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Seminary work

New urbanisation and new pedestrianisation

Sarejevo, June 2014

Contents

Introduction .3
Principles of urbanism.5

Pedestrian streets in China.9

Challenges of urbanisation in India................................................................12


Comparing urbanization in China and India......................................................14
Conclusion......................................................................................................17
References18

Introduction

New
Urbanism is
an urban
design movement
which
promotes walkable neighborhoods containing a range of housing and job
types. It arose in the United States in the early 1980s, and has gradually
informed many aspects of real estate development, urban planning, and
municipal land-use strategies. 1
The rapid increase in the number of urban inhabitants will be among the
most important global health issues of the 21st century. Urban living is
becoming more predominant and city dwellers are facing many new health
challenges.
Urbanization is closely associated with the scarcity of clean water, excessive
violence and traffic accidents, and an increased exposure to risk factors such
as tobacco use, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity and harmful use of
alcohol. Environmental risk factors contribute to 85 of the 102 major
diseases covered by the World health report. Approximately 23 per cent of all
deaths can be attributed to environmental factors many of which could be
prevented. The greatest absolute disease burden attributable to modifiable
environmental factors included diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, other
unintentional injuries and malaria. Children represent our future and all
children need a healthy, safe and protective environment to ensure normal
growth, development and overall well-being. In children under the age of
five, one third of all disease is caused by the environmental factors such as
unsafe water and air pollution. Unsafe drinking water, poor sanitation and
hygiene are the strongest links to diarrhoeal disease a leading childhood
killer. Lower respiratory infections are often associated with indoor air
pollution related to household solid fuel use and second-hand tobacco
smoke, as well as outdoor air pollution. Asthma is the most common chronic
disease among children and is triggered by environmental factors such as
house dust mites, second-hand smoke, moulds and pollens. Reducing
exposure to environmental triggers can effectively control asthma. The main
sources of environmental air pollution are from industries such as power
stations and emissions from agriculture. Fossil fuel emissions from cars and
trucks have skyrocketed in recent years with rapid urbanization and the
increased reliance on motorized transport of people and goods.
Environmental air pollution also includes smoke and emissions from burning
waste dumps, rubbish, firewood and charcoal. These activities occur in and
around the home and are major causes of respiratory disease in both adults
and children.
1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Urbanism
3

Environmental factors, such as inadequate pedestrian and cycling


infrastructures, also make a significant contribution to physical inactivity
levels and injuries associated with road traffic accidents. It has been
estimated that physical inactivity levels could be reduced by 31 per cent
through improved environmental interventions, including pedestrian- and
bicycle-friendly urban land use and transport, leisure and workplace facilities,
and policies that support more active lifestyles. Healthier environments can
also reduce the incidence of noncommunicable diseases such as cancer,
cardiovascular disease, diabetes and overweight and obesity. Up to 80 per
cent of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes could be prevented and 40
per cent of cancer.
Theres also a lot we can do as individuals to lower our chances of
developing the disease such as being more physically active and adopting a
healthier diet, says Dr Rachel Thompson, head of research interpretation at
the World Cancer Research Fund International. Recent reports from the
National Cancer Institute found that fewer than 5 per cent of adults get the
recommended 30 minutes of moderate exercise per day. Physical activity
and exercise is needed for all regardless of weight, health condition or age
to achieve optimal health and fight off disease. 2

2 http://www.newtimes.co.rw/news/views/article_print.php?i=15595&a=73483
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PRINCIPLES OF URBANISM

The principles of urbanism can be applied increasingly to projects at the full


range of scales from a single building to an entire community.

1. Walkability

-Most
things
within
a
10-minute
walk
of
home
and
work
-Pedestrian friendly street design (buildings close to street; porches, windows
& doors; tree-lined streets; on street parking; hidden parking lots; garages in
rear
lane;
narrow,
slow
speed
streets);
-Pedestrian streets free of cars in special cases.

