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Posibiliti de utilizare a procedeului LaserHibrid la sudarea

evilor destinate realizrii conductelor pentru alimentarea cu


gaze naturale
Overview of Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding Processes Used in
Pipelines Fabrication
Nicolae JONI, Reprezentana Cloos Romania (Robcon TM SRL)
Luigi-Renato MISTODIE, Universitatea Dunrea de Jos din Galai

Rezumat

n procesul complex de fabricaie al conductelor magistrale de gaze naturale se utilizeaz, n ultima perioad, oteluri cu rezisten
mecanic ridicat i reziliena la temperaturi sczute foarte bun. Din punct de vedere tehnico-economic, pentru realizarea mbinrilor
sudate, trebuie consumate cantiti ct mai reduse de energie i materiale de adaos, ceea ce recomand noul procedeu LaserHibrid drept
una dintre cele mai adecvate soluii n acest sens.
Concentrarea de energie mult superioar altor procedee, lexibilitatea reglrii procesului (se pot controla separat energia destinat
topirii metalului de baz ct i cantitatea de material de adaos) dar mai ales posibilitatea de a lucra cu rosturi de circa 20, fa de
5560 la procedeele clasice, recomand acest procedeu drept o soluie deosebit din punct de vedere tehnico-economic.
n lucrare sunt prezentate determinri experimentale pentru diferite probe sudate prin procedeul LaserHibrid, con iguraia sistemului
utilizat i calcule tehnico-economice comparative cu alte procedee clasice de sudare.

Abstract

In the complex manufacturing processes of pipelines, steels with higher strength and toughness at low temperatures are required.
In terms of costs, in order to achieve the welded joints, low amount of energy and iller material should be consumed. From this point of
view, Laser-Arc Hybrid welding is an attractive solution in the pipelines fabrication.
The higher concentration of the heat energy than other processes, the lexibility to adjust the process (can be controlled individually the
melting energy and the amount of iller material introduced in the process) and mainly the opportunity to work with grooves angles of
20 degrees, instead off 55-60 degrees in the classical procedures, highly recommends this processes as an optimal solution from technical
and economical point of view.
Weld samples achieved by LaserArc Hybrid process are presented and discussed in the second part of the paper. Also, LaserArc Hybrid
system con iguration and technical-economic comparison with other conventional welding processes is highlighted in the inal part of
the study.
Cuvinte cheie: LaserHibrid, sudare hibrid Laser-MAG,
productivitate, conducte magistrale.

Keywords: Laser-Arc Hybrid welding, Laser-MAG Hybrid


welding, productivity, pipelines.

1.Introducere

1. Introduction

Procesele de sudare prin topire cu arc electric, de-a lungul


anilor, i-au dovedit incontestabila utilitate i aplicabilitate
n realizarea de mbinri sudate de calitate a evilor i conductelor magistrale, utilizate n domeniul petrolier sau n
transportul gazelor naturale. Sunt utilizate diferite variante
ale acestor procese de sudare, alegerea lor depinznd de
lungimile conductei care urmeaz s ie produs, grosimea
componentelor i materialul din care acestea sunt fabricate.
Procedeele folosite variaz de la sudarea manual cu electrozi nvelii pn la procese de sudare orbitale automatizate
folosind procesele MSG.
Rezolvarea problemei eseniale: Cu ce procedeu i ce materiale de adaos lucrm, astfel nct s obinem mbinri cu o
productivitate maxim, cu o calitate foarte bun i la un pre
ct mai convenabil? a constituit motorul dezvoltrii unor noi
procedee de sudare de mare productivitate, materiale de
adaos noi, performante, n paralel cu surse de sudare specializate, bazate pe realizrile de vrf din domeniul electronicii de putere i al comenzilor adaptive.
4

The submerged arc welding processes have proven along the


years their undisputable utility and applicability in achieving highly qualitative welded joints for pipelines used in
the petroleum industry (transportation and distribution
of oil and gas). Different variants of these arc welding processes are used depending on several factors, such as the
length of the pipelines to be achieved, the thickness of the
components and the raw materials to be used. The industrial
sectors use a wide range of procedures, from shielded metal
arc welding (SMAW) using coated electrodes to automatic
orbital welding, employing the MSG processes.
The answer to the main issue: Which process and iller
materials should we use to achieve high-quality and costfriendly welded joints characterized by maximum productivity? has been the trigger for the development of new highly
productive welding processes and innovative iller materials
in parallel with the specialized welding sources, based on
the state-of-art achievements in the ield of power electronics and adaptive controls.
SUDURA, XXII - 4/2012

2.Procedeele actuale de sudare


automatizat a conductelor

n ultima jumtate de secol, s-au dezvoltat att noi procedee


de sudare multiarc sub strat de lux, utilizate la fabricarea
efectiv a evilor sudate de mari dimensiuni, existnd astzi
variante de sudare chiar i cu ase srme, ct i sisteme
mecanizate de sudare orbital cap la cap a tronsoanelor de
eav, n vederea fabricrii conductelor. Evoluia n timp a
sistemelor de sudare orbital are ca principale repere [1,2]:
Pentru sudarea rdcinii:
1970 sistem de sudare pentru interior cu trei, patru sau
cinci capete de sudare cu funcionare simultan
1980 sistem pentru sudarea rdcinii din exterior, cu inel
interior i patin de cupru;
1990 sistem pentru sudarea rdcinii fr suport, folosind
sudare MAG DIP transfer.
n cazul sudarii evilor cu diametru mic, utilizarea sistemelor de sudare interne este imposibil, utilizndu-se n acesta
situaie metode de sudare dintr-o singur parte, din exterior
ctre interior. Dezvoltarea surselor de sudare moderne, la
care se controleaz digital transferului picturilor de metal,
a permis sudarea exterioar, dintr-o singura parte, fr a mai
i necesar susinerea rdcinii, cu patina de cupru la interior.
Pentru sudarea straturilor de umplere:
1960 - introducerea unui cap de sudare pentru rost ngust;
1990 - utilizarea a dou capete de sudare cu cte o singura
srm;
2000 - utilizarea procedeului TANDEM;
2004 - utilizarea procedeului DUAL TANDEM (sistem CAPS Cran ield automated pipe welding system)
2007 - trecerea la controlul automat al poziiei capului de
sudare cu achiziia computerizat a parametrilor regimului
de sudare.
n prezent, conductele terestre sau maritime folosesc n procesul de fabricaie, la mbinarea tronsoanelor, sudarea prin

