (1978) have proven that when facing various brand products with similar functions and qualities. promotional items usually end up selling better and even attract loyal consumers of other brands. Dodson. When consumers are presenting with great incentives. The model stresses that consumer behavior is a continuing process. This indicates promotion has great incentive values. purchase intention is often use to analyze consumer behavior in related studies. consumers begin by collecting product information based on personal experience and external environment. and decision making. consumers start the assessment and evaluation process. Kollat and Blackwell (1984). and make a purchase decision after comparison and judgment.

Consumers’ increase of product familiarity (Johnson and Russo. information gathering and environmental stimulation are two crucial influential factors in the final decision making. a retailer. 3. brand. In fact. timing. 2006) and by 5% increases in Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 25 . Real customer’s commitment is established when he/she is motivate to purchase without any encouragement.5 Customer Loyalty Richard Oliver (1977) defines loyalty as: “it is a strong commitment to superior services or goods repurchase in future to acquire the same brand despite of marketing efforts by potential rivals and their impacts (Hamidizadeh and Ghamkhary. Loyal customer does not only focus on prices but also he/she acts like a fan of organization and. These factors include choosing a product. as a result. customer’s commitment is the outcome of an organization. consumer behavior occurs when consumers are stimulating by external factors and come to a purchase decision based on their personal Characteristics and decision making process. environment. 1999). 2. This relationship established if parties feel that there are special advantages for them and they can attract each other like two poles. This definition may be limited. we can examine the following factors that may affect purchase intention: 1. Likewise.process is also affected by both internal and external factors like information input. Among these factors. general motives. Price discount (Alford and Biswas. etc. which creates advantages for customers so that they keep on increasing their purchase from the same organization. 1984). This means consumers’ purchasing behavior affected by their choice of product and brand. 2. 2009). information process. Thus. helps to attract new customers (Zare. Product characteristics are relates to product knowledge (Sultan. 2008). 2002). the cost to acquire a new customer is 15 times of retaining an existing customer (Fahimi. and quantity. According to Kotler (2000).

1993). memorize and become accustomed to them (Keller. customer’s satisfaction grows and the value of relations will increase among parties. Kim et al (2008) findings on affecting factors on customers’ view in hospitals indicate that such factors as customer satisfaction. 2009). Customer’s conception Brand image is established when consumers develop ideas. it uses any relation as an opportunity to establish loyalty.customers’ loyalty. 2009). At the outset. Findings of Sirdeshmukh et al (2002) indicate that customer’s value is a key affecting factor on customers’ loyalty in airlines. the organization has one customer and protects him/her by respect and mediation. With regard to customer’s loyalty. the profit increases 25 – 85 percent (Hamidizadeh and Ghamkhary. communicational commitments and confidence have a remarkable impact on brand loyalty and awareness and a positive impact on customer’s view to hospital. Churchill (1997) states that brand loyalty are customer’s preference to buy a certain brand. Then. Figure 2 outlines conceptual model and hypotheses of present study. the goal is to enhance the relationship between customer and organization in the condition of passing different steps of managing the relations with customer. which leads customer to loyalty enhancement. Jaccobi et al (1974) state that brand loyalty differ from brand habit or view though these can determine brand loyalty in next steps. If organization continues to meet customer’s needs and to provide its services in a manner which motivates permanent demand. their purchase intention will be determined based on Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 26 . feelings and expectations towards certain brands as they learn. They support Holbrook (1994) who said customer’s value is a fundamental base for marketing activities. When consumers are considering purchasing a product. one should initially have an image of the customer. Hence. then a bilateral value will be established and the final target namely customer’s dependency or strategic management of relations with customer will be achievable (Colwell et al. This is the same thing. To acquire customers’ loyalty.

