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CHAPTER I

Introduction

Background of the Study


Dimensional approach and language experience approaches for teaching
reading are based on the premise that reading instruction should begin in as natural
manner as possible, focusing on the function of written words as tools for
communication instead of on their form. Dimensional approach (DA) and language
experience approaches view childrens ability to produce language as the bridge
between spoken and written language. These approaches support the use of authentic
childrens literature and reject basal readers and the organization of reading instruction
around skill sequences.
Language experience approach (LEA) is a multi-sensory reading method that
uses a child's drawings to teach reading. In this method, the teacher reviews a child's
drawing and asks the child to tell about the drawing. The teacher then uses the child's
own language and writes a sentence explaining the drawing.
Using the language experience reading method, children create their own books
through collections of their drawings. Children are encouraged to read their books.
Through the child's familiarity with their own drawings and the meanings ascribed to the
drawings, the child remembers and learns the words.
English as Foreign Language (EFL) teachers often encounter group of pupils
with wide varieties of levels of readiness in literacy skills because of pupils different
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educational backgrounds and previous English instruction. These pupils want to learn
English for a variety of reasons. Some enjoy studying the languages.
Some pupils never had opportunities to study English. For example, in the Czech
Republic, where this study was conducted, public schools did not offer English
instruction until 1989. Many participants in this study grew up under a political regime
that did not allow English instruction in most public schools. However, in 1989, the
peoples revolution ushered in a new government. Almost overnight, a large percentage
of the student population began studying English, since they were suddenly free from
decades of limitations instituted by the former regime. Some of the younger participants
in this study were offered the chance to study English in public schools.
Although, little research addresses how to engage English Language Learners
(ELLs) with wide varieties of readiness in English reading skills, one approach to
engaging learners with different levels of readiness is differentiated instruction. In recent
years, differentiation of instruction has become a popular topic in education as an
approach to adapting curriculum to meet the needs of individual learners rather than
expecting all learners to adapt to one curriculum (Heacox, 2002; Tomlinson, 1999, 2001;
Tomlinson & Cunningham -Eidson, 2003). Much of the research on differentiation is
written for K-12 educators and recent research on differentiation does little to address
the needs of teachers of groups of older EFL pupils who have mixed levels of readiness.
LEA is based on an experience shared by a group of learners, who create their
own text. Key vocabulary words are taught to pupils before they write their text. After the
text is created, it can be used as part of subsequent lessons with the same group of

pupils. Supplemental activities can be done with an LEA text so one topic could be
completed in a few class periods (Hall, 1981; Heller, 1988; Herrel, 2000; Moustafa,
1987; Savage, 1992). For example, pupils can receive a photocopy of the LEA text so
they can identify vocabulary words in the text.
Furthermore, LEA provides an additional means of assessing pupils' literacy
skills. Test scores cannot give a complete picture of what subjects from a different
culture know about the content being tested, so researchers should build into their
research design several ways to find out what their subjects understand about their
tasks (Griffin, 1990; Jimenez, 2004). Even standardized tests designed especially for
ELLs contain pictures and drawings that may be difficult for some pupils to comprehend.
ELLs may not comprehend some black line drawings because they don't understand the
conventions of drawings (Hvitfeldt, 1985; Griffin, 1990). In fact, ELLs show higher levels
of literacy attainment when they receive instruction using instructional media familiar to
them (Griffin, 1990).
Seeing this reality, the researcher is interested to probe in local setting the result
of the Language Experience Approach (LEA) and Dimensional Approach in relation to
the reading ability of Grade II pupils in Buac Elementary School, Barangay Buac Sogod,
Southern Leyte as basis for future reading intervention proposals.

Statement of the Problem


Generally, the aim of this study is to compare language experience approach
(LEA) and dimensional approach in relation to reading ability of Grade II pupils in Buac
Elementary School of Sogod, Southern Leyte as basis for reading intervention
proposals.
Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What is the reading profile of Grade II pupils of Buac Elementary School before and
after presenting the lessons using the language experience approach and dimensional
approach in terms of;
1.1 reading comprehension;
1.2 speed in reading;
1.3 word recognition?
2. Is there significant relationship between reading ability of Grade II pupils and the use
language experience approach?
3. Is there a significant relationship between reading ability of Grade II pupils and the
use of dimensional approach?
4. What intervention can be proposed out of the results of the study?

