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NOTES, EXAMPLES & EXERCISE
2.1 Quadratic Equation and Its Roots
1. The genaral form of quadratics equation is ax2 + bx + c = 0, where a, b and c are
constants, with the condition a 0 and x is an unknown.
Example 1 : Express each of the following in the general form.
( x + 1 ) 2 = 16
Solution :
( x + 1 ) 2 = 16
x2 + 2x + 1 =16
x2 + 2x + 1 16 = 0
x2 + 2x 15 = 0

Exercise 2.1
1. Express the following equation in the general form ax2 + bx + c = 0. Then , state the values
of a, b and c.
(a) x2 6x = 3
(b) ( x 4 ) 2 = 1
2.
x cm
(x + 4 ) cm
The diagram above shows a rectangle with sides (x + 4 ) cm and x cm. Give that the area
of the rectangle is 60 cm2, find the value of x .
1. A quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 can be solved by
(a) Factorisation
(b) completing the square
(C)using a formula
2. The formula for finding the roots of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 is
2

x=

b b 4ac
2a
-1-

## 3. Using S.O.R. and P.O.R. a quadratic equation can be written as

x2 ( S.O.R ) x + ( P.O.R ) = 0 where
S.O.R = sum of roots
P.O.R = product of roots
4. For the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 ,
S.O.R = -

b
c
and P.O.R =
a
a

## Example 2 : Solve the following quadratic equation by factorisation.

x2 + 7x + 10 = 0
Solution :
x2 + 7x + 10 = 0
(x + 2 ) ( x + 5 ) = 0
x= -2 or x = -5

## Example 3 : Solve the following quadratic equation by quadratic formula.

3x2 + 6x + 2 = 0
Solution :
a=3 , b=6 , c=2
2

6 6 4(3)(2)
x=
2(3)
x =

- 6 12
6

x = -0.4226 or -1.577

## Example 4 : Solve the following quadratic equation by completing the square.

x2 + 8x 6 = 0
Solution :
x2 + 8x 6 = 0
x2 + 8x
= 6
2
(x+4)
= 6 + 42
x+4
= 22
x
= -4 22
x
= 0.6904 or -8.6904

-2-

## Example 5 : Form a quadratic equation with the roots -2 and 4 .

Solution :
S.O.R = -2 + 4 = 2
P.O.R = -2 4 = -8
x2 ( S.O.R ) x + ( P.O.R ) = 0
x2 ( 2 ) x + ( -8 ) = 0
x2 2x -8 = 0

Example 6 : If m and n are the roots of the equation 2x2 + 8x 3 = 0 , form the equation
whose roots are 2m and 2n .
Solution :
If m and n are the roots of the equation 2x2 + 8x 3 = 0 , then
b
a
8
=2

c
a
3
=2

m+n=-

mn =

=-4
For the roots 2m and 2n ,
Sum of roots = 2m + 2n
= 2 (m + n)

= 4mn

= 2 (-4)

= 4 (-

= -8

=-6

3
)
2

## Therefore, the equation which has roots 2m and 2n is :

x2 (sum of roots) x + product of roots = 0
x2 (-8 ) x + ( -6 ) = 0
x2 + 8x 6 = 0

Exercise 2.2
1. Solve the following quadratic equations by factorisation.
(a) x2 5x + 4 = 0
(b) 2x2 = 11x + 6
2. Solve the following quadratic equations by completing the square.
(a) x2 x 3 = 0
(b) 2x2 + 6x + 3 = 0
(a) x2 2x 4 = 0

-3-

## 4. Form the quadratic equations which roots are :

(a) 1 , 7

1
2

(b) 4 ,

5. Given that m and n are roots of the quadratic equation 2x2 11x 6 = 0 , form a quadratic
equation with roots 3m and 3n .
2.3 Types of the Roots of the Quadratic Equation
1. The conditions for the nature of the roots of quadratic equations are
( a ) two real and distinct roots : b2 4ac > 0
( b ) two real and equal roots : b2 4ac = 0
( c ) no real roots : b2 4ac < 0
( d ) two real roots : b2 4ac 0
2. ( a ) If a straight line intersects a curve at two distinct points, the condition
b2 4ac > 0 is applied.
( b ) If a straight line touches a curve at only one point, the condition b2 4ac = 0
is applied.
( c ) If a straight line does not meet a curve, the condition b2 4ac < 0 is applied.
b2 4ac > 0

b2 4ac = 0

## Two real and distinct Two real and equal

roots
roots

b2 4ac < 0
No real roots

b2 4ac 0
Two real roots

Example 7 : Determine the types of roots for the following quadratic equation.
x2 12x + 27 = 0
Solution :
x2 12x + 27 = 0
a = 1 , b = -12 , c = 27
b2 4ac = (-12) 2 4 (1) (27)
= 144 108
= 36 > 0
2
Thus, x -12x + 27 = 0 has two distinct roots
-4-

