You are on page 1of 13

From: <Saved by Microsoft Internet Explorer 5>

Subject: How Cosmic Forces Shape Our Destinies


Date: Tue, 31 Jul 2001 08:43:45 -0400
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/related;
boundary="----=_NextPart_000_00ED_01C1199C.E8DEE980";
type="text/html"
X-MimeOLE: Produced By Microsoft MimeOLE V5.50.4522.1200
This is a multi-part message in MIME format.
------=_NextPart_000_00ED_01C1199C.E8DEE980
Content-Type: text/html;
charset="Windows-1252"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
Content-Location: http://www.tfcbooks.com/writings/cosmic_f.htm
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN">
<HTML><HEAD><TITLE>How Cosmic Forces Shape Our Destinies</TITLE>
<META http-equiv=3DContent-Type content=3D"text/html; =
charset=3Dwindows-1252">
<META content=3D"How Cosmic Forces Shape Our Destinies" =
name=3Ddescription>
<META content=3D"nikola tesla 1856-1943, how cosmic forces shape our =
destinies"=20
name=3Dkeywords>
<META content=3D"MSHTML 5.50.4522.1800" name=3DGENERATOR>
<META content=3DFrontPage.Editor.Document name=3DProgId></HEAD>
<BODY bgColor=3D#ffffff><!--webbot bot=3D"Include" =
u-include=3D"../_private/includes/navbar.htm" tag=3D"BODY" startspan
-->
<TABLE cellSpacing=3D0 cellPadding=3D0 width=3D600 border=3D0>
<TBODY>
<TR>
<TD vAlign=3Dcenter noWrap align=3Dmiddle width=3D600><IMG =
height=3D26=20
src=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/images/tfcb7.gif" =
width=3D352></TD></TR>
<TR>
<TD vAlign=3Dcenter noWrap align=3Dmiddle width=3D599><FONT =
face=3DArial size=3D2><A=20
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/default.htm">Home</A> | <A=20
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/mall/books.htm">Bookstore</A> =
|</FONT><FONT=20
face=3DArial color=3D#000080 size=3D2><STRONG> =
</STRONG></FONT><FONT face=3DArial=20
size=3D2><A=20
=
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/articles/newslett.htm">Newsletter</A> | =
<A=20
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/mainpage/teslafaq.htm">Tesla =
FAQ</A></FONT>=20
| <A href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/mainpage/glossary.htm"><FONT =
face=3DArial=20
size=3D2>Glossary</FONT></A><FONT face=3DArial size=3D2> | =
</FONT><FONT=20
face=3DArial size=3D2><A=20
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/mainpage/links.htm">Links</A> | =
</FONT><A=20
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/mainpage/site_map.htm"><FONT =

face=3DArial=20
size=3D2>Site Index</FONT></A><FONT face=3DArial size=3D2> | =
</FONT><A=20
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/search.asp"><FONT face=3DArial=20
size=3D2>Search</FONT></A></TD></TR>
<TR>
<TD vAlign=3Dcenter align=3Dmiddle width=3D600></TD></TR>
<TR>
<TD vAlign=3Dcenter align=3Dmiddle width=3D600></TD></TR>
<TR>
<TD vAlign=3Dcenter align=3Dmiddle width=3D600 colSpan=3D2><IMG =
height=3D3=20
src=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/images/beige11.gif" width=3D598=20
vspace=3D8></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><!--webbot bot=3D"Include" =
endspan i-checksum=3D"42007"
-->
<DIV align=3Dleft>
<TABLE cellSpacing=3D1 width=3D600 border=3D0 cellpadding-?0?>
<TBODY>
<TR>
<TD vAlign=3Dtop align=3Dleft width=3D607 bgColor=3D#ffffff>
<P align=3Dcenter><FONT face=3DArial size=3D3><STRONG>HOW COSMIC =
FORCES SHAPE=20
OUR DESTINIES</STRONG></FONT></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></DIV>
<DIV align=3Dleft>
<TABLE cellPadding=3D0 width=3D600 border=3D0>
<TBODY>
<TR>
<TD vAlign=3Dtop align=3Dleft></TD>
<TD vAlign=3Dtop noWrap align=3Dleft></TD>
<TD vAlign=3Dtop align=3Dleft></TD>
<TD vAlign=3Dtop noWrap align=3Dleft></TD></TR>
<TR>
<TD colSpan=3D4><IMG height=3D2=20
src=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/images/beige11.gif" width=3D597=20
vspace=3D2></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></DIV>
<DIV align=3Dleft>
<TABLE cellPadding=3D2 width=3D612 border=3D0>
<TBODY>
<TR>
<TD vAlign=3Dtop width=3D592><FONT face=3DArial size=3D2>
<P align=3Dcenter>("Did the War Cause the Italian Earthquake")</P>
<P align=3Dcenter>New York American, February 7, 1915</P>
<P>Every living being is an engine geared to the wheelwork of the=20
universe. Though seemingly affected only by its immediate =
surrounding, the=20
sphere of external influence extends to infinite distance. There =
is no=20
constellation or nebula, no sun or planet, in all the depths of =
limitless=20
space, no passing wanderer of the starry heaven, that does not =
exercise=20
some control over its destiny -- not in the vague and delusive =
sense of=20
astrology, but in the rigid and positive meaning of physical =
science.=20
<P>More than this can be said. There is no thing endowed with life =
-- from=20
man, who is enslaving the elements, to the humblest creature -- in =
all=20
this world that does not sway it in turn. Whenever action is born =

