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An &Bit, 1-Gsampleh Folding-Interpolating

Analog-to-DigitalConverter

bs
Wei An

A thesis submitted in conforxnity with the requirements


for the degree of Master of Applied Science
Department of Electrical and Cornputer Engineering
University of Toronto
2000

O Copyright by Wei An 2000

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An 8=Bit,l&ample/s Folding-InterpolatingAnalog-toDigitai Converter


Master of Applied Science, 2
Wei An
Department of Electricai and Cornputer Engineering
University of Toronto

This thesis deals with the design and implementation of an 8-bit, 1-Gsampleh foldinginterpolating analog-to-digital converter using a conventional 0.5 pn self-aligned, double
polysilicon bipolar process with maximum unity gain cutoff frequency fT of 25GHz. The
high-spad and high-resolution AID converter has applications in direct IF sampling
receivers for wideband communications systems. The folding-interpolating architecture
offers an optimum solution for Gsamplcls. hi&-cesolution AID converters in tenns of
system complexity, power dissipation and cbip ana The use of a silicon bipolar process
aiiows the integration of Gsampleh ADCs with DSP systems usually realized by silicon

CMOS or BiCMOS processes.

The 8-bit, I-Gsample/s A/Dconverter consists of a refennce ladder; four folding


blocks for the fine quantizer and one folding block for the coarse quantizer. interpolation
resistive strings; a comparator array; a digital encoder including an EXOR -y,

an em>r-

correction stage. and a 3 1-to-5 OR ROM;and a coarse quantber. Ail circuit blocks arc
integratd on one chip. The chip ana of the circuitry is 2.5mmx3.5mm including bonding
pads. The converter exhibits a better than Fbit ENOB with an input signai frcquency of

2MHz and at a sampling rate of l-Osamplels. The maximum power dissipation of the

AM3 is 2.5W using a 5-Vpower supply

1 would Wre to expms my sincm gratitude to Professor C.A.T. Salama for bis

insightfd guidance and invaluable assistance throughout the course of this work.
1 also would Ire to th& Pmfessor John Long, Rofessor Wai k g Ng, Rofessor

Khoman Phang for theh technical advice and help.


1 am indebted to N i g Ge for the countless hours of valuable discussion both

technicay and persondy.


My sincere thanks to Jar0 Ristupa for his seamless technical supports. My appreciation
goes to Hormoz Djahanshahi for his help during the chip testing. My appreciation also

extends to al1 the staE and students in the Micrae1ectron.i~Research Laboratory including
Richard Barber, Dana Reem, Anthoula Kampouris, Mikna Khazak, Dod Chettiar, Jeewika

Ranaweera, Mehrdad Ramezani, Dusan Suvakovic, Rick Kubowicz, John Ren, Farbang
Vessal, Sotoudeh Hamedi-Hagh, TakayuLi Hayashi, Stanley Ma for al1 their help.
1wouid like to thank my fiiend, Song Ye, who kept me cornpany with his constructive

discussions and cheemil chats, and the rest of my fricnds: Jianghong Hu,Yucai Zhang,
Sean Phang, Louis Zhang, Shuo Chen, Polly Tang, Franklin Zhao, W a n Jiao who were

always then for me.


A special word of th&

to my parents and my sisters who have been a constant source

of support and encouragement.


And to my husband Heng, thank you for your patience, support and love. To my

daughter Dian, for king the best baby a mother could have.

This work was supprted by Mimaet, Gcnnum. Mitel, Norte1 Networks, and PMCSierra.

Table of Contents

.................................

1.1 A/DConverter Characteristics and Architectms


3
.
1.1.1 A/DConverter Characteristics ..............................................
...,....
3
1.1.2 ND Converter Architectums
.........................................4

............................,...
1.2 Folding-Interpolating A/D converten .....................................................................8
...................10
..........................11

1.3 M o u s Work on Folding-InterpolatingGsamplels A D converters

1.4 Thesis Objective and utiine .....................


.
..........

References

............................................................................. -16
2.1 Introduction .....
...........1 9
2.2 Folding-InterpolatingTechniques ....................................
2.3 Block Diagram of the 8-bit Folding-InterpolatingADC ......................................21
23
2.4 Folding and Interpolating Block ........................................................................
2.4.1 Design of the Folding C h i t ....................................................................
23
.................................................................... 28
2.4.2 Interpolation

.
.

.....................
.
.
.............
2.4.3 Refecence Ladder ............................. .
... .
...d
2.5 High-Spced Comparators .................
.......
.
.
.
2.6 Digital Encoder for 5 Fine Bits .....................
.
.........C...............e .......................32
2.7 The Co- Quantizer ........................................................................................... 36
....................................................... 37
2.8 System Simulation .................
2.9 Summary .....................
.
.................................................................................... 40
References

3-1 htroduction

.........................
........................
........

List of Figures
Page

Fig.1.1. ExPmples of incnapingDSP complexity in communication systems (a) A classic


system with analog demodulatot followed by baseband N D conversion and DSP.(b) An

advanced system with IF A D conversion using digital demoddation and signal processing.
(c) An emrgirig system with RF A/Dconvcrsion followed by digital downconversion.
demodulation and basedband signal processing ...............................................................*2
Fig 1.2. (a) An ideal unipolar quantizaiion operation for a ramp input. (b) quanthtion
3
noise ....................................................................................................................................
5
...................*..*...*....*....
Fig.1.3. A block disgram of flash converter ...................
Fig.1.4. A block diagram of fccdback converter ..........................................*........*..
6
Fig.1.5. A block diagram of fccdforward convertet ........................................................7
Fig 1.6. A blockdiagramoffoldiagconverter ..................................................
...-.m....
9
Fig.2.1. Architechue of a feedfofward quantizer ...........................................................17
Fig.2.2. A folding A/D converter architecture Analog folding with F folds nduces fine
quantizet resolution to 10~?(2~/F)
...........
..............................................
. . .17
Fig.2.3. Reduction in dynamic range seen h m comparator array (a) sawtooth folding
characteristic. (b) triangle folding characteristic ..............................................................18
Fig 2.4. A folding function which is not piece-wise linear .......................................... 20
Fig.2.5. An acray of phase-shiftcd non-linear folding bloclcs with comparators detecting
zero-crossings ....................
.....................
Fig.2.6. Linear superposition using resistor string to generate multiple sinusoids equally
spaced in phase fiom two quachtute sinusoids ...............................................................21
Fig.2.7. Block diagram of the 8-bit folding-interpolating ADC .....................................22
Fig.2.8. (a) Folding circuit basedon wire-OR interconncction (b) output waveform of the
folding circuit ....................................................................................................................
24
Fig.2.9. Linear intefpolaion between the outputs h m 2 folding blocks .....................25
Fig.2.10. Improved folding circuit usingemitter degeneration mistors .........................25
Fig 2.1 1 Interpolation e m r rcduced using eminer degeneration resistor ......................26
Fig.2.12. SimuIatioa outputs fmm 4 fo1ding bIocLs .......................................................27
Fig.2.13. Block diagram of the folding interpolatingblocks ................................et.........
28
Fig 2.14. Simulation outputs h m dinerential mterpolations .........................................29

.
.
.
.

. .
.

..

Fig 2.15. Deviation of reference voltages caused by input bias cumnt b .....................3
Fig.2.16. 2-stage preamplifier comparator circuit
................................. 31
32
Fig 2.17. 2-stage pnamplifier mastet-slave comparafor &cuit
Fig 2.18. Input signals (top). clock signal (2nd). simulation output h m the master
comparator (thid). simulation output from the slave comparator (bottom) ...................-32
Fig 2.19. Block diagram of the 5-bit encoder
33
Fig 2.20. EXOR circuit ....................................................................................................35
Fig.2.21. Simulation output wavefonn h m the EXOR gate Two inputs (Top) EXOR
Output (Bottom) ................................................................................................................
35
Fig.2.22. Block diagram of the coarse quantizer ..........................
..............................36
Fig 2.23. Simulation outputs h m MSB-1 folding blodc ...........................*..................
.36
Fig 2.24. Misalignment between a coarse ADC and a fine ADC ..................................37
38
Fig.2.25. Dynamic performance of the ADC simulation setup ..........................
Fig 2.26. Simulation dynamic performance of the ADC.input at Ml scale ...................39
Fig 3.1. Cornparison of a tree-structure winng with a conventional wiring for a crucial
hi@-speed signal .............................................................................................................-45
Fig.3.2. Layoutofthe ADCusingtheNTZS technology ...........................Cc..............-47
Fig 3.3. Micropph of the implemented A/D converter ...............................................48
Fige3.4. Measund 8-bit output waveforms from the ADC for a low frequency ramp signai

...................

.
.

..
....................................

.................................................................

.
.

.
.

