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Builda250to5000wattsPWMDC/AC220VPowerInverter

ThisismyschematicdesignofaPulseWidthModulatorDC/ACinverterusingthechipSG3524
.
Ihavebuiltthisdesignandusingitasabackuptopowerupallmyhousewhenoutagesoccur.
If you like my work and intend to build the circuit don't forget to give me the 5 satrs :D and
subscribetomebyclickingonthe"follow"buttonsoIknowhowmanypeoplebenefitfromthe
design,Thanks
Notes:
>The schematic circuit design is for a 250 watt output, while the pics are of my 1500 watts
inverterthatibuilt,toincreasethepowerofthecircuityouhavetoaddmoreoftheQ7andQ8
transistorsinparallel,eachpairyouaddwillincreaseyourpowerby250watts,ex:toget750
wattsofpowerfromtheinverteryouneedtoaddinparallel2ofQ7and2ofQ8totheoriginal
design.
>IfyouincreasethepowertransistorsyouhavetoenlargetheT2transformertomatchthenew
needs, the circuit's transformer is rated 25 amps to handle 250 watts of 220v, for every 1
additionalampyouneedonthe220vsideyouhavetoincrease10ampsonthe12vside,of
course there are limits to the thickness of the winding so if you need more than 750 watts i
recommendthatyouusea24VDCsupplyinsteadof12volts:

DCvoltageandTransformer"T2"windingrecommendation:
PowerSupplyWinding
750w12VDCP:24V"12012"/S:220V
1500w24VDCP:48V"24024"/S:220V
2250w36VDCP:72V"36036"/S:220V
3000w48VDCP:96V"48048"/S:220V
3750w60VDCP:120V"60060"/S:220V
4500w72VDCP:144V"72072"/S:220V
5250w84VDCP:168V"84084"/S:220V
*Thetransformershouldbe"centertapped"attheprimaryside.
**Youcanmakethesecondary110vifneeded.
***Thetransformerinthepicisacustommade(48Vcentertapped/220v)2000watts,weights
like10kilos.
>R1istosetthePWMdutycycleto220v.Connectvoltmetertotheoutputofyourinverterand
varyVR1tillthevoltagereads220V.
>R2istosetthefrequencyto50or60Hz(R2rangeisbetween40Hzto75Hz),soguysthatdo
not have a frequency meter are advised to blindly put this variable resistor midway which
shoulddropyouintherangeof50~60Hz.
If you want you can substitue the variable resistor with a fixed resistor using the following
formula:F=1.3/(RxC)
inourcasetogeta50Hzoutputweremoveboththe100Kandthevariable100Kbothfrompin
6andweputinsteada260Kfixedresistorandweleavethe0.1uF(the104cap)asitis,this
changeshouldgiveoutafixed50Hzaspertheformula:
1.3/(260,000ohmx0.0000001farad)=50Hz
Butinrealityitwillnotexactlygive50Hzbecausethe260Kresistorhasaspecificerrorvalue
margin so does the capacitor, that's why i recommend a variable resistor so that accurate
calibrationcanbeachieved.
>Useeithertantalumorpolyesterfilm"asinpic"forthe104caps,ceramicdisccapschange
value once hot and this in turn changes the frequency of the inverter so they are not

recommended.
>Pin 10 of the SG3524 can be used to auto shut down the inverter, once a positive voltage
isgiveninsteadofnegativetopin10,theSG3524willstoposcillating.Thisisusefulforpersons
wantingtoaddsomecosmeticmakeuptotheirinverterslikeoverloadcutoff,lowbatterycutoff
oroverheatingcutoff.
>Wiringconnectionsonthepowerstagesideshouldbethickenoughtohandlethehugeamps
drainfromthebatteries.ImarkedthemwithdarkblackontheschemaalsoIincludedapicso
youseehowthickthosewiresmustbe.
>The design does not include a battery charger since each person will be building a custom
version of the inverter with specific power needs. If you are ordering a custom made
transformeryoucanaskthemtotakeoutforyouanadditionaloutputwireontheprimaryside
togive14v(betweenpoint0andthisnewwire)anduseittochargea12vbattery,ofcourse
thisneedsaseperatecircuittocontrolchargingautocutoff.Butanywaythisisnotadvisable
becauseitwillshortenthelifeofthetransformeritselfsinceusingitasachargerwilltoastthe
enamelcoatinglayerofthecopperwiresovertime.Anyway..YEScanbedonetoreducecost.
>Acoolingfanwillbeneededtoreduceheatofftheheatsinksandtransformer,irecommend
gettinga220vfanandconnectingittotheoutputT2transformer,whenyoupowerupthecircuit
the fan will start this will always give you a simple way to know that 220v is present and
everythingisOK..Youcanuseacomputer'soldpowersupplyfanifyoulike.
NotethatthefanmustsuckairoutfromtheinvertercaseandNOTblowinside,soinstallitthe
correctwayoritwillbeuseless.
AlsonotehowIfixedboththeheatsinksandwherethefanis,inawaythatthefansuckshot
airfromlikeachannelbetweenthe2heatsinks.
>2circuitbreakersarerecommendedinsteadoffuses,oneontheDCsideandoneontheAC
side,dependingonyourdesign
Ex:fora24vDC(1500wattsdesign)puta60AmpbreakerontheDCsideanda6Amponthe
ACside.

Forevery1ampof220vACyouwillbedraininglike8to10Ampsfromthe12vbattery,make
yourcalculations!
>The2Heatsinksshouldbebigenoughtocoolthetransistors,theyareseparateandshould
NOTtoucheachother."seethepics"
>Important:Ifyou'rebuildingabigdesignthatusesmorethan24VDCaspowersource,make
surenottosupplythedrivercircuitwithmorethan24vmaximum.(EX:Ifyouhave4batteries
4x12=48v,connectthev+supplyofthedrivercircuittothesecondbattery's(+)terminalwith
a thin 1 mm wire which is more than enough. this supplies the driver circuit with +24v while
suppliesthepowertransformerwith+48v)
>"Optional":DeepCyclebatteriesareyourbestchoice,considerthemforbestresults..read
more
> Be cautious when building this circuit it involves high voltage which is lethal, any part you
touchwhenthecircuitisONcouldgiveyouanastypainfuljolt,speciallytheheatsinks,never
touchthemwhenthecircuitisontoseeifthetransistorsarehot!!Iateitseveraltimes:)
> The optional "Low voltage warning" is already embedded in the PCB layout, you can
disregard it and not install it's components if you do not needed. It does not affect the
functionalityofthemaincircuit.
> The Motorola 2N6277 is a heavy duty power transistor, it is used in many US tanks for it's
reliabilitybutunfortunatelyitisaveryhardtofindpart,insteadyoucansubstituteeach2N6277
with2x2N3773oranyequivalent.
>I'veincludedanoptional"Batterylevelindicator"circuitdiagramthathas4LEDs,youcansee
itinstalledonthefrontpanelofmyinverterpic,itisfunctioninggreatandshowspreciselyhow
muchjuicethebatteriesstillhave.IhaveincludedasmallrelaythatispoweredbythelastLED
toautoshutofftheinverteroncelastLEDisoff.

>Also included an optional "Overload circuit", it is very easy to build and can be calibrated
tothedesiredoverloadcurrentthresholdcutoffpointthroughthepotentiometerVR1.
R1 is rated 5watts for inverters upto 1000 watts. For bigger versions of the inverter
like 1000 to 3000 watts inverters, replace R1 (1 ohm, 5watts) with (1 ohm, 17watts) which
shouldhandleloadsupto10VA.
Makesureyouinstallaproperrelaytohandlebigcurrentdrains.
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