from=20
force, though it be infinitesimal, the cosmic balance is upset and =
universal motion result.=20
<P>Herbert Spencer has interpreted life as a continuous adjustment =
to the=20
environment, a definition of this inconceivably complex =
manifestation=20
quite in accord with advanced scientific thought, but, perhaps, =
not broad=20
enough to express our present views. With each step forward in the =
investigation of its laws and mysteries our conceptions of nature =
and its=20
phases have been gaining in depth and breadth.=20
<P>In the early stages of intellectual development man was =
conscious of=20
but a small part of the macrocosm. He knew nothing of the wonders =
of the=20
microscopic world, of the molecules composing if of the atoms =
making up=20
the molecules and of the dwindlingly small world of electrons =
within the=20
atoms. To him life was synonymous with voluntary motion and =
action. A=20
plant did not suggest to him what it does to us -- that it lives =
and=20
feels, fights for its existence, that it suffers and enjoys. Not =
only have=20
we found this to be true, but we have ascertained that even matter =
called=20
inorganic, believed to be dead, responds to irritants and gives=20
unmistakable evidence of the presence of a living principle =
within.=20
<P>Thus, everything that exists, organic or inorganic, animated or =
inert,=20
is susceptible to stimulus from the outside. There is no gap =
between, no=20
break of continuity, no special and distinguishing vital agent. =
The same=20
law governs all matter, all the universe is alive. The momentous =
question=20
of Spencer, "What is it that causes inorganic matter to run into =
organic=20
forms!" has been answered. It is the sun's heat and light. =
Wherever they=20
are there is life. Only in the boundless wastes of interstellar =
space, in=20
the eternal darkness and cold, is animation suspended, and, =
possibly, at=20
the temperature of absolute zero all matter may die.=20
<P>
<CENTER>MAN AS A MACHINE</CENTER>
<P>This realistic aspect of the perceptible universe, as a =
clockwork wound=20
up and running down, dispensing with the necessity of a =
hypermechanical=20
vital principle, need not be in discord with our religious and =
artistic=20
aspirations -- those <B>undefinable</B> and beautiful efforts =
through=20