when consumers benefit more from purchasing the brand product than the price paid. The questionnaire will predominantly consist of closed ended questions to save the time of respondents and ensure a high response rate. and consequently on the Consumer Purchase Behavior in the FMCG sector.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The nature of the research is descriptive since the objective of conducting the research project is to determine what impact do each of the determinants of brand loyalty identified in the theoretical framework have on Brand Loyalty. additionally. Since the nature of research is descriptive. Aaker and Keller’s (1990) research discovers that a brand with positive image improves consumer loyalty and trust and strengthens consumers’ purchase intention. The data gathered will be both quantitative and qualitative in nature. they survey method will be employed for data collection. they are likely to have higher perception of value (Monroe. When consumers have a higher opinion on the quality of a certain brand product. they are more likely to make the purchase (Dickson and Sawyer. survey based questionnaires will be used as the primary tool for data collection. which is used to collect data from the relevant unit of analysis Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 27 . 1990).the perception of its value given by its brand. 1990). Brand image no doubt remains an important cue during the process of consumers’ purchase decision making. CHAPTER 3 . It usually depends upon the use of a well-constructed questionnaire. The central objective of survey design is to search for relationships between variables. Specifically.

an individual. By adopting the convenience sampling approach. The major advantage of cross-sectional research is that data can be collected on many different kinds of people in a relatively short time period. this study does not attempt to examine trends. a period long enough to collect data from all of the participants selected to be in the study). 3. For the purpose of this study. and furthermore. relatively brief time period (i. RESEARCH DESIGN As specified earlier. data are collected from the research participants at a single point in time or during a single. Brand and Corporate Image.under study. the nature of the research is descriptive. interview sessions will also be conducted with the Marketing and Product Development Department of Shangrila. usually. and for ease of purpose will be cross sectional and not longitudinal in nature.e. the sample size determined for the research is 100 Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 28 .. Thus this research can depict the relationship(s) of certain variables of Service Quality. In crosssectional research. Since the research is consumer centric. a cross sectional study is the appropriate technique as opposed to a longitudinal study due to time constraints. Customer Satisfaction.1. the survey based questionnaires will be circulated amongst the users of tomato ketchup of Shangrila brand in Karachi. The population for the research includes both male and female users of the Tomato Ketchup of Shangrila brand in Pakistan. To supplement the quantitative data collected via the questionnaires. and CRM Strategies.

DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 29 . convenience sampling involves collecting information from members of the population who are conveniently available to provide this information. 3. 3. Convenience sampling is one of the nonprobability sampling designs that are being used in this research. process or technique of selecting a suitable sample. As its name implies.3. The sampling units selected for analysis are both Male and Female user of Tomato Ketchup customers in Karachi. or a representative put of a population for the purpose of determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population. As its name impulse. Convenience sampling is one of the non-probability sampling designs that are being use in this research. In addition.2. Statistical Tests including probability based z and t tests will be performed on the data collected. SAMPLING Sampling is the act.respondents residing in Karachi. convenience sampling involves collecting information from members of the population who are conveniently available to provide this information. The rating based questions in the survey will utilize an ordinal scale. with higher numbers coded to represent higher values. The sampling units selected for analysis are both male and female Tomato Ketchup consumers specially those who uses Shangrila Tomato Ketchup. descriptive statistical measures such as measures of central tendency will be use to report and analyze overall trends discovered through the research study.

RESULTS/FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS The captioned chapter is concerned with working on analysis of the data collection that have been taken from the survey through questionnaires. For ease in research and time constraints. Due to time and budget limitation. Following the testing interpretations has been provided for each hypothesis. the research will be conducted only in Karachi and therefore the result may be skewed and not hundred percent applicable to other cities. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 30 . To overcome these limitations.The nature of research is descriptive survey based questionnaire have been used as a primary tool for data collection from a sample size of 100 participant. and the sample will comprise on females with sample size 100 primarily between the ages of eighteen to fifty. RESEARCH SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS The Brand selected for the research study is Shangrila Brand Image and customer loyalty and Buying Behavior will be analyzed. Geographic and demographic limitations of the research will have a slight impact on the results obtained and research findings quoted in the study. convenience sampling has been adopted.4. Statistical test has been applied on the data that was collected to either except or reject the null or alternative hypothesis that were develop for the research project. 3. CHAPTER 4 – DATA ANALYSIS. extensive secondary research will be used to provide a global context to the research.