Statement of Hypothesis
From the stated problems, the following hypotheses are formulated:
Ho1. There is no significant relationship between reading ability of Grade II pupils and
the use language experience approach.

Ho2. There is no significant relationship between reading ability of Grade II pupils and
the use of dimensional approach.

Significance of the Study


This proposed study aims to determine the significant effect of LEA and
Dimensional Approach towards teaching reading to Grade II pupils in Buac Elementary
School.
Particularly, the findings of this study would be beneficial to the following:
DepEd/Public Schools. This study provides a clear view to the Department of
Education to give emphasis on LEA and Dimensional Approach as a strategy that can
be holistically applied in teaching English to English Language Learners in the
elementary level.
Elementary School Teacher. Through this study, elementary teachers will be
given inputs on recognizing the need to use a variety of strategies that match each
pupils learning style on an individual basis. This will also endow grade level teachers
the basis within the School Based Management (SBM) framework in deciding what local

interventions and policies can be framed to ensure success teaching reading in the
earlier period of schooling.
School

Administrators. Through this study, administrators will be able to

design a school-based activity which encompasses the view that an integrated reading
and writing curriculum uses authentic literature to empower pupils and teachers to learn
together in a democratic learning community which leads to successful reading
experiences for pupils.
Future Researchers. With this study, future researchers will gain insights and
information on dimensional approach and language experience in relation to teaching
reading in the elementary years. This will also serve as guide for future researches.

Scope and Delimitations of the Study

This study focuses on the comparison of the Language Experience Approach


and the Dimensional Approach in the reading ability of Grade II pupils in Buac
Elementary School, Buac, Sogod, Southern Leyte school year 2012-2013. In addition,
this study seeks to determine also the Grade II pupils performance in terms of reading
comprehension, speed in reading and word recognition applying the above approaches.
Likewise, the result of this study will be the basis for future reading intervention
proposals to further streamline and improve teaching reading among public elementary
pupils in Buac Elementary School.

Research Paradigm
The schematic diagram of the study is shown in figure 1. The diagram shows the
two approaches (Language Experience and Dimensional Approach) in teaching reading
in grade II pupils in Buac Elementary School and how does it affects reading ability I
terms of reading comprehension, speed in reading and word recognition. The result of
this study will serve as basis for the implementation of a proposed reading remediation/
intervention of the said school for the next school year.

LANGUAGE
EXPERIENCE
APPROACH
(LEA )

- Reading
Comprehension
R
E
DIMENSIONAL
APPROACH

-Speed in
Reading
-Word
Recognition

Proposed
Reading
Intervention

(DA)

Figure 1. Schematic Diagram

Definition of Terms
To ensure clarity in understanding of the terms used in this study, the following
are defined:
Dimensional Approach. It pertains to an approach in teaching reading which is
based on the principle that learning is best when it proceeds from the easiest to the
most difficult. This approach in teaching reading starts with a story and then followed by
the comprehension check which is usually done through the different types of questions
that the teacher asks (http://www.google.com.ph).
It refers to the approach employed by the grade II teacher in teaching reading in
Buac Elementary School.
Language Experience Approach (LEA). It pertains to a method of teaching
reading in which the teacher creates text by writing down words dictated by the pupils.
The technique involves thinking of an experience, putting the experience into words,
then transcribing the words for students to practice their developing reading skills.
(http://www.google.com.ph).
It refers to an approach to reading instruction based on activities and stories
developed from personal experiences of the Grade II learner of Buac Elementary
School.
Reading Ability. It is the skills needed to recognize words, decode words and
sentences, and make meaning out of sentences and passages such that information
can be understood and used (http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/literacy).