which the human mind endeavors to free itself from material bonds. =
On the=20
contrary, the better understanding of nature, the consciousness =
that our=20
knowledge is true, can only be all the more elevating and =
inspiring.=20
<P>It was Descartes, the great French philosopher, who in the =
seventeenth=20
century, laid the first foundation to the mechanistic theory of =
life, not=20
a little assisted by Harvey's epochal discovery of blood =
circulation. He=20
held that animals were simply automata without consciousness and=20
recognized that man, though possessed of a higher and distinctive =
quality,=20
is incapable of action other than those characteristic of a =
machine. He=20
also made the first attempt to explain the physical mechanism of =
memory.=20
But in this time many functions of the human body were not as yet=20
understood, and in this respect some of his assumptions were =
erroneous.=20
<P>Great strides have since been made in the art of anatomy, =
physiology=20
and all branches of science, and the workings of the man-machine =
are now=20
perfectly clear. Yet the very fewest among us are able to trace =
their=20
actions to primary external causes. lt is indispensable to the =
arguments I=20
shall advance to keep in mind the main facts which I have myself=20
established in years of close reasoning and observation and which =
may be=20
summed up as follows:=20
<P>1. The human being is a self-propelled automaton entirely under =
the=20
control of external influences. Willful and predetermined though =
they=20
appear, his actions are governed not from within, but from =
without. He is=20
like a float tossed about by the waves of a turbulent sea.=20
<P>2. There is no memory or retentive faculty based on lasting =
impression.=20
What we designate as memory is but increased responsiveness to =
repeated=20
stimuli.=20
<P>3. It is not true, as Descartes taught, that the brain is an=20
accumulator. There is no permanent record in the brain, there is =
no stored=20
knowledge. Knowledge is something akin to an echo that needs a =
disturbance=20
to be called into being.=20
<P>4. All knowledge or form conception is evoked through the =
medium of the=20
eye, either in response to disturbances directly received on the =
retina or=20
to their fainter secondary effects and reverberations. Other sense =
organs=20
can only call forth feelings which have no reality of existence =
and of=20
which no conception can be formed=20

<P>5. Contrary to the most important tenet of Cartesian philosophy =


that=20
the perceptions of the mind are illusionary, the eye transmits to =
it the=20
true and accurate likeness of external things. This is because =
light=20
propagates in straight lines and the image cast on the retina is =
an exact=20
reproduction of the external form and one which, owing to the =
mechanism of=20
the optic nerve, can not be distorted in the transmission to the =
brain.=20
What is more, the process must be reversible, that in to say, a =
form=20
brought to consciousness can, by reflex action, reproduce the =
original=20
image on the retina just as an echo can reproduce the original =
disturbance=20
If this view is borne out by experiment an immense revolution in =
all human=20
relations and departments of activity will be the consequence.=20
<P>
<CENTER>NATURAL FORCES INFLUENCE US</CENTER>
<P>Accepting all this as true let us consider some of the forces =
and=20
influences which act on such a wonderfully complex automatic =
engine with=20
organs inconceivably sensitive and delicate, as it is carried by =
the=20
spinning terrestrial globe in lightning flight through space. For =
the sake=20
of simplicity we may assume that the earth's axis is perpendicular =
to the=20
ecliptic and that the human automaton is at the equator. Let his =
weight be=20
one hundred and sixty pounds then, at the rotational velocity of =
about=20
1,520 feet per second with which he is whirled around, the =
mechanical=20
energy stored in his body will be nearly 5,780,000 foot pounds, =
which is=20
about the energy of a hundred-pound cannon ball.=20
<P>This momentum is constant as well as upward centrifugal push, =
amounting=20
to about fifty-five hundredth of a pound, and both will probably =
be=20
without marked influence on his life functions. The sun, having a =
mass=20
332,000 times that of the earth, but being 23,000 times farther, =
will=20
attract the automaton with a force of about one-tenth of one =
pound,=20
alternately increasing and diminishing his normal weight by that =
amount=20
<P>Though not conscious of these periodic changes, he is surely =
affected=20
by them.=20
<P>The earth in its rotation around the sun carries him with the=20
prodigious speed of nineteen miles per second and the mechanical =
energy=20
imparted to him is over 25,160,000,000 foot pounds. The largest =

