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You are on page 1of 6

DATE

: ______________________________

: ______________________________

NOTES, EXAMPLES & EXERCISE

2 : QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

2.1 Quadratic Equation and Its Roots

1. The genaral form of quadratics equation is ax2 + bx + c = 0, where a, b and c are

constants, with the condition a 0 and x is an unknown.

Example 1 : Express each of the following in the general form.

( x + 1 ) 2 = 16

Solution :

( x + 1 ) 2 = 16

x2 + 2x + 1 =16

x2 + 2x + 1 16 = 0

x2 + 2x 15 = 0

Exercise 2.1

1. Express the following equation in the general form ax2 + bx + c = 0. Then , state the values

of a, b and c.

(a) x2 6x = 3

(b) ( x 4 ) 2 = 1

2.

x cm

(x + 4 ) cm

The diagram above shows a rectangle with sides (x + 4 ) cm and x cm. Give that the area

of the rectangle is 60 cm2, find the value of x .

2.2 Solving a Quadratic Equation

1. A quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 can be solved by

(a) Factorisation

(b) completing the square

(C)using a formula

2. The formula for finding the roots of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 is

2

x=

b b 4ac

2a

-1-

x2 ( S.O.R ) x + ( P.O.R ) = 0 where

S.O.R = sum of roots

P.O.R = product of roots

4. For the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 ,

S.O.R = -

b

c

and P.O.R =

a

a

x2 + 7x + 10 = 0

Solution :

x2 + 7x + 10 = 0

(x + 2 ) ( x + 5 ) = 0

x= -2 or x = -5

3x2 + 6x + 2 = 0

Solution :

a=3 , b=6 , c=2

2

6 6 4(3)(2)

x=

2(3)

x =

- 6 12

6

x = -0.4226 or -1.577

x2 + 8x 6 = 0

Solution :

x2 + 8x 6 = 0

x2 + 8x

= 6

2

(x+4)

= 6 + 42

x+4

= 22

x

= -4 22

x

= 0.6904 or -8.6904

-2-

Solution :

S.O.R = -2 + 4 = 2

P.O.R = -2 4 = -8

The quadratic equation is :

x2 ( S.O.R ) x + ( P.O.R ) = 0

x2 ( 2 ) x + ( -8 ) = 0

x2 2x -8 = 0

Example 6 : If m and n are the roots of the equation 2x2 + 8x 3 = 0 , form the equation

whose roots are 2m and 2n .

Solution :

If m and n are the roots of the equation 2x2 + 8x 3 = 0 , then

b

a

8

=2

c

a

3

=2

m+n=-

mn =

=-4

For the roots 2m and 2n ,

Sum of roots = 2m + 2n

= 2 (m + n)

= 4mn

= 2 (-4)

= 4 (-

= -8

=-6

3

)

2

x2 (sum of roots) x + product of roots = 0

x2 (-8 ) x + ( -6 ) = 0

x2 + 8x 6 = 0

Exercise 2.2

1. Solve the following quadratic equations by factorisation.

(a) x2 5x + 4 = 0

(b) 2x2 = 11x + 6

2. Solve the following quadratic equations by completing the square.

(a) x2 x 3 = 0

(b) 2x2 + 6x + 3 = 0

3. Solve the following quadratic equations by using the quadratic formula..

(a) x2 2x 4 = 0

-3-

(a) 1 , 7

1

2

(b) 4 ,

5. Given that m and n are roots of the quadratic equation 2x2 11x 6 = 0 , form a quadratic

equation with roots 3m and 3n .

2.3 Types of the Roots of the Quadratic Equation

1. The conditions for the nature of the roots of quadratic equations are

( a ) two real and distinct roots : b2 4ac > 0

( b ) two real and equal roots : b2 4ac = 0

( c ) no real roots : b2 4ac < 0

( d ) two real roots : b2 4ac 0

2. ( a ) If a straight line intersects a curve at two distinct points, the condition

b2 4ac > 0 is applied.

( b ) If a straight line touches a curve at only one point, the condition b2 4ac = 0

is applied.