50

Fig.3.5. Measund dynamic performance of the ADC.input at full =aie

...................5

Fig 3.6. A histognun for the figure of merit F on pnviously reported ADCs and the one
ceported hem .....................................................................................................................
-52
Fig.A.1. (a) FFI' of a pure sine wave with an ided converter. (b) FIT of a pure sine wave

with a nonideal convertet...................................................................................................57


Fig A.2. AID converter test setup...................................................................................-58

List of Tables
Page
Table 1.1 :Reported folding-interpolating monolithic Gsamplels ADCs .........................10
.
Table 1.2. Target specincations of the A D conve* .....................................................12
Table 2.1. The reference voltage values of folding blocks ..............e............................2...
7
Table 2.2. Themorneter and circular code npnsentation of the numbers 0-7 ................34
Table 2.3: The ADC Cbatacteristics .............~............................~..~...e...............................40
Table 3.1. Meswed ADC pufonnmce ...........................................................................51

Cbapter 1: introduction

CHAPTER 1
Introduction
Analog-to-digital (AD) conversion and digital-to-analog (DIA) conversion lie at the

heart of modem signal pmessing systems when digital circuitry performs the bulk of the
complex signal manipulation. As digital signal processing (DSP) integrated circuits becorne
increasingly sophisticated and attain higher operating speeds, mon and more processing

hinctions an perfomed in the digital domain. Dnven by the enhanced capabity of DSP
circuits, A/D converters (ADCs) must operate at ever-increasing fnquencies while
maintaining accuracy pmiously obtainable only at moderate speeds.
Digital systems offer significant advantages in k m of hinctionality, flexiiility, and

immunity against extemal influences compand to their analog counterparts, and as such are
becoming pervasive in electronic systems. Fig. 1.1 iliustrates the evolution of
communications systemstowards relying upon DSP hardware with a concomitant reduction

m anaiog circuit content. This shift iadicates that ody Radio Fnquency (RF) prooessing
and data conversion (including anti-aasing filters) will remain as important niches where
anaiog implementations exhibit advantages over digital approaches. I n t e d a t e

Fmpency (IF) and RF daa conversion wiU continue to play a significant mie m advanced
communications systems. However. the charactcristics of ADCs fn<iuently liait the

Cbptcr 1: Introduction

performance of such systems because of the circuit complexity and large power
consumptionof high-speed A/D converters. The developmnt of improved A/D conversion

algorithmg and circuiy

CO

meet the need of commW1ications systems represents an

important ana of research for the foteseeab1e future.

w
Signal

Fig. 1.1. Examples of increasing DSP complexity in communication systems. (a) A classic
system with analog demoduiator foiiowed by baseband A D conversion and DSP. (b) An
advanced system with IF A/D conversion using digital demodulation and sipal
processing. (c) An emetging system with RF A/D conversion foiiowed by digital
domronversion, demodulation, and basedbandsignal pmcessing.
A variety of efforts have been made to increase the sampling speed of ADCs over past
years, but the evolution of wideband communications systems which take the advantage of
the Industrial, Scientinc, Medical (ISM) unlicensed frequency bands, especiaily in the 2.4
GHk band, and possiily in he 5.GHz baud [Il, are driviag the deman& for ADCs with

muiti-GsampIds capabilities. Howevtr, most ADCs with Gsamplds qeed are designed
using expensive GaAs-base and nP-based hcterojonction bipolar (HBT)processes [2,3,

An 8-Bit, l-OsamplJJ FoIdiag-hterpoiatingAaatog-to-Digital.Coilvmter

University of Toronto

41, another drawback of IiI-V HBT processes is the pmblematic cornpatibility with DSP
systcms reaiize using silicon CM06 and BiCMOS processes. Further inmase in system

intepration requires that high-speed ADCs be impkmented using conventional silicon

proasses. This thesis is aimed at developing an 8-bit, Osamplels ADC using a silicon
bipolar pmcess.

1.1

A/DConverter Characteriotics and Architectures

1.1.1 A/D Converter Characterietics

The= are five major characteristics that define the performance of an ADC. The first
characteristic is the nsolution used to represent the analog signal. A high resolution is
desirable since it ensures reduction of noise inheicnt in the quantization pmcess as
illustrateci in Fig. 1.2.

VFS: Full Scale Range of the input signal

v, = NA

bk Ruolution

Quantization
Noise

Fig. 1.2. (a) An ideal unipolar quantkation operation for a ramp input.
@) quantization noise .
Quantization opemion is also characterizedby signal to noise ratio (Sm)
whicb is the

ratio of the output signai power to the outputmise power. The maximum SNR for an N-bit

Cbapter 1: Introduction

ideal converter with a sinusoidai input of amplitude equd to VpSn can be expressed as
foUows pl:
S

= 6.2N + 1.76

(dB)

(1-1)

For example, for a 10-bit converter the cmchum SNR is 61.97dB. However, in practice,
the SNR of most 10-bit A D converters is not able to reach this number. Using the actual

S N R and solving for the equivaient resolution, a figure of ment cailed the number-of-

effective-bits, Ncn,can be expressed as:

Tbnumkr-of-effective-bits, sometimes refemd to as effective-numersf-bits (ENOB) is


a commonly used meEnc for characterizhgthe performance of non-ideal quantizers. ENOB

or SNR (corresponding to a given ENOB) is the second important characteristic of an ND


converter.

The third characteristic of an ADC is the sampling rate. The sampling rate is the speed
at which analog input simples cm be continuously converted into a digital word. In most
applications the sampiing rate of an ADC is determined by the analog signal bandwidth,
because the sampling rate has to be at least twice the highest input frcquency in accordance

with Nyquist's theorem. Power dissipation is the fourth characteristicof an ADC.'Spically,


high-cesolution and high-spad ADCs tend to consume more power than simpler lowcesolution designs. FiaUy, the last characteristic is the chip area which, in gened, should
be minimum.

A variety of architecturesexist for implementing ADCs. Tbey ye classifieci as pamIlel,

fee-ck

andfee#orwurd convcrters [6J.Each z~~c:hitectare


offers specific advantages.

Chaptcr 1: Introduction

Parailei converters such as Bash converters are usudy used for very high-speed daa
conversion. Fige 1.3 presents the architcctwe of such a converter. In this architecture, an

array of comparators simdtaneousIy compares the input voltage with a set of referen
voltages. The outputs of the comparators represent the input signal in a set of thennometer
codes that can be eady convertai into a binary code. Flash converters are inherenty f a t

due to their padelism. However, this architecture has a significant drawba~kwhen a high

resolution conversion is &si&: namly, the number of comparators grows exponentially

with the molution. In addition. the sepmtion of adjacent nference voltages grows smaiier
exponentially with the resolution bit. This nsults in: difficulties in matching components, a

very large chip area, a high power dissipation and a large input capocitance that nduces
analog input bandwidth. For example, an 8-bit lash ADC with 250 Msamplels smpling

rate occupies an acea of 3 1 m 2 and dissipates 12W of power

[A.Most lash converters

available today have less than 8-bit resolution.

Analog
Input

Fig. 1.3. A block diagram of flash converter

Digitai

Output

Cbspter 1: Introduction

Feedback converter architectures d u c e complexity compand with the p d e l


approach by utiiizing comparators multiple times during each quantization 18-121. In this
architecture as shown in Fig. 1.4, the NL N-bit dipitizing process is divided into a series of

low resolution. m-bit quantizations. Each of these steps begins by ampiifying the Uicomiag
signal apptopriately, foflowed by a coarse m-bit quantkation. The digitai result from this
operation is appied to a special accumulator callecl a Successive Approximation Repister
(SAR), the output of which drives an N-bit DIA converter. The analog output Rom the DAC

subtracts fiom the input signal to fom a residue signal which is ready for the next pass
through the feedback loop. The N-bit resolution obtained with this arrangement is govemed
by N=mp where m is the resolution of the coarse quantizer used, and p is the number of

passes amund the lwp required to produce each N-bit output code. The gain of the
amplifier preced'ig the m-bit quantizer must be increase at each successive pass amund
the feedback lwp to ensure that the coarse quantizer is driven with the proper amplitude.

The gain required to meet this condition is:

Input

Residue

>

m
m-bit
Quantizer

4=2"'~i)

Controllable

Gain Stage

Successive
Approximation
Register

N-bit
Digitai Output
Eg. 1.4. A block diagram of feedback converter

Feedback A/D converters can offer signifcant hardware savings compared to paralie1
converters because the coarse quantizer resolution m cm be much smaller than the
converter resolution N. The severe dmwback of the feedback architecture is that it requins

p=N/m passes to generate the full N-bit output word, limiting maximum throughput rate,
and thenfore miting the speed of conversion. The feedback architecture is an excellent
candidate for very high-resolution, Low-speed convenions.

Feedforward converters use several stages for one conversion [13, 141. Eacb stage
consists of an ADC,a DAC and a subtractor, as show in Fig. 1.5. The ADC converts the
input signal and stores the digital value. The digital signal according to this value is
reconvened by the DAC and subtracted from the original analog input signal. This nsidue is
again quantized by the following stages. By adding a sample-and-hold (SRI) circuit in the
front of each stage. pipelinhg becornes possible. Using a pipelined approach, only one
dock cycle is required for each sarnple, ensuring a fast sarnpng rate. The sole disadvantage
associateci with this approach is the requinment for many S/Hcircuits. Since analog

switches (fiiaamental to S/H operation) are difficuit to impkment using bipolar


components, most pipehed A/D converters utize CMOS processes [1E18].

Each of the three converter architectures mentioned Pbwt offers a pedormance tradeoff. A designer must choose the appropriate architecture based upm the target
specincations and applications. In general, parallel converters are used when low resolution
(less than 8-bit) and very high speed is nquind. Feedback converters are chosen when low
speed but very high nsolution is cequind. Feedforwud converters are suitable for high

speed and high resolution applications.

To be used in wideband cornmunications systems, N D converters must meet very


stcingent requirements. If the input signal is sssumed to lie within the IF/RF band in suc&
applications, sampng rates in the cange of 200-Msamplels to multi-Gsample/s are q u i n d
to satisfy Nyquist's criterion. In addition, a 6 to IO-bit resolution is generally requid [2,
19, 201. However, the resolution and the sampling rate are nlated. State of the art N D

converters show that the pmduct of the nsolution and the sampling rate is roughy a
constant for a particular process. The nsolution falls off by about 1 bit for every doubling of
the sampling rate (21,221.