gun ever=20
made in Germany hurls a projectile weighing one ton with a muzzle =
velocity=20
of 3,700 feet per second, the energy being 429,000,000 foot =
pounds. Hence=20
the momentum of the automaton's body is nearly sixty times =
greater. It=20
would be sufficient to develop 762,400 horse-power for one minute, =
and if=20
the motion were suddenly arrested the body would be instantly =
exploded=20
with a force sufficient to carry a projectile weighing over sixty =
tons to=20
a distance of twenty-eight miles.=20
<P>This enormous energy is, however, not constant, but varies with =
the=20
position of the automaton in relation to the sun. The =
circumference of the=20
earth has a speed of 1,520 feet per second, which is either added =
to or=20
subtracted from the translatory velocity of nineteen miles through =
space.=20
Owing to this the energy will vary from twelve to twelve hours by =
an=20
amount approximately equal to 1,533,000,000 foot pounds, which =
means that=20
energy streams in some unknown way into and out of the body of the =
automaton at the rate of about sixty-four horse-power.=20
<P>But this is not all. The whole`solar system is urged towards =
the remote=20
constellation Hercules at a speed which some estimate at some =
twenty miles=20
per second and owing to this there should be similar annual =
changes in the=20
flux of energy, which may reach the appalling figure of over one =
hundred=20
billion foot pounds. All these varying and purely mechanical =
effects are=20
rendered more complex through the inclination of the orbital =
planes and=20
many other permanent or casual mass actions.=20
<P>This automaton, is, however subjected to other forces and =
influences.=20
His body is at the electric potential of two billion volts, which=20
fluctuates violently and incessantly. The whole earth is alive =
with=20
electrical vibrations in which he takes part. The atmosphere =
crushes him=20
with a pressure of from sixteen to twenty tons, according, to =
barometric=20
condition. He receives the energy of the sun's rays in varying =
intervals=20
at a mean rate of about forty foot pounds per second, and is =
subjected to=20
periodic bombardment of the sun's particles, which pass through =
his body=20
as if it were tissue paper. The air is rent with sounds which beat =
on his=20
eardrums, and he is shaken by the unceasing tremors of the earth's =
crust.=20

He is exposed to great temperature changes, to rain and wind.<BR>


<P>What wonder then that in such a terrible turmoil, in which cast =
iron=20
existence would seem impossible, this delicate human engine should =
act in=20
an exceptional manner? If all automata were in every respect alike =
they=20
would react in exactly the same way, but this is not the case. =
There is=20
concordance in response to those disturbances only which are most=20
frequently repeated, not to all. It is quite easy to provide two=20
electrical systems which, when subjected to the same influence, =
will=20
behave in just the opposite way.=20
<P>So also two human beings, and what is true of individuals also =
holds=20
good for their large aggregations. We all sleep periodically. This =
is not=20
an indispensable physiological necessity any more than stoppage at =
intervals is a requirement for an engine. It is merely a condition =
gradually imposed upon us by the diurnal revolution of the globe, =
and this=20
is one of the many evidences of the truth of the mechanistic =
theory. We=20
note a rhythm or ebb and tide, in ideas and opinions, in financial =
and=20
political movements, in every department of our intellectual =
activity.=20
<P>
<CENTER>HOW WARS ARE STARTED</CENTER>
<P>It only shows that in all this a physical system of mass =
inertia is=20
involved which affords a further striking proof. If we accept the =
theory=20
as a fundamental truth and, furthermore, extend the limits of our =
sense=20
perceptions beyond those within which we become conscious of the =
external=20
impressions, then all the states in human life, however unusual, =
can be=20
plausibly explained. A few examples may be given in illustration.=20
<P>The eye responds only to light vibrations through a certain =
rather=20
narrow range, but the limits are not sharply defined. It is also =
affected=20
by vibrations beyond, only in lesser degree. A person may thus =
become=20
aware of the presence of another in darkness, or through =
intervening=20
obstacles, and people laboring under illusions ascribe this to =
telepathy.=20
Such transmission of thought is absurdly impossible.=20
<P>The trained observer notes without difficulty that these =
phenomena are=20
due to suggestion or coincidence. The same may be said of oral=20
impressions, to which musical and imitative people are especially=20
susceptible. A person possessing these qualities will often =
respond to=20
mechanical shocks or vibrations which are inaudible.=20