2.Modern automatic welding processes


used in pipeline welding

During the last half of the century, there have been developed new submerged arc welding processes employing
multiple arcs, especially used in the effective fabrication of
large welded pipes - existing nowadays up to 6 electrode
wire variants of the process - as well as a wide range of modern automatic systems for pipe sections orbital butt welding. The development of the orbital welding systems over
the last decades is based on the following benchmarks [1, 2]:
For root welding:
1970 inside root welding system with three, four or ive
welding heads, simultaneously operated;
1980 outside root welding system, provided with inner
ring and copper shoe;
1990 system for root welding without support, using MAG
DIP transfer welding.
The use of the internal welding systems proves impossible
when welding small diameter pipes and in this case there
will be used side lap welds, from outside to inside. The development of the modern welding systems with accurate
control of the digital transfer of metal drops allowed the
external one-sided welding, without requiring the root face
support provided by the inner copper shoe.
For welding the illing layers:
1960 - insertion of a weld head for narrow grooves;
1990 - use of two weld heads, each with a single wire;
2000 - operation of the TANDEM process;
2004 - employment of the DUAL TANDEM process (CAPS
system- Cran ield automated pipe welding system)
2007 - automatic control of the position of the weld head by
means of the computerized acquisition of characteristic parameters for the welding conditions.
Presently, the manufacturing the offshore and onshore pipelines, especially when coupling different pipeline sections,
requires the powered MAG welding process with one or more passages, depending on the thickness of the pipe wall [4].
Striving to control the high costs incurred
in fabrication of pipelines and to increase
the maintainability and dependability
of pipelines by implementing innovative
technologies, the manufacturers have focused on several state-of-art welding technologies, using steels with higher strength,
multi-arc / multi-wire automatic welding,
ultrasound inspection systems, modern
painting systems and product integrity
Figura 1. Dispoziia capetelor de sudare i macrostructura unei mbinri sudate validation processes. Therefore the cost
procedeul dual TANDEM utiliznd sistemul CAPS [1,2]
incurred in manufacturing a single pipeFigure 1. Placement of the weld heads and the macrostructure of a joint welded
line stands for almost a half of the overall
through the TANDEM dual process using the CAPS system [1,2]
costs of the entire project where the costs
procedeul mecanizat MAG, cu una sau mai multe treceri n afferent to the welding processes hold the irst position [1,
funcie de grosimea peretelui conductei[4]. ntr-o ncer- 3]. In order to considerably reduce such costs, there have
care de a controla costul ridicat al construciei conductei i been developed new highly productive (sub-) processes,
de a spori sigurana n exploatare prin punerea n aplicare such as: CM, CMT, CMT-pulse, STT, TIME, FastROOT SHORTa unor tehnologii inovatoare, productorii au urmrit o se- ARC++, ColdWeld or LINFAST used for back welding and
rie de tehnologii de sudare de ultim generaie, utiliznd SUPERPULS, RAPID ARC, RAPID MELT, TWIN, TANDEM for
oeluri de nalt rezisten, sudarea automat multiarc-arc/ welding the ill layers [4]. Figure 1 shows how to place the
multi-srm, sisteme de inspecie cu ultrasunete, sisteme weld heads for orbital welding through the TANDEM dual
SUDURA, XXII - 4/2012

Figura 2. Schema procesului de sudare hibrid [15]


Figure 2. The principle of the laser-arc hybrid
welding process [15]
avansate de vopsire i procese de validare a integritii produsului. Costul de construcie pentru o conduct reprezint
aproximativ jumtate din costul total ale unui proiect de
acest tip, iar costurile reprezentate de procesele de sudare
detin ponderea major a acestora [1,3]. Pentru a le reduce,
au fost dezvoltate noile (sub) procedee, de mare productivitate cum ar i: CM, CMT, CMT-puls, STT, TIME, FastROOT
SHORT-ARC++, LINFAST, utilizate la sudarea rdcinii i SUPERPULS, RAPID ARC, RAPID MELT, TWIN, TANDEM pentru
sudarea straturilor de umplere [4]. n igura 1 se prezint
modalitatea de dispunere capetelor la sudarea orbital prin
procedeul dual TANDEM utiliznd sistemul CAPS ct i macrostructura mbinrii sudate pentru eav din X100 cu grosimea de 14,9 mm [1, 2].

Figura 3. Proces sudare LHM [13]


Figure 3. LHM welding process [13]

process using the CAPS system and the macrostructure of the


welded joint for X100 pipes with thickness of 14,9mm [1,2].