employment status. age. race.4. Commonly examined demographics include gender. These types of data are used widely in sociology (and especially in the subfield of demography). and even location. Demographics are about the population of a region and the culture of the people. disabilities. The sample size of survey questionnaire is 100. Both distributions and trends of values within a demographic variable are of interest. race and ethnicity. The five types of demographics for marketing are age. Once these profiles are constructed.1 ANALYSIS OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS AND DEMOGRAPHICS Demographics are the most contemporary statistical characteristics of a population. they can be used to develop a marketing strategy and marketing plan. which include males and females. mobility. income level. secondly to create a clear and complete picture of the characteristics of a typical member of each segment. the average age of a population may increase or decrease over time). FIGURE 1: GENDER DEMOGRAPHICS Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 31 . Researchers typically have two objectives in this regard: first to determine what segments or subgroups exist in the overall population. and marketing. Demographic trends describe the historical changes in demographics in a population over time (for example. gender. home ownership. public policy.

Demogeraphic _Total of Gender Female 35 35% Male Female Male 65 65% The captioned chart is describing the gender analysis of males and Females. which is (65% Males and 35% Females). FIGURE 2: DEMOGRAPHICS GENDER AGE SCALE Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 32 .

Males have contributed 65% and females contributes 35% share of the survey. FIGURE 3: DEMOGRAPHICS CONSUMPTION SEGMENTATION Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 33 . the most participative in the ages of 21 years to 30 years.70 65 60 53 50 40 35 Male 30 Female 27 20 10 7 8 0 21 To 30 Years 31 To 40 Years 5 0 41 To 50 Years Total Age of gender This chart is presenting the age scale of Male and Female participant of the survey.

FIGURE 4: SHANGRILA BRAND CHOICE. However. the highest ranking of the male is weekly basis. 65 Gender 35 1 Never0 20 Occasionally 17 Female Male 14 Monthly 5 21 Weekly 5 9 8 Daily 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 The cumulative male and female data is describing that the mostly consumers of the Tomato Ketchup are consumes occasionally.The customers in different ages who are consume Tomato Ketchup in different occasions. It means there is a number of gender isolation in the usage of Tomato Ketchup. Here is statically defined demographics consumption segmentation chart of the Tomato Ketchup consumption segment. MARKET SHARE Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 34 .

1% Mitchels.Knorr. 45% Shangrila National National. 5% Others. 17% Shangrila . Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 35 . 32% Mitchels Knorr Others The total market share of the Shangrila is 45% as per the marked responded which is highest market share contribution in the competition in the market.

FIGURE 5: SHANGRILA BRAND CHOICE. 4.2 DIFFERENCT TEST Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 36 . MARKET SHARE WITH GENDER 30 25 24 23 21 20 Male 15 Femal 12 10 9 5 5 5 1 0 Shangrla National Mitchels Knorr0 0 Others The gender wise market share of the Shangrila described that the market share of Shangrila is grater then others brands.

Theoretically the value of alpha is varies from 0 to 1. If the value of the constant lies between 0 and 1. The value of Cronbach’s alpha is 0. the data collected is considered to be reliable and accurate which would in turn lead to reliable test results and effective recommendations to be made from the research. we can use the one–independent sample z test.857 11 The Cronbach’s Alpha is the coefficient of reliability. Before performing the statistical analysis of the data gathered.879 . Now the statistical analysis on the data can be performed with a high degree of accuracy and the reliability of results. The one–independent sample z test is a statistical procedure used to test hypotheses concerning the mean in a single population with a known variance.854. The following table shows the calculations for the Cronbach’s alpha constant and reveals that since the value is between 0 and 1. which shows the pretty higher reliability of the results. The z test of hypothesis for the mean follows the following formula and notations: Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 37 . the data collected through the questionnaires is reliable and valid and that there are no discrepancies involved in it.When we know the mean and standard deviation in a single population.RELIABILITY STATISTICS Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items . it is important to determine the reliability of the data by calculating the Cronbach’s alpha constant. TABLE 1 .

314466038 Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 38 . This test is the relationship between Positive Brand Image and consistently consumer buying behavior.05 0. TABLE 2: Z Test for Brand Image and Consumer Buying Behavior Data Null Hypothesis = Level of Significance Population Standard Deviation 1. It means that the brand images doesn’t go well and its reputation is not consider as positive image in that market so would you like to purchase it (YES. No). Ho: Positive Brand Image has no impact on consumer buying behavior Ha: Positive Brand Image has impact on consumer buying behavior The Question is asking to the respondents that If Brand Image/Product Price/Reputation/Performance does not go well will you buy it.5 0.H1: There is a relationship between positive Brand Image and consistent consumer buying behavior.

