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BAYLIS

Realism
o States
o Sovereignty
o Power
o National interest
o Balance of power
o Diplomacy
o Self help
o Neorealism
Structure
nternational system
Rules
Multipolarity - unipolarity
Liberalism
o Norms
o nternational regimes
o nterdependence
Marxist
o Capitalist economy
o Class
o Class interest
o Core/semi core/ periphery
o Dominance of global capitalism
o
Social Constructivism
o Mid-1990s/disintegration of soviet empire
o Human agency potential
o Social World is external to the people
o Anarchy is what states make of it
Post Structuralism
o Past 15 years
o Lyotard: simplifying to the extreme i define post modern as
ncredulity towards metanarratives
o Scepticism to foundational epistemology
o Michael foucault
o Knowledge is not immune from the workings of power
o Power in fact produces knowledge
Post colonialism
o Military and economic subordination of the global South by powerful
western interests

Globalization

Realist: globalization does not alter the territorial division of the World into
nation states
Liberal: globalization shows that states are no longer central actors
Marxist: latest stage in the development of international capitalism
Constructivist: we can mould globalization
Post-structuralists: it is a discourse and does not exist out in the World.

Post-colonial: it highlights the important degree of continuity and


persistence of colonial forms of power.

9 features

Globalization has many features in common with the theory of


modenization.
o ndustrialization altered the natre of state, widening its
responsibilities and weakening its control
There are similarities with the arguments that economic growth followed a
pattern in all economies as they went through industrialization.
Literature: nature of economic interdependence, the role of transnational
actors, cobweb model of World politics. They tend to be applied more to
the developed World.
Marshall mcluhan: global village. Time and space become compressed to
such and extent that everything lost its traditional identity.
Communications revolution
John Burton/cobweb model - Hedley Bull/society
WOMP World order models Project
Liberal peace theory,

n favour of globalization

The pace of economic transformation


Communications
Global culture
Becoming homogenous World
Time and space collapse
Global polity
Cosmopolitan culture
Risk culture

Objections

Latest phase of capitalism


o The present internationalized economy is not unique 1870/1914
o Transnational companies are rare national companies trading
internationally
o There is no shif of finance and capital from the developed to the
underdeveloped World
o World economy is not global: three blocs: europe, North america and
japan
o Three blocs can regulate global economic market if they can
coordinate
Very uneven in its effects
Latest stage of western imperialism
Considerable losers
Drug cartels and terrorism
Global governance / responsibility
Paradox / asian tigers

Chapter 2 Globalization

Hyperglobalists
o The demise of the sovereign nation-state as global forces undermine
the ability f governments to control or manage their own economies
and societies
Sceptics
o States and geopolitics remain the principal agents and forces
shaping World politics today.
Transformationalist
o Both are exaggerate their arguments
o The distinction between domestic and international affairs is no
longer very meaningfull

Globalization

Streching of social, political and economic activities across political


frontiers
The intensification of interconnectedness in almost every sphere of social
existence
The accelerating pace of global interactions and processes
The growing extensity, intensity and velocity of global interactions

Globalization

The intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities


in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many
miles away and vice versa.
The integration of the World economy
De-territorialization or the growth of supranational relations between
people
Time-space compression

Sceptics

By comparison with the period 1870 to 1914, the World is much less
globalized economically, politically and culturally
The contemporary World is marked by intensifying geopolitics,
regionalization and internationalization, rather than by globalization
The vast bulk of international economic and political activity is
concentrated within the group of OECD states
By comparison with the hayday of European global empires, the majority of
the worlds population and countries in the South are now much less
integrated into global system.
Geopolitics, state power, nationalism and territorial boundaries are of
growing not reducing, significance in World politics

Globalization is at best a self-serving myth or conceptual folly that


conceals the significance of western capitalism and US hegemony in
shaping contemporary World politics.
Responses to the financial crisis demonstrate the centrality of hegemonic
and national power to the effective functioning of the World economy

Chapter 2 the evolution of international society

European state system


o Sovereign equality and Non intervention with in the club
o nternational law
o Outside the club deemed uncivilized / control and domination

English school hedley bull

nternational anarchy absence of government

Criticism

Rationalizing the 19th century imperialism and the unequal treatment of


China and Ottoman Empire
The Notion of Christian international society was used to justify the
European seizure of land from the indigenous people of America and
elsewhere.
Legitimizing the oppressive and exploitative colonial order