3.Laser Hybrid Welding Process

During the seventies, after the creation of LASER-WIG, new


variations based on other combinations, such as LASER-MIG,
LASER-MAG, LASER-WIG, PLASMA-LASER, LASER-MIG+
powders) have been developed. Numerous researches aiming to expand the use of these variations to other industrial
ields, such as the automotive industry, the naval industry
and the petrochemical industry (fabrication of oil and gas
transportation pipelines) have been also conducted and
published. The wide range of application of hybrid welding
is particularly owed to large number of its advantages: it provides higher productivity, proper formation of the joint root,
3.Sudarea prin procedeul Laser Hibrid
less iller materials, reduced laws, possibility to join thicker
Dup aparitia LASER-WIG, n anul 1970, au aprut noi va- materials using a single pass welding, slower cooling rates
riante bazate pe alte combinaii, ca de exemplu LASER- resulting thus a relatively reduced toughness. During the
MIG, LASER-MAG, PLASMA-LASER, LASER-MIG+pulberi). welding process, the linear energy fed to the components is
signi icantly diminished and this fact
leads to the reduction of distortions.
The use of iller materials, compared
to the laser welding process, allows
the implementation of the joining
properties due to the microalloying in
the molten metal pool. The amount of
toxic emissions and smoke released
during the welding process are signi icantly reduced [1, 3, 5, 6].
3.1. Principle of hybrid welding proFigura 4. Macrostructura mbinrii sudate prin procedeele LHM, laser i cu arc cess (LHM)
electric [1]
Figure 2 displays the principle of
Figure 4. Macrostructure of the joint welded by LHM, laser and electric arc
the laser-arc hybrid welding process
welding processes [1]
(LHM) while igures 3a, 3b highlight
Exist numeroase cercetri care vizeaz extinderea utilizrii a single aspect of the welding process, namely the joint maacestora n multe domenii industriale: auto, naval i crostructure. In this case, the laser head is perpendicular to
petrochimic (mai ales la fabricarea conductelor pentru the plates area allowing thus a higher penetration. Theretransportul petrolului i a gazelor naturale). Extinderea fore, the arc weld head should be inclined to the vertical axis
aplicabilitii sudrii hibride se datoreaz avantajelor pe care [1,15]. The angles of inclination of the two heads as well as
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SUDURA, XXII - 4/2012

Tabel 1. Comparaia proceselor de sudare cu arc, cu laser i hibrid [10]


Table 1. Comparison between the arc welding, laser welding and hybrid welding processes [10]

SUDURA, XXII - 4/2012

acesta le ofer: productheir relative position


tivitate mare, formarepresent the main prorea corect a rdcinii
cess parameters, being
mbinrii, consum redus
thus selected depending
de materiale de adaos, deon the thickness and type
fecte reduse, posibiliti
of the material and the
de sudare dintr-o singur
grooves architecture.
trecere a materialelor cu
Both weld zones genegrosime mare, viteze de
rated by every individual
rcire mici rezultnd o
welding process can be
duritate relativ redus.
distinguished. In the
n timpul sudrii, energia
upper part, there can
liniar introdus n piese
be seen the weld area
este mai redus, avnd
achieved by the electric
ca rezultat micorarea
arc, characterized by a
deformaiilor.
Utilizalarger width and more
rea
materialelor
de
reduced
penetration
adaos, fa de procedeul
compared to the lower
de sudare laser clasic
part of the weld, i.e. the
permite mbuntirea
root layer area, geneproprietilor mbinrii
rated by the laser welprin efectuarea unor miding process and which
croalieri n baia de metal
is characterized by a natopit. De asemenea, canrrower width and a hightitatea de emisii toxice,
er penetration [13]. The
fum etc eliberate n timtypical parameters of the
pul procesului de sudare
welding process used for
este mai redus [1,3,5,6].
achieving the welded joint
3.1.Principiul procedeupresented by igure 3 are
lui de sudare hibrid
as follows:
(LHM)
- root gaping 0,3Figura 5. Parametrii procesului de sudare hibrid laser-arc, dup [10]
n igura 2 este prezentat
0,9mm;
Figure 5. Diagram of the process parameters when using the laserprincipiul procesului de
- root distance of over
arc hybrid welding [10]
sudare hibrid laser-arc
4mm;
(LHM), iar n igurile 3a, 3b un aspect din timpul sudrii, - welding speed: 0,8 m/min.
respectiv macrostructura unei mbinri. n acest caz, capul 3.2. Comparisons between the LHM laser hybrid welding
laser este perpendicular pe suprafaa tablelor, fapt care per- process toward the laser welding and electric arc welding
mite obinerea unei ptrunderi ridicate. S-a constatat ns c processes
rezultate mai bune ofer varianta la care capul de sudare cu Comparing the geometry of the welding seams, by assessing
arc este nclinat fa de vertical [1,15].
the macrostructures, using different welding processes, we
Unghiurile de nclinare ale celor dou capete, ct i poziia may note signi icant differences of the welding seam pro iles
relativ a acestora reprezint parametri importani ai proce- (Figure 4) [1].
sului i se aleg n coresponden cu grosimea i tipul mate- Table 1 highlights the comparison between the features of
rialului, precum i cu arhitectura rostului.
the electric arc welding, laser welding and laser hybrid welding
Se pot observa cele dou zone formate n sudur de iecare processes [10]. These results are extremely important when
proces de sudare separat. n partea superioar se observ performing welded joints of heavy materials and thick plates.
zona din sudur realizat de arcul electric caracterizat de o The bene its of the laser hybrid welding process mainly
lime mare i o ptrundere redus n comparaie cu partea derive from the physical interaction between the two heat
inferioar a sudurii, zona stratului de rdcina, realizat prin sources inserted to the components to be welded. The chaprocesul de sudare cu laser, zon caracterizat de o lime racteristics of the system are described below [7], [10]:
mic i ptrundere mare [13]. Parametrii procesului de su- - Nd-Yag laser power: 4 kW and focal spot: 0,6 mm;
dare utilizai pentru realizarea mbinrii sudate prezentate - MAG welding source: 400 A;
n igura 3 sunt:
- Different shielding gases: pure Ar, ARCAL 21 (92% Ar, 8%
- interstiiul la rdcin (luft) 0,3-0,9 mm;
CO2);
- Monitoring system provided with high-speed shooting digi- distana la rdcin de circa 4 mm;
tal camera.
- viteza de sudare: 0,8 m/min.
3.2. Comparaii ale sudrii hibride LHM cu procesele laser The diagram presented by igure 5 describes the aspects to
be considered when using the LaserHybrid process. [10]. The
i arc electric
Comparnd geometria cordoanelor formate, prin analiza table 2 below highlights the effects of the signi icant promacrostructurilor, utiliznd diferite procese de sudare, se cess parameters on the geometry of the joint [9]. The LHM
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SUDURA, XXII - 4/2012

