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The circuit of this project uses RF module to control DC motors through a motor

driver IC L293D. Transmission is enabled by giving a low bit to pin14 (TE, active low)
of encoder HT12E. The controls for motor are first sent to HT12E. Pins 10 and 11
(D0-D1) are used to control one motor while pins 12 and 13 (D2-D3) to control
another motor. The data signals of encoder HT12E work on negative logic. Therefore
a particular signal is sent by giving a low bit to the corresponding data pin of
encoder.
The parallel signals generated at transmission end are first encoded (into serial
format) by HT12E and then transferred through RF transmitter (434 MHz) at a baud
rate of around 1-10 kbps. The same signals are acquired by RF receiver after which
it is decoded by HT12D. For more details, refer RF remote control.

Since the encoder/decoder pair used here works on negative logic, the decoded
signals are fed to an inverter (NOT gate) IC 74LS04. The proper (inverted) signals
are then supplied to L293D. L293D contains two inbuilt H-bridge driver circuits to
drive two DC motors simultaneously, both in forward and reverse direction.

The motor operations of two motors can be controlled by input logic at pins 2 & 7
and pins 10 & 15. Input logic 00 or 11 will stop the corresponding motor. Logic 01
and 10 will rotate it in clockwise and anticlockwise directions, respectively. Thus,
depending upon the signals generated at the transmission end, the two motors can
be rotated in desired directions.

COMPONENTS:-

RF Module (Transmitter & Receiver)

The RF module, as the name suggests, operates at Radio Frequency. The corresponding
frequency range varies between 30 kHz & 300 GHz. In this RF system, the digital data is
represented as variations in the amplitude of carrier wave. This kind of modulation is known as
Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK).

Transmission through RF is better than IR (infrared) because of many reasons. Firstly, signals
through RF can travel through larger distances making it suitable for long range applications.
Also, while IR mostly operates in line-of-sight mode, RF signals can travel even when there is an
obstruction between transmitter & receiver. Next, RF transmission is more strong and reliable
than IR transmission. RF communication uses a specific frequency unlike IR signals which are
affected by other IR emitting sources.
This RF module comprises of an RF Transmitter and an RF Receiver. The
transmitter/receiver (Tx/Rx) pair operates at a frequency of 434 MHz. An RF transmitter
receives serial data and transmits it wirelessly through RF through its antenna connected at pin4.
The transmission occurs at the rate of 1Kbps - 10Kbps.The transmitted data is received by an RF
receiver operating at the same frequency as that of the transmitter. The RF module is often used
alongwith a pair of encoder/decoder. The encoder is used for encoding parallel data for
transmission feed while reception is decoded by a decoder. HT12E-HT12D, HT640-HT648, etc.
are some commonly used encoder/decoder pair ICs.

Pin diagram:-

Pin Description:
RF Transmitter
Pin No
1
2
3
4

Function
Ground (0V)
Serial data input pin
Supply voltage; 5V
Antenna output pin

Name
Ground
Data
Vcc
ANT
RF Receiver

Pin No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Function
Ground (0V)
Serial data output pin
Linear output pin; not connected
Supply voltage; 5V
Supply voltage; 5V
Ground (0V)
Ground (0V)

Name
Ground
Data
NC
Vcc
Vcc
Ground
Ground

Antenna input pin

ANT

L293D:-

L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC). Motor drivers act as current
amplifiers since they take a low-current control signal and provide a higher-current signal. This
higher current signal is used to drive the motors.
L293D contains two inbuilt H-bridge driver circuits. In its common mode of operation, two DC
motors can be driven simultaneously, both in forward and reverse direction. The motor
operations of two motors can be controlled by input logic at pins 2 & 7 and 10 & 15. Input logic
00 or 11 will stop the corresponding motor. Logic 01 and 10 will rotate it in clockwise and
anticlockwise directions, respectively.
Enable pins 1 and 9 (corresponding to the two motors) must be high for motors to start operating.
When an enable input is high, the associated driver gets enabled. As a result, the outputs become
active and work in phase with their inputs. Similarly, when the enable input is low, that driver is
disabled, and their outputs are off and in the high-impedance state.

