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Question No.

3: To control an isentropic steam turbine, a throttle valve is placed in steam line


leading to the turbine inlet. Steam at 6 MPa and 700oC is supplied to the throttle inlet, and the
turbine exhaust pressure is set at 70 kPa. What is the effect of stream exergy at the turbine inlet
when the throttle valve is partially closed such that the pressure at the turbine inlet is 3 MPa?
Compare the second law efficiency of this system when the valve is partially open to when it is fully
open. Take To= 25oC

Question No. 4: In a heatpowered refrigerator, a turbine is used to drive the compressor


usingthesameworkingfluid.ConsiderthecombinationshowninFigure4wheretheturbine
produces just enough power to drive the compressor and the two exit flows are mixed
together.Listanyassumptionsmadeandfindtheratioofmassflowrates andT5(x5

ifintwophaseregion)if:
a) Theturbineandthecompressorarereversibleandadiabatic.
b) Theturbineandthecompressorbothhaveanisentropicefficiencyof70%.
o

T3=100 C

SaturatedVapor

Turbine

T1=20 C
SaturatedVapor

Compressor

2
P2=P4=P5 =1.0MPa

5
Tocondenser

9-64
9.89

Supercharging of an engine is used to increase the inlet air density so that more
fuel can be added, the result of which is an increased power output. Assume that
ambient air, 100 kPa and 27C, enters the supercharger at a rate of 250 L/s. The
supercharger (compressor) has an isentropic efficiency of 75%, and uses 20 kW
of power input. Assume that the ideal and actual compressor have the same exit
pressure. Find the ideal specific work and verify that the exit pressure is 175 kPa.
Find the percent increase in air density entering the engine due to the
supercharger and the entropy generation.
ex

C.V.: Air in compressor (SSSF)


.
.
.
.
Cont: min = mex = m = V/vin = 0.29 kg/s

.
.
.
.
Energy: mhin - W = mhex Assume: Q = 0
in
.
.
.
Entropy: msin + Sgen = msex
.
.
c = wC s/wC ac => -WS = -WAC c = 15 kW
. .
-wC s = -WS/m = 51.724, -wC ac = 68.966
.
-Wc

Table A.7:

hex s = hin - wC s = 300.62 + 51.724 = 352.3


Tex s = 351.5 K Pr ex = 1.9423

Pex = Pin Pr ex/Pr in = 1001.9423/1.1165 = 174 kPa


The actual exit state is
hex ac = hin - wC ac = 369.6 Tex ac = 368.6 K
vin = RTin/Pin = 0.8614, vex = RTex/Pex = 0.608 m3/kg
ex/in = vin/vex = 0.8614/0.608 = 1.417 or 41.7 %
sgen = sex - sin = 7.0767 - 6.8693 - 0.287 ln(174/100)] = 0.0484 kJ/kg K

10-27
Question No. 6
Refrigerant-22 is flowing in a pipeline at 10C, 600 kPa, with a velocity of 200
m/s, at a steady flowrate of 0.1 kg/s. It is desired to decelerate the fluid and
increase its pressure by installing a diffuser in the line (a diffuser is basically the
opposite of a nozzle in this respect). The R-22 exits the diffuser at 30C, with a
velocity of 100 m/s. It may be assumed that the diffuser process is SSSF,
polytropic, and internally reversible. Determine the diffuser exit pressure and the
rate of irreversibility for the process.
C.V. Diffuser out to T0, Int. Rev. flow sgen R-22 = 0/

2
2
m
1 = m2 , h1 + (1/2)V1 + q = h2 + (1/2)V2

s1 + dq/T + sgen = s2 = s1 + q/T0 + sgen


Rev. Polytropic Process:
LHS = v dP =

n
(P v
n-1 2 2

w12 = 0/ = - v dP + (V12 - V22)/2


1

- P1v1) = 2(V1 - V2) = 2(2002 - 1002)/1000 = 15 kJ/kg

P1v1n = P2v2n n = ln(P2/P1)/ln(v1/v2)


Inlet state: v1 = 0.04018, s1 = 0.9295, h1 = 255.1
Exit state: T2,V2, ? only P2 unknown.