Sample Size
Sample Mean

100
0.11

Intermediate Calculations
Standard Error of the
Mean
0.031446604
Z Test Statistic
-44.2019116
Upper-Tail Test
Upper Critical Value
p-Value
Reject the null
hypothesis

1.644853627
0.04

Since the p value calculated is less than 5% for the calculated sample mean
and population standard deviation, and the z test statistic lies in the rejection
region, the null hypothesis has rejected.
This implies that positive brand image and reputation is positively
related in creating a consistently consumer buying behavior.

FIGURE: 6. IMPORTANCE OF BRAND IMAGE

Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 39

31
No
55

4
Yes
9

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

The figure represents the result from survey questionnaire, which has the
sample size 100. The blue color shows the male responded answer and red
color shows the answer of Female.
The result depict that that 86% of the responded replied and agree to shift
from those brand who are going not well and their reputation considering
negative image.
It obviously is evidence for that the respondents agree that if the brand image
and its reputation does not go well so they will not go to buy this products.
The main objective of the consumer to buy product is product quality and its
prices and reputation. It has asked to the responded that the brand quality
and its reputation is not considering in good brand as compare to the product
competitors. The above figures represent the answer of the responded is No.
it means that the result represent the desire of the consumers that they will
not desire to buy this products.
H2: Different brand images lead to Differ product quality things.
The test shows the relation between the brand image of Shangrila perceived
by the customers and how it influence lead to the product quality things
Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 40

Ho:
Ha:

Brand image has no lead to differ product quality
Brand image has leaded to differ product quality

The question asking to the respondent that, do low quality and less offers
prices increase the brand image? It means that a brand reduces their product
quality and offers low prices as compare to their competitors so the brand
image will increase do you (strongly Agree, Agree, Agree Neither Disagree,
Disagree, Strongly Disagree).
TABLE 3: Z Test for Product Quality
Data
Null Hypothesis
=
Level of Significance
Population Standard
Deviation
Sample Size
Sample Mean

3
0.05
1.333749935
100
3.17

Intermediate Calculations
Standard Error of the Mean
0.133374993
Z Test Statistic
1.274601749
Upper-Tail Test
Upper Critical Value
p-Value
Reject the null
hypothesis

1.644853627
0.04

Since the p value calculated is less than 5% for the calculated sample mean
and population standard deviation, and the z test statistic lies in the rejection
region, the null hypothesis has been rejected.

FIGURE: 7. IMPORTANCE OF LOW QUALITY BRAND IMAGE

Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior:
A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 41

This option given to choose those participants who are not confident about the question answer so they have chosen this option that was 21% Male and 17% Female. The total cumulative contribution in the option not agrees that was only 19% Male and 11% females and the total gender is 30% of the survey. As the responded ratio of male is 65% which grater then females. The first option is strongly disagree where as 8% Male rating in survey and 5% females are strongly disagreed. It is middle options who are not agreeing or disagree that was 21% male and 17% female. 11% Male disagree and 7% female disagree. Now let us elaborate above found result of the survey. The dark blue color shows the Male answers and the red color shows the female answers. The last option was agree and strongly agree about that if the product quality reduces with low prices that brand image will Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 42 . Somewhere male rating is high and somewhere female rating higher. which has the sample size 100.Strongly Disagreed Disgreed 8 5 11 7 10 Neither Agreed nor Disagreed Female Agreed Strongly Agreed 0% 4 Male 21 17 15 2 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% The figure depicts the result from survey questionnaire. therefore the result reflects the highest contribution of males which is very dynamics. Here is one option is remain which is agree or neither agree. Secondly.

that the how it is impact on brand image in all the levels of consumer buying behavior. TABLE 4 : Z test for Product Knowledge Data Null Hypothesis = 1.5 Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 43 . This test shows the relationship between the product knowledge with the brand image.lead. It clearly shows that the respondents agree with that the Brand image can lead to differs product quality. H3: High product knowledge decreases the effect of brand images. No. We got the result of last option agree and strongly agree that was 36% Male and 19% Female the cumulative contribution of this answer 55% of total gender which is highly contribution of the result. Ho: Ha: Product knowledge has no impact on Brand image Product knowledge has impact on Brand image The question is asking to the respondents that will you identity the quality difference between different brandsYes.