2.Connectivity

-Interconnected street grid network disperses traffic & eases walking


-A
hierarchy
of
narrow
streets,
boulevards,
and
alleys
-High quality pedestrian network and public realm makes walking
pleasurable.

3. Mixed-Use&Diversity

-A mix of shops, offices, apartments, and homes on site. Mixed-use


within
neighborhoods,
within
blocks,
and
within
buildings
-Diversity of people - of ages, income levels, cultures and races.
4. MixedHousing

A range of types, sizes and prices in closer proximity.

5. Quality Architecture & Urban Design

Emphasis on beauty, aesthetics, human comfort, and creating a sense


of place; Special placement of civic uses and sites within community.
Human scale architecture & beautiful surroundings nourish the human
spirit.

6. Traditional Neighborhood Structure

-Discernable
center
and
edge
-Public
space
at
center
-Importance of quality public realm; public open space designed as
civic
art
-Contains a range of uses and densities within 10-minute walk
-Transect planning: Highest densities at town center; progressively
less dense towards the edge. The transect is an analytical system
that conceptualizes mutually reinforcing elements, creating a
series of specific natural habitats and/or urban lifestyle settings.
The Transect integrates environmental methodology for habitat
assessment with zoning methodology for community design. The
professional boundary between the natural and man-made
disappears, enabling environmentalists to assess the design of the
human habitat and the urbanists to support the viability of nature.
This urban-to-rural transect hierarchy has appropriate building and
street types for each area along the continuum.

7. Increased Density

-More buildings, residences, shops, and services closer together for


ease of walking, to enable a more efficient use of services and
resources, and to create a more convenient, enjoyable place to live.
-New Urbanism design principles are applied at the full range of
densities from small towns, to large cities

8. Green Transportation

-A network of high-quality trains connecting cities, towns, and


neighborhoods
together
-Pedestrian-friendly design that encourages a greater use of
bicycles, rollerblades, scooters, and walking as daily transportation.

9. Sustainability

-Minimal environmental impact of development and its operations


-Eco-friendly technologies, respect for ecology and value of natural
systems
-Energy
efficiency
-Less
use
of
finite
fuels
-More
local
production
-More walking, less driving.

10.

Quality of Life

Taken together these add up to a high quality of life well worth


living, and create places that enrich, uplift, and inspire the human
spirit.3

3 http://www.newurbanism.org/newurbanism/principles.html

Example 1

Pedestrian streets in China

Major cities around the world have created pedestrian streets, and Chinese
cities are no exception. Successful pedestrian streets have become pleasant
shopping areas and places of entertainment for city dwellers. Some of these
car-free streets have also been a boon for tourism in the city, attracting a
wide range of visitors, and at the same time helping to preserve historical
districts. The inhabitants have been able to appropriate their city centres by
excluding cars. However, the impact of pedestrian streets on environment
and pollution is still limited because of the small areas they cover.
Nevertheless, some cities, especially in Europe, have attempted or planned
to extend the size of their car-free zones. For example, the authorities in
Dublin have considered making their city centre car-free (Franck McDonald,
2012). In Paris, an expressway along the left bank of the Seine will soon be
turned into a pedestrian entertainment zone (Chrisafis, 2012). The goal of
these projects is not only to increase the attraction of the city centre, but
also to improve the urban environment. The objectives of pedestrian streets
have evolved with time. In Europe, the concept of pedestrian streets first
appeared in the 50s in Scandinavian countries. Mattias Krrholm (2012)
notes that the rise in pedestrian streets in Sweden in the 70s went hand in
hand with the development of department stores. Another wave of
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pedestrian streets was implemented in the 90s, because of the stiff