<P>To mention another instance of momentary interest reference may =


be made=20
to dancing, which comprises certain harmonious muscular =
contractions and=20
contortions of the body in response to a rhythm. How they come to =
be in=20
vogue just now, can be satisfactorily explained by supposing the =
existence=20
of some new periodic disturbances in the environment, which are=20
transmitted through the air or the ground and may be of =
mechanical,=20
electrical or other character.=20
<P>Exactly so it is with wars, revolutions and similar exceptional =
states=20
of society.=20
<P>Though it may seem so, a war can never be caused by arbitrary =
acts of=20
man.=20
<P>It is invariably the more or less direct result of cosmic =
disturbance=20
in which the sun is chiefly concerned.=20
<P>In many international conflicts of historical record which were =
precipitated by famine, pestilence or terrestrial catastrophes the =
direct=20
dependence of the sun is unmistakable. But in most cases the =
underlying=20
primary causes are numerous and hard to trace.=20
<P>In the present war it would be particularly difficult to show =
that the=20
apparently willful acts of a few individuals were not causative. =
Be it so,=20
the mechanistic theory, being founded on truth demonstrated in =
everyday=20
experience, absolutely precludes the possibility of such a state =
being=20
anything but the inevitable consequence of cosmic disturbance.=20
<P>The question naturally presents itself as to whether there is =
some=20
intimate relation between wars and terrestrial upheavals. The =
latter are=20
of decided influence on temperament and disposition, and might at =
times be=20
instrumental in accelerating the clash but aside from this there =
seems to=20
be no mutual dependence, though both may be due to the same =
primary cause.=20
<P>What can be asserted with perfect confidence is that the earth =
may be=20
thrown into convulsions through mechanical effects such as are =
produced in=20
modern warfare. This statement may be startling, but it admits of =
a simple=20
explanation.=20
<P>Earthquakes are principally due to two causes -- subterranean=20
explosions or structural adjustments. The former are called =
volcanic,=20
involve immense energy and are hard to start. The latter are named =

tectonic; their energy is comparatively insignificant and they can =


be=20

caused by the slightest shock or tremor. The frequent slides in =

the=20

Culebra are displacements of this kind.=20


<P>
<CENTER>WAR AND THE EARTHQUAKE</CENTER>
<P>Theoretically, it may be said that one might think of a =
tectonic=20
earthquake and cause it to occur as a result of the thought, for =
just=20
preceding the release the mass may be in the most delicate =
balance. There=20
is a popular error in regard to the energy of such displacements. =
In a=20
case recently reported as quite extraordinary, extending as it did =
over a=20
vast territory, the energy was estimated at 65,000,000,000,000 =
foot tons.=20
Assuming even that the whole work was performed in one minute it =
would=20
only be equivalent to that of 7,500,000 horse-power during one =
year, which=20
seems much, but is little for a terrestrial upheaval. The energy =
of the=20
sun's rays falling on the same area is a thousand times greater.=20
<P>The explosions of mines, torpedoes, mortars and guns develop =
reactive=20
forces on the ground which are measured in hundreds or even =
thousands of=20
tons and make themselves felt all over the globe. Their effect, =
however,=20
may be enormously magnified by resonance. The earth is a sphere of =
a=20
rigidity slightly greater than that of steel and vibrates once in =
about=20
one hour and forty-nine minutes.=20
<P>If, as might well be possible, the concussions happen to be =
properly=20
timed their combined action could start tectonic adjustments in =
any part=20
of the earth, and the Italian calamity may thus have been the =
result of=20
explosions in France. That man can produce such terrestrial =
convulsions is=20
beyond any doubt, and the time may be near when it will be done =
for=20
purposes good or apt.</FONT></P></TD></TR>
<TR><A name=3D317-NTCP>
<TD vAlign=3Dtop align=3Dleft></TD>
<TD vAlign=3Dtop></TD></A></TR></TBODY></TABLE></DIV>
<DIV align=3Dleft>
<TABLE cellPadding=3D3 width=3D600 border=3D0>
<TBODY>
<TR>
<TD width=3D25><IMG height=3D1 hspace=3D12=20
src=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/images/clear1px.gif" width=3D1 =
vspace=3D10=20
border=3D0></TD>
<TD vAlign=3Dtop align=3Dleft></TD>
<TD align=3Dright></TD></TR>