The previously mentioned A/D converter architectures are not able to meet the
nquirements for Gsamplds speed and 8-bit resdution simultaneously. Fominately, a
folding architecture can overcome the drawbacks of p d l e l converters while ntaining the
very high spaod of p d e l converm. A folding AID converter, shown in Fig. 1.6, operates
in a similar rnanner to a fdorward A/D converter by coarsely quantizing the incoming
signai and generating a &due signai for fiuthcr quanthtion by a lower resolution
succeeding stage. However, in a folding converter, the &due signal is formed by a specal

analog circuit (the Analog Folding BIock higblighted in Fig. 1.6) which operates

An &Bit, 1-GsampWs Folding-IntepIatingAnaiog-to-Digiial Converter

University of Toronto

Chapter 1: Introduction

simuitaneously with the CO-

qyantizer [23-281. This arrangement obviates the n a d for a

SM circuit between the coarse and fine quantizer by forming the cesidue signal without

going thmugh an A/D-DIA combination with its associateci clock May. The foldirg
converter, iliustrated in Fig. 1.6, corneponds to a 2-stage fadfomard Unplementation with

a log#-bit coarse quantizer and an (N-log2F)-bit fine quantizer, when F is the number of
cycles or defined as the folding rate of the analog folding block. Tbis analog cell, details of
which are described in Chaptet 2, perforrns the hinction of the DAC and the subtraction
element from the feedforward architecture described pmriously, but does so without

utilizing a clock, thus enabling simultaneous operation of the coarse and fine quantizers.
Folding cm be combined with an interpolating technique to create folding-interpolating
architecture. The architecture offers low complexity dong with high-speed operation by

further minimizing the number of folding blocks usai in the fine qumtizer. The architecture
is an optimum choice for low power dissipation, small chip area and very high s p d data

conversions.

Fig. 1.6. A block diagrmi of foldmg converter

An %Bit, I-Gsarnplels Foldiag-InterpotatingAnaI~~to-Digitai


Converter

Universityof Toronto

1.3 Previous Work on Folding-InterpolatingGsampIe/s AID

As discussed in the previous sections, the best option to implement a GsampWs A I X

with &bit nsolution is the foldiog-inteplathg approach because it retahs the very high
spee, the characteristic of patallel converters, without penalties on power and area
A number of folding-interpolating Gsamplds ADCs have been reported and are listed

in Table1.1. Most are implemented using expensive GaAs-based or InP-based


heterojunction bipolar (HBT) processes, because these processes offer unique
characteristics such as a very high cutoff frequency fT (around SOGHz), low panisitics and
good device matching which are al1 key issues to achieve hi&-speed and high-nsolution

ADCs*

Very few Gsamplds ADCs with Cbit resolution have been implemented on silicon.
Vn Valburg's [28] design ,which is highlighted in Table 1.1, achieves &bit resolution and

0.654samplds speed using a folding-interpolating architecture, but its input bandwidth is


liaiited to ISOMHz.
Table 1.1 Reported folding-interpolating monolithic Gsarnplels ADCs

K. Poulton

HBT

5.7

2.7~3.3

Themm Objective and Outline


The main objective of this thesis is to evelop an 8-bit, LGspmplels ADC with

minimum power dissipation and minimum chip area using the NT25 silicon process. The
N D converter with 8-bit, I-OsamplJs speed has applications in d b c t IF sampiing

nceivers for wieband cornrnunications syskrns. Direct sampling cecenters offer significant
advmtages over conventional nceivers by digitking the analog signal at a point closer to
the anteano. The receivers offer such advantages as reduced size, weight and power and
iacnased flexibility. huictionality and noise imrnunity [2].
The NT25 process used for this project is provided by Norte1 Networks. The process is
o 0.5 pm self-aligned. double poly silicon bipolar process with maximum unity gain cutoff

fiequency fT of =GHz*. This proccss provides NPN transistors. difised and polysilicon
resistors, and triple layer metal interconnection [29].
The target specifications of the converter are listed in Table 1.2. A folding-interpolating
architecture was chosen to achieve the desircd spcifications. Input signal bandwidth was

chosen to be greater than 200MHz which covers most of IF fquency band in wideband
communications systems.
The thesis is organized as foilows. Chapter 2 describes the architecture of the foldinginterpolating ADC. It investigates the design of the major building blocks necessary to
implement the ADC. Simulation results are pcesented.

* Tba unity gain fkqucncy fTis 2508t for a minimum emicr size dcvice ( 0.SXl3p~).

Table 1.2 Target specifications of the A/D converter

ADC

' k g e t pecifluation

Architechve

Folding-hterpolating

Sampling Rate

l-Gsamplele

Chapter 3 presents the layout of the converter implunented using the NT25 process.
Some important layout issues are discussed. Experimental results are presented.

Chapter 4 gives a brief summary of what has ken achieved and outlines m a s for
future work.

18

Chapter 1: Introduction

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[2] K. R Nary, R. Nubling, S. Beccue, W. T. Collean, J. P e ~ e and
y K. C. Wang, "An 8-

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F. Chang, P. M. A s k k and R.T. Huang, "A dbit, 4GSals ADC Fabricated in a GaAs
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Technology Conference, Pmceedings, pp. 1160- 1166, 1996.

[SI Do A. Johns and K. W. Martin, Analog lntegrtzted Circuit Design, John Wiky & Sons,
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ADC,"lEEE G d s IC Symposium, chnical Digest, pp. 105-108,1992.


[7] B. Peetz, B. Hamilton and J. Kang, "An &bit 250 Megasample per Second Anaiog-to-

Digital Converter: Operation Without a Sample and Hold,YIEEE Jountat of SolMtate


Ckuits, vol. 21, pp. 997-102.1986.
[8] M. Koliuri, "A Muiti-Step Parale1 lob l . S p ADC," IEEE Intemational Soli&State

Cimits Cot&emnce, Digest of Technical Papem, pp. 60-61,1984.

14

Chapter 1: Introduction

[9] J. Fernandes, S. R Lewis, A.

M,MaMnson, and G. A Miller, 'X lebit lOms Sub

Ranging A D Convertet with Sm," IEEE Intemtiomd Solid-Stute C i m u i ~Confier-

ence, Digest of Technical Papen, pp. 230-23 1,1988.


[IO] B. S. Song, S. H. Lee, and M. F. Tompsett, "A IO-b 15MIIz CMOS Recycng 'ItvoStep A/D Converter:

IEEE Joumal of SolidStute Cimuits, vol. SC-25, pp. 1328-1338,

1990.

1111 R. J. Van De Plassche and H.J. Schouwenaars, "A MonoIithic lebit A D Converter,"

IEEE Juuml of Solid-Stae Circuits, vol. 17, pp. 1 1 12- 1 1 17, 1982.
[12] H.S. Lee, D.A. Hodges and P. R. Gray, 'A SeKCalibrating 15-bit CMOS A/D Converter:' IEEE Joumal of Solid-state Ci~uits.vol. 19, pp. 8130819,1984.
[13] M. Yotsuyanagi, T. Etoh and K. Hirata, "A 10-b SOMHz Pipelined CMOS A/D Converter with SM," IEEE humal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 28, pp. 292-300, 1993.
1141W.T.Colleran and A. A. Abidi. "A IO-b, 75MHz Two-Stage Pipelined Bipolar AD

Converter," lEEE Jouml of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 28, pp. 1 187-1 199, 1993.
[15] N. Fuhishima,T. Yamada,

N. Kumazawa, Y. Hasegawa, and M. Soneda, "A CMOS

4MHz, 8b 10SmW liwo-Step ADC:' IEEE Intemational Soltd-State Circuits Confer-

ence, Digest of Technical Paprs, pp. 14-1 5,1989.


1161S. H.Lewis and P. R. Gray, "A Pipelincd SMHz 9b ADC," IEEE Intenarionul Solid-

State Cimuits Confernice, Digest of Technical Papers, pp. 2 10-2 11,1987.


[lqY. M. Lin, B. Kim, and P.R.Gray, "A 13-bit. 2.SMLlz Self-Caiibrated Pipelined A/D
Converter in 3-pm CMOS." IEEE Journul of Solid-State CirnUs, vol. SC-26, pp. 628636,1991.

[18] B. S. Song and M. F*Tompsett, "A 12-bit lMHk, Capacitor Error Average Pipelined
A/D Converter,"IEEE Intetnatio~lSolUI-State Cimuits Confemce, Digest of chi-

cal p ers, pp. 226427,1988-

[19]M.

J?iynn, B. Sheahan, "A 400-Msamplels, 6-b CMOS Folding and InterpoIating

AMI: ZEEE Joumal of Solid-StateCircuitts, vol. 33, pp. 1932-1938, 1998.


[20] D. Falconet and G.Stamatelos, "LMDS System Architecture and Associated Research

Issues," CITR B t v a h WinlcJs Major Pmject, Carleton University, Ottawa,

Ontario,Canada.
[21] Je Sauerer, F. Oehler, G. Rohmer, U. Schlag, "GaAs for ADCs: System Needs and
Device Requirements," IEEE GaAs IC Symposium, Techical Digest, pp. 220-223,
1994,
[22] R. H. Walden "Analog-to-Digital Converter Tecbnology Cornparison:' IEEE GaAs IC

Symposium, kchnicat Digest, pp. 217-2 19,1994.


m

[23]A. Arbel and K. K m , ''Fast ADC," IEEE T

m Nucl. Sci., vol. NS-22, pp. 446-451,

1975.
[24] R. van de Grift and R. J. van de Plassche, "A Monolithic 8-bit Video A

D Converter,"

IEEE Journal of Sotid-Stute Circuits, vol. SC-19, pp. 374-378, 1984.


