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Original Title: Gravitational Field by Sathyaprakash .pdf

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Astronomy

The New Frontier

B.S. Sathyaprakash

Gravitational Physics Group, School of Physics and Astronomy

Leonid Grishchuk

Stephen Fairhurst

Patrick Sutton

B Sathyaprakash

Bernard Schutz

Deepak Baskaran

James Clark

Alex Dietz

Gareth Jones

Craig Robinson

Van Den Broeck

Wen Zhao

David McKechan

Devanka Pathak

Ian Harry

Edmund Schluessel

Jack Yu

p2

The force of gravity

between two masses m

and M separated by a

distance r is

F(t) = G m M / r(t)2

Newtons law of gravity

transmits force

instantaneously - if the

mass M changes its

position, it is felt by body

m instantaneously

Gravitational Waves - The New Frontier

p3

A

..

point A let us remove the

Sun from its position

At that very instant Earth

would no more feel the

force of Sun

Newtons law of inertia

states Earth would take

the path tangent to the

orbit at A

However, Sun will be

seen by Earthlings for

about 5 minutes as the

p4

Earth zips across

The speed of light is the

same for all

Woman on the ground

measures the same speed

for the light from the torch

held by the girl speeding on

a rocket

of this is E = mc2

Another consequence is

the twin-paradox

The one we are interested

is nothing can travel

faster than light

Gravitational Waves - The New Frontier

p5

At the turn of the last century Einstein faced the

contradiction between Newtons theory of gravity and his

new special theory of relativity

According to Newton, Gravity acts instantaneously

Relativity, a very successful theory supported by

Maxwells theory of light, does not allow any signal to

propagate faster than light

Either abandon special relativity or find a new theory of

gravity

p6

Einsteins Gravity

According to Einstein,

gravity is not a force but a

warping of space & time

Space is said to be warped

if familiar laws of

geometry in flat space do

not hold

Time is warped if clocks at

different points in space

dont run at the same rate

Someone living close to a

black hole would age more

slowly relative to their

twin sister on Earth

Gravitational Waves - The New Frontier

p7

Einsteins Gravity

Earth Moves around sun

not because of there is

a force of gravity

Earth moves in

straightest possible

paths in the curved

geometry of space

caused by the Sun

Gravitational force,

just as all other forces,

is transmitted at a

finite speed

p8

Einsteins Gravity

A

..

point A let us remove the Sun

from its position

According to Einstein Earth

would continue to move in its

orbit around the Sun for about

5 minutes after the Sun has

been removed

It takes a path that is tangent

to orbit at B

Gravity travels at a finite

speed: implies wavelike

phenomenon must be

associated with gravity

p9

p10

A natural consequence of

Einsteins gravity and special

theory of relativity

Ripples on space-time curvature

travelling at the speed of light

produces gravitational waves

A falling cannon ball, an

astronomical binary system, an

exploding star

Decaying orbit of the double

binary pulsar for which Hulse and

Taylor were awarded the Nobel

Prize in 1992

Gravitational Waves - The New Frontier

p11

Gravitational effect of

a distant source can

only be felt through

its tidal forces

Gravitational waves

are traveling, timedependent tidal

forces.

Tidal forces scale with

size, typically produce

elliptical

deformations.

Gravitational Waves - The New Frontier

p12

Plus polarization

Gravitational Waves - The New Frontier

Cross polarization

p13

In 1974 Hulse and Taylor observed

the first binary pulsar

Two neutron stars

Orbital period ~ 7.5 Hrs

Stars whirling around at a thousandth

the speed of light

should emit gravitational

radiation

Eventually the two stars will

coalesce, but that will take

another 100 million years

towards each other

Observed decrease in period - about

10 s per year - is exactly as

predicted by Einsteins theory

p14

A world network of

Interferometric Gravitational

Wave Detectors

p15

STFC has invested about US $ 50

p16

British-German GEO

American

at

American

LIGO

at Livingstone

Hanford

French

ItalianLIGO

VIRGO

near

PISA

Laser

Interferometer

Space

Antenna

p17

Comprises ~ 30 institutions and > 400 people

p18

The largest mountain on the

Crab pulsar (or radius 10 km) is

no more than 10 cm

Primordial gravitational waves

did not limit primordial

synthesis of heavy elements

(helium, deuterium, etc.)

A recent (Feb 1, 2007) gammaray burst that occurred in

Andromeda was a new

phenomena that needs further

explanation

p19

Was Einstein right?

Is the nature of gravitational radiation as predicted by Einstein

or is it something different?

Are black holes hairless?

Are there naked singularities?

The centre of our galaxy has a million solar-mass black hole?

How and when did it form? Galactic cannibalism via slow

accretion of smaller black holes, gas and other stars?

What were the physical conditions at the big bang?

What is the nature of quantum gravity, origin of space and

time?

How many spatial dimensions are there, only 3?

Gravitational Waves - The New Frontier

p20

p21

Astronomical Sources

Compact binary mergers

Binary neutron stars

Binary black holes

Black hole-neutron star binaries

Black hole collisions

Supernovae

gamma-ray bursts

Continuous waves

Rapidly spinning neutron stars or

other objects

Stochastic background

Primordial background

Astrophysical background

p22

p23

All sky sensitivity

Any one detector is sensitive to

a significant portion of the sky

Tens of terabytes per year from

a worldwide detector network

Different types of signals all

present in the same data set

an American and a

European Detector

Gravitational Waves - The New Frontier

p24

Current searches are limited by computational

resources

Can only search for non-spinning black hole binaries

A month of search takes 60,000 CPU hours

Bigger computers afford better searches

Future Searches

Search for black holes with spins

Would require at least 10-100 times more

computational cost

Waves

Gravitational Waves - The New Frontier

p25

our times through ARCCA

Here are some signals from colliding

black holes as predicted by

Einsteins theory

used in the search, depend on many

parameters

Amplitude

for signals buried in noise

Increasing Spin

waveform

involving the masses, spins of the

stars, position on the sky, etc.

searched for in each piece of data

Time

Gravitational Waves - The New Frontier

p26

What do we need?

Compute cycles: a lot of them

Our algorithms are

embarrassingly parallel

Literally no communication

between different compute

nodes

Data Access:

Each detector produces about 30

TBytes of data per year and will

run for 2 to 3 years at a time

About 10% of this should be

available for compute nodes

Multiple nodes (100s of them)

might access data at any one

time

Centralized data archives are a

bottleneck and a nightmare in

our game

Gravitational Waves - The New Frontier

p27

black holes

p28

p29

p30

Gravitational Astronomy

Quantum theory

Fundamental physics

Extreme Gravity

GW observations with

ARCCA

(Very) Early Universe

Cosmology

Astrophysics

Stellar interiors

p31

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