Example 8 : The quadratic equation x2 2px + 25 = 0 has two equal roots. Find the value
of p .
Solution :
x2 - 2px + 25 = 0
a = 1 , b = -2p , c = 25
Using b2 4ac = 0
(-2p)2 4(1)(25) = 0
4p2 100 = 0
4p2
= 100
2
p
= 25
p
= 5

Exercise 2.3
1. Determine the types of roots for each of the following quadratic equations.
(a) x2 + 9x + 3 = 0
(b) x2 12x + 36 = 0
2. Find the values of k for each of the following quadratic equations which has equal roots.
(a)
x2 kx + 36 = 0
(b)
4x2 + 12x + k = 0
3. Find the range of values of h for each of the following quadratic equations which has no
roots.
(a) x2 + 2x + h 2 = 0
(b) (h+1)x2 + 8x + 6 = 0
4. The quadratic equation x2 + 2nx 16 = 0 has two different roots. Find the range of values
of n .
5. The quadratic equation 9k + 6kx + ( k + 1 )x2 = 2 has two different roots. Find the range
of values of k.
SPM FOCUS PRACTICE
PAPER 1
1. Solve the quadratic equation x ( x 4 ) = ( x 1 ) ( 2 x ). Give your answer correct to
four significant figures.
2. The quadratic equation x ( x + p ) = 2x 4 has two different roots. Find the range of values
of p .
3. Form the quadratic equation which has roots 2 and
ax2 + bx + c = 0, where a , b and c are constants.
-5-

1
3

PAPER 2
1. Given that the x-axis is the tangent to the curve x2 + 3px + 9q2 = 0, find p in terms of q .
2. Given p and q are the roots of the quadratic equation x2 mx + 6 = 0 while 2p and 2q are
the roots of the quadratics equation 2x2 + 20x + n = 0 . Find the values of m and n .
3. The quadratic equation x2 + ( r + 3 ) x + t2 = 0 has two equal roots.
(a) Show that r = 2t 3
(b) Hence, determine the root if r = 3 .
PAST YEAR QUESTION
1. Given that 1 and h are roots of the quadratic equation ( 3x 1 ) ( x 2 ) = p ( x 1 ) ,
where p is a constant, find the values of h and p . ( 2001 P1 Q4 )
2. Solve the quadratic equation 2x (x 4 ) = ( 1 x ) ( x + 2 ) . Give your answer to four
significant figures.
( 2003 P1 Q3 )
3. From the quadratic equation which has the roots 3 and
ax2 + bx + c = 0 , where a, b and c are constants.

1
2

( 2004 P1 Q4 )

## 4. Solve the quadratic equation x ( 2x 5 ) = 2x 1. Give your answer correct to three

decimal places.
( 2005 P1 Q5 )
Exercise 2.1
4. n < -4 or n > 4
2
1.(a) x2 6x 3 = 0 ; a =1 , b = -6 , c = -3
5. k <
2
(b) x 8x + 15 = 0 ; a =1 , b =-8 , c = 15
7
2. x = 6
SPM Focus Practice (Paper 1)
Exercise 2.2
1. x = 3.186 or 0.3139
1
2. p > 6 or p < -2
1. (a) 1 , 4
(b) 6 , 3. 3x2 + 5x 2 = 0
2
2. (a) 1.303 , 2.303 (b)2.366 , -0.634
Paper 2
3. (a) 1.236 , 3.236 (b) 0.880 , 3.786
1. p = 2q
4. (a) x2 8x +7 =0
(b) 2x2 9x + 4 = 0
2. m = -5 , n = 48
5. 2x2 33x 54 = 0
3. (b) x = - 3
Exercise 2.3
Past Year Question
1. (a) Two different roots
4
1. p = -6 h =
(b) Two equal roots
3
2. (a) k = 12
(b) k = 9
2. x = 2.591 or -0.2573
5
3. 2x2 + 5x 3 = 0
3. (a) h > 3
(b) h >
4. x = 8.153 or 0.149
3
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