[25l U.Fiedkr and D.Seitzer, "A HighSpeed %bit An> Converter Based on Multiple Fold-

ing Circuit: I E E JouwI of Solid-Sate Cimuits, vol. SC-14, pp. 547-551, 1979.

[26]R. van de Grift and M. van der Van, "An 8b SOMHz Video ADC with Folcng and
Interpolation Techniques," IEEE Intemutional Solid-State Cincuits Conference, Digest
of Technicd Papen, pp. 9445,1987.
1271R J. van de Plassche and P.Baltus, "An 8-bit lMHz Full-Nyquist Analog-to-Digital

Converter," lEEE Journal of SolU1-StateCircuits, vol. 23, pp. 13341344, 1988.


[28]J. van VaIburg and R. J. van & Plassche, "An 8-b 65GMtlz Folding ADC,"IEEE Jorcrna1 of SolidState Cimuits, vol. 27, pp. 1662-1666,1992.

[29]NnS HectnCai Specificatiotlsond krywt Design Rtdes, kmbn IS01.2 CMC,June


27,1997.

CaAPTER 2
&Bit, 1-GsamplehFolding-InterpolahgA / '
Converter Design
2.1 Introduction
As described in Chapter 1, (2N-l)comparators are nquired to compare the analog input
voltage with (2N-l)thresholds for an N-bit conversion in a conventional flash ADC. The

number of comparators becornes unacceptable when the required molution is greater than
6. This problem can be ovcrcome by employing a feedforward multiatage A/D converter

which partitions the N-bit quantization into a number of lower-resoluiion quantizations. In

such a converter, shown in Fig. 2.la, an m-bit coarse quantizer digitizes the input signal
with low nsolution, and applies the nsultant code to a reconstruction DAC. The anaiog

output of the DAC is then sutracted from the original input to form a nsidue signal, as
shown in Fig. 2.lb. This residue is quantized by an n-bit fine quantizer. The advantage of

this appmach is due to the fact that the combined complexity of the m-bit corne quantizer

and the n-bit fine quantizer can be far less than the complexity of a single (rn+n)-bit
qumtizer. In a foldmg quantizer, s h o w in Fig. 2.2, the nsidue signal is formed with a
simple anaiog circuit, thenby obviating the need for the coarse quantizer, the DAC, and the
subtracter components as in Fig. 2.la In such an implementation, the low dynamc-range

midue signal geaerated by the d o g folding circuit ditectly drives the fine quantizer.

An %Bit, -GsPmpIJ s FoIding-IntqoIatingAaaiog-to-DigitalConverter

University of Toronto

Chaptw 2: 8-Bit, L-Gsamplds Folding-interpolatingA/DConverter Design

17

,n

+p,Rcddm
a

Fine
Bits

m
Coarse

Bits

2' Coarse Quantizer Thresholds

(b)

Fig. 2.1 : Architecture of a feedfoward quantizer

Comparator

Fig. 2.2. A foldhg A/Dconverter arcbitechm. Anaiog folding with F foi&


ceduces fine quantizer resolution to log2(2NIF)
-

An &Bit, I-OsampWsFolding-IntapoIating Analog-bDi8italConverter

University of Toronto

Bccausc of the periodic na-

of the residue signal, the digitized output h m the fine

qumtizer is ambiguoustaiid a caarse converteris still necessary to ascertaignin which p e n d

the qoantizer input signal lies. The input-output characteristics of the analog Foldi ng circuit.
illustratecl in Fig. 2.3, cm be parametecized by the numkr of piece-wise linear segments. or
folds; the number of fol& or folding rate, denoted as Ft detefinines the resolution of both
the

CO-

and fine quantizers cequked in a folding AD converter. Since the coarse

quantber quires F thnsholh, its nsolution is m=log2F whiie the fine quantizer requins
2 N / thrrsbolds
~
so that its resolution is n=10~~(2~/F),
The number of comparators required
is therefore nduced by a factor of

'

The main disadvantage of folding is the multiple

fnquency effcct inherent in the process.

Folding
Convcrtcr
I

- Fold
1

Fold

Fold

Fold

F-1

AiD input Signal

(b)
Fig. 2.3. Muction in dpdc range seen h m comparator anay
(a) sawtooth folding~hatactcristic~
(b) triangle folding characteristic

An &Bit, lGampWs Folding-Inaipolating AnJog-to-Digital Converter

University of Toronto

Cbapec 2: 8-Bit, l-OsampIJsFolding-nierpolatiag A/D Convuter Design

19

BS Folding and Interpolation 'bchniquee


A folding A/D converter, based on the architecture of Fig. 2.2, would be possible if a

simple malog circuit could easily d i z e the picce-wise near input-output characteristics

indicatcd in Fig. 2.3. However, because of the discontinuity in the folding transfer function.
these types of characteristics are inhenntly difncult to nalize. Several implementations

base on Uie translinear prtncipk have k n &vcloped to approximate the triangle wave
folding characteristic of Fig. 2.3, but few are used in practice due to the significant
dtawbacks associated with the very large input swing nquind for these implementations

[L-31. This voltage swong is unacceptably large for the low-power, high-frequency
application considend hem.
A folding A D converter based upon a pModic but not a piece-wise lintar folding

function can be developed if that non-Iinear function is periodic and does not saturate. A
sinusoiciai folding ninction. shown in Fig. 2.4, s e m s as an apt example. In this case, the
folding characteristic resembles the triangle-wave depicted in Fig. 2.3b; however. the output

signal h m the folding circuit is not a linear function of the input. Therefore, the fine
quantizer must contain thresholds which are not unifonnly spaced but which an located
according to an inverse-sine Iaw. This thnshold placement is very difficult to achieve in
practice, but a simple aiternative is to generate many sinusoids uniformiy shifted in phase

with respect to each other, as shown in Fig. 25. In this arrangement, the fine quantizer
consists of an array of comparators, each with its reference input grounded so that the
quantizer thrrsholds comspond to the zero-crossings of the sinusoids. Since the sinusoids

are quaiiy spaced in phase, their zero-crossings are equally spaced along the analog input
range and the quantizef tlnuholds are Iocated uniformly.

An &Bit, 1W
-s

F~ldin~fnterpoIating
Analog-to-DigitalConverter

Univtmmty
of Toronto

Fig. 2.4. A folding function which is not piece-wise linear

Cornpantuf
a

Fig. 25. An anay of phase-shifted, non-linear folding blocks with


comparators detecting zero-crossings
Generating the phase-shiftcd wavefoms with an m y of sinusoidal folding circuits
wouid be very iwfsciant. but a simpIification of the scheme depicted in Fig. 2.5 obviates

the nee for this type of ndundaacy. Instead, only two sinusoids are geoerated. illustrated in

Fig. 2.6, and the ccmaining sipals arc obtained by linear superposition between them. Om
tcchniqyt, iliusaated in Fig. 2.6. for achieving the superposition utilizes resistive

An &Bit, I-OsampIJsFoIdng-htetpolatingMog-&Digital Coavertcr

University of Toronto

Cbapter 2: %Bit, l-Gsamp1Js Folding-hterpobkgAID C o n v ~ rDesign


r

31

interpolation (41. By appropriately stlecting the interpolation nsistors, any desirable phase
angle cm be generated. The foldhg quautizer architecture presented in Fig. 2.6 is simple

and potentiay very efficient and is the one used in this w o k

Fig. 2.6. Linear superposition using resistor string to generate


multiple sinusoids equally spaced in phase fiom two quaciratme

2 1 Block Diagram of the &Bit Folding-Interpolating ADC


Fig. 2.7 shows the block diagram for an &bit folding-interpolatingconverter. The input
signai drives 4 folding blocks with a folding rate of 8, and a coarse quantizer. A reference

ladder is used to generate a set of reference voltages. The 4 folding bl&

govemed by the

appropriate combination of the nfennce voltages produce sinusoidd signds phase-shifted


by 45'. These sinusoiclai signals are applied via buffers across differentiai interpolation

resistive strings to mate an array of 32equdy phase-shifted sinusoids. After interpolation,

32 wave patterns are availabk, and contain al1 the information to define 5 fine bits and the
MSB-2 bit. A compamtot array is then utilized to translate the analog information into

digtai datk Additionally, a 2-bit coarse qaantizer operates simultaneously to identify in

--

An &Bit, L-GsrimplJar Folding-InterpofaiingAnalog-to-Di&itaiConvertCr

University of Toronto

Chapter 2: 8-Bit, 1-GsmipWsFoldiog-InterpolatingA/D CoavcrterDesign

a2

which cycle of the folding characteristic the input signal lies. Finaily, a digital encoder is
nquind to obtain the 8 binary digital codes.

The design of each building block will

be investigated individually in the following

sections. The simulated performance will also be presented.

=256

Fdding F o l h g Times
=28
Block Rate Inteipo(iiti011

Fig. 2.7. BIock diagram of the 8-bit foldiag-interpolating AM3

An &-Bit, l-Gsrmpfe/s Folding-InterpolariagAnaiog-@Digital Convertcc

University Ot Toronto

Chaptct 2= &Bit, I-Gsainpiels FoIdiaIiiterpolatingAID Convertet Design

23

Folding and Interpolating Block

2.4

The folding-interpolating block is one of the most crucial parts of the AID converter
since it largdy detemines the ovcratl performance of the system. For example, the speed
and the bandwidth of the A D converter are affected by the bandwidth of the folding
circuits. Moreover. the accutacy of the A/Dconverter is dominated by the folding circuits in

which the correct wo-cmssing points must be generated to meet the requircd molution. In
this section, design of the folding circuit to achieve high spced and high resolution will be

consi&d. In addition, resistive interpolation will be discussed.