Tabelul 2. Efectele parametrilor de proces asupra geometriei sudurii la sudarea LaserHibrid


Table 2. Effects of the process parameters on the geometry of joint when using the Laser Hybrid welding process

observ diferene semni icative ale pro ilului acestora ( igura


4) [1].
n tabelul 1 este prezentat comparaia ntre caracteristicile sudrii cu arc electric, laser i laser hibrid [10]. Aceste
rezultate sunt foarte importante atunci cnd se realizeaz

Figura 6. Modificarea distantei de separare a celor dou procese (surse de cldur)


Figura 6. Change of the separation distance between these
two welding processes (heating sources)

mbinri sudate din materiale cu dimensiuni mari i table groase.


Bene iciile procesului de sudare laser hibrid rezult, n principal, din interaciunea izic a celor dou surse de cldur
introduse n piesele de sudat. Caracteristicile sistemului
sunt urmtoarele [7], [10]:
- Laser Nd-Yag cu puterea de 4 kW i spot focal de 0,6 mm;
- Surs de sudare MAG 400 A;
- Diferite gaze de protecie: Ar pur, ARCAL 21 (92% Ar, 8% CO2);
- Sistem de monitorizare cu camera digital cu vitez mare
de ilmare.
SUDURA, XXII - 4/2012

welding process is highly sensitive to any changes of the welding speed as well as to the relative position of the weld heads
and the distance between the weld heads etc. (Figure 6).
[1,2,5,9].
1.Flan de ixare pe robot;
2.Cuplarea optic a ghidului de
und;
3.Fasciculului laser;
4.Perdea de aer (jet ncruciat)
pentru protecia lentilelor;
5.Axa cu servomotor integrat;
6.Dispozitiv de avans srm;
7.Cap de sudare cu arc electric;
8.Cablu alimentare la surs de
sudare cu arc electric;
9.Cupl controler robot de
sudare.
Sistemul din igura alturat a
fost dezvoltat la inele ultimului
deceniu de ctre unul dintre
liderii europeni ai sudrii robotizate mpreun cu SLV Halle.
Figura 7. Componentele capului pentru sudarea hibrid
robotizat LHM [13]
Figure 7. Components of the weld head in LHM robotized
hybrid welding process [13]

The pipes orbital welding has been covered by several studies focused on inding the optimum arrangement of the laserarc weld heads and the angle of inclination to the vertical
axis. When executing the circular welding seam, the relative
9

Tabel 3. Modaliti de dispunere relativ a fasciculului laser fata de arcul electric MAG [5]
Table 3. Relative positions of the laser beam compared to the electric arc MAG [5]

n schema din igura 5 sunt prezentate aspectele de care trebuie inut cont atunci cnd se utilizeaz procedeul LaserHibrid. [10]. n tabelul 2 sunt prezentate efectele parametrilor
de proces semni icativi asupra geometriei mbinrii [9]. Procesul de sudare LHM este extrem de sensibil la modi icarea

position between the weld heads may be changed (ex: depending on the change of the laser head inclination, and
the welding position de) in order to have a proper control
on proper welding formation and to avoid the low of the
molten metal bath. Table 3 de ines the usual arrangement
variants of the weld heads [5].
Figure 7 shows the components of the LHM robotized hybrid weld head in the variant that allows a separate laser
head from the electric arc weld head [13].
Figure 8 shows the LHM embedded compact weld heads
manufactured by different manufacturers especially for the
robotized welding. As you can see, that there are several structural variants for the weld heads designed to support standard hybrid welding and also several variants for the operation under intensive conditions [12].

4. Pipeline LHM welding

Figura 8. Variante arhitecturale de capete de sudare hibrid


robotizat LHM
Figura 8. Architectural variants of LHM robotized hybrid weld
heads

att a vitezei de sudare, ct i a poziiei relative ale capetelor


de sudare, a distanei dintre capete etc. ( igura 6). [1,2,5,9].
La sudarea orbital a evilor exist studii care trateaz modalitatea optim de dispunere a capetelor de sudare laserarc i a unghiului de inclinare fa de vertical. Pe parcursul
realizrii cordonului circular poziia relativ ntre capete
poate i modi icat (ex: prin modi icarea nclinrii capului
laser, n funcie de poziia de sudare) astfel nct s se controleze formarea corect a sudurii i evitarea curgerii bii de
metal topit. n tabelul 3 sunt prezentate variantele uzuale
de dispunere a capetelor de sudare [5].
n igura 7 sunt ilustrate componentele capului de sudare
MSG hibrid robotizat LHM n varianta constructiv separat
a capului laser fa de capul de sudare cu arc electric [13].
n igura 8 sunt prezentate capete integrate compacte de sudare
LHM realizate de diferii productori, destinate cu precdere
sudrii robotizate. Se remarc faptul c existe variante constructive
10

The LaserHybrid welding with one or two arcs and a laser head (Laser-Arc or Laser Tandem), sharing a common
molten metal bath, is one of the most productive processes
used for welding of pipelines [1]. This new process allows
the illing of the groove by one or more passages, eliminating
several phases of the welding process and reducing thus the
fabrication costs.