It refers to the ability of Grade II pupils in extracting meaning from a written or


printed text.
Reading Comprehension. It is defined as the level of understanding of a
text/message. This understanding comes from the interaction between the words that
are

written

and

how

they

trigger

knowledge

outside

the

text/message

( http://www.k12reader.com ).
It means the act of understanding what a pupil is reading is an intentional, active,
interactive process that occurs before, during and after a person reads a particular
piece of writing.
Speed in Reading. It is the rate at which something is read, often expressed in
terms of words per minute. Reading speed is usually determined by the purpose of
reading for comprehension, learning, memorization, etc. (www.k12reader.com ).
The speed at which a grade II pupil can read and comprehend what is being
read.
Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil- IRI). It refers to assessing the
reading proficiency levels, including word recognition, comprehension, and reading
speed of elementary school pupils. (http://www.google.com.ph)
It pertains to the assessment conducted by a teacher in order to gather data
regarding reading ability of Grade II pupils in Buac Elementary School.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter is an organized presentation of studies and literature related to the
variables and questions in this study. They are composed of different education

Related Literature
LEA and Reading Ability
The language experience approach (LEA) is a whole language approach that
promotes reading and writing through the use of personal experiences and oral
language. It can be used in tutorial or classroom settings with homogeneous or
heterogeneous groups of learners. Beginning literacy learners relate their experiences
to a teacher or aide, who transcribes them. These transcriptions are then used as the
basis for other reading and writing activities.
Increasingly, students with unique backgrounds and different levels of emerging
literacy skills are being placed together in classrooms. Therefore, teachers need to
adapt their curricula in order to meet the needs of a wide variety of learners. In recent
years much has been written about differentiation as a way of adaptation (Gentz, 2003;
Fullerton, 2002; Heacox, 2002; Tomlinson, 1999 & 2001; & Tomlinson & CunninghamEidson, 2003) and using students' prior experience in classroom lessons (Freeman &
Freeman, 2000, & 2002; & Wiggins & Mctighe, 1998). The Language Experience
Approach (LEA) has received support from other research as an effective approach for
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teaching native English-speaking beginning readers (Cooke, 1900; Hall, 1981; Heller,
1988; & Moustafa, 1987) and ELLs (Freeman & Freeman, 2002; Herrel, 2000; Law &
Eckes, 1995; Peregoy & Boyle, 2001) using their prior experiences.
The LEA, first developed for Maori-speaking (Ashton-Warner, 1963) and nativeEnglish-speaking children (Spache & Spache, 1964; Stauffer, 1965), has also been
used successfully with learners of all ages. The approach develops literacy not only with
the whole learner in mind, but also the whole language.
The most basic, and in fact the original, form of the LEA is the simple
transcription of an individual learner's personal experience. The teacher or aide (or in a
mixed-ability class, a more proficient learner) sits with the learner so that the learner can
see what is being written. The session begins with a conversation, which might be
prompted by a picture, a topic the learner is interested in, a reading text, or an event the
learner has participated in. Once a topic evolves, the learner gives an oral account of a
personal experience related to that topic. The transcriber may help the learner expand
or focus the account by asking questions.
In most forms of the LEA, the experience is transcribed as the learner dictates it,
without transcriber corrections to grammar or vocabulary. This technique keeps the
focus on the content rather than the form of what is written and provides concrete
evidence of the learner's language growth over time (Heald-Taylor, 1989). Errors can be
corrected later, during revising and editing stages of the writing process. The
relationship between the transcriber and learner should be well established before

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attempting the LEA, and the transcriber should be supportive of what the learner has to
say.
LEA involves childrens own expressions and stresses the interrelationship
between listening, speaking, reading and writing (Hudelson, 2004; Kirkland, 2000;
ODonell,1998; Thorn & Braun,1994; Wiesendanger and birlem,1999).Simply put
,Veatch (1973) feels most educators would describe LEA as an approach that involves
the use of childrens own language.
Hall (2001) further agrees, Instruction is built on childrens existing level of
language expression as speech is encoded with written record of spoken thoughts. The
teacher in a widely used LEA technique, stimulates the students existing language,
writing the students words verbatim; and then teaching the pupil to read his/her own
words (Mous-fa & Penrose, 2005).The child grasps the meaning of writing and reading
as he sees his/her own words encoded and then decoded.
Dimensional Approach and Reading Ability
The dimensional approach in teaching reading is based on the principle that
learning is best when in proceeds from the easiest to the most difficult. This approach in
teaching reading starts with a story and then followed by the comprehension check
which is usually done through the different types of questions that the teacher asks
(Carroll & Iles, 2006).
The ability to read is the traditional criterion of beginning school achievement and
later academic success (Perfetti, 2005). An individuals initial experiences in learning to
read influence both subsequent accomplishment in reading and the development of
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reading-related self-perceptions (Chapman & Tunmer, 1995). Reading as a complex