FIGURE: 8.91 Intermediate Calculations Standard Error of the Mean 0.644853627 0.287623491 100 0.05 0. and the z test statistic lies in the rejection region.51292811 Upper-Tail Test Upper Critical Value p-Value Reject the null hypothesis 1.Level of Significance Population Standard Deviation Sample Size Sample Mean 0.028762349 Z Test Statistic -20. IMPORTANCE OF PORODUCT KNOWLEDGE Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 44 . the null hypothesis has been rejected.04 Since the p value calculated is less than 5% for the calculated sample mean and population standard deviation.

which describes that responded can identify the product quality difference in between others brands. There was 35% females has participant and the 100% females replied that she can identify the product quality with others brands and 57% males also replied that they can identify the difference product quality with other brand although 8% male replied opposite of that but it is very low contribution of this question. H4: There is a positive relationship between satisfaction and loyalty Intention. The total cumulative contribution of the total gender is 92% who are agree that they can identify the product quality difference with others brands. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 45 .Female 35 0 No Yes Male 57 0% 8 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% The figure depicts the result from survey questionnaire. It is clearly shows that the responded has a product knowledge and it will increase the brand image because they have a product knowledge and can identify the produce difference with others brands. The dark blue color shows the option of YES. which has the sample size 100.

5 0.65 Intermediate Calculations Standard Error of the Mean 0. and the z test statistic lies in the rejection region.This test shows the relationship between the consumer satisfactions and his loyalty intention with the brand.05 0.479372485 100 0.04 Since the p value calculated is less than 5% for the calculated sample mean and population standard deviation. This question asks the respondents that Do you switch to others brand if it is provide the promotion and discount. No. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 46 .644853627 0. Ho: Satisfaction has no impact on Loyalty intention. Ha: Satisfaction has impact on Loyalty intention.73151413 Upper-Tail Test Upper Critical Value p-Value Reject the null hypothesis 1. Yes.047937249 Z Test Statistic -17. TABLE 5: Z Test for Loyalty Intention Data Null Hypothesis = Level of Significance Population Standard Deviation Sample Size Sample Mean 1. the null hypothesis has been rejected.

which has the sample size 100. And 28% male replied they will never switch to others band if they are offering some promotional discounts. which describes that the respondents have the rating to switch others brand if its offers the some promotion discount that was the 29% female replied yes out of 36% and 37% male replied yes out of 65% of the total survey participants. The dark blue color shows the option yes. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 47 . It is clearly shows that the respondents will prefer to switch others brand if they will avail promotion discounts.FIGURE: 7. It means there is a positive relationship in between satisfaction of loyalty intention with the brand if they are satisfied then they will grow their loyalty intention with the brands. So the cumulative result that the 66% participant replied to switch others brand if they will switch to others brand if they will offers promotional discount. IMPORTANCE OF LOYALTY INTENTION Female 29 6 No Yes Male 37 0% 10% 20% 30% 28 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% The figure depicts the result from survey questionnaire.

All these factors showed positive relationships with consumer buying behavior. Performance. it was shown that there are five factors of brand loyalty. Reputation. Performance. Product Knowledge. through the questionnaires and the statistical analysis performed. Basically some interesting factors that came to light through the research were the relationship between the overall Brand Image and feelings consumer buying behavior. Overview of the foodstuff Industries in Pakistan. The 1st chapter basically stands as the introduction and the overall information of my topic. Relevance. From the analysis of this study. of M/s Shangrila Brand Image of consumer buying behavior. which are the Brand Image. Promotional Price Discount.CONCLUSIONS This chapter is the conclusion of my research. etc. why consumer behavior is important. Most of the results of the statistical analysis confirmed the existing theories of consumer buying behavior in the product of Tomato Ketchup.CHAPTER 5 . when Shangrila was establish in Pakistan. It can focused on the various sides that can be draw from the data collected. The findings revealed that Brand Image and its reputation. The research showed that it was not easy to identify the factors that are effects on of brand images and the behavior of the consumers for a company’s products because there were many forces drawing consumers away such as competition. Product quality. The background of this research describes that why Shangrila brand is important. consumers’ thirst for variety. and why Brand Image is important. preferably promotional discount plays a significant role in influencing consumer’s decision-making and emphasis to buy products. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 48 . through the background.

