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In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the speed

of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's

potential energy.[1][2] Bernoulli's principle is named after the Swiss scientist Daniel Bernoulli

who published his principle in his book Hydrodynamica in 1738.[3]

Bernoulli's principle can be applied to various types of fluid flow, resulting in what is loosely

denoted as Bernoulli's equation. In fact, there are different forms of the Bernoulli equation for

different types of flow. The simple form of Bernoulli's principle is valid for incompressible flows

(e.g. most liquid flows) and also for compressible flows (e.g. gases) moving at low Mach

numbers (usually less than 0.3). More advanced forms may in some cases be applied to

compressible flows at higher Mach numbers (see the derivations of the Bernoulli equation).

Bernoulli's principle can be derived from the principle of conservation of energy. This states

that, in a steady flow, the sum of all forms of mechanical energy in a fluid along a streamline is

the same at all points on that streamline. This requires that the sum of kinetic energy and

potential energy remain constant. Thus an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs

proportionately with an increase in both its dynamic pressure and kinetic energy, and a

decrease in its static pressure and potential energy. If the fluid is flowing out of a reservoir, the

sum of all forms of energy is the same on all streamlines because in a reservoir the energy per

unit volume (the sum of pressure and gravitational potential g h) is the same everywhere.[4]

Bernoulli's principle can also be derived directly from Newton's 2nd law. If a small volume of

fluid is flowing horizontally from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure, then

there is more pressure behind than in front. This gives a net force on the volume, accelerating

it along the streamline.[5][6][7]

Fluid particles are subject only to pressure and their own weight. If a fluid is flowing horizontally

and along a section of a streamline, where the speed increases it can only be because the

fluid on that section has moved from a region of higher pressure to a region of lower pressure;

and if its speed decreases, it can only be because it has moved from a region of lower

pressure to a region of higher pressure. Consequently, within a fluid flowing horizontally, the

highest speed occurs where the pressure is lowest, and the lowest speed occurs where the

pressure is highest.

Incompressible flow equation

In most flows of liquids, and of gases at low Mach number, the density of a fluid parcel can be

considered to be constant, regardless of pressure variations in the flow. Therefore, the fluid

can be considered to be incompressible and these flows are called incompressible flow.

Bernoulli performed his experiments on liquids, so his equation in its original form is valid only

for incompressible flow. A common form of Bernoulli's equation, valid at any arbitrary point

along a streamline, is:

where:

is the fluid flow speed at a point on a streamline,

is the acceleration due to gravity,

is the elevation of the point above a reference plane, with the positive z-direction

pointing upward so in the direction opposite to the gravitational acceleration,

is the pressure at the chosen point, and

is the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid.

For conservative force fields, Bernoulli's equation can be generalized as:[8]

where is the force potential at the point considered on the streamline. E.g. for the Earth's

gravity = gz.

The following two assumptions must be met for this Bernoulli equation to apply: [8]

the flow must be incompressible even though pressure varies, the density must

remain constant along a streamline;

friction by viscous forces has to be negligible.

By multiplying with the fluid density , equation (A) can be rewritten as:

or:

where:

is dynamic pressure,

is the piezometric head or hydraulic head (the sum of the elevation z and the

pressure head)[9][10] and

is the total pressure (the sum of the static pressure p and dynamic pressure q).

[11]

The constant in the Bernoulli equation can be normalised. A common approach is in terms of

total head or energy head H:

The above equations suggest there is a flow speed at which pressure is zero, and at even

higher speeds the pressure is negative. Most often, gases and liquids are not capable of

negative absolute pressure, or even zero pressure, so clearly Bernoulli's equation ceases to be

valid before zero pressure is reached. In liquids when the pressure becomes too low

cavitation occurs. The above equations use a linear relationship between flow speed squared

and pressure. At higher flow speeds in gases, or for sound waves in liquid, the changes in

mass density become significant so that the assumption of constant density is invalid.

Bernoulli equation for incompressible fluids

The Bernoulli equation for incompressible fluids can be

derived by integrating Newton's Second Law of Motion,

or applying the law of conservation of energy in two

sections along a streamline, ignoring viscosity,

compressibility, and thermal effects.

The simplest derivation is to first ignore gravity and

consider constrictions and expansions in pipes that are

otherwise straight, as seen in Venturi effect. Let the x

axis be directed down the axis of the pipe.

Define a parcel of fluid moving through a pipe with

cross-sectional area "A", the length of the parcel is "dx",

and the volume of the parcel A dx. If mass density is ,

the mass of the parcel is density multiplied by its volume

m = A dx. The change in pressure over distance dx is

"dp" and flow velocity v = dx / dt.