skill depends upon a range of cognitive and linguistic abilities. Fundamentally, the
process of learning to read requires the development of a system of mappings between
the visual symbols of the writing system and the pronunciations of words. However, the
ease with which children learn to read depends upon the language in which they are
learning (Ziegler & Goswami, 2005). Although it can be assumed that many of these
processes are in place in the developing child who for many years has been listening
and understanding spoken language the child must hone these skills and use them in
concert to read fluently with sufficient proficiency to read to learn (Perfetti, Landi, &
Oakhill, 2005).
Children are intentional learners, curious and keen from birth to make sense of
their world and to identify patterns around them to help in this sense-making (Hall 2006;
David et al. 2003). Learning language, both spoken and written, is culturally framed
before and outside of school and best practice often involves recognizing literacy
practices in homes and communities and creating bridges between these experiences
and new learning.

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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the research method and procedures employed in the
conduct of this study. It specifically contains the research locale, research design,
population sampling, research instruments, data gathering procedure and statistical
treatment of data.
Research Locale
The study was conducted in Buac

Elementary School, District II of the

Municipality of Sogod in Southern Leyte and twelve (12) kilometer away from the district
office (refer to Appendix A).The school occupies its legally owned school site with a land
area of 1,800 square meters. It was at first a primary school since its opening in the
early part of liberation in 1945 under Honorable Jovito Obra as officer in charge. Later,
the school became one of the satellites School of Consolacion Elementary School with
Mrs. Salvacion Dublado as school principal.
At present, it is already a complete elementary school serving pupils from nearby
barangay like barangay Malinao, Buac Gamay and Buac Daku, with eight classroom
teachers and one school head under the Revised Basic Education Curriculum (RBEC)
catering over two hundred (200 ) pupils from kindergarten to Grade VI.

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Research Design
The researcher will use descriptive- normative and descriptive-correlational
research or survey. Comparative methods of research employing questionnaire to
determine the pupils profile and reading performance of Grade II pupils of Buac
Elementary School.

Population Sampling
The respondents of the study were the Grade II pupils of Buac Elementary
School of barangay Buac, Sogod, Southern Leyte, (refer to Table 1).The study use
simple random technique in identifying the respondents. A total of 23 pupils or fifty
percent (50%) of the Grade II pupils were identified as respondents of the study. These
figures were shown in Table 1.

Respondents

Population

Sample (50%)

Male
Female

28
18

14
9

Total

46

23

Table 1. The Respondents of the Study

Research Instrument

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This study will be using a researcher-made questionnaire. The said


questionnaire is first tested for its validity and reliability before it is being
carried out.
In addition, Phil-IRI results will also be utilized in determining pupils
profile in terms of word recognition, speed in reading and reading
comprehension. The data gathered were tallied, tabulated and statistically
analyzed to answer the problems of the study.
Data Gathering Procedure
Permission and approval from the school principal of Buac Elementary
School to conduct the research through a written letter of request from the researcher
will be asked. The researcher will identify the pupils to be classified as respondents in
this study. Pre-testing of the researcher- made questionnaire will be conducted and
analysis of the result followed. After the pre-testing, the researchers personally
administered the questionnaires. Follow-up interview through Focus Group Discussions
(FDGs) will be done to supplement the data gathered. The data that will be gathered will
be organized and analyzed and results will be interpreted accordingly.
The study

used both qualitative and quantitative methods of research. The

qualitative data will be collected through interviews and focus group discussions.
Similarly, quantitative data will be collected from pupils questionnaires and records of
Grade II pupils in the school.