v2 = v(P2), n = n(P2)

Trial and error on P2 to give LHS = 15:


P2 = 1 MPa v2 = 0.0246,

1000
0.04018
n = ln 600 / ln 0.0246 = 1.0412

LHS = (1.0412/0.0412)(1000 0.0246 - 600 0.04018) = 12.43


LHS too small so P2 > 1.0 MPa
Assume sat. vapor @ 30C, P2 = 1.1919 MPa
v2 = 0.01974,
LHS =

1.1919
0.04018
n = ln 0.6 /ln0.01974 = 0.9657

0.9657
(1191.9 0.01974 - 600 0.04018) = 16.33 > 15
-0.0343

P2 = 1.1 MPa v2 = 0.021867, n = 0.9963, LHS = 14.596


Interpolate to get the final state:
P2 = 1.121 MPa, v2 = 0.021353, n = 0.9887, LHS = 15.01 OK
s2 = 0.8967 h2 = 260.56
Find q from energy equation (Assume T0 = T1 = 10C)
1
2

q = h2 - h1 + (V22 - V12) = 260.56 - 255.1 - 15 = -9.54 kJ/kg


.
I = m[T0(s2 - s1) - q ]= 0.1[283.15(0.8967 - 0.9295) + 9.54] = 0.0253 kW

Question No. 7:consider two rigid containers each of volume 1 m3 containing air at 100 kPa, 400 K.
An internally reversible Carnot heat pump is then thermally connected between them
so it heats one up and cools the other down. In order to transfer heat at a reasonable
rate, the temperature difference between the working substance inside the heat pump
and the air in the containers is set to 20C. The process stops when the air in the
coldest tank reaches 300 K. Find the final temperature of the air that is heated up, the
work input to the heat pump, and the overall second-law efficiency.

H.P.
QA
QB
W

The high and the low temperatures in the heat


pump are TA+20 and TB-20, respectively.
Since TA and TB change during the process,

H.P.

the coefficient of performance changes, and so it must be integrated.


dUA = mAduA = mACvdTA = dQA dUB = mBduB = mBcvdTB = -dQB
Carnot heat pump:

dQA
dQB

TA + 20
TB - 20

-mACvdTA -dTA
=
mBCvdTB dTB

(dTA)/(TA + 20) = - (dTB)/(TB - 20)

dTA
TA2 + 20 dTB
TB2 - 20

= ln
= -
= -ln
TA1 + 20 TB - 20
TB1 - 20
TA + 20
TA1 = TB1 = 400 K, TB2 = 300 K
ln

TA2 + 20
420

= -ln

300 - 20
TA2 = 550 K
380

mA = mB = P1V1/RT1 = (100 1)/(0.287 400) = 0.871 kg


WH.P. = QA - QB = mCv(TA2 - TA1) + mCv(TB2 - TB1)
= 0.871 0.717 (550 - 400 + 300 - 400) = 31.2 kJ
Second law efficiency is total increase in air availability over the work input.
= mCv(T2 - T1) + P0(V2 - V1) - T0(s2 - s1)
A = QA - T0m(s2 - s1)A

B = -QB - T0m(s2 - s1)B

A + B = WH.P. - mT0[ (s2 - s1)A + (s2 - s1)B]


To find entropies we need the pressures (P2/P1) = T2/T1 for both A and B
s2 - s1 = Cpln(T2/T1) - R ln(T2/T1) = Cvln(T2/T1)
tot = WH.P. - mT0Cv[ln(T2/T1)A + ln(T2/T1)B]
550
300
= 31.2 - 0.871 298.15 0.7175 ln
+ ln
= 25.47
400
400
II = tot/WH.P. = 25.47/31.2 = 0.816

QuestionNo.8:Chickenswithanaveragemassof1.6kgandaveragespecificheatof3.54kJ/kgoC are to be
cooled by chilled water that enters a continuousflowtype immersion chiller at 0.5oC and leaves at
2.5oC. Chickens are dropped into the chiller at a uniform temperature of 15oC at a rate of 700
chickens per hour and are cooled to an average temperatureof3oCbeforetheyaretakenout.Thechiller
gainsheatfromthesurroundingsat a rate of 400 kJ/h. Determine (a) The amount of heat transfer
and (b) The exergy destroyedduringthisprocess