Apply Newton's Second Law of Motion (Force

=massacceleration) and recognizing that the effective

force on the parcel of fluid is -A dp. If the pressure

decreases along the length of the pipe, dp is negative

but the force resulting in flow is positive along the x axis.

to time, v = v(x) = v(x(t)), so v itself is not directly a

function of time t. It is only when the parcel moves

through x that the cross sectional area changes: v

depends on t only through the cross-sectional position

x(t).

written as

Bernoulli constant. It is not a universal constant, but

rather a constant of a particular fluid system. The

deduction is: where the speed is large, pressure is low

and vice versa.

In the above derivation, no external work-energy

principle is invoked. Rather, Bernoulli's principle was

inherently derived by a simple manipulation of the

momentum equation.

pressure, elevation, flow speed, distance (s), and crosssectional area. Note that in this figure elevation is

denoted as h, contrary to the text where it is given by z.

Another way to derive Bernoulli's principle for an

incompressible flow is by applying conservation of

energy.[21] In the form of the work-energy theorem,

stating that[22]

the change in the kinetic energy Ekin of the system

equals the net work W done on the system;

Therefore,

the work done by the forces in the fluid = increase in

kinetic energy.

The system consists of the volume of fluid, initially

between the cross-sections A1 and A2. In the time

interval t fluid elements initially at the inflow crosssection A1 move over a distance s1 = v1 t, while at the

outflow cross-section the fluid moves away from crosssection A2 over a distance s2 = v2 t. The displaced fluid

volumes at the inflow and outflow are respectively A1 s1

and A2 s2. The associated displaced fluid masses are

when is the fluid's mass density equal to density

times volume, so A1 s1 and A2 s2. By mass

conservation, these two masses displaced in the time

denoted by m:

The work done by the pressure acting on the

areas A1 and A2

potential energy in the volume A1 s1 is lost, and at

the outflow in the volume A2 s2 is gained. So, the

change in gravitational potential energy Epot,gravity

in the time interval t is

change in potential energy, Wgravity = Epot,gravity: while

the force of gravity is in the negative z-direction, the

workgravity force times change in elevationwill be

negative for a positive elevation change z = z2 z1,

while the corresponding potential energy change is

positive.[23] So:

is

W = Ekin gives:[21]

or

the result is:[21]

(A)

Further division by g produces the following equation.

Note that each term can be described in the length

dimension (such as meters). This is the head equation

derived from Bernoulli's principle:

(Eqn. 2a)

The middle term, z, represents the potential energy of

the fluid due to its elevation with respect to a reference

plane. Now, z is called the elevation head and given the

designation zelevation.

A free falling mass from an elevation z > 0 (in a vacuum)

will reach a speed

when arriving at elevation z = 0. Or when

we rearrange it as a head:

The term v2 / (2 g) is called the velocity head, expressed

as a length measurement. It represents the internal

energy of the fluid due to its motion.

The hydrostatic pressure p is defined as

, with p0 some reference pressure, or

The term p / (g) is also called the pressure head,

expressed as a length measurement. It represents the

internal energy of the fluid due to the pressure exerted

on the container.

When we combine the head due to the flow speed and

the head due to static pressure with the elevation above

a reference plane, we obtain a simple relationship useful

for incompressible fluids using the velocity head,

elevation head, and pressure head.

(Eqn. 2b)

If we were to multiply Eqn. 1 by the density of the fluid,

we would get an equation with three pressure terms:

(Eqn. 3)

We note that the pressure of the system is constant in

this form of the Bernoulli Equation. If the static pressure

of the system (the far right term) increases, and if the

pressure due to elevation (the middle term) is constant,

then we know that the dynamic pressure (the left term)

must have decreased. In other words, if the speed of a

fluid decreases and it is not due to an elevation

difference, we know it must be due to an increase in the

static pressure that is resisting the flow.

All three equations are merely simplified versions of an

energy balance on a system.

The derivation for compressible fluids is similar. Again,

the derivation depends upon (1) conservation of mass,

and (2) conservation of energy. Conservation of mass

implies that in the above figure, in the interval of time t,

the amount of mass passing through the boundary

passing outwards through the boundary defined by the

area A2:

.

Conservation of energy is applied in a similar manner: It

is assumed that the change in energy of the volume of

the streamtube bounded by A1 and A2 is due entirely to

energy entering or leaving through one or the other of

these two boundaries. Clearly, in a more complicated

situation such as a fluid flow coupled with radiation, such

conditions are not met. Nevertheless, assuming this to

be the case and assuming the flow is steady so that the

net change in the energy is zero,

and leaving through A2, respectively.