Statistical Treatment of Data


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The data that will be gathered from the responses in the questionnaires will be
organized wherein all negative statements will be reversibly scored. Analysis and
interpretations of data follows.
The statistical tools that will be used were the following:
1. Frequencies, Percentage and Weighted Mean. This will be used to determine the
pupils reading profile in terms of reading comprehension, speed of reading and word
recognition.
2. Chi-Square and Pearson-r. Chi-square will be used to determine the significant
relationship between reading ability and the two approaches (language experience
approach and dimensional approach).On the other hand, Pearson-r will be used to
compute for the significant value and strength of the relationship between the reading
ability of Grade II pupils in Buac Elementary and the two approaches mentioned earlier.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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A. BOOKS
Ashton-Warner, S. (1963). Teacher. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Birch,B.M. (2002).English L2 Reading.Mahwah,NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Blevins, W.B. (2005). The importance of reading fluency and the English language
learner.The Langauge Teacher 29 (6).13-16
Chan, A (2004). Syntactic transfer.The Modern Language Journal 88 (1).56-74
Cooke, F.J. (2000).Reading in the primary grades.The course of study 1 (2).111-115
Dixon,C.N. & Nessel, D. (2003).Language experience approach to reading and writing:
LEA for ESL.Engelwood Cliffs:Prentice Hall.
Hall, M. A. (1970). Teaching reading as a language experience. Columbus, OH: Charles
Merrill.
Heald-Taylor, G. (1989). Whole language strategies for ESL students. San Diego:
Dormac.
Krashen, S. D., & Terrell, T.D. (1983). The natural approach. Hayward, CA: Alemany
Press.
Spache, G., & Spache, E. (1964). Reading in the elementary school. New York: Allyn &
Bacon.
Stauffer, R. G. (1965). A language experience approach. In J.A. Kerfoot (Ed.), First
grade reading programs, perspectives in reading No. 5. Newark, DE:
International Reading Association.

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B. ELECTRONIC REFERENCES

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_dimensional_approach_in_teaching_reading
http://voices.yahoo.com/how-language-experience-approach-lea-to-

8078580.html
http://www.cal.org/caela/esl_resources/digests/LEA.html
http://www.ehow.com/info_8584374_multidimensional-reading-

methods.html#ixzz2ITm2yLtB .Multi-Dimensional Reading Methods | eHow.com


www.hnu.edu.ph/main/publication/kinaadman/0320061727
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_dimensional_approach_in_teaching_reading
http:www.ehow.com Education

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=6023&page=85
http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/~pgrobste/pdfs/3DStoryTelling07.pdf

APPENDIX B
QUESTIONNAIRE
Respondents Reading Profile
Name (Optional) : _________________________________ Age: _______________

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Grade Level & Section : _____________________________ Sex: _______________

PART I
Reading Comprehension, Speed in Reading and Word Recognition Profile of
Grade II Pupils in Buac Elementary School (based on Phil-IRI Results).

PART II
Questionnaire on Reading Ability and the use of Language Experience Approach
and Dimensional Approach as Teaching Strategy
Direction: Please answer the following questions by checking ( ) the relevant block .
Rating Scale :

5 - Strongly Agree (SA)


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4 - Agree

(A)

3 - Undecided (U)
2 - Disagree (DA)
1 - Strongly Disagree (SD)
A. Language Experience Approach in Teaching Reading

1. English is a very important language for me.


2. English reading comprehension tests are too difficult for me
as a learner.
3. I have developed my skills covered by the English reading
comprehension tests.
4. Teaching strategies like language experience approach
helps me improve my reading ability and comprehension in
English.
5. Language experience approach provides exercises that help
a lot in improving my reading comprehension, speed in oral
reading and word recognition.
6. I got high scores on reading comprehension tests after using
language experience approach as technique in teaching
reading.
7. I feel confident during reading comprehension tests in
English.
8. English teachers should use language experience approach
to raise pupils self esteem before a reading comprehension
test.
9. My marks are improving in reading comprehension, speed
in reading and word recognition tests with the use of language
experience approach.
10. I easily understand the main idea of the text using
language experience approach.
B.
Dimensiona
l Approach
in Teaching

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Reading

1. English is a very important language for me.


2. English reading comprehension tests are too difficult for me
as a learner.
3. I have develop my skills covered by the English reading
comprehension tests.
4. Teaching strategies like dimensional approach helps me
improve my reading ability and comprehension in English.
5. Dimensional approach provides exercises that help a lot in
improving my reading comprehension, speed in oral reading
and word recognition.
6. I got high scores on reading comprehension tests after using
dimensional approach as technique in teaching reading.
7. I feel confident during reading comprehension tests in
English.
8. English teachers should use dimensional approach to raise
pupils self esteem before a reading comprehension test.
9. My marks are improving in reading comprehension, speed
in reading and word recognition tests with the use of
dimensional approach.
10. I easily understand the main idea of the text using
dimensional approach.

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