Foodstuff product manufacturers. Reputation. The benefits of this research are lies on the research significance. These variables also described with the conceptualized research model.The 2nd thing which I have done in chapter – 1 is to create the problem statement: “To determine whether the brand image of product has an impact on the consumer decision making and buying behavior. The 3rd chapter describes the research methodology in which the theoretical framework have conducted. Product Knowledge. Brand Image. Product Knowledge. It may describes or modify the topic further. relevance. The research model describes by identifying the dependent and independent variables in my research. the revenues and the competitors. Performance. Promotional Price Discount. The 2nd chapter describes the literature review of my research.. Relevance. dependent Variables: Consumer Loyalty. (Independent Variables: Brand Image. in which each and every variable (dependent or independent) described briefly. Consumer Buying Behavior). Reputation. Promotion Price Discount. Convenience sampling is one of the nonprobability sampling designs that are being used in this research. Data was collected using structured questionnaire and personally administered. These dependent and independent variables will help in creating and maintaining the statement. The sample Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 49 . The research design and their limitations tell us about the age brackets that in what age my research based on. current popularity of Tomato Ketchup among youth. Performance. Basically convenience sampling was used in this study. The objective of this study was to establish how Brand image affects the consumer buying behavior and their decision in the foodstuff Industry. which will work for the statistical analysis.

Once these profiles are constructing. and secondly to generate an understandable and absolute portrait of the characteristics of a distinctive associate of each of segment. income level. It means that total highest responded were youth. gender. I have drawn I simple pie chart in order to describe the sample size of males and females. they can be worn to expand a marketing strategy and marketing plan. I have drawn the bar chart which explain the consumers consumption segment who are using Tomato Ketchup Daily. Occasionally. In this case.will comprise mainly of Sec A and Sec B males and females primarily between the ages of eighteen to fifty. 8% 31-40. and 0% 4-50 it means there were also highest contribution in females who are lies in under 21 – 30 which is similar to male. Weekly. And in that chart males are about to 65% and females are about to 35% included. are under the age of (21 -50). The chapter 4 has described the data collection analysis. and 5% 4-50. race and ethnicity. Researchers characteristically have two objectives in this observe first to conclude what subdivision or subgroups continue living in the overall population. the sample size of 100 consumers who are using the Tomato Ketchup. Third one. 7% 31-40. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 50 . Second one is demographic gender age scale in this segment statistical analysis explain the gender respondent’s lies in age scale that is Male were 53% who are under age on 21-30. If we add both gender under age 21-30 so it will participate 80% in these survey. Monthly. which concern are in Karachi. Data is being collected through the survey questionnaires. in this chapter I have analyses the data that is collected through the survey questionnaires. although about female 27% who are under age on 21-30. The five types of demographics for marketing are age. The areas.

How the Shangrila positive brand image reflects Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 51 . I have inter-linked it with the testing tools. Including the question from the questionnaire. one is where I have described the analysis of Market share of Shangrila Brand compared with its competitors in the markets among the responded. The tests which are involved in this research were stands in two different terms. through bar charts and by taking different tests of statistical inferences. Which is grater then others brands in both gender. The other thing which came in this chapter was the analysis of different tests. Statement 1: H1: The positive brand optimistically related with consistent consumer buying behavior. that how the statistical analysis on the data can be performed with a high degree of accuracy and the reliability of results.Fourth. which are included in order to describes to overall statement along with the briefly explanations. 32% National. This session basically describes the overall variables which I have mention above. we got the 45% of Shangrila user in which 24% Male and 21% Females. and only 1% is others brands customers. 17% Mitchels. null and alternative. The last one statistical analysis is to segregate the brand user in gender wise. The other brand is national got the share by the responded 23% Male and 9% Females third one was Mitchels got the share by the responded 12% Male and 5% Females the second last is Knorr just male which is only 5% and last one was 1% of other brand in Male only. That. 5% Knor. or create/develop the relationship with each other. how they inter-linked with each other. This statement has described that the relationship between the Shangrila has a positive brand Image with their consistent customers. Which is explaining the 45% Shangrila.