PIN DIAGRAM:-

Pin Description:Pin No

Function

Name

Enable pin for Motor 1; active high

Enable 1,2

Input 1 for Motor 1

Input 1

Output 1 for Motor 1

Output 1

Ground (0V)

Ground

Ground (0V)

Ground

Output 2 for Motor 1

Output 2

Input 2 for Motor 1

Input 2

Supply voltage for Motors; 9-12V (up to 36V)

Vcc 2

Enable pin for Motor 2; active high

Enable 3,4

10

Input 1 for Motor 1

Input 3

11

Output 1 for Motor 1

Output 3

12

Ground (0V)

Ground

13

Ground (0V)

Ground

14

Output 2 for Motor 1

Output 4

15

Input2 for Motor 1

Input 4

16

Supply voltage; 5V (up to 36V)

Vcc 1

H.BRIDGE CIRCUIT:This project and circuit finds a huge application in the area of robotics to control motor direction.
This circuit uses the basic concept of transistors as a switch. Transistor with proper biasing can
be used as switch, i.e. it can be used to toggle between the two states of a switch on or off. This
configuration of transistor has been used in H-bridge to drive a motor in both clockwise and
anticlockwise direction. This circuit derives its name from the English alphabet H, which
closely resembles the circuit pictorially
The description of the circuit based project can be divided into two parts. The first part explains
the concepts behind the working transistor as switch and the second part the function and
operation of H Bridge.

DESCRIPTION OF H BRDGE CIRCUIT:1. Transistor as switch:The circuit diagram in the figure 1 shows the use application of transistor as a switch. When
there is no input on the base, the transistor is in the cut off region and acts as an open switch. As
a result the LED does not glow. When the base is given an input through a resistance
R1, the transistor gets biased and enters into saturation state, hence behaving like a closed
switch. As a result the current starts flowing through the LED and it starts glowing.
2. H-bridge:In H-bridge four npn transistors (BC547) are used in the switch mode configuration. The
emitter and collector of transistors T1 & T2 and of T3 & T4 are connected. The collector of T1&
T3 is connected to VCC and emitter of T2& T4 is connected to ground. The base of T1 & T4 and
T2 & T3are connected through resistors. The motor is connected as shown in the figure2. When
high signal (logic 1) is given at A and low (logic 0) at B, the transistor T1 & T4 will behave as
closed switch andT2 & T3 will behave as open switch. As a result of which the current will start
flowing from Vcc to T1 to motor to T4 to ground and motor will start running in one direction.
Similarly if B is given high signal and A low, then the transistors T1& T4 are in the cut off state
and T2 and T3 are in the saturation state i.e., T1 & T4behave as open switch and T2 & T3behave
as closed switch and motor rotates in other direction. We should avoid giving either high or low
to both A & B simultaneously.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Diagram 1

diagram 2

Transistor BC547

BC547 is an NPN bi-polar junction transistor. A transistor, stands for transfer of resistance, is
commonly used to amplify current. A small current at its base controls a larger current at
collector & emitter terminals.

BC547 is mainly used for amplification and switching purposes. It has a maximum current gain
of 800. Its equivalent transistors are BC548 and BC549.

The transistor terminals require a fixed DC voltage to operate in the desired region of its
characteristic curves. This is known as the biasing. For amplification applications, the transistor
is biased such that it is partly on for all input conditions. The input signal at base is amplified and
taken at the emitter. BC547 is used in common emitter configuration for amplifiers. The voltage
divider is the commonly used biasing mode. For switching applications, transistor is biased so
that it remains fully on if there is a signal at its base. In the absence of base signal, it gets
completely off.

Pin Diagram:

Resistor:-

Resistor is a passive component used to control current in a circuit. Its resistance is given by the
ratio of voltage applied across its terminals to the current passing through it. Thus a particular
value of resistor, for fixed voltage, limits the current through it. They are omnipresent in
electronic circuits.

The different value of resistances are used to limit the currents or get the desired voltage drop
according to the current-voltage rating of the device to be connected in the circuit. For example,
if an LED of rating 2.3V and 6mA is to be connected with a supply of 5V, a voltage drop of 2.7V
(5V-2.3V) and limiting current of 6mA is required. This can be achieved by providing a resistor
of 450 connected in series with the LED.

