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# Alexandru Alice

431G

## Measuring displacements using inductive transducers

1. Study Purpose
In this laboratory work we will study the characteristics of type PR 9314/20 and PR
9314/05 differential inductive transducers and the functional principles of convertors used for
displacement measurement.
There are 2 types of measurement systems: PHILIPS, using the transducer PR 9314
with the measuring scale of 20mm, associated with a displacement measuring convertor of
type PR 9309 and an indicating voltmeter and a second one that uses the PR 9314 transducer
with the measuring scale of 5mm associated with an in-depth setup of the circuits from the
PR 9390 convertor.
Both measuring system have as input the displacement of the table, which takes place
after a micrometric screw is rotated. The total displacement is of 20 mm.
1.1.
We study the transfer characteristic of the complete displacement measuring system
using PHILIPS inductive transducers. The nonlinearity error in the nominal measuring
domain is determined.
1.2.
We study the PR 9314/05 differential inductive transducer both in nominal measuring
domain (5mm) and also above it.
1.3.
We study the functionality of the displacement measurement converter.
2. Introductive Aspects
2.1.

A x displacement of the magnetic core between the two coils which is in fact the
differential inductive transducer, generates variations in opposite directions of their
inductances (fig 1.). The coils extremities are powered in alternative current with 2 harmonic
voltages in anti-phase, +Va and Va, with pulsation . The output voltage Vm, measured at
the median grip of the transducer, has the value:

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431G

Because, usually

## Assuming a linear dependence of the coils inductances depending on the x

displacement of the magnetic core

## The equality (3) of the output voltage Vm becomes

Equality (5) shows an important result: the output voltage is directly proportional with
the displacement of the magnetic core.
Although the transducer follows a linear dependence of the coils inductances of the
magnetic core, this dependence results non-linear in practice:

## Substituting these equations in equality (3), we get:

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431G

It is observed that the square term is reduced at the nominator of the equality and in the
worst case it determines a decrease in sensitivity by the increase of the denominator in the
case in which k2 isnt small enough. The non-linearity is determined mostly by the 3rd order
term which doesnt have an influence on stability, because right terms are reduced at the
nominator.
By differential measurement linearity is improved with respect to direct measurement
because usually the coefficients k2 and k3 are much smaller than 1. In the same time, the
weight of the 3rd order term is small because x/x0 is smaller than .
By displacement the core is modifies in opposite directions and the resistances of
the coil, R1 and R2, determined by magnetic losses and Focault currents. By choosing a
magnetic core with a narrow hysteresis cycle and high resistivity this effect becomes
negligible.
Bigger variations can appear due to temperature variation. These variations have a small
impact as long as:

2.2.

## Block diagram description

The displacement measurement convertor has a STAB voltage stabilizer which supplies
7.5 V to the OSC oscillator.
The Oscillator provides alternative with a frequency of approx. 5 kHz in order to supply
the transducer (windings S1 and S2 of transformer TR1) and a reference voltage (winding S3)
in order to command the phase sensitive detector DSF.
The voltage Vm measured at the transducer output is amplified by the ATA
transconductance amplifier tuned on oscillator frequency. Through TR2 transformer, its
current output stimulates the signal input of the DSF phase sensitive detector. The output
current from DSF is filtered by a LPF which ensures a constant direct voltage proportional
with Vm and is shown by voltmeter V.

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431G

2.3.

## Circuit schematic description

The STAB voltage stabilizer is of derivative type. The stabilizing derivative element is
given by T5, Z1, R4, R5 and C6.
The OSC Oscillator is of LC type in 3 points. The oscillation frequency is determined
by the P, C3 circuit; amplitude limitation is done by the divider R2, R3 and C4.
In the windings S1 and S2 of the transformer, supply voltage +Va, Va, of the
transducer are produced.
The transducer can connect through terminal 1 at P1 for maximum sensitivity of
measurement or through terminal 2 and R1 for decreased sensitivity. Sensitivity is adjusted
using P1. The transconductance amplifier ATA is built out of the filtering circuit R11, C2, T2,
R6, T1 ,R7, R8 and transformer TR2 with secondary S2 tuned through C5 on the oscillator
frequency.
The input of this amplifier is the alternative voltage from P transmitted through C1 at
the base of transistor T2, and the output is the current from S2 at the input of DSF. Through
4