Disagree. The question asking to the responded that. which is depicts the results. Strongly Disagree). According to the tests it shows the results in the negative. which shows the results along with the statistical tools framework.on its consistent consumers. reputation. In order to describe this process I have drawn a bar chart. the results have been shown that the majority of respondents are included in the No Around 86% of respondents are involved. it has been rejected. In order to describe the process I have drawn the bar chart. The bar chart describes that how the consumer will behave if the brand image. Neither agree disagree. do low quality and less offer prices Increase the brand image? (Strongly Agree. It means that how the Shangrila Product knowledge reflects the Brand image of Shangrila. In order to describe Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 52 . It means that how the Shangrila Brand Image reflects the product quality of shangrila. Will they buy product? Yes or No. In this statement has described the relationship between the Shangrila Brand image with the product quality. Statement 2: H2: Different brand images lead to differ product quality things. Statement 3: H3: High product knowledge decreases the effect of brand images. which describes the null statement. which describes the null statement. in this statement have described the relationship between high product knowledge with the Brand image. and its prices does not going well. According to the tests it shows the results in the negative. it has been rejected. Agree. performance. The bar chart depicts the result that the respondents 55% agree with this statement. In addition.

In this statement have described the relationship between the Satisfaction with the Loyalty intention. The results clearly shows that the responded has a product knowledge and it will increase the brand image because they have a product knowledge and can identify the produce difference with others brands. CHAPTER 6 . It means there is a positive relationship in between satisfaction of loyalty intention with the brand if they are satisfied then they will grow their loyalty intention with the brands. Statement 4: H4: There is a positive relationship between satisfaction and loyalty intention. which describes the null statement. it has been rejected. No. it has been rejected.this process I have drawn a bar chart. Something that recommends (expresses Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 53 . The purpose of this research is to investigate how the respondents influenced by factors of consumer buying behavior. The result definitely describe that the customer will prefer to switch other brand if they will avail promotional discounts. It means that how the Shangrila Promotional discount reflects the customer loyalty of Shangrila In order to describe this process I have drawn a bar chart. According to the tests it shows the results in the negative. According to the tests it shows the results in the negative. This question asks the respondents that Do you switch to others brand if it is provide the promotion and discount. The consumer loyalty and consumer buying decision is important for an organization to ensure that its products is always keeps in the minds of consumers and prevent them from switching to other brands. Yes_No.RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendation means something (as a course of action) that is recommendation as advisable. The question describes that will you identify the quality difference between different brands Yes. which describes the null statement. The question relates with the promotional discount rating point-of-view.

recommendation) of a person. desirable. positive brand image is a very important attribute. associating with the brand name all the attributes and satisfaction experienced by the purchase and use of the product. The First hypothesis was the “positive brand image” and it has rejected because it is the null hypothesis. because the positive Brand image is the identity of Shangrila products. any quality. or characteristic that gains a person a favorable reception or acceptance or admission. The overview about the effect of positive brand image should be fear however because consumer reactions to a brand differential clearly depend on the magnitude of the differential as well as the brand loyalty which are considered. Shangrila Brand Name is one of its major components in the foodstuff Industry. Every statement has a recommendation. Consumers tend to perceive the products from an overall perspective. Brand Image is important for the firm to attract customers to purchase the product and influence repeat purchasing behavior. If the statement is null statement is rejected this means relationship between variables (dependent or independent) does not exist and the respondents do not give importance to the variables been discussed. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 54 . For many consumers. The attribute brand image and its reputation in the market can definitely be more important on consumer decision making than that of Product Price/Reputation/Performance others. The relationship between Positive Brand image and consistently consumer buying behavior exactly will understand. thing as worthy. which is totally depend upon the results of statement. The recommendations will focus on the positive initiatives that Shangrila can take in order to remain the market leader in the Foodstuff Industry.