Figura 9. Controlul curgerii gazelor la sudarea orbital a


evilor prin procedeul LHM [3]
Figura 9. Control of the gas flows when performing the orbital welding of pipelines using the LHM welding process [3]

The hybrid welding processes are also more and more attractive for the industrial ield due to the bene its derived from the
combination of the two processes. So, the high welding speeds
and the deep penetration of the laser welding combine with
SUDURA, XXII - 4/2012

Figura 10. Realizarea mecanic a gradelor de libertate pentru


schimbarea amenajarea de laser i arc n serie [5]
Figure 10. Mechanical redesign of degrees of freedom for serial
arranging of the laser head and the arc welding head [5]

pentru capete destinate sudrii hibride standard, dar i variante


pentru exploatare n condiii intense [12].

4. Sudarea LHM a conductelor

Figura 11. Cap de sudare cu echipamente de sudare hibrid


trecere rdcin i tor cu arc pentru trecere de umplere
sudare [5]
Figure 11. Hybrid welding head for the seam root pass and
arc welding head for the seam filling pass [5]

the bene its provided by the electric arc welding, i.e. higher
tolerances, control of the iller material that has been added
and better mechanical proprieties. The existing combinations of the CO2 laser welding, plasma welding, WIG or MAG
have been already used for achieving qualitative structures
under higher welding speed conditions. Moreover, the postwelding processing, which is basically a manual operation,
has been considerably reduced.
4.1. Particularities of the equipments used for orbital
welding of pipelines
The equipments used for the orbital welding of pipelines
are characterized by several particularities, on the one hand
caused by the orbital movement of the weld heads, the changes in the relative position of the laser head depending on
the position of the system around the pipe and, on the other
hand, prescribed by the need for more accurate processing
of the groove edges in pipelines. Another issue is linked to
the need for a customized system designed to protect the optic system of the laser head. This is required because, due to
the relative movement between the system and the welded

Sudarea laser-hibrid, cu unul sau dou arce i un cap laser


(Laser-Arc sau Laser Tandem), acionnd n baie comun,
este una din cele mai productive procedee utilizate la sudarea conductelor [1].
Acest nou proces d posibilitatea umplerii rostului n una sau
dou treceri eliminnd mai multe etape din procesul de sudare i reducndu-se astfel costurile de fabricaie.
Procesele de sudare hibride sunt, de asemenea, din ce
n ce mai atractive pentru extinderea n domeniul industrial datorit bene iciilor obinute din combinarea celor dou procese. Este de dorit ca vitezele mare de sudare i ptrunderea mare a sudurii laser s ie combinat
cu bene iciile aduse de sudarea cu arc electric, respectiv tolerane mari, controlul materialului de adaos introdus i proprieti mecanice bune.
Combinaiile existente ale sudrii cu laser CO2, sudarea cu plasm, WIG sau MAG au fost deja utilizate n
practic, n vederea obinerii unor suduri de calitate n
condiiile unor viteze de sudare ridicate. n plus, prelucrarea ulterioar sudrii, n mod normal o operaiune
manual, este mult mai redus.
4.1.Particulariti ale instalaiei n cazul sudrii
orbitale a conductelor
Instalaiile utilizate n cazul sudrii orbitale a conductelor prezint anumite particulariti pe de-o
Figura 13. Material X80 cu
parte, datorit micrii orbitale a capetelor de sudare, Figura 12. Sudarea orbital a
grosimea de 15mm vs = 3m/
a modi icrii poziiei relative a capului laser n funcie conductelor utiliznd procedeul
[11]
LHM
[5].
de poziia sistemului n jurul evii, iar pe de alta, imFigure 13. Material X80 with
Figure 12. Circular welding of
puse de necesitatea existentei unor prelucrri mai pipes using LHM process [5].
15mm vs= 3m/ thickness [11]
ngrijite a marginilor rostului evilor. O alt problem
este legat de necesitatea existentei unui sistem dedicat, pipe, the protective jet used in stationary variants may be
care s asigure protecia sistemului optic al capului laser. distorted, damaging thus the laser optics (Figure 9) [3]. At
Acest lucru este necesar deoarece existnd micare relativ the same time, the transportation system of the laser heads
ntre sistem i eava sudat se perturb jetul de protecie utili- and MIG should be provided with customized additional
zat la variantele staionare, deteriorndu-se optica laserului axes designed to allow the proper and real-time position( igura 9) [3]. Totodat, sistemul de transport al capetelor la- ing of the weld heads. Due to the possibility of lowing of the
ser i MIG, trebuie prevzut cu axe suplimentare comandate, molten metal bath at high welding speeds, the con iguration
SUDURA, XXII - 4/2012

11

Tabelul 4. Parametrii regimului de sudare a oelului X70, grosimea =14mm [7].


Table 4. Parameters of welding the X70 steel pipelines with thickness of 14mm [7].

care s permit poziionarea corect n timp real a capetelor.