QuestionNo.9:Apistoncylinderdeviceinitiallycontains0.75kgofrefrigerant134aat120kPa and
20oC. Heat is now transferred to the refrigerant from a source at 150oC, and the piston,whichis
resting on a set of stops, starts moving when the pressure inside reaches 140 kPa. Heat transfer
continuesuntilthetemperaturereaches90oC,assumingthesurroundingsto be at 25oC and 100
kPa, determine: (a) The work done, (b) The heat transfer, (c) The exergydestroyedand(d)The
secondlawefficiency

Question No. 10: A 0.2 m3 rigid tank initially contains saturated refrigerant-134a vapor at 1 MPa. The tank is connected
by a valve to a supply line that carries refrigerant-134a at 1.4 MPa and 60oC. The valve is now opened, and the
refrigerant is allowed to enter the tank. The valve is closed when one-half of the volume of the tank is filled with liquid
and the rest with vapor at 1.2 MPa. The refrigerant exchanges heat during this process with the surroundings at 25oC.
Determine (a) the amount of heat transfer and (b) the exergy destruction associated with this process.

8-84 A rigid tank initially contains saturated R-134a vapor at a specified pressure. The tank is connected to
a supply line, and R-134a is allowed to enter the tank. The amount of heat transfer with the surroundings
and the exergy destruction are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions involved. 4 The
direction of heat transfer is from the tank (will be verified).
1.4 MPa
Properties The properties of refrigerant are (Tables A-11 through A-13) R-134a
60qC
u1 u g @ 1 MPa = 250.68 kJ/kg
P1 1 MPa
s1 s g @ 1 MPa = 0.91558 kJ/kg K
sat.vapor
v 1 v g @ 1 MPa = 0.020313 m 3 / kg
R-134a
3

0.2 m
1.4 MPa hi 285.47 kJ/kg
Q
1
MPa

Sat. vapor
Ti 60qC
s i 0.93889 kJ/kg K
Analysis (a) We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance:
min  m out 'msystem o mi m 2  m1

Pi

Energy balance:

E E
inout

Net energy transfer


by heat, work, and mass

'E system

Change in internal, kinetic,


potential, etc. energies

mi hi  Qout m 2 u 2  m1u1 (since W # ke # pe # 0)


The initial and the final masses in the tank are
0.2 m 3
V
m1
9.846 kg
v 1 0.020313 m 3 / kg
m2

m f  mg

U2
S2

m2 u 2
m2 s 2

Vf
vf

Vg

0.1 m 3

vg

0.0008934 m 3 / kg

0.1 m 3
0.016715 m 3 / kg

111.93  5.983 117.91 kg

m f u f  m g u g 111.93 u 116.70  5.983 u 253.81 14,581 kJ


m f s f  m g s g 111.93 u 0.42441  5.983 u 0.91303 52.967 kJ/K

Then from the mass and energy balances,


mi m 2  m1 117.91  9.846 108.06 kg
The heat transfer during this process is determined from the energy balance to be
Qout mi hi  m 2 u 2  m1u1 108.06 u 285.47  14,581  9.846 u 250.68 18,737 kJ
(b) The exergy destroyed during a process can be determined from an exergy balance or directly from its
definition X destroyed T0 S gen . The entropy generation Sgen in this case is determined from an entropy
balance on an extended system that includes the cylinder and its immediate surroundings so that the
boundary temperature of the extended system is the surroundings temperature Tsurr at all times. It gives
Q
S in  S out  S gen
'S system 
o  out  mi s i  S gen 'S tank = (m 2 s 2  m1 s1 ) tank

Tb,out
Net entropy transfer
by heat and mass

Entropy
generation

S gen

Change
in entropy

m 2 s 2  m1 s1  mi s i 

Qout
T0

Substituting, the exergy destruction is determined to be

Q
X destroyed T0 S gen T0 m 2 s 2  m1 s1  mi s i  out
T0

(298 K)[52.967  9.846 u 0.91558  108.06 u 0.93889  18,737 / 298] 1599 kJ