competition city centres faced from the new suburban shopping malls. The
city centres answer to this challenge was the development of pedestrian
precincts. This pedestrianisation came along with a wide range of
measures encouraging soft modes of transport. A similar trend has occurred
in China. In addition to night markets, modern version of pedestrian streets
appeared in China in the 80s: for example, Nanjing Lu in Shanghai. Chinese
cities have changed radically over the past thirty years. With the rise of an
urban middle-class and the growth of the tertiary sector, some areas in
Chinese cities have become entertainment centres. Urban dwellers have
acquired new consumer habits with the opening of shopping malls and
department stores. The economic reforms have led to an urban renewal.
Many of the traditional residential units, such as thesiheyuan in Beijing have
been razed to make way for high-rise buildings; very few of the small alleys
(hutong) have been preserved from the creation of large roads and
speedways. However, because of the rise in tourism and consumerism, some
pedestrian precincts have been created within Chinese cities. These
pedestrian streets have become hotspots for tourism and shopping, rivalling
the suburban department stores. To sustain this competition, pedestrian
streets are designed to be shopping destinations, and the developers create
forceful images for them.
Xintiandi, one of Shanghais famous pedestrian precincts, is a good
illustration of this image building. In his study on Chinese pedestrian streets,
Alan Lew (2007) describes the project: the construction of Xintiandi was
part of an urban renewal programme. Several traditional units were
demolished to make way for this shopping district, which was then
constructed in a traditional style, typical of Shanghai, but with modern
facilities. As a result, it can be considered more a reconstruction of the past
than a historical preservation. This pedestrian complex hosts a shopping
mall, trendy restaurants and shops and has become a successful tourist
destination for locals and foreigners alike.
Therefore, as Lew has rightly observed, Chinese pedestrian streets are
mainly planned as shopping and entertainment destinations. The
environmental approach is not really taken into consideration. However, we
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may hope that things are going to change, since new kinds of car-free areas
are being planned in China. Major Chinese cities have several on-going
projects for their suburbs. A new green city will be built near Chengdu in
Sichuan, which will be an entirely car-free city (Smith-Gill, 2012). This
programme shows a shift in focus in urban renewal in China from shopping
and consuming activities to environmental concerns.
Since China has not yet reached the end of her path in matters of
urbanisation, new kinds of pedestrian-friendly facilities may be introduced.
What is perceived as the modern day utopia: a city with no cars may soon
take shape in China. 4

Example 2

Challenges of urbanisation in India

4 http://urbachina.hypotheses.org/1415
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India has been described as a reluctant urbaniser. In 2001, the percentage


of the population living in urban areas was estimated to be 28 per cent. Ten
years later, it is little more than 30 per cent. This is despite the explosive
growth of megacities such as Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. Nonetheless, there
is an expectation that in the next decade or so, the rate of urbanisation will
increase significantly. This is, in part, because increased urbanisation is a
necessary condition for economic growth. Population trends for India show
that there will be a substantial increase in working age population over the
next 20 years and sustained economic growth will be necessary to generate
new jobs in the manufacturing and services sectors. Indias Planning
Commission has observed that the pace of urbanization poses
an unprecedented managerial and policy challenge. It noted that demand for
key services such as water, transport, sewage treatment; low income
housing will increase five to sevenfold in cities of every size and shape.
The unprecedented migration of people across India is resulting in its major
cities becoming patchwork quilts of different communities living side by side
(see UNICEFs Overview of Internal Migration in India). According to
Indias Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, almost a third
of Indias population is made up of internal migrants. The integration of new

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populations, especially in urban areas, is a major issue, particularly given the


lack of low income housing provision and basic services.
There are profound choices to be made in India over the next two decades.
The sustainability of cities and/or sustainable urbanisation whatever the
definitions used is a crucial consideration. Both real timeknowledge of the
urbanisation transition and knowledge how to manage this transition are
going to be vitally important. The unprecedented demographic change also
needs to be understood in terms of its cultural and historical impact. These
are all areas where the academic community working in partnership with
business and civil society groups can play an important part in defining the
challenges and crafting the solutions appropriate for India.