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431G

the secondary winding S1 a series-series feedback takes place which determines an increase in
the circuits impedance both at input and output.
The half-wave DSF is built using T3 and T4 which open for only a half-wave of the
voltage Vr. These transistors are reverse connected, thus resulting a residual voltage much
lower than in the case of normal connection.
LPF is built out of R11 and C7.
3. Laboratory Work
We will determine the characteristics xME(x), L1(x), L2(x) where xME is the
displacement measured with the voltmeter at the output of PR 9309, L1 and L2 the coils
inductances of the transducer (PR 9314/05), and x the displacement mechanically measured
with the help of the micrometric screw. For this purpose, the micrometric screw is set to 0,00
and the displacements are from 2 to 2 mm until 20mm. The inductances L1 and L2 are
measured with a RLC bridge.
The results are place in the table below:
x[mm
]
xME[
V]
L1[m
H]
L2[m
H]
L1-L2
|L1L2|
x[mm
]
xME[
V]
L1[m
H]
L2[m
H]
L1-L2
|L1L2|

10

12

14

0,537

0,391

0,246

0,1

-0,03

-0,176

-0,323

-0,47

2,36

3,11

4,11

5,19

6,13

6,8

7,23

7,49

7,79
-5,43

7,69
-4,58

7,39
-3,28

6,81
-1,62

5,89
0,24

4,72
2,08

3,56
3,67

2,63
4,86

5,43

4,58

3,28

1,62

0,24

2,08

3,67

4,86

16

18

20

-0,616

-0,762

-0,84

7,59

7,53

7,3

2,04
5,55

1,76
5,77

1,68
5,62

5,55

5,77

5,62

## We plot the characteristics xME(x), L1(x), L2(x), L1(x)L2(x).

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431G

xME[V]=f(x)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

xME[V]

0
-0.2 0

10

12

14

16

18

20

-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1

L1[mH]=f(x)
8
7
6
5

L1[mH]

4
3
2
1
0
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

L2[mH]=f(x)
9
8
7
6

L2[mH]

5
4
3
2
1
0
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

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431G

L1-L2=f(x)
8
6
4
L1-L2

2
0
-2

10

12

14

16

18

20

-4
-6

|L1-L2|=f(x)
7
6
5
|L1-L2|

4
3
2
1
0
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

3.2. We visualize on CH2 of the scope and we draw the waveforms of the voltages in the
points TP2, TP4, TP5, TP3, TP7 (TP6 connected to TP0) having as reference on CH1, signal
TP1.
We calculate the nonlinearity of characteristics xME(x), L1(x), L2(x), L1(x) L2(x)
with respect to the point 3.1.
TP2:
antiphase
blue: input
red: output
x=6mm

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431G

TP3:
blue: input
red: output
x=4mm
Vo=180mm (p-p)

blue: input
red: output
x=20mm
Vo=280mm (p-p)

TP7:
blue: input
red: output
x=4mm
Vo=700mm (p-p)

blue: input
8

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431G

red: output
x=20mm
Vo=7000mm (p-p)

Slopes:

xME=f(x): | |=

0,537(0,762 )
100=7
018

100=50
|3,116,13
28 |
6,812,63
| |=|
100=52
L2=f(x):
614 |
3,283,67
|
|=|
100=86
L1-L2=f(x):
412 |
L1=f(x):

| |=

4. Questions
4.1.
Why should the oscillation amplitude of OSC be settled?
The oscillation amplitude should be settled because the oscillator gives an alternative
voltage to supply the transductor and a reference voltage for the phase sensitive
detectors command. The alternative voltage Va should have a stable oscillation
amplitude because the transductors output voltage Vm should be proportional to the
magnetic cores displacement.
4.2.
Is the purity of the applied sine wave important?
The applied sine wave should be pure such that the output signal to be pure too,
because the output signal is proportional to the magnetic core displacement and it is
also amplified by the transconductance amplifier which is tuned on the oscillators
frequency.
4.3.
Which of the oscillograms distinguishes the disacord between the oscillators
frequency and the frequency on which the transconductance amplifier is tuned?
The required oscillogram is TP7 because the oscillator gives an alternative voltage for
the transductors supply and this voltage is proportional with the output voltage Vm.
This voltage is the input voltage for the transconductance amplifer, whose output
current is the current at the DSFs input.
4.4.
Which are the design criteria for the LPFs elements?
The LPFs elements are designed such that the cutoff frequency of the filter to be
higher than the oscillators frequency, so the higher harmonics of the oscillators
spectrum to be removed if the signal is not pure (contains perturbations).