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Discrete Math Predicate Logic

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and Applications

COT3100

Prof: A. Ungor

Foundations of

Logic: Overview

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Basic definitions.

Predicates.

Quantified predicate expressions.

Equivalences & derivations.

Nested Quantifiers

2

Predicate Logic

Predicate logic is an extension of propositional logic

that permits concisely reasoning about whole classes

of entities.

E.g., x>1, x+y=10

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the values of the variables are not specified.

Applications of

Predicate Logic

clear, concise, and unambiguous

mathematical definitions, axioms, and theorems

for any branch of mathematics.

database query engines.

other Artificial Intelligence systems.

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Subjects and

Predicates

The proposition

The dog is sleeping

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that the sentence is about.

the subject can have.

Propositional

Functions

objects to propositions.

x=a is the proposition P(a).

then P(3) is the proposition 3 is greater than 1.

is not a proposition (not a complete sentence).

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Propositional

Functions

functions of any number of arguments.

! !

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Universe of

Discourse

is called xs universe of discourse.

we could define the course of universe as the set of

integers.

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Quantifier

Expressions

Quantifiers allow us to quantify (count) how many

objects in the universe of discourse satisfy a given

predicate:

!

x P(x) means for all x in the u.d., P holds.

x P(x) means there exists an x in the u.d. (that

! is, one or more) such that P(x) is true.

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Universal Quantifier

: Example

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10

Universal Quantifier

: Example

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10

Universal Quantifier

: Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

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10

Universal Quantifier

: Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The universal quantification of P(x),

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10

Universal Quantifier

: Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The universal quantification of P(x),

x P(x), is the proposition:

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10

Universal Quantifier

: Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The universal quantification of P(x),

x P(x), is the proposition:

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10

Universal Quantifier

: Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The universal quantification of P(x),

x P(x), is the proposition:

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Every parking space at UF is full. or

10

Universal Quantifier

: Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The universal quantification of P(x),

x P(x), is the proposition:

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Every parking space at UF is full. or

For each parking space at UF, that space is full.

10

The Universal

Quantifier

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11

The Universal

Quantifier

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11

The Universal

Quantifier

counterexample (i.e., one value of x in the

universe of discourse such that P(x) is false)

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11

The Universal

Quantifier

counterexample (i.e., one value of x in the

universe of discourse such that P(x) is false)

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11

The Universal

Quantifier

counterexample (i.e., one value of x in the

universe of discourse such that P(x) is false)

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11

Existential Quantifier

Example

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12

Existential Quantifier

Example

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12

Existential Quantifier

Example

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Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

12

Existential Quantifier

Example

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Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The existential quantification of P(x),

12

Existential Quantifier

Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The existential quantification of P(x),

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12

Existential Quantifier

Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The existential quantification of P(x),

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12

Existential Quantifier

Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The existential quantification of P(x),

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There is a parking space at UF that is full. or

12

Existential Quantifier

Example

Let the u.d. of x be parking spaces at UF.

The existential quantification of P(x),

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There is a parking space at UF that is full. or

At least one parking space at UF is full.

12

Quantifier

Equivalence Laws

x P(x) P(a) P(b) P(c)

x P(x) P(a) P(b) P(c)

x P(x) x P(x)

x P(x) x P(x)

used to prove this?

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13

Quantifier

Equivalence Laws

x P(x) P(a) P(b) P(c)

x P(x) P(a) P(b) P(c)

x P(x) x P(x)

x P(x) x P(x)

used to prove this?

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DeMorgan's

13

More Equivalence

Laws

x P(x) x P(x)

x P(x) x P(x)

x y P(x,y) y x P(x,y)

x y P(x,y) y x P(x,y)

x (P(x) Q(x)) (x P(x)) (x Q(x))

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14

Scope of Quantifiers

quantifier is applied is called the scope of this

quantifier.

e.g., (x P(x)) (x Q(x))

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15

Variables

variable x (meaning x is undefined).

expression having one or more free variables,

and binds one or more of those variables, to

produce an expression having one or more

bound variables.

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16

Examples of

Binding

P(x,y) has 2 free variables, x and y.

variable. [which is which?]

still only a predicate: x P(x,y)

actual proposition.

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17

Examples of

Binding

P(x,y) has 2 free variables, x and y.

x P(x,y) has 1 free variable,y and one bound

variable. [which is which?]

still only a predicate: x P(x,y)

actual proposition.

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17

Examples of

Binding

P(x,y) has 2 free variables, x and y.

x P(x,y) has 1 free variable,y and one bound

variable.x [which is which?]

still only a predicate: x P(x,y)

actual proposition.