<TR>
<TD width=3D25><IMG height=3D1 alt=3D"1pixclear.gif (44 bytes)"=20
src=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/images/clear1px.gif" width=3D1 =
vspace=3D3></TD>
<TD vAlign=3Dtop align=3Dleft width=3D275><A=20
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/writings/cosmic_f.htm"><FONT =
face=3DArial=20
size=3D2><STRONG>Top</STRONG></FONT></A><FONT face=3DArial =
size=3D2><STRONG> |=20
<A =
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/writings/machine.htm">Next&nbsp;=20
Article</A> | <I><A=20
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/writings/contents.htm">Tesla=20
Articles</A></I><A =
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/writings/contents.htm">=20
Index</A></STRONG></FONT></TD>
<TD align=3Dright =
width=3D300></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></DIV><!--webbot bot=3D"Include" =
u-include=3D"../_private/includes/bottom1.htm" tag=3D"BODY" startspan
-->
<DIV align=3Dleft>
<TABLE cellPadding=3D2 width=3D600 border=3D0>
<TBODY>
<TR>
<TD width=3D20><IMG height=3D1 hspace=3D12=20
src=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/images/clear1px.gif" width=3D1 =
vspace=3D1></TD>
<TD>
<P align=3Dcenter><IMG height=3D2=20
src=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/images/beige11.gif" width=3D500=20
vspace=3D1></P></TD></TR>
<TR>
<TD></TD>
<TD>
<P align=3Dcenter><FONT face=3DArial size=3D2><A=20
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/default.htm">Home</A> | <A=20
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/mall/books.htm">Bookstore</A> =
|</FONT><FONT=20
face=3DArial color=3D#000080 size=3D2><STRONG> =
</STRONG></FONT><FONT face=3DArial=20
size=3D2><A=20
=
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/articles/newslett.htm">Newsletter</A> | =
<A=20
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/mainpage/teslafaq.htm">Tesla =
FAQ</A> |=20
</FONT><A =
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/mainpage/glossary.htm"><FONT=20
face=3DArial size=3D2>Glossary</FONT></A><FONT face=3DArial =
size=3D2> |=20
</FONT><FONT face=3DArial size=3D2><A=20
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/mainpage/links.htm">Links</A> | =
</FONT><A=20
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/mainpage/site_map.htm"><FONT =
face=3DArial=20
size=3D2>Site Index</FONT></A><FONT face=3DArial size=3D2> | =
</FONT><A=20
href=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/search.asp"><FONT face=3DArial=20
size=3D2>Search</FONT></A></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></DIV>
<DIV align=3Dleft>
<TABLE cellPadding=3D2 width=3D600 border=3D0>

10

<TBODY>
<TR>
<TD><IMG height=3D1 hspace=3D12=20
src=3D"http://www.tfcbooks.com/images/clear1px.gif" width=3D1 =
vspace=3D10=20
border=3D0></TD>
<TD></TD>
<TD></TD>
<TD></TD>
<TD></TD></TR>
<TR>
<TD></TD>
<TD></TD>
<TD>
<P align=3Dcenter><A href=3D"mailto:glpeterson@tfcbooks.com"><FONT =
face=3DArial=20
size=3D2><STRONG>E-Mail</STRONG></FONT></A></P>
<P align=3Dcenter><FONT face=3DArial size=3D2><B>Twenty First =
Century=20
Books</B><BR>Post Office Box 2001<BR>Breckenridge, CO=20
80424-2001</FONT></P>
<P align=3Dcenter><FONT face=3DArial size=3D1>=A9 1998-2001 Twenty =
First Century=20
Books<BR>All Rights Reserved</FONT></P>
<P>&nbsp;</P></TD>
<TD></TD>
<TD></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></DIV><!--webbot bot=3D"Include" =
endspan i-checksum=3D"48022"
--></BODY></HTML>
------=_NextPart_000_00ED_01C1199C.E8DEE980
Content-Type: image/gif
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Location: http://www.tfcbooks.com/images/tfcb7.gif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11
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==
------=_NextPart_000_00ED_01C1199C.E8DEE980
Content-Type: image/gif
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Location: http://www.tfcbooks.com/images/beige11.gif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------=_NextPart_000_00ED_01C1199C.E8DEE980
Content-Type: image/gif
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Location: http://www.tfcbooks.com/images/clear1px.gif
R0lGODlhAQABAPcAAAAAAMDAwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACH5BAEAAAEALAAAAAABAAEA
AAgEAAMEBAA7

12

------=_NextPart_000_00ED_01C1199C.E8DEE980--

13