The energy entering through A1 is the sum of the kinetic

energy entering, the energy entering in the form of

potential gravitational energy of the fluid, the fluid

thermodynamic energy entering, and the energy

entering in the form of mechanical p dV work:

gravity, g is acceleration due to gravity, and z is

elevation above a reference plane.

A similar expression for

So now setting

:

conservation of mass, this may be simplified to obtain

Torricelli's equation

In physics, Torricelli's equation is an equation created by Evangelista Torricelli to find the

final velocity of an object moving with a constant acceleration without having a known time

interval.

The equation itself is:

Derivation

Begin with the equation for velocity:

The term

Reference:

Torricelli's law

Torricelli's law, also known as Torricelli's theorem, is a theorem in fluid dynamics relating

the speed of fluid flowing out of an opening to the height of fluid above the opening.

Torricelli's law states that the speed of efflux, v, of a fluid through a sharp-edged hole at the

bottom of a tank filled to a depth h is the same as the speed that a body (in this case a drop of

water) would acquire in falling freely from a height h,

i.e.

This last expression comes from equating the kinetic energy gained,

with the potential energy lost, mgh , and solving for v.

The law was discovered (though not in this form) by the Italian scientist Evangelista Torricelli,

in 1643. It was later shown to be a particular case of Bernoulli's principle.

Derivation

Bernoulli's principle states that:

where v is fluid speed, g is the gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s^2), z is the fluid's height

above a reference point, p is pressure, and is density. Define the opening to be at z=. At

the top of the tank, p is equal to the atmospheric pressure. v can be considered 0 because the

fluid surface drops in height extremely slowly compared to the speed at which fluid exits the

tank. At the opening, z= and p is again atmospheric pressure. Eliminating the constant and

solving gives:

Archimedes Principle

Archimedes' principle (or Archimedes's principle) is a law of physics stating that the

upward buoyant force exerted on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid

the body displaces. In other words, an immersed object is buoyed up by a force equal to the

weight of the fluid it actually displaces.

Archimedes' principle is an important and underlying concept in the field of fluid mechanics.

This principle is named after its discoverer, Archimedes of Syracuse. [1]

Explanation

Archimedes' two-part treatise on hydrostatics, called On Floating Bodies, states that:

Any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight

of the fluid displaced by the object.

Archimedes of Syracuse

with the clarifications that for a sunken object the volume of displaced fluid is the volume of the

object. Thus, in short, buoyancy = weight of displaced fluid. Archimedes' principle is true of

liquids and gases, both of which are fluids. If an immersed object displaces 1 kilogram of fluid,

the buoyant force acting on it is equal to the weight of 1 kilogram (as a kilogram is unit of mass

and not of force, the buoyant force is the weight of 1 kg, which is approximately 9.8 Newtons.)

It is important to note that the term immersed refers to an object that is either completely or

partially submerged. If a sealed 1-liter container is immersed halfway into the water, it will

displace a half-liter of water and be buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of a half-liter of

water, no matter what is in the container.

If such an object is completely submerged, it will be buoyed up by a force equivalent to the

weight of a full liter of water (1 kilogram of force). If the container is completely submerged and

does not compress, the buoyant force will equal the weight of 1 kilogram of water at any depth,

since the volume of the container does not change, resulting in a constant displacement

regardless of depth. The weight of the displaced water, and not the weight of the submerged

object, is equal to the buoyant force.

Objects weigh more in air than they do in water. If a 30-kilogram object displaces 20 kilograms

of fluid when it is immersed, its apparent weight will be equal to the weight of 10 kilograms (98

newtons). Similarly, when submerged, a 3-kilogram block may have an apparent weight of 1

kilogram. The "missing weight" is equal to the weight of the water displaced, the weight of 2

kilograms (19.6 newtons), which is the buoyant force. The apparent weight of a submerged

object is its weight under standard conditions minus the buoyant force.

Since the density of water is 1 g/cm 3 (or 1 kg/L), an object that has displaced 20 kg of water,

must have a volume of 20 litres. Archimedes Principle can therefore be used to measure the

volume of any solid, regardless of its shape. If the 30 kg object appears to weigh an equivalent

of 10 kg when immersed in water, it must have displaced 20 kg of water, or in other words 20L

of water.