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17

More to Know

About

Binding

x x P(x) - x is not a free variable in

parenthesize x P(x) Q(x)

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the scope of the x quantifier, and is

therefore free. Not a proposition.

are 2 different xs!

18

More to Know

About

Binding

x x P(x) - x is not a free variable in

parenthesize x P(x) Q(x)

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the scope of the x quantifier, and is

therefore free. Not a proposition.

are 2 different xs!

18

More to Know

About

Binding

x x P(x) - x is not a free variable in

parenthesize x P(x) Q(x)

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the scope of the x quantifier, and is

therefore free. Not a proposition.

are 2 different xs!

18

More to Know

About

Binding

x x P(x) - x is not a free variable in

parenthesize x P(x) Q(x)

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the scope of the x quantifier, and is

therefore free. Not a proposition.

are 2 different xs!

18

More to Know

About

Binding

x x P(x) - x is not a free variable in

parenthesize x P(x) Q(x)

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the scope of the x quantifier, and is

therefore free. Not a proposition.

are 2 different xs!

18

More to Know

About

Binding

x x P(x) - x is not a free variable in

parenthesize (x P(x) Q(x))

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the scope of the x quantifier, and is

therefore free. Not a proposition.

are 2 different xs!

18

Nested Quantifiers

(Section 1.5)

Exist within the scope of other quantifiers

whom they like.

(A __________ with ___ free variables.)

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Then y P(x,y) = There is someone whom x

likes. (a predicate with 1 free variable, x)

19

Nested Quantifiers

(Section 1.5)

Exist within the scope of other quantifiers

whom they like.

Proposition

(A __________ with ___ free variables.)

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Then y P(x,y) = There is someone whom x

likes. (a predicate with 1 free variable, x)

19

Nested Quantifiers

(Section 1.5)

Exist within the scope of other quantifiers

whom they like.

Proposition

0 free variables.)

(A __________ with ___

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Then y P(x,y) = There is someone whom x

likes. (a predicate with 1 free variable, x)

19

Order of Quantifiers Is

Important!!

If P(x,y)=x relies upon y, express the following in

unambiguous English:

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

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20

Order of Quantifiers Is

Important!!

If P(x,y)=x relies upon y, express the following in

unambiguous English:

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

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20

Order of Quantifiers Is

Important!!

If P(x,y)=x relies upon y, express the following in

unambiguous English:

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

Theres a poor overworked soul

whom everyone relies upon

(including himself)!

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

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20

Order of Quantifiers Is

Important!!

If P(x,y)=x relies upon y, express the following in

unambiguous English:

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

Theres a poor overworked soul

whom everyone relies upon

Theres(including

some needy

person

who

himself)!

relies upon everybody (including

himself).

x(y P(x,y))=

COT3100

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20

Order of Quantifiers Is

Important!!

If P(x,y)=x relies upon y, express the following in

unambiguous English:

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

COT3100

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Theres a poor overworked soul

whom everyone relies upon

Theres(including

some needy

person

who

himself)!

relies upon everybody (including

Everyone hashimself).

someone who relies

upon them.

20

Order of Quantifiers Is

Important!!

If P(x,y)=x relies upon y, express the following in

unambiguous English:

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

y(x P(x,y))=

x(y P(x,y))=

COT3100

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Theres a poor overworked soul

whom everyone relies upon

Theres(including

some needy

person

who

himself)!

relies upon everybody (including

Everyone hashimself).

someone who relies

upon them.

Everyone relies upon everybody,

(including themselves)!

20

Natural language is

ambiguous!

everyone likes?

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x y Likes(x,y)

y x Likes(x,y)

21

Natural language is

ambiguous!

everyone likes?

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x y Likes(x,y)

y x Likes(x,y)

21

Natural language is

ambiguous!

everyone likes?

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x y Likes(x,y)

y x Likes(x,y)

21

Notational

Conventions

can be combined: x y z P(x,y,z)

x,y,z P(x,y,z) or even xyz P(x,y,z)

restricted within the quantification, e.g.,

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For all x that are greater than zero, P(x).

There is an x greater than zero such that P(x).

22

Defining New

Quantifiers

As per their name, quantifiers can be used to express

that a predicate is true of any given quantity

(number) of objects.

Define !x P(x) to mean P(x) is true of exactly one x in

the universe of discourse.

!x P(x) x (P(x) y (P(y) y x))

There is an x such that P(x), where there is no y

such that P(y) and y is other than x.

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23

Some Number

Theory Examples

of two non-unity numbers.

equal to 2 times some other number.

x (E(x) (y x=2y))

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24

Calculus Example

quantifiers:

(limxa f (x) = L)

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25

Reading

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