1.4.1

Design of the F01ding Circuit

Althougb a variety of circuit topologies could be used to realize the folding operations

[l-31, one with good fkquency performance must be chosen to rneet the required IGsamplds spad and &bit resolution. The circuit shown in Fig. 2.8a offers a good

fkquency rwponse and uses an ernitter-follower wire-OR configuration at the differential


pair outputs

[a.The emitter followers reduce the capacitive load at output nodes. thus

impmving the settiing behavior of the circuit Additionally, the edtter-followers in this
configuration offer a good dnving capability.

By appmpriately sekcting the refennce voltages VrI, ,V

Vn and Vr4, a

gOOd

approximation to a sinusoid can be obtained, as shown in Fig. 2.8b. An appropriate

diffecence between the refmnce voltage values is a few times the themai voltage VF This

ciifference is chosen to k l2SmV so that totaI input voltage swing is on the order of IV for
an 8-fold circuit [6].
A muitipIe-freciuency effect exists inherentiy in the folding processing due to the

nonhear periodic folding operation; namely, the fkquency of the folded signal is a
multiple of that of the input signal. This imposes an extra requirement on the bandwidth of

An &Bit, 1-GmnpIe/s Folding-interpolahg Analog-to-Digital Converter

University of Toronto

a4

Cbapter2 8-Bit, I-Gssunplds Foling-InterpoIating ND ConverterDesign

Fig. 2.8. (a) Folding circuit bared on wired-OR interconnection (b) output
waveform of the folding circuit
folding circuits, especially for wideband applications. The circuit architecture and bias
conditions of the transistors in the circuit play an important role in detemiinhg the circuit
bandwidth. The option of bias conditions is a tracle-off between the bandwidth and power
consumption. In addition. the bandwidth of the circuit in Fig. 2.8a is inversely proportional
to the value of Rt.A large RL gives rise to a serious analog bandwidth limitation. However,
to nduce the sensitivity to offet in the rest of the converter, the value of the resistor Rt has
to be large enough to obtain a large output voltage.
To ensure that the AID converter achieves the rcquired 8-bit resolution, the accurate
zetpcrossing points must be generaed by the folding circuits. In addition, the shape of the
sinusoid-ke waveforrn must have a high linearity around the zero-crossing points because

hear interpolations between two adjacent foldiag signals are deskd. as depicted in Fig.
2.9. A modification to the circuit in Fig. 2.8 is therefore made. In this design emitter

degentration nsistm RE rilc uscd to improve the iinearity. The finai circuit used in this
design is shown in Fig. 2.10. Moroovu, to edacge the limm range of the input and output

Aa &Bit, L ~ f d Folding-Intcrpolating
s
Analog-to-Digital Converter

University of Toronto

Cbaptcc 2: Mit, t-GsampW Folding-Intepolating VD Converter Design

26

voltage swings, the c m n t source 1inFig. 2.8 can be split into two equd cumnt soums T/2
tbat directly flow h

m the two transistors in the di&nntiai pairs as show in Fig. 2.10.

Note that 8 refcrence voltages are nquindin Fig. 2.10 because a folding rate of 8 is used.

Fig.2.9. Linear interpolation between the outputs fiorn 2 folding blocks

Fig. 2.10 Impmved fo1cng circuit using emitter degeneration nsistors


Fig. 2.1 1 presents the sidated improvement in the interpolation errors after using

emitterdegeneration mistors. The htcrpolationerrors are limited to fO.6mV which is quite


acceptable for the &bit resoIution required.

An &Bit, 1-GsampWs Folding-InterptaingAnaiog-ta-Digital Converter

University o f Toronto

Another design issue related to improving the accuracy of the ADC is to rninimize the

mismatch in the input differentid pairs in the folding circuits. In addition to special
attention paid to the layout as discussed in Section 3.2.1, another measure taken in this
design is to increase the size of the input transistors to minimize the mismatch and to d u c e
the noise.

...... Without emitterdegencration

nsistots

With cmittcr dcgendon mistors

Fig. 2.1 1. Interpolation emr reduced using emitter degeneration resistors

Since the phase of the nsulting wavefonn is govemed by the values of the reference
voltages, the second folding circuit, whose output is 45' shifted from the first one, cm be

easiiy constructed by changing the combination of the reference voltages. The same

procedure can be used to generatc the combination of the ceference voltages for the ihird
and the fourth foldhg blocks. The combinations of the reference voltages for al1 4 folding
blocks are Iisted in Tale 2.1,
Fig.2.12 shows the shulried 4 pairs of Werential outputs h m 4 folding blocks. The

phase Merence between adjacent folding outputs is 45' corres~ondingto an 1/32Voffset

in the referma voltages as iisted in Toble 2.1. These 4 signais and their differentiai
--

An 8-Bit, l-GsampIJ s FoIding-Interpolating Analog-to-Digital Converter

University of Toronto

Cbaptcr2 &Bit, 1 - ~ p I e / Fo(diag-lntcrpolating


s
A/DConverter Design

27

counterparts aie utilized to generate the 32 sinusoidd signals and their differential ones by
fkher interpolations.

nbie 2.1 The derence voltage valws of lolding blacks

Reiemce Voltage
(V)

Folding
blaLl

Folblocka

Folding
bla*8

Folding
biockl

Fi and Fi: diffenntial outputs form folding block i

Fig. 2-12. Simulationoutputs h m 4 foldmg blocks

-ter

2 &-Bit, 1-Gsrmplds FoIding4nupolatingA/D ConverterDesign

a8

The interpolation is implemented using a nsistive string because of its simplicity and

powercfnciency 171. In tbis dasip. a more detailed diagram of Fig. 2.7 is redrawn in Fig.
2.13. Differential interpolations are implemented by applying the differential outputs of the

Fig. 2.13. Block diagramof the fdding intcrpolatiag blocks


--

An &Bit, I-Gs~l~lplds
Foldig-hterpolatingAnalog-to-Digitd Converter

University of Toronto

2B

Cbapter 2 8-Bit, 1-OsampklsF~Iding~Interpotating


A D Converter Design

foldiag blocks to the dinerential nsistive strings. The dinecentid implementation improves

the accwacy of the converter shce the coqaratoc operates on the di&rence between
sigaals and not on the absolute value of the signal.
Fig. 2.14 shows shdated outputs after MercntiaI interpohtion berneen outputs

fiom two folding blocks. The 32 wave patterns can be generated after interpolations among
4 folding blocks as depicted in Fig. 2.13. These 32 signais and their differential counterparts

contain 8U the information to define the fine 5 bits and MSB-2 bit.

Fi and fri: dicerentid outputs fonn folding block i

Fig. 2.14. Simulation outputs fmm differential interpolations

h i s e reference voltages am r e q u M to ensun accurate zefolcmssing points and the


accuracy of the converter. The set of reference voltages is usuaily pnerated through a

nsistive ladder,as depicted in Fig. 2.15. Input bias cumnt fiows into each difkrential pair

in the folding circuits due to the non-zero base cumnt 4of a bipolar transistor. This cumnt
flows through the resistivc ladder, thenby cauaiag voltage fluctuations which perturb the

equaiiy-quxd rcftrtncc voltages h m th&

ideai positions. This we11-known effkct is

An &Bit, t-GsampIe/s F~Idin~InterpoCating


Analog-to-DigitalConverter

University of Toronto

Chapter 2: %Bit, 1-GsampIJs Folding4nterpolating AD Converter Design

30

calkd "reference-bowing" because the nference voltages Vary from their ideal positions
according to a paraboIic or bowed pattern [8],

The deviation of the nference voltages

thenby cormpts the desind zero~c~ossing


positions. The way to minimize this deviation is
to ensure that the bias cumnt

in the "stor

lsdder is at least two or&n of magnitude

p a t e r than the input b i s cumnt b in the dintrential pair 181. Thenfore, the deviations
caused by the input bias cumnt are at an acceptable level.

Fig. 2.15. Deviation of nfemce voltages caused by input bias cumnt Ib


In addition to the "reference-bowing"effect, another important issue is to minimize the
mismatch among the mistors. This will be discussed in Section 3.2.1.

As shown in the block diagrams of

the

AiD converter in Fig. 2.7 and the folding

interpolathg block in Fig. 2.13, the diffenntial voltage signals coming fiom the
interpolation stage need to p a s through an array of comparators. Each cornparator should
be able to ptoduce a correct digital "high" or "low" depending on the polarity of the given

di&nntial signais at the quired speed.


Fig. 2.16 shows the topology of the cornparator used in this design [9]. A 2-stage

pnrmplincs is Psed bfon the litch section. Such a comparaot architecture offers the
- -

--

An &Bit, I..GspinpWsFoldiag-InterpoIaihgAnalwto-Digital Convertet

University of Toronto

advantagcs of suppressing the kickback noise to an acceptably low level and providing a
relatively bigh gain, which in h m lowers the offset contnbuted by the latch, and therefore

impnms the rnetastability bchavior of ihe comparator. The emier followers Q9 and Qio
used in the latcb sectioa offer a low output impedance for &Wig the following stage and

improve the capitance IoPding effect at output nodes, thus enhancing the speed of the

comparators. Ia addition, the emitter followen offer the isolation of my possible

unbdanced intetference h m the sucatding stages.

Fig. 2.16. 2-stage preamplifier comparator circuit

Sincc 32comparaton am requind to implement the N D converter, the optimum power

dissipation of each compamtor must be investigated. Moreover, in order to minirnize the


mponse time mismaich among the comparators, special attention must k paid in the
iayout as discussed in Section 3.22.

