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Industrial Automation

Automation Industrielle
Industrielle Automation

Control System Architecture


Architecture de Contrle - Commande

1.5 Control System Architecture

1 Introduction
1.1

Automation and its importance

1.2

Applications of automation

1.3

Plants and controls


1.3.1

Open loop and closed loop control

1.3.2

Continuous process

1.3.3

Discrete process

133
1.3.3

D l plants
Dual
l t

1.4

Automation hierarchy

15
1.5

C t lS
Control
System
t
Architecture
A hit t

Principle

The control system has to suit the plant, not the reverse
The structure of the control system should reflects that of the plant
Ideally, each unit of the plant should have its own controller,
interacting with the controllers of the other, related units,
mirroring their physical interaction
interaction.
Example: Airbus: a wing is delivered with its own computers.

Busses and processors in industrial plants


instrument bus
(mimic board)
Operator panel
Mimic board

disk

Process pictures

open network, WAN

Process Data Base

workstation bus
station

station

Logging

plant bus (500m .. 3 km)

pool

PLC nodes
(multi-processors)

P
node bus

I/O MEM I/O

MEM BC

directly coupled
input/
output

fieldbus (30m..2 km)

control
stations

backplane bus
sensor bus

sensor bus (0,5.. 30 m)


transducers
plant (Werk, usine)

M
valve

thermo couple
thermo-couple

position

motor

Example: Printing Architecture

Example: Production management system


production
planning

enterprise network
scheduling

maintenance

quality control

plant network
ttransportation
t ti
cell control

cell

manufacturing
f t i
cell control

floor network
robot
controller

milling
machine

rail-guided
vehicle

Example: Power plant control - 1980 (!)

Control systems look similar

Example: Honeywell TotalPlant (2003 same structure)

Example: Rockwell (Allen-Bradley) NetLinx


Programmable
Device
Support PC

Desktop PC
with excel

EtherNet / IP
Controller and Bridge

Servo

ControlNet

Linking Device

HMI

Bridge or Linking Device


Drive

HMI

DeviceNet

Modular
I/O

509 -BOD
24vdc

Micro
PLC

Sensor
Block I/O

Example: Emerson's PlantWeb (Delta V)

Plant Network / Intranet

Example: ABB Industrial IT (redundant system)


Workplaces
(clients)

Enterprise
Optimization
(clients)

3rd party
application
server

Firewall

Mobile
Operator

Client/server Network
connectivity
ti it
server

aspectt
server

application
li ti
server

engineering
i
i
workplace

Control Network
Serial, OPC
or fieldbus

Field Bus
3rd party
controllers,
servers etc

Redundant
AC 800M

Programmable
Logic Controller
AC 800C
Field Bus

touch-screen

The internet dimension (example: Alstom)

The wireless dimension (example: Schneider)

No more wires, but the structure remains

A real substation project


HP Color
Laserjet

Operator's Workstation 1

Printer Server 1

Global Position
System

Engineering Workstation

Operator's Workstation 2

PTUSK Scope

to
Central Station

Disturbance Recorder
Evalution Station

132kV FOX
Equipment

Alarm and
Event Printer 1
LA36W

11kV analog Ether 132kV analog


Input
net
Input

Printer Server 2

Telephon
Modem
Verbindung zu E4

Alarm and
Event Printer 2
LA36W

o/e

LAN-Interface
to LV SCMS
Repeater

Redundant Station LAN TCP-IP

GPS
Master

Repeater

Front-End Station
Computer 1
Service
Modem

11kV Modem 132kV Modem


NSK
NSK

Front-End Station
Computer 2

HP Color

Fallback
Switch

Station Alarm Unit

RS232

Laserjet

Station Alarm Unit


LDC Interface
LDCs
I t f
from
f
Station
St ti Computer
C
t 2 IEC870-5-101
IEC870 5 101
LDCs Interface from Station Computer 1 IEC870-5-101

Manual
Switch

4 x Star Coupler
RER111 including
redundant
power supply

FO

Fibre optic station bus (LON) in star configuration

Main 2

Line distance prot.


REL316*4

Bay control
B
t l unitit
REC316*4

500RIO11 , 16DI

3Ph andd neutral


t l OC
SPAJ140C

Control

Differential
Diff
ti l protection
t ti
RET316*4

Bay control
B
t l unitit
REC316*4

SPAJ110C Tertiary

Earth fault
Prot.

Bay control
B
t l unitit
REC316*4

AVR and tap control


T1 type REGSys

Analog
A
l alarm
l
unitit
SACO16A3

BBP/BFP Central unit

REB500

AVR and tap control


T2 type REGSys

EF and OC
SPAJ110C

SACO16A3 R

SPAJ110C

Main 1
SACO16A3 R

Protection

SACO16A3 R

Stand by
earth fault
overcurrent
Prot.

Phase and

SPAJ140C neutral

SPAU140C

overcurrent
Prot.

Synchro-

SPAJ110C Neutral

Analog alarm unit


SACO16A3

earth fault
Prot.

AVR and tap control


T3 type REGSys

10 x BBP/BFP Bay unit


REB500

Siemens 7SD610 fr
E19 Verbindung

B69
berstrom

Bay control unit


Pilot wire diff. prot.
(loose delivery)
SOLKOR R/Rf.
4 x 132kV Cable Line

SPAJ110C

Bay control unit


(loose delivery)
(loose delivery)
1 x 132kV Bus Coupler

Earth fault
overcurrent
Prot.

SPAJ115C

10 x 132kV

4 x 11kV

6 x 500RIO11 DI

SACO64D4 Auxiliary alarm unit

SPAJ115C Restricted

earth fault
Protection

SACO64D4 Auxiliary alarm unit

check

o/e

Fault Monitoring System


Indactic I650

AVR and tap control


T4 type REGSys
Restricted
earth fault
Protection

132kV Side
(loose delivery)
4 x 132/11kV Transformer Feeder

SACO64D4 Auxiliary alarm unit

1 x 500RIO11 DO

1 x spare
SACO64D4 Auxiliary alarm unit

11kV Side

Coaxial cable

(loose delivery)
Trafo Interlocking

AVR & Tap Control

132kV BBP / BFP

132kV Common Alarm

FMS Fault Monitoring System

SAS5570 Advanced
Substation A
Automation System

Bay control
B
t l unitit
REC316*4

Centralized Control Architecture (classical)

Central Computer
(
(Mainframe)
)

Group

Group

Group

Control

Control

Control

Sensors, Actors

plant

Classical, hierarchical, centralized architecture.


The central computer only monitors and forwards commands to the PLCs

PLCs

Decentralized Control System (DCS)

engineering
workstation

operator
workstation

data logger

plant bus
controller

controller

controller

controller

field bus

plant
l t
all controllers can communicate as peers (without going through a central master),
restricted only by throughput and modularity considerations.
Note: Honeywell
Honeywell's
s "DCS"
DCS
stands for "Distributed
Distributed Control System"
System , it is not a decentralized control system,
system but
a control system for the process industry.

Hierarchies are
simple
i l and
d traditional
t diti
l

but Distributed Control


Systems reflects a more
complex world....

Assessment
1. Draw a typical hierarchical control system showing busses and controllers
2. How does the network hierarchy relate to the plant control hierarchy ?
3. What is the difference between a centralized and a decentralized control system ?
(can this difference be seen from the outside ?)

Questions and Comments