Datorit posibilitii curgerii bii de metal topit, la viteze
mari de lucru, con iguraia sistemului hibrid poate s sufere
modi icri n sensul utilizrii separate a nc unui cap MIG
sau unul laser n funcie de material, grosime, diametrul evii
i viteza de sudare [3].
n continuare este prezentat succint o instalaie destinat
sudrii orbitale a conductelor prin procedeul LHM. Sistemul
de susinere a ansamblului capetelor de sudare este rigidizat suplimentar i este prevzut cu un numr de axe de control pentru reglarea corect a nlimii. Instalaia permite
diferite poziionri ale fasciculului laser fa de arcului MAG
aa cum sunt prezentate n tabelul 3, n vederea realizrii
transferul serial. Capul de sudare a fost echipat cu grade de libertate suplimentare ( igura 10). [5]

Figura 14. Macrostructura mbinrii sudate cu rost n V i


unghi =450, cu nlimea rdcinii rostului de 6mm [7].
Figure 14. Macrostructure of V-beveling with binder with the
following angle of inclination of =450 and height of the root
groove of 6mm [7].

n vederea sudrii evilor s-au folosit dou surse laser de


diferite puteri utilizate n funcie de grosimea tablelor (la
table cu grosime de 6 mm, de 4,5kW ( igura 11), iar la cele
de 10 mm s-a utilizat un laser mobil cu puterea de 10kW
[5]. Sudarea a fost efectuat pe tronsoane de pn la 6 m. n
acest caz, au rezultat tolerane mai mari fa de o conduct
12

of the hybrid system may be changed, for example, by using


a new separate MIG head or a laser head depending on the
material, the thickness, the pipe diameter and the welding
speed [3].
Further on, we attempted to provide a brief description of
the equipment designed to execute the orbital welding of
pipelines using the LHM welding process. The system supporting the weld heads assembly has been additionally
strengthened, being provided with a certain number of control axes for the proper adjustment of height. The equipment
allows different positions of the laser beam to the MAG arc,
as it has been shown by table 3, in order to complete the
serial transfer. The welding head has been provided with additional freedom degrees (Figure 10) [5].
For welding the pipelines, there have been used two laser

Figura 15. Macrostructura mbinrii sudate cu rost n V


i unghi =450, cu nlimea rdcinii rostului de 8mm
srm plin [7].
Figure 15. Macrostructure of V-beveling with binder with
the following angle of inclination of =450 and height of the
root groove of 8mm cored wire [7].

sources of different powers, depending on the thickness of


the plates (for the 6mm plates there has been used a 4,5kW
power laser beam (Figure 11), while for the 10mm plates
the laser power attained 10kW ) [5]. The welding has been
SUDURA, XXII - 4/2012

Figura 16. Macrostructura mbinrii sudate cu rost n V i


unghi =450,cu nlimea rdcinii rostului de 8mm srm
tubular [7].
Figure 16. Macrostructure of V-beveling with binder with the
following angle of inclination of =450 and height of the root
groove of 8mm cored wire [7].

cu capete calibrate, n special n ceea ce privete calitatea i


nealinierea marginilor. n igura 12 este prezentat instalaia
de sudare [5].
O alt aplicaie la sudarea LHM a evilor din hotel X80 cu grosimea de 15mm cu o viteza de sudare vs= 3 m/min utiliznd un
laser cu o putere de 15KW realizat la Centrul tehnologiilor la
ser din Sankt-Petesburg este prezentat n igura 13. [11]

made on pipe sections up to 6m length. In this case, we observed higher tolerances than those entered for a pipeline with
gauged ends, especially in respect to the quality and misalignment of edges. Figure 5 shows the welding equipment [5].
Another application related to the LHM welding of X80
hotel pipes of 15mm thickness, against a welding speed
vs= 3m/min, using a 15kW laser, performed by the Laser
Technology Center from Sankt-Petersburg is highlighted by
Figure 13 [11]
4.2 Current results when welding the steel LaserHibrid
for pipelines X70
In the complex manufacturing processes of pipelines, steels
with higher strength and toughness at low temperatures are
required. Hereinafter we present the recent outcomes when
applying the LaserHybrid welding for X70 steel pipeline of 14
mm thickness, using the parameters described by Table 4 and
achieving the welds described by igure 14, 15, 16, [7].

5.Experimental determinations for LHM


welding of plates with different thickneses

Figure 17a presents a unilateral butt welded joint of GL


D36 steel, used in naval constructions, applying the Laser-

Figura 17. mbinri sudate LHM a tablelor din oel naval cu diferite grosimi
Figure 17. LHM welded joints of naval steel plates having different thicknesses

4.2 Rezultate actuale la sudarea LaserHibrid a oelului


pentru conducte X70
n procesul complex de fabricaie al conductelor magistrale
de gaze naturale se utilizeaz, n ultima perioad, oeluri cu
rezisten mecanic foarte mare i reziliena foarte bun la
temperaturi sczute. n continuare sunt prezentate rezultate

SUDURA, XXII - 4/2012

Hybrid welding process on 3mm thickness plates. The laser


power was 3kW and the welding speed obtained, vs = 2 m/
min. Figure 17b presents a butt welded joint of the same
type of steel on 5mm thickness plates. In this case, the laser
power was of 3,2 kW and the welding speed obtained was
vs = 1,7 m/min. Figures 17c and 17d present a butt welded
joint of HSLA65 naval steel alloy with higher strength, using
13

Figura 18. Macrostructurile probelor sudate prin procedeele MAG i LHM


Figure 18. Macrostructures of welding probes using both MAG and LH welding processes

actuale la sudarea LaserHibrid a oelului pentru conducte


X70 cu grosimea de 14 mm, utiliznd parametrii descrii n
tabelul 4 se obin sudurile prezentate n ig.14, 15, 16, [7].