So,

Volume of Object (in Litres) = Weight of Object in Air (in kilograms) Weight of Object in Water

(in kilograms)

or

Volume of Object (in millilitres or cubic centimetres) = Weight of Object in Air (in grams)

Weight of Object in Water (in grams)

(This equation assumes that the object is completely submerged, and has a density of at least

1 kg/L)

Consider a completely submerged cube. The fluid exerts pressure on all six faces, but as long

as the cube is not tilted, the forces on the four vertical faces balance each other out. The

pressure difference between the bottom and the top face is directly proportional to the height

(difference in depth). Multiplying the pressure difference with the area of a face gives the net

force on the cube - the buoyancy, or the weight of the fluid displaced. It makes no difference

how deep the cube is placed because, although the pressures are greater with increasing

depths, the difference between the pressure up against the bottom of the cube and the

pressure down against the top of the cube is the same at any depth. Whatever the shape of

the submerged body, the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.

Formula

The weight of the displaced fluid is directly proportional to the volume of the displaced fluid (if

the surrounding fluid is of uniform density) the weight of the object in water is less than the

weight of object in air, because of the force acting on it which is called as upthrust. In simple

terms, the principle states that the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid

displaced by the object, or the density of the fluid multiplied by the submerged volume times

the gravitational constant, g. Thus, among completely submerged objects with equal masses,

objects with greater volume have greater buoyancy.

Suppose a rock's weight is measured as 10 newtons when suspended by a string in a vacuum

with gravity acting upon it. Suppose that when the rock is lowered into water, it displaces water

of weight 3 newtons. The force it then exerts on the string from which it hangs would be 10

newtons minus the 3 newtons of buoyant force: 10 3 = 7 newtons. Buoyancy reduces the

apparent weight of objects that have sunk completely to the sea floor. It is generally easier to

lift an object up through the water than it is to pull it out of the water.

Assuming Archimedes' principle to be reformulated as follows,

then inserted into the quotient of weights, which has been expanded by the mutual volume

yields the formula below. The density of the immersed object relative to the density of the fluid

can easily be calculated without measuring any volumes:

(This formula is used for example in describing the measuring principle of a dasymeter and of

hydrostatic weighing.)

Example: If you drop wood into water, buoyancy will keep it afloat.

Example: A helium balloon in a moving car. In increasing speed or driving a curve, the air

moves in the opposite direction of the car's acceleration. The balloon however, is pushed due

to buoyancy "out of the way" by the air, and will actually drift in the same direction as the car's

acceleration. When an object is immersed in a liquid the liquid exerts an upward force which is

known as buoyant force and it is proportional to the weight of displaced liquid. The sum force

acting on the object, then, is proportional to the difference between the weight of the object

('down' force) and the weight of displaced liquid ('up' force), hence equilibrium buoyancy is

achieved when these two weights (and thus forces) are equal.

Principle of flotation

Archimedes' principle relates buoyant force and displacement of fluid. However, the concept of

Archimedes' principle can be applied when considering why objects float. Proposition 5 of

Archimedes' treatise On Floating Bodies states that:

Any floating object displaces its own weight of fluid.

Archimedes of Syracuse[3]

In other words, for a floating object on a liquid, the weight of the displaced liquid is the weight

of the object. Thus, only in the special case of floating does the buoyant force acting on an

object equal the objects weight. Consider a 1-ton block of solid iron. As iron is nearly eight

times denser than water, it displaces only 1/8 ton of water when submerged, which is not

enough to keep it afloat. Suppose the same iron block is reshaped into a bowl. It still weighs 1

ton, but when it is put in water, it displaces a greater volume of water than when it was a block.

The deeper the iron bowl is immersed, the more water it displaces, and the greater the

buoyant force acting on it. When the buoyant force equals 1 ton, it will sink no farther.

When any boat displaces a weight of water equal to its own weight, it floats. This is often called

the "principle of flotation": A floating object displaces a weight of fluid equal to its own weight.

Every ship, submarine, and dirigible must be designed to displace a weight of fluid equal to its

own weight. A 10,000-ton ship must be built wide enough to displace 10,000 tons of water

before it sinks too deep in the water. The same is true for vessels in air (as air is a fluid): a

dirigible that weighs 100 tons displaces at least 100 tons of air. If it displaces more, it rises; if it

displaces less, it falls. If the dirigible displaces exactly its weight, it hovers at a constant

altitude.

It is important to realize that, while they are related to it, the principle of flotation and the

concept that a submerged object displaces a volume of fluid equal to its own volume are not

Archimedes' principle. Archimedes' principle, as stated above, equates the buoyant force to the

weight of the fluid displaced.

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