A master-slave comparator is used to hold the digital value once the comparator goes to
the ack mode. Such a mastcr-slave compamtor inchdes two identical comparators clocked

180 degrees out of phase, as shown in Fig. 2.17. The hinction of this master-slave

cornparatmcan also be obsemd in the simulation results shown in Fig. 2.18. It can be seen
that when the master comparatorgoes hto tnck mode. the slave holds its digital vaiue; and

An &-Bit, L-GsampldsFolding-InicrpolatingAnalog-to-Digitai Converter

University of Toronto

Chspt#2: 8-Bit, 1-GsampW9Folding-InteplathgAlD Convater Design

SB

when the master comparator goes into the latch mode. the slave retains (or holds) its valut
unchanged until the nsult of the cornparison of the voltages at the master input changes.

The simulatecl nsuits also show that the comparator is able to operate at 1-Gsample/s speed.

Fig. 2.17. 2-stage preamplifier master-slave comparator circuit

Fig. 2.18. Input signais (top). clock signal (2nd), simulation output ftom the master
comparator(third),simulation output from tbe slave comparator (bottom)

2.6 Digital Encoder for 6 Pine Bite


Fig. 2-19 shows the block diagani of the encoder used in ihis design. The encoder

An 8-Bit, 1-GsampWsFolding-IirterpoIating Anaiog-to-Digtai Converter

University of Toronto

Chaptcc 2: 8-Bit, 1-samplels Folding-Intetpolating A / ' ConverterDesign

Fig. 2.19. BIock diagram of the 5-bit encoder

33

comprises 3 huiction blocks. They are an Exclusive-OR (EXOR) amy, an emr comction
stage, a
d a 3 1-to-5 encoer. After the comparator stage, the digital combinations of 32

"ONE"and "ZERO" are obipineci. Such combinations must be encoded into a binary code.
Because of the repetitive nature of the folding signals. a circular code, instead of a
linear themiometet code, is obtained. Table 2.2 lis&the npnsentation of the numbers rom
O to 7 using circular CO& and themorneter code respectively. When encoding such a

circular code, the transition between a group of ONE'S and a group of ZERO'S must be
defined h t . An EXOR operation is penormed to realize this transition [10]. Fig. 2.20
shows the configurationof such a diffenntiai EXOR circuit [SI. Minimum size transistors

are used to reduce the chip size. Fig. 231 shows the simulated results for the differential
EXOR gate.

liible 2.2 Thermometerand circular code repmentation of the numkrs 0-7

An &Bit, I-GsampIJs Folding-Inte~l&gAnaloEto-Di$ital Converter

University of Toronto

Fig. 2.20. EXOR circuit

Fig. 2.21. Simulation output wavefonn h m the EXOR gate. ' h o inputs
(Top), EXOR Output (Bottom)
After the EXOR stage, a themotneter-lile codes are obtained. An emr-comction
stage (OR gates and inverters) [8, LI] is used to comct any inconsistencies due to

compantm mtagtabiiity, noise and cross tallc. A 3 input OR gate is used in this design. The

themorneter codes mua e cncocIe into the cottcsponding 5-bit binary code. This is
accomplished by a 3 1-to-5 OR ROM encoder [IO] as show in Fig. 2.19. In the design of

the encoder, special attention is needed to achieve the required speed of each gate while

An %Bit, 1-GssnipWsFoIding-InterpollrtibgAnal~~to-h'gital
Converter

University of Toronto

Chaptcr 2: Mit, I-GsampIe/s Folduig-IntupotatingAID Convatet Design

36

using minimum power in order to k p the power consumption of the overall system as Iow

as possible.

8.7

The Coarse Quantber


The block diagram of the coasse quantizer is highlighted in Fig. 2.22. A buffer and a

comparator are utiiized to generatc the MSB. MSB-1 is produced by employing a folding

block with folding rate equd to 4 and a compuator. Fig. 2.23 shows the outputs fiom the

MSB-1 folding block. MSB-2 can be obtained directiy from the fine quantizer without
using any additional circuiy.

Fia. 2.23. Simulation outputs h m MSB-I folding block

--

An Mit, I-GsampIdsFolding-InterpolatingAnaiogto-Didtal Convater

University of Toronto

37

Chapter 2: &Bit, I-GsampIJs Folding-InterpolaingAD Converter Design

Even a very smd voltage offset or timing mismatch between the coarse and fine

quantizeis can result in large emrs. As iliusbptcd in Fig. 2.24, a smail misalignment at the

MSB transition results in a significant e m Therefore special attention must be paid to


ensure quai delays for the MSBs generated by the coarse quantizer and the LSBs produced

by the fine qumtizer. The extra buffiers afterthe comparators in the coarse quantizer in Fig.
2.22 an used to achieve the equal &lay in this design.

Vin

Fig. 2.24. Misalignment be&n

2.8

a CO-

ADC and a fine ADC

Syatem Simulation
The whole system simulation was conducted by combining dl the circuit blocks

together. including the bias circuits. The Fast Fourier Transfonn (FFT)test approach was
uscd to chorscterhe the pafotm8acc of the ADC and evaluate how well the converter
trmsforms a known analog input signai into digital dota A pure sinusoid input is commonly

used for thia test After converting this signai, the hquency componenis of the digital

An &Bit, L-GsamplJ s Foldhg-InterpotaihgAnalo'to-Digital

Converter

University of Toronto

output stream are determined by performing a dimete FourierTransfom. GdeaUy, except


for quantbation noise, the tmsform will indicate that the digital waveform of the converter
h a only one spectral component, the component which corresponds to the input signal.
Any nonlinearities in the converters tmsfer function will nsult in spectral frequencies

other than the input fkquency being pzesent in the Fourier transformeci data By exPmining
die specai content of the output digital wavefom, the SNDR (or ENOB) of the ADC can

be detennined.
One advantage of the FFI' test is that ail enor sources are included in the results. In

addition, the performance of the A/D converter at its specified sampling rate and input
bandwidth can be easily examiaed.

The typical configuration for FFI' testing is iliustrated in Fig. 2.25. An ideal sinewave
signal is applied to the A/D converter under test. The performance of the ADC is simulated
using HSPICE.The digital data Stream obtained from HSPICE is converted to an analog
signal ihrough an ideal DAC constmcted by a program. The SNDR (or ENOB) of the

system cm be obtained by perfomiing the FFT analysis of the reconstnicted analog signal

through M A . . Fig. 2.26 shows that the simulated ENOB at different input fiequencies
when the A/D converter is clocked at 1-Gsamplels.

Digital Data

SNDR
EN00

Fig. 2.25. Dyriamic performance of the ADC simulation setup

An &Bit, l-GsampldsFotduig-htcrpoIating Analog-to-Digitad Convater

University of Tomnto

Chopter2: 8-Bit. 1-Geomplels Foldig-Interpoiating A/D Convcrter Design

39

ENOB

Fig. 2.26. Simulation dynamic performance of the ADC, input at hiIl scaie
Due to constraints on simulation time, memory and diskspace, the simulations of the
ENOB (or SNDR) of the ADC did not include layout parasitics.

Based on the simulation resuits of the A/Dconverter, the ADC is expected to achieve

an ENOB greater than 7.5bit when input fnquency is less than 300MHz.The total power
consumption is 2.7x

The expected characteristics of the AM3 are listed in Table 2.3.

However, due to the fact thnt the ADC o p t e s at very high frequency, its expenmental

characteristics will be affectcd by parasitics and component mismatches. In partidas, a


d

decrease of the ENOB is expected.

'bie 23 The ADC CbaracteWcs

Samping Rate

l-Gsamplels

a i b k 2.3 Tbe ADC CbriraccteristEcs

Signal Bandwidth

ENOB

7.7-bit

In this chapter, the architecture and design of the 8-bit, 1-Gsampleis foldinginterpo1ahg N D converter was described. The design of each individual circuit block in the

A/Dconverter was discussed. The simulation results for each of the circuit blocks and the
entire ADC were presented.

-- -

An &Bit, l ~ I JFoiding-uiterpoIottogAnalo~t0,Digi~
s
Convater

University of Toronto

41

Cbapter 2= &Bit, 14sampIdsFolding-InterpolatingA(D Converter Design

References
[1]

B. Gilbert, 4'M~nolithicAnalog READY-ONLY Memory for Characta Genetation,"

IEEE Jounial of Solid-State Circuits,vol. SC-6, pp. 45-55 197 1.


[2]

B. Gibert, "A Monolithic Miaosystem for Analog Synthesis of Trigonometnc Functions and Their Inverses," IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits, vol. SC47 , pp. 1 1791I91,1982.

[3] R. J. van de Plassche and R E. J. van de Grit, "A High-Speed Fbit A D Converter,"

IEEE Joumal of Sotid-State Circuits,vol. SC- 14, pp, 938-943,1979.


[4]

R. van de Grift and R S. van de Plassche, "A Monolithic 8-bit Video A/Converter,"

IEEE Joumul of SolUI-Stute Circuits,vol. SC-19, pp. 374-378, 1984.


[s]

EL Kobayashi. T.Tobari, H.Matsuura, A. Mura, M.Yamanaka,T.Yakihara,S. Kobayashi. S. Oka, T.Fujita and D.Murata. "System Architecture and Key Components of

Multi-Giga-Hertz A/D Converter with HBT," IEEE Instrumentation und Meusurernents


Techlogy Conrfmnce, Pmceedings, pp. 1 1 60-1 166,1996.
[6] W. T.Colleran and A. A. Abidi, "A IO-b, 75MHz Tbvo-Stage Pipelined Bipolar A/D

Converter," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 28, pp. 1187- 1 199, 1993.
[7] B.Nauta, A. G. W.Venes, "A 70-MS/s 1 IO-mW 8-b CMOS Folding and Interpolating
A/D Converter:' IEEE Joumd of Solid-Stute Circuits, vol. 30, pp. 1302-1308, 1995.
[8] D. A. Johns and K. W. Martin, Analog Integrated Circuit Design. John Wiley & Sons.