the LH welding process with a laser power of 10kW and a


welding speed of 3,5m/min for c) unilateral weld and for
d) bilateral weld. Figure 17e shows the LH unilateral butt
welding of 9 mm components, using GLA naval steel, laser
5.Determinri experimentale la sudarea power of 10kW, welding speed of vs = 2 m/min, focal point
of +3mm and linear energy of 7kJ/cm. Figure 17f identi ied
LHM a tablelor cu diferite grosimi
a LH D36 naval steel but welding with the thickness of elen igura 17a este prezentat o mbinare sudat unilateral, ments of 8mm, laser power of 3,2kW, welding speed of 2m/
cap la cap din oel GL D36 utilizat n construcii navale, prin min, focal point of +3mm, angle of inclination of 7 and linear
procedeul Laser Hibrid (LH), pe table cu grosimea de 3 mm. energy of 6,5kJ/cm.
Puterea laserului este de 3kW iar viteza de sudare aplicat Figures 18a and 18b illustrate the macrostructures of the
de vs = 2 m/min. n igura 17 b este prezentat o mbinare welded probes achieved using the MAG and LHM processes,
sudat cap la cap din acelai tip de oel pe table cu grosimea the joints being butt welded on 8mm thickness plates, prode 5 mm. Puterea laserului n acest caz a fost de 3,2 kW iar vided with V groves having the distance to the root of 2mm,
viteza de sudare aplicat de vs = 1,7 m/min. n igura 17c i the angle of inclination of 500 and the length of weld 1000
17d este prezentat o mbinare sudat cap la cap din oel mm. The welding was done in three passes, using as an elecnaval slab aliat de nalt rezisten HSLA65 prin procedeul trode wire of 1,2mm diameter as iller material; the welding
LH cu o putere a laserului de 10kW i o vitez de sudare de time which characterizes these operations is 498s / linear
3,5 mm n cazul c sudare unilateral i d bilateral. n igura meter of weld.
17e se prezint mbinarea LH unilateral cap la cap cu gro- Figure 19 shows the macrostructure of welded probe by
simea componentelor de 9 mm, din oel naval GL A, cu o putere a means of the LH single pass welding process, processed in
laserului de 10kW, vitez de sudare de vs = 2 m/min, focalizare Y-groove with distance to the root of 2mm and an angle of
+3mm i o energie liniar de 7 kJ/cm n timp ce n igura 17f 60. In this case, the welding time is 75s per welding linear
meter. A special feature of this LHM
welding process consists in the fact
that the inclination of weld head axis
is reduced, typically to 12, compared to 45 - 60 as it is commonly
practiced. This fact allows a deeper
penetration in the illing layers, considerably reducing the chamfering
costs.
Figure 21 describes the macrostrucFigura 19. Macrostructura probelor
Figura 20. Macrostructura unei probei ture of the welded probed achieved
sudate prin procedeul LHM
sudate din cupru prin procedeul LHM
by using the LHM welding process;
Figure 19. Macrostructure of welded
Figure 20. Macrostructure of the
the joint is butt welded on copper
probe by means of the LH single
welded testpiece made of copper by
plates using the welding wire type
pass welding process
LHM process
G3Si1 with a diameter of 1,2 mm as
se prezint o mbinare cap la cap LH din oel naval D36 cu iller material and a mix of 92%Ar and 8%CO2 as shield gas
grosimea componentelor de 8mm, puterea laserului de . The process parameters that have been introduced are as
3,2kW, viteza de sudare de vs = 2 m/min, focalizare +3mm, follows:
unghi de 7 i o energie liniar de 6,5 kJ/cm.
- Laser power: 10kW;
n igura 18a i 18b sunt prezentate macrostructurile pro- - Wire feed speed: 9 m/min;
belor sudate realizate prin procedeul MAG i LHM, mbinrile - Welding speed: 2 m/min.
iind realizate pe table poziionate cap la cap cu grosimea de Figure 21 a and b it present the macrostructures of welded
8 mm, prelucrate cu rost n V cu distana la rdcin de 2 mm probes executed by means of MAG and LHM welding proi unghiul de 50 i o lungime a sudurii de 1m. Sudarea s-a cesses; the joints are butt welded on ALMgSi0,7 aluminum
14