( c ) If a straight line does not meet a curve, the condition b2 4ac < 0 is applied.

b2 4ac > 0

b2 4ac = 0

roots

roots

b2 4ac < 0

No real roots

b2 4ac 0

Two real roots

Example 7 : Determine the types of roots for the following quadratic equation.

x2 12x + 27 = 0

Solution :

x2 12x + 27 = 0

a = 1 , b = -12 , c = 27

b2 4ac = (-12) 2 4 (1) (27)

= 144 108

= 36 > 0

2

Thus, x -12x + 27 = 0 has two distinct roots

-4-

Example 8 : The quadratic equation x2 2px + 25 = 0 has two equal roots. Find the value

of p .

Solution :

x2 - 2px + 25 = 0

a = 1 , b = -2p , c = 25

Using b2 4ac = 0

(-2p)2 4(1)(25) = 0

4p2 100 = 0

4p2

= 100

2

p

= 25

p

= 5

Exercise 2.3

1. Determine the types of roots for each of the following quadratic equations.

(a) x2 + 9x + 3 = 0

(b) x2 12x + 36 = 0

2. Find the values of k for each of the following quadratic equations which has equal roots.

(a)

x2 kx + 36 = 0

(b)

4x2 + 12x + k = 0

3. Find the range of values of h for each of the following quadratic equations which has no

roots.

(a) x2 + 2x + h 2 = 0

(b) (h+1)x2 + 8x + 6 = 0

4. The quadratic equation x2 + 2nx 16 = 0 has two different roots. Find the range of values

of n .

5. The quadratic equation 9k + 6kx + ( k + 1 )x2 = 2 has two different roots. Find the range

of values of k.

SPM FOCUS PRACTICE

PAPER 1

1. Solve the quadratic equation x ( x 4 ) = ( x 1 ) ( 2 x ). Give your answer correct to

four significant figures.

2. The quadratic equation x ( x + p ) = 2x 4 has two different roots. Find the range of values

of p .

3. Form the quadratic equation which has roots 2 and

ax2 + bx + c = 0, where a , b and c are constants.

-5-

1

. Give your answer in the form

3

PAPER 2

1. Given that the x-axis is the tangent to the curve x2 + 3px + 9q2 = 0, find p in terms of q .

2. Given p and q are the roots of the quadratic equation x2 mx + 6 = 0 while 2p and 2q are

the roots of the quadratics equation 2x2 + 20x + n = 0 . Find the values of m and n .

3. The quadratic equation x2 + ( r + 3 ) x + t2 = 0 has two equal roots.

(a) Show that r = 2t 3

(b) Hence, determine the root if r = 3 .

PAST YEAR QUESTION

1. Given that 1 and h are roots of the quadratic equation ( 3x 1 ) ( x 2 ) = p ( x 1 ) ,

where p is a constant, find the values of h and p . ( 2001 P1 Q4 )

2. Solve the quadratic equation 2x (x 4 ) = ( 1 x ) ( x + 2 ) . Give your answer to four

significant figures.

( 2003 P1 Q3 )

3. From the quadratic equation which has the roots 3 and

ax2 + bx + c = 0 , where a, b and c are constants.

1

. Give your answer in the form

2

( 2004 P1 Q4 )

decimal places.

( 2005 P1 Q5 )

ANSWERS

Exercise 2.1

4. n < -4 or n > 4

2

1.(a) x2 6x 3 = 0 ; a =1 , b = -6 , c = -3

5. k <

2

(b) x 8x + 15 = 0 ; a =1 , b =-8 , c = 15

7

2. x = 6

SPM Focus Practice (Paper 1)

Exercise 2.2

1. x = 3.186 or 0.3139

1

2. p > 6 or p < -2

1. (a) 1 , 4

(b) 6 , 3. 3x2 + 5x 2 = 0

2

2. (a) 1.303 , 2.303 (b)2.366 , -0.634

Paper 2

3. (a) 1.236 , 3.236 (b) 0.880 , 3.786

1. p = 2q

4. (a) x2 8x +7 =0

(b) 2x2 9x + 4 = 0

2. m = -5 , n = 48

5. 2x2 33x 54 = 0

3. (b) x = - 3

Exercise 2.3

Past Year Question

1. (a) Two different roots

4

1. p = -6 h =

(b) Two equal roots

3

2. (a) k = 12

(b) k = 9

2. x = 2.591 or -0.2573

5

3. 2x2 + 5x 3 = 0

3. (a) h > 3

(b) h >

4. x = 8.153 or 0.149

3

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