Inc., Toronto, Canada, 1997.


[9] B. Razavi, Principles of Data ConversiofiSystem Design, IEEE Press, New York. 1995.

[IO]R. J. vm de Plassche and P.Boltus, "An &bit lMHi Full-Nyquist Analog-to-Digitai


Converter," IEEE loumul of Solid-State Circuits,vol. 23. pp. 1334-1 344, 1988.

An 8-Bit, 1-GsampIdsFi,1dibg-laterpoIrtingAnalog-to-Digitai Convater

University of Toronto

[ll]K C. Wang. P. M.Asbeck, M. P. Chang. G. J. Sullivan and D. L. Miller, "A 4 B i t


Quantizer hplemcntcd with AlGaAs/GaAs Hetemjunction Bipolar Transistors,"lEEE

GaAslC Symposium, Technical Digest, pp. 83986,1987.

An &-Bit,l - C h ~ @ d FoBdmg-TirterpoletingAaaloptO-Di@d
s
Convertet

University ofToronto

Cbaptcr 3: T b A/DConverter Implementation and Experimcntal Rcsuits

43

CHAPTER 3
The A/D Converter Implementation and
Experimental Resuits

This chapter deals with the implementation and test of the N D converter designeci in
Chapter 2. Layout techniques used to acfiieve the requkd performance is discussed.

Experimental nsults verifying the fuactiondity and testing of the high fiequency
performance of the A D converter are also presented.

3.2 Layout of the AM:


The A D converter relies on the layout to meet the strinpnt quimnents on speed and

cesolution of the design. An appropriate layout not only maximizes the yield but also is the

only way to achieve the required specifications predicted by simulations. Special attention
was given to the component rnatching, and wiring of signal and dock paths. Since the ADC

is a mUed-signai circuit, issues nlated to the noise-rejection were also considemi.


1

Component matching
Component matching is important in anaiog circuits. In ptactical situations there will

be mismatches among componeuts which are intended to be identical. Mismatches

adversely affect the inearity and accuracy of the converter. Mismatches in the input
di&rential transistor pairs within the folding circuits and the pre-ampiifiers in the

Chapter 3: The A/D ConverterImplemcntation and Expetimtntai Resuts

44

cornparators, and mismatches between the cross-coupled latches cm cause sipificant offset
enws. Special layout techniques must be used to improve the mtching among these
transistors. This includes the use of the common-centmid approach and the use of United
cells comected in pandiel for large objects.
Another important issue is the layout of the refecence ladder and the resistive strings in
the interpolators. The absolute value of the individual resistor is not important but the ratios

of the resistors in the ladder and strings an aiticai. If all the individual resistors change by
the same amount, the nference voltages can remain the same and equal interpolation cm be

retained. Therefore, carefd consideration must be given to keeping the ratio of resistors
uncbanged. Using a common-centmid and psrallel connected uniteci ceil approaches,
maintaining the same contact configuration and layout orientation for each resistor are
require. In addition, "dumrny resistors stipes" must be added to the extnmities of the
resistor stripes.

83.2

Clocit and Signal Path Layout

The low fnquency accuracy of the A D converter is lirnited by comparator offsets

causeci by parameter mismatches. However, at high frcsuencies, the accuracy of the


converte-dccrcases maialy due to timing mismatches among comparators, which make the
comparators simple values of the input signal at M e n n t times. These timing mismatches

originate fiom clifferences in the amival of the clock and input signal to their respective
circuitry. In this design, the comparator anay consists of 32 cornparators. The timing
mismatches must be mlliimize to met the speed and nsolution required because the

converter ha9 to operate at 1-Gsamplds with a nsolution of 8-bit. To minimize the timing

mismatches, the wUUlg for each of the dock and signal paths in the layout must be highly
symtnetricai. Therefore a tree-stnicture is used for the layout of the clock and analog signal
pahs in this design. The conptuai diagram is pmsented in Fig. 3.1% In a conventionai

An &Bit, 1-GsamplJs Folding-fntcrpoIatingAmiog-to-Digitai Cmveter

UniversityofTotonlo

Chripter 3: Tbe A/DConvaterImplementaionandExperimental Results

46

implemcntation, as d e p k d in Fig. 3.lb. the signai travels different path leogths to arrive at
its respective circuit. These diffemnt path lengths cm cause large &Iay variations and

r=
comparatot

Signal

t-=
a
comparator

comparator

(b) a ee-structure

(a) a conventional structure

Fig. 3.1. Cornparison of a tree-structure wiring with a conventional wing for a


cruciai high-speed signal

consequentiy result in significant emrs in the N D converter. In the tne structure, shom in
Fig. 3.1% each comparator has an identical path length away h m the signal source,

ailowing the signal to arrive at each comparator simultaaeous1y.

One of the major problems of mixed analog and digital circuits is mise coupling.
Signds in the anaiog portion of the A/Dconverter are b a s i d y constant or sligbtly vorying

Chaptcr 3: Te A D ConverterImpIune~~tati*~~~
anci Eqcdmcntal Rcsuis

46

in thne while signal in the digitai portion of the ADC consists of changing pattern of puises.
Consequently any noise generated in the digital section of the ADC is coupled into the
andog circuits through the powet supply and the substrate. Routing an analog signal

parallel to a digital line aIso resuits in a capacitivecoupling bctween two iines.


To avoid the digital noise or cross-talk over the power supply connections, separate
power supply ihes and pins are used for the digital and anaiog sections. Monover. separate
power supply is used for digital output cirivers since it has to handle large curent spces.
To minimut the noise coupling through the substrate, the analog portion is physicaily
separated from the digital portion by g w d rings and wells [l]. Shieldiag layen are also
used to d u c e capacitive coupling between the circuit elements. For example. an n-layer is

put undemeath the nsistors, capcitors and clock buses [2].

The layout of the A/D converter, using the NTZS silicon bipolar technology provideci
by Norte1 Netwotks is presente in Fig. 3.2. The signal flow is from left to right. The ana of

the chip is 2.5mmx3.5mm including bonding pads. Approximately 30% of the chie ana is
used for the analog portion of folding and interpolation stages and 60% is used for the
digital portion. The remauUng 10%is used for the pads and peripheral circuits.

The physicai layout in Fig. 3.2 conesponds to the electrical circuit topology show in

Fig. 2.7. On the left is the reference ladder. The blocks next to the refennce ladder are the
four folding blocks in the fine quantizer and the one folding block in the coarse quantizer.
The resistor strings used for the interpolations are placed immediately next to the folding
blocks. The compamtor array is locatedjust aftcr the inteplation stage. The EXOR amy,
the eiror-correction stage, and the encoder foliow in tum, and on the right are the 8 output
cirivers.

Cbapter 3: The AD ConvertuImplemntation and Experimtntai Results

47

Signal flowb
-,

digital portionm-(

anaiog portion

I
clocktree

signal tree

guard rings and weUs


Fig. 3.2. Layout of the ADC using the NT25 technology

An important issue in the layout involves ensuring correct metal widths to m a t the

cumnt density nquirements in ail the metal layers and havingenough contacts and vias to
han&

the currtnt going thn,ugh various interconnections. The metai nes mtllljng

vertidy in Fig. 3.2 arc power liaes whidi need to be wide cnough to meet current density

requinments. Also, metai layes are useci for comections as much as possible to keep

interconnect resistance and delay low. Ccossing between metai lines is kept to a minimum.

8.8 The A/DConverter Implementaton


The micmgraph of the A/D converter implemented using the NT25, a 0 . 5 silicon
~
bipolar technology w ith fT of ZSGHz, is shown in Fig. 3.3. The chip was packaged in a 64pin Tnnqu.int multaycr ceramic package (MU: 132f64). This package is suitable for

speeds up to about 3.5Gk.

Fig. 3.3. Mimgraph of the implementcd N D convcrtcr

Cbapter 3: The A/D ConverterInspl~~~~ntation


and Expdmcntal Results

49

The packaged AID convertcm were evduatcd and tested for full spee using the

Triquint's ETF-MLC 132/64 test kture. In tbis test fixtun, a heat si& incorporated into
one of the retainer asemblies provides efficient cwling, and capacitive decoupling is also
pmvided for chip power supplies.

By enswing appropriate bias conditions and teference voltages, the static and dynamic
perfomance of the A/D converter were tested. In the static test the fiuictionality of the A/D
converter was determineci by applying a very low fnquency ramp signal and monitoring
how the A/Dconverter converts the input signal. Fig. 3.4 prwents the measunxi 8 digital
output wavefonns obtained applying such a iow frequency ramp signal at the input. It can
be seen that the AM3 operates properly.

In the dynamic test a low distortion sinusoidal input signal was applied to the input of
the ADC. The hannonic distortion of the signal source must be at least a few dB lower than
the distortion of the ADC under test. The digitai outputs

from the A/D converter were

acquired using Tek digital sampling oscilioscope and stored as a file using a computer. The
subsequent signal pmcessing was performed using MATLAB. Kg.3 5 presents the plot of

ENOB of the ADC at dinereat input frrquencies when

the converter is clocked at 1-

Gsample/s. A nsolutioa of greater than 7 effective bits was obtaiaed for input fnquencies
up to 2OOMH2, At input frcsucncy of 300-

the

ENOB drops to around &bit The

differen between the simulation and rneasurcd resuits can be attributcd to parasitics and
component mismatches.