SUDURA, XXII - 4/2012

realizat prin trei treceri, folosind ca material de


adaos srm cu diametrul de 1,2 mm, cu timpul
de sudare de 498s pe metru liniar de sudur.
n igura 19 este prezentat macrostructura
unei probei sudate realizate prin procedeul
LHM cu o singur trecere, prelucrate cu rost n
Y cu distana la rdcin de 2 mm i unghiul de
60. Timpul de sudare n acest caz este 75s pe
metru liniar de sudur. O particularitate a procedeului const n faptul c la sudarea LHM nclinarea axei capului de sudare poate sa ie mai
Figura 21. Macrostructurile probelor sudate din ALMgSi0,7 prin procedeele
mic, tipic de 12, n comparaie cu 45-60 ct MAG i LHM
se practic n mod obinuit, fapt care permite Figure 21. Macrostructures of welded probes of ALMgSi0,7 using the MAG
creterea ptrunderii la mbinrile de col i re- and LHM welding processes
duce apreciabil costurile de anfrenare.
alloy plates with thickness of 5mm, and I groove. In the case
n igura 21 este prezentat macrostructura probei sudate re- of the welded joints achieved using the MAG welding proalizate prin procedeul LHM, mbinarea iind realizat pe table cess (Figure 21a) there has been used a 1,6mm diameter
din cupru poziionate cap la cap, utiliznd materialul de adaos electrode wire, with permits a welding speed of 0,7 m/min.
srm placat cu cupru tip G3Si1 cu diametrul de 1,2 mm i As for the welded joints achieved by using the LHM welding
gazul de protecie cu 92%Ar i 8%CO2.
process (Figure 21b) there has been used a 1,6mm diameter
Parametrii de proces introdui sunt:
- Puterea laserului: 10kW;
- Viteza de avans: 9 m/min;
- Viteza de sudare: 2 m/min.
n igura 21 a i b sunt prezentate macrostructurile probelor sudate realizate prin procedeul
MAG i LHM, mbinrile iind realizate pe table
din aliaj de aluminiu ALMgSi0,7 poziionate cap
la cap cu grosimea de 5 mm, cu rost n I. n cazul
mbinrii sudate realizate prin procedeul MAG
(Figura 21a) s-a utilizat srm electrod cu diametrul de 1,6 mm cu o vitez de sudare de 0,7 m/ Figura 22. Macrostructurile probelor sudate din S355J2G3 prin procedeele
min. n cazul mbinrii sudate realizate prin pro- MAG i LHM
Figure 22. Macrostructures of welded probes of S355J2G3 using the MAG
cedeul LHM (Figura 21b) s-a utilizat srm elecand LHM welding processes
trod cu diametrul de 1,6 mm cu o vitez de sudare
de 1,8 m/min.
electrode wire with a welding speed of 1,8 m/min.
n igura 22a i 22b sunt prezentate macrostructurile pro- Figures 22a and 22b show the macrostructures of welded
belor sudate realizate prin procedeul MAG i LHM, mbinrile probes achieved using the MAG and LHM welding processes.
sudate de col n T iind realizate pe table din oel slab aliat In this case, the T illet joints are achieved on butt-positioned
pentru structuri S355J2G3:EN10025, poziionate cap la cap steel alloy plates of 8mm thickness used for S355J2G3:
cu grosimea de 8mm. n cazul mbinrii sudate realizate prin EN10025 structures. For the welded joints achieved using
procedeul MAG (Figura 22a) s-a utilizat srm electrod cu the MAG welding process (Figure 22a), a 1,6mm electrode
diametrul de 1,6mm cu o vitez de sudare de 0,24 m/min iar wire has been used permitting a welding speed of 0,24m/
n cazul mbinrii sudate
min and for the welded
realizate prin procedeul
joints achieved using the
LHM (Figura 22b) s-a
LHM welding process
utilizat srm electrod cu
(Figure 22b), a 1,2 diadiametrul de 1,2mm, iar
meter electrode wire has
viteza de sudare a fost de
been used at a welding
1,0 m/min.
speed of 1,0m/min.
n igura 23 se prezint
Figure 23 highlights the
rezultatul sudrii i o
welding aspects and a
prob (pregtit pentru
welding probe (prepared
analiza macrostructurii) Figura 23. Aspectul unei conducte sudate prin procedeul LHM
for the analysis of the
Figure 23. Appearance of a welded pipeline using the LHM welding
din mbinare, a unei con- process
macrostructure) of a 18
ducte sudate prin proceexternal diameter pipeline
deul LHM avnd diametrul exterior de 18.
welded using the LHM welding procedure.
Pentru sudarea orbital din dou pri trebuie alei For two-sided orbital welding, both the parameters afferent
corespunztor parametrii regimului de sudare, n mod spe- to the welding conditions and the values of the welding curcial, valorile curentului de sudare, care mrime se modi ic n rent shall be properly selected, due to the values of the letter
SUDURA, XXII - 4/2012

15

Figura 24. Diagrama de


variaie optim a valorii
curentului Is la sudarea
interioar a corpurilor de
rotaie
Figure 24. Variation diagram of optimum ls current
value for inside welding of
the rotation bodies

Figura 25. Diagrama de


variaie optim a valorii
curentului Is la sudarea
exterioar orbital a corpurilor de rotaie
Figure 25. Variation diagram of optimum variation
of ls current value for outside orbital welding of rotation bodies

funcie de poziia capetelor de sudare fa de axa vertical a


evii sudate. n igurile 24 i 25 sunt prezentate diagramele de
variaie optim a valorii curentului Is la sudarea interioar i
exterioar a corpurilor de rotaie, pe baza crora se pot programa parametrii regimurilor de sudare, la sudarea orbital
a conductelor.

6.Concluzii

Utilizarea procedeului de sudare LHM la fabricarea conductelor pentru transportul petrolului i a gazelor naturale
reprezint o soluie viabil care satisface toate cerinele de
calitate i productivitate, chiar i pentru oeluri de nalt
rezisten. Acest lucru se datoreaz avantajelor care acesta
le ofer: productivitate mare, formarea corect a rdcinii
mbinrii, consum redus de materiale de adaos, defecte
reduse, posibiliti de sudare dintr-o singur trecere a
materialelor cu grosime mare, viteze de rcire mici, rezultnd o duritate relativ redus. n timpul sudrii, energia
liniar introdus n piese este mai redus avnd ca rezultat
micorarea deformaiilor. Comparativ cu procedeul de sudare
laser, utilizarea unor materiale de adaos permite umplerea
corect a rostului i mbuntirea proprietilor mbinrii
prin rezultarea unor microalieri n baia de metal topit.

depend on the position of the weld heads compared to the


vertical axis of the welded pipe. Figures 24 and 25 show the
diagrams of optimum Is current value variation for inside and
outside welding of rotary bodies, based on which the welding
parameters can be programmed to the orbital pipe welding.

6.Conclusions

The use of the LaserHybrid (LHM) welding process when


manufacturing pipelines for the transportation of oil and
natural gas represents a viable solution which satis ies all
quality and productivity requirements, even for steels with
higher strength. This fact is due to the advantages rendered
by the LHM welding process, such as: higher productivity,
correct formation of the back weld, less iller materials, reduced laws, possibilities to join thicker materials using a
single pass welding, slower cooling rates resulting thus a
relatively reduced toughness. During the welding process,
the linear energy fed to the components is signi icantly diminished and this fact leads to the reduction of distortions.
The use of iller materials, compared to the laser welding
process, allows the improvement of the weld properties due
to the microalloying in the molten metal bath.

BIBLIOGRAFIE
[1]
Olsen F. O., Hybrid laserarc welding, Woodhead Publishing Limited, CRC Press LLC, London, 2009
[2]
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Cost Analysis, Welding Journal, june. 2006
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[6]
Gumenyuk, S. Gook, M. Lammers, M. Rethmeier, High Power Fibre Laser Welding for Pipeline Applications, Proceedings of LAMP2009, 5th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing,June 29-July 02nd Kobe,Japan..
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