Product quality with other brands plays a crucial role. Shangrila brand has an individual identity in the market regarding the product quality because they are maintaining their product quality but as it has identify that if the company reduces their products quality and low offers prices so they can lose their customers.The Second hypothesis was the “Product quality differs with other brands” and it was rejected because it is the null hypothesis. If the customer has product knowledge. As we. It is a powerful source of identity and helps to project the intended image of the product against the competition and in the process of positioning a brand in the minds of the target audience. the customer will consider that the product is of low quality. so he can identify the products quality and its taste. The Fourth hypothesis was the “Satisfaction and loyalty intention” and it has rejected because it is the null hypothesis. If his or her expectations are not fulfill. So they have to maintain their customers with affordable prices. The Third hypothesis was the “Product knowledge” and it was rejected because it is the null hypothesis. There is need to educate to all Shangrila customers and consumers about their product knowledge to differentiate with others brands product. all knows that a product fulfils the customer’s expectations and desired. Product Knowledge is refers to product quality or its taste as concerned with the product. the customer will be pleased and consider that the product is of acceptable or even high quality. Although somewhere it observed that that firms take a risk to reduces their product quality and offers the low prices to take an advantage and retain the regular customers and attract the prospect customers. get the competitive edge. This means that the quality of a product defined as “its ability to fulfill the customer’s needs and expectations”. Customer’s satisfaction in Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 55 . and sustain their customers if there is a difference in prices with others brands.

40 Age 41 . Although customers loyalty intention is plays a very important role in the business world. Customer would become more loyal and satisfy to your product if company will also keen about their priority and satisfaction. If company takes it seriously.50 Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 56 . Name (Optional) Gender: Male Female Age 21 . Either they take a seriously or not.terms of financial benefits has a core business concept. According to the survey this thing has proved that if the loyal customers of any company avail the some promotional discount to others company he will move abruptly even though he is concerned and has loyalty intention with his brand. it can increase customer satisfaction because customer can think that company cares about them. PPENDIX/ANNEXES RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE This Questionnaire is to be used to conduct a research on “Effect of Brand Image on consumers buying behavior”.30 Age 31 . You are kind requested to fill this Questionnaire with best of your Knowledge and Experience. Most of the times customers are very much keen about the behavior of the company towards their complains about the promotional discounts. Because customers satisfaction build the customer relationship and grow up the perfect brand image in customers mind. This is a business terminology to evaluate as how much a promotional discount can offer by the company has been able to satisfy or please the customers.

Super Market) Q2. Do you believe that brand image is the important aspect of every product Yes _ No Q5. If Brand Image/Product Price/Reputation/Performance doesn’t go well will you buy it? Yes _ No 1. How frequently do you use Tomato Ketchup? (Daily. Q4. Strongly disagreed Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 57 . Will you purchase those brands which has a good reputation in the market Q9.1. Others) 2. Yes _ No Q6. Wholesaler. Monthly. From where you usually purchase Tomato Ketchup? (Retailer. Agreed 3. Q1. Please tick the answer of your choice against each question. Weekly. Will you identity the quality difference between different brands Yes _ No Q8. Disagreed 1. Strongly Agreed 4. Do you switch to others brand if its provide the good quality of the products. Please put the number as per your choice in the blank box given below. Please encircle your answer. Mitchel’s. Occasionally) Q3. 5. Neither Agreed nor disagreed 2. National. Do you switch to others brand if it’s provide the promotion and discount Yes_ No Q7. Super Store. Does packaging affect the brand image of a product? Yes _ No Yes _ No Q10. In which brand are you loyal customer in Tomato Ketchup? (Shangrila.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Effect of Brand Image on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of Shangrila Private Limited in Tomato Ketchup CategoryPage 58 . Do low quality and less offers prices increase the brand image . Q13 Do u agrees that maintain the product quality build the relationship in b/w Loyal Customer . Does brand ambassadors or referral power increase its brands image and customer loyalty . Q14. Tam. Effect of brand image on consumer purchasing behavior. Q12.(2007). How much do you agree that Brand reputation influence to buy product .Q11. on Clothing: Comparison between China and the UK’s Consumers pp 1– 96. keung. How much do you agree that product and its performance create the Good brand Image . Q15. kwok.

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