* S Appendix A for &rails

Cbapter 3: T b A/D Converter Implementation and ExpuimentaLResults

60

Fig. 3.4. Measund 8-bit output wavefom h m the ADC for a low
fkquency ramp signal

An &Bit, I-OsampIels Folding-IntcrpoIathgAnalog-tu-Digital Convctcr

University0fTomt0

61

Clraptcr 3: Thc AID Converter ImpIementation and Exptrimcntai Rcsults

ENOB

Simulation
Measurement

Fig. 3.5. Measund dynamic perfomuuice of the ADC,input at fil s a l e


Eight packaged N D converters w e n tested. No significant diffennce in performance
was noted. Table 3.1 summarizes the characteristics of the %bit, 1-Gsamplds fdding-

interpolaihg AID converter.

'L1ibie 3.1:

e ADC perlonasnce
0.6pm Si BJT e 2 5 G H z

Signal Bandwidth

200MHz

ENOB

7.4bit

An &Bit, I-Gssri3pIe/s Foiing-InteipoiatingAnaiog-to-DigitaiCanveter

University ofTomta

Chapter 3: The A/D ConvertccImplementPtionand ExperimcntaiResults

52

Since power consumption is an important specification ia ADC design. The figura of

ment F can be used to characte& the penonnance of ADCs [3]. F is defiaed by the
followiiig equation:

when, N is the molution. fMp is the sampng fnquency, and Pdiris the pwer dissipation,

As iilustrated in Fig. 3.6. mosi A D 0 bave figure of ment F S 4 x 1 0 ~LSBs-HzW


~
[3]. The
present &si@ with a figure of merit F -1.02~10" LSBs-Hz/W is considerably better.
Particularty, a digital emr correction technique was used in the present design to achieve a

more robust performance than the design suggested by van Vdburge 161 but at the expense
of additional power consumption.

Fig. 3.6, A Histograrn for the figure of merit F on previously


reporteci ADCs [3] and the one nported hem

3.1 Summary
This chapter discussed the implementation and the experimental nsults of the A/D
converter using the NT25,a 0 . 5 siiicon
~
bipolar technology with fT of 25GHz. The test
m l t s of the ADC are pttscntcd and are genemily in good agreement with simulations and
expected specificatioas.

Chapter 3: The A/D Converter Implcmntation and Exprimental b u l i s

US

References
[1] D. A. Johns and K. W. Martin, h b g Integrated Ciricuit Design, John Wilcy & Sons,
Inc., Toronto, Canada, 1997.
[2] N n S ElectnCaL Spec@cations and Loyout Design Rules, Vrsion lS01.2 CMC, June

27, 1997.
(31 R. H. Wdden, "Analog-to-Digital Converter Technology Cornparison," IEEE GaAs IC

Symposium, Technicul Digest, pp. 217-219,1994.


[4] R H. Walden, AB. Schmitz, A.R. Krarner, L.E. Larson and J. Pasiecmilr, "A Deep

Submicrometer Analog-to-Digital Converter using focused-Ion-Bearn implants," IEEE


Journal of Solid-State Cimuits, vol. 25,pp. 562-57 1,1990.

M B. P. Brandt and B. A. Wooley, "A S-MHz Multibit Sigma-Dalta Modulator for 12-8
2-MHz A/D Conversion," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Cimuits, vol. 26, pp. 17461756,1991.

[q 1. van Valburg and R. J. van de Plassche, "An 8-b 65@MHzFolding ADC," IEEE Journul of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 27, pp. 1662-1666, 1992.

[7] T.hicourant, M. Binet, J-CBaelde, Ch. Rocher and J-M Gibereau, "3 GHz lSOmW, 4bit GaAs Analog-to-Digital Converter,"IEEE GaAs IC Symposium, Technicul Digest,
pp. 209-21 1, 1986.

An &Bit, l-GsampIJsFoidh~hterpolloting
Analog-t0,Digital Convetcr

University ofTomnto

Cbaptct 4: Conclusions

61

Conclusions
Tbis work was motivated by the demand for high-speed, hi&-nsolution analog-todigital converten for applications in direct IF sampling nceivers for wideband

communications systems. The use of silicon bipolar process for this work is aimed ai
integrating a Gsampleh ADC with a DSP system usually realized using a BiCMOS process.
The folding-interpdating architecture used in this work overcomes the drawbacks

associateci with paralle1 and feedforward architectures. Folding-interpolating converters


offer an optimum solution for Gsample/s. high-resoiution ADCs in terms of complexity,
power dissipation and chip area
A monolithic 8-bit, l-Gsample/s folding-interpolating A/Dconverter was designed and

impiementcd using the NT25. a 0.5 pm self-agned, double polysilicon bipolar process
with maximum unity gain cutoff hquency fT of 25Gk.The N D converter consists of a

reference ladder; four folding blocb for the fine quantizef and one foIing block for the
coarse quantizer, interpolation resistive strings; a comparator array; a digitai encodcr
including an EXOR amy, an emr-correction stage, and a 31-to-5 OR ROM; and a coarse

puantuer.
In order to achieve the cequiad specitications predicted by simulations and maximize
the yield of the &si@, special layout echniqges were employed in the layout ofthe ADC

Chaptcr 4: Conclusions
-

bb

The experimental resuits of the AID converter show that it is capable of working to 1-

Gsamplds and achieving better than 7-bit ENOB when input signal fiequency is less than
2MHz. nie maximum power dissipation of the ADC is 2.W and the chip ara is

2.5mmx3.Smm

F u m work should f m s on reducing the power conmption and chip m a by


minimin'ng the power dissipation h m the comparators and the digital encoder. To improve
the performance when the input frequency is above 2MHz. a S/H circuit can be added to

the ADC.

ND Converter Testing
In this appendix, the testing rnethodology used to characterize the performance of the
A/D converter is described. The discussion focuses on the dynamic test of the ADC.

Al Teeting Methodology
Severai analysis techniques enable characterization of an A D converter perfomance
based on collecting digital output data taken from the converter under test in nsponse to a

known input signal. In paRicular. performing a Fast Fourier Transfonn (FFI? on digitized
waveforms generates the ADC's digital output spectrum From which SNR. SNDR and
ENB can be ascertaineci [1,2].
m e n an ided sinusoidai input signal of a known fkequency is fed through an ideal
?\DC, the FFT perfomed on the coliected digital data results only in the fnqueacy that

comsponds to the input fnquency, as ilhsated in Fig. A. la


When a converter is not ideai and has nonlinearities, the input signal is distoctecl during

the conversion process. The resuIting FFL' has hannonics and a higher than ideal noise floor
as shown in Fig. AJb. The relationship between these harmonies, the noise flwr and the

57

Appendur A: Tbe N D ConvucrTcst

fundamental are used to specify the performance of the AIX. The ENOB of the converter

cm be obtained usiiig the foliowing equation:

)- 1.76

signal
ENOB =

6.02

hput

Amplitude 4

Fundamentai
Prequency
Quantization Noise

111111111111

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

, f

fin
(a)

Amplitude

"

Fundamental
Frequency

7"i"

Quantization Noise

Llll

III

1 1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1 1

,f

Fig. A.1. (a) FFI' of a pure sine wave with an ideal converter, (b) FFI'of a
pure sine wave with a nonideai converter

---

An 8-B& I-OarampWsFddiag-IntcrpolatingAnaiog-~DigitdConvater

University ofToronto

58

Appendi.A: nie AID ConverterTest

The Fa test directly evaluates how well the converter transfonas a known analog
signal into digital data. ne advantage of this test method is that dl error sources are

included in the rwnilts. In addition, the performatlce of the A/D converter, at its speciAed

sampliag rate and input bandwidth, CM be e d y examined. This is the method used in this
work.

A9 Test Setup and Procedure


The test equipment used for characterizhg the performance of the AID converter

includes DC power supplies, a Rohde & Schwarz signal generator, a Colby PG3000A pulse
generator, a Tek 11801C digitai sampiing oscilloscope, and a personal cornputer. The test
setup is shown in Fig. A.2.

Colby Rilse
Generator

Computer

Tek 11801C
Control

DSO

Fig. A l A D converter test setup

Appcndix

nie A/D ConverterTest

59

The analog and digital power are pmvided by the DC power supplies. A Iow distortion
smusoid input with proper DC offset g e n e d by Rohde & Schwarz signal generator is fed
to the AM3 undet test. The clock driving signal is generated by the Colby PG 3000A pulse
generator. The digital output h

m the ADC under test is monitored usiag Tek1 1801CDSO.

A personal cornputer is c o ~ e c t e dthrough the GBIP data bus of the DSO to collect the
digital output data. This data is then stored as a file on the harddisk for subsequent

pmcessiag. The FFT spectm analysis is p e r f o d on the output digital wavefom ushg
MATLAB, the corresponding ENOB (or SNDR) of the ND converter c m be therefore
obtained.

Appeudix A: Tbe ND Converter Test

60

References
[il J. Doemberg, H.Lee, and D.A Hodges, 'FulI-Speed Tcsting ofAiD Converters," IEEE
J o u d of SolidSute Circuits, vol. SC-19, pp. 820-827, 1984.
[2] T.E. Linnenbrink, '%ffkctive Bits: 1s That al1 There is?,"IEEE T~llsactiunon Illsfrumentation d Measumment, vol. IM-33. pp. 184- 187.1984.

An &Bit, I-GsanyrldsFoidhg-Inoerpolating Analog-t0,Digital Convater

UniYCtSity of Toronto