1553 Habsburglara kar Osmanl Fransz anlamas


1648 Peace of Westphalia / Thirty Years War
1683 Defeat of Ottomans at Vienna
1713 Treaty of Utrecht / balance of power between european states
1776 American War of independence
1789 French Revolution
1815 Napoleb defeated at Waterloo / Concert of Europe
1856 End of Crimean War / Ottoman Empire formally accepted as a
member of the European international society
1863 Kzlha / Birinci Cenevre
1919 League of Nations
1945 United Nations
1948 United Nations Universak Declaration of Human Rights
1949 Four new Geneva Conventions
1960 UN General Assembly resolution condemns colonialism as a denial
of fundamental human rights
1979 Islamic revolution in Iran
1989 Fall of Berlin Wall / end of cold war
2001 9/11 attack on USA
2003 Start of American led war in Iraq

2007 Start of global economic crisis


2011 Intervention in Libyan conflict

Ancient China, India and Rome


The Christian and Islamic Orders
The Emergence of the modern international society
o Legal equality of all states
o Principle of non intervention
o Three central institutions
Diplomats communication between states
nternational law couldnt be binding without consent
Balance of power

15. yzyl sonras Post-medieval Avrupal uluslararas toplumu ekillendiren 3


nemli gelime

Daha byk ve daha gl devletler (Fransa ve Habsburg gibi) daha kk


devletlerin bazlarn domine ediyor.
16. Yzyl protestan reformu katolik kilisesinin basknlna meydan okuyor.
1492de Colombusun yeni dnyaya seyahati ve Vasco de Gamann
1498de hindistana giden yeni bir yol kefetmesi (Mslman kontrolndeki
karayolunun bypass edilmesi)

Dnyann gerikalan avrupann atmalarnn iine ekildi, ilk nce


kolonizasyon, sonra iki dnya sava, sonra da dekolonizasyon. Ama
egemen devlete doru olan trend durdurulamad.
nternational law / balance of power

1648 Westphalia Bar

Kutsal Roma mparatorluunu oluturan Alman devletlerinin kendi


diplomatik ilikilerini kurma hakk tannd.
politikada dini hogr
1713 Treaty of Utrecht / Balance of power / Ended War of the Spanish
Succession

Stephen Krasner Sovereignty / organized hypocrisy


French Revolution

Ulusal self determinasyon / zellikle Habsburg gibi hanedanlk emperyal


yneticilerin egemenliin yneticiden ziyade ulusta olduu konusundaki
devrimci srarlar ulusal self determinasyon fikrine hz kazandrd. 19. Ve
20. Yzyl uluslararas politikasn domine edecek.
kinci sonu ana Avrupal glerin tepkisinde yatyor. Napolyonun
yenilmesinden sonra, nc devletler kendilerini kk devletlerden ayryor.
Concert of Europe birinci dnya savana kadar sryor.
Avusturya ve Rusya Uyumun devrimlere mdahale etme hakk olmasn
istiyor. Britanya buna kar kyor, non intervention ilkesini inememek
iin.

Balance of power / diplomacy / international law deiiyor


o 1815te avrupann haritas yeniden iziliyor, g dengesini
uygulamak adna
o Diplomatik konferanslar
o Draft a procedure of international legitimation of change
Bu uyum Avrupa iinde bar ve dzen tesis etmeye alsa da Asya ve
Afrikada igal ve basknlk kurmak iin yntem aray iindeydi

Birinci dnya sava

Avrupa uyumu sona erdi.


ABD ve Japonya gibi gler belirdi. Hindistanda bamszlk mcadelesi
19. Yzyl byk devletler tarafndan ortak hegemonyay ifade ediyorsa,
Milletler Cemiyeti bundan iki noktada kopmay temsil ediyor.
o Wilsona gre g dengesi sistemi savan ana nedeni oldu. Cemiyet
g dengesi yerine Kollektif gvenlik kavram zerine kuruldu
o Cemiyet yelii evrenseldi, sadece Avrupal devletlere has deildi
ABD, Avrupa ilerine karmama ve cemiyete ye olmamaya karar veriyor.
1930lara gelindiinde Almanya, talya, Japonya ve Rusya u ideolojiler ve
genilemeci eilimler tarafndan ynetiliyor. Sadece Britanya ve Fransa
statkoya bal kald