Resistors can be either fixed or variable. The low power resistors are comparatively smaller in
size than high power resistors. The resistance of a resistor can be estimated by their colour codes
or can be measured by a multimeter. There are some non linear resistors also whose resistance
changes with temperature or light. Negative temperature coefficient (NTC), positive temperature
coefficient (PTC) and light dependent resistor (LDR) are some such resistors. These special
resistors are commonly used as sensors. Read and learn about internal structure and working of
a resistor.

Transistor 2N2222:-

2N2222 is an NPN BJT transistor. It is used for general purpose low-power amplification and
switching applications. These are designed for high speed switching application at collector
current up to 800mA. It provides useful current gain over a wide range of collector current. Other
features include, low leakage currents and low saturation voltage. 2N2222A is another variant
with improved characteristics.
The emitter leg of 2N2222 is indicated by a protruding edge in the transistor case. The base is
nearest to the emitter while collector lies at other extreme of the casing.

SUMMARY:Wireless remote controlled toy cars work on the concept explained in this project. Motor control
through RF communication is a very interesting application and is widely used in robotics,
electronics toys, automation systems etc. This topic covers the way DC motors can be driven by
using the controls from a distant place. The controls are transferred from one end to another by
employing an RF module.
The remote control application of RF has been extended to operate a motor driver which in turn
controls the direction of motors.

IC 74LS04:-

7404 is a NOT gate IC. It consists of six inverters which perform logical invert action. The
output of an inverter is the complement of its input logic state, i.e., when input is high its output
is low and vice versa.

Pin Diagram:

Pin Description:
Pin No

Function

1
Input/output of 1st inverter
2
3
Input/output of 2nd inverter
4
5
Input/output of 3rd inverter
6
7

Ground (0V)

8
Output/input of 4th inverter
9
10
Output/input of 5th inverter
11
12
Output/input of 6th inverter
13
14

Supply voltage; 5V (4.75 - 5.25 V)

HT12E Encoder IC

HT12E is an encoder integrated circuit of 212 series of encoders. They are paired with 212 series
of decoders for use in remote control system applications. It is mainly used in interfacing RF and
infrared circuits. The chosen pair of encoder/decoder should have same number of addresses and
data format.

Simply put, HT12E converts the parallel inputs into serial output. It encodes the 12 bit parallel
data into serial for transmission through an RF transmitter. These 12 bits are divided into 8
address bits and 4 data bits.

HT12E has a transmission enable pin which is active low. When a trigger signal is received on
TE pin, the programmed addresses/data are transmitted together with the header bits via an RF or
an infrared transmission medium. HT12E begins a 4-word transmission cycle upon receipt of a
transmission enable. This cycle is repeated as long as TE is kept low. As soon as TE returns to
high, the encoder output completes its final cycle and then stops.

Pin Diagram:

Block Diagram

Pin Description:
Pin No

Function

1
2
3
4
8 bit Address pins for input
5
6
7
8
9

Ground (0V)

10
11
4 bit Data/Address pins for input
12
13
14

Transmission enable; active low

15

Oscillator input

16

Oscillator output

17

Serial data output

18

Supply voltage; 5V (2.4V-12V)

HT12D Decoder IC

HT12D is a decoder integrated circuit that belongs to 212 series of decoders. This series of
decoders are mainly used for remote control system applications, like burglar alarm, car door
controller, security system etc. It is mainly provided to interface RF and infrared circuits. They
are paired with 212 series of encoders. The chosen pair of encoder/decoder should have same
number of addresses and data format.

In simple terms, HT12D converts the serial input into parallel outputs. It decodes the serial
addresses and data received by, say, an RF receiver, into parallel data and sends them to output
data pins. The serial input data is compared with the local addresses three times continuously.
The input data code is decoded when no error or unmatched codes are found. A valid
transmission in indicated by a high signal at VT pin.

HT12D is capable of decoding 12 bits, of which 8 are address bits and 4 are data bits. The data
on 4 bit latch type output pins remain unchanged until new is received.

Pin Diagram:

Pin Description:

Pin No

Function

1
2
3
4
8 bit Address pins for input
5
6
7
8
9

Ground (0V)

10
11
4 bit Data/Address pins for output
12
13
14

Serial data input

15

Oscillator output

16

Oscillator input

17

Valid transmission; active high

18

Supply voltage; 5V (2.4V-12V)

Block diagram:-