Indias urban population will double by 2030


Over recent years, the UK has become a thought-leader on the sustainability
of cities and understanding urbanization transitions around the world. Much
of this thought leadership has derived from the research commissioned by
the individual Councils which have funded programmes on: ICT and internet
of things, low carbon cities, water and energy resource management, urban
health, demographic transitions and urban poverty alleviation. Later this
year, RCUK India will be organising a roundtable which will bring together
leading academics, policy makers and thought leaders from the UK and India
to discuss and identify key R&D issues focusing on the areas of:
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Sustainability and urbanisation

Smart cities and the urban ecosystem in India

Integrating provision of water, waste and energy services

Urbanization and delivery of effective health services

Changing idea of the city in Indian culture

Achieving inclusivity in the face of rapid demographic change.

Comparing urbanization in China and India

China and India are in the vanguard of a wave of urban expansion that is
restoring the global prominence that Asia enjoyed before the European and
North American industrial revolution. By 2025, nearly 2.5 billion Asians will
live in cities, accounting for almost 54 percent of the worlds urban
population. India and China alone will account for more than 62 percent of
Asian urban population growth and 40 percent of global urban population
growth from 2005 to 2025.
In 1950, India was a more urban nation than China (17 percent of the
population lived in cities, compared with Chinas 13 percent). But from 1950
to 2005, China urbanized far more rapidly than India, to an urbanization rate
of 41 percent, compared with 29 percent in India. New research from the
McKinsey Global Institute1 expects this pattern to continue, with China
forecast to add 400 million to its urban population, which will account for 64
percent of the total population by 2025, and India to add 215 million to its
cities, whose populations will account for 38 percent of the total in 2025.
Never before in history have two of the largest nations (in terms of
population) urbanized at the same time, and at such a pace. This process will
drive fundamental shiftsin both countrieswhich will have significant
consequences for the world economy and offer exciting new opportunities for
investors.
5 http://blogs.rcuk.ac.uk/2013/07/01/sustainable-cities-and-the-challenges-ofurbanisation-in-india/
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In India, urban per capita GDP is projected to grow at a rate of 6 percent a


year from 2005 to 2025, while China will see growth of 7.3 percent. The
number of urban households with true discretionary-spending power in India
could increase sevenfold, to 89 million households, in 2025. In China, there
are 55 million middle-class households today. That number could more than
quadruple to nearly 280 million in 2025, to account for more than threequarters of all Chinas urban households. For businesses, the significant
increase in per capita urban incomes and middle-income households offers
the potential of vibrant new markets to serve.
So what markets are likely to benefit the most from these trends? In India, by
2025, the largest markets will be transportation and communications, food,
and health care, followed by housing and utilities, recreation, and education.
Even Indias slower-growing spending categories will represent significant
opportunities for businesses because these markets will still be growing
rapidly in comparison with their counterparts in other areas of the world. In
Chinas cities, the fastest-growing categories are likely to be transportation
and communications, housing and utilities, personal products, health care,
and recreation and education.
In addition, in both China and India, urban infrastructure markets will be
massive. For example, from 2005 to 2025, India will need to add 700 million
to 900 million square meters of floor space a year; in China, the required
numbers could be 1,600 million to 1,900 million square meters. During the
same period, India will need to add at least 350 to 400 kilometers of
metropolitan railways and subways annually, while the corresponding
number in China will be closer to 1,000 kilometers.
There is little doubt about the scale of the new markets in China and India
unleashed by the pace and scale of their urbanization. But businesses still
need to be able to serve these markets in practical terms. The way cities are
runand the productivity that resultsis a major factor for companies. Here,
China is in much better shape than India. While India has barely paid
attention to its urban transformation, China has developed a set of internally
consistent practices across every element of the urbanization operating
model: funding, governance, planning, sectoral policies, and the shape, or
pattern, of urbanization, both across the nation as a whole and within cities
themselves.

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India has underinvested in its cities; China has invested ahead of demand
and given its cities the freedom to raise substantial investment resources by
monetizing land assets and retaining a 25 percent share of value-added
taxes. While India spends $17 per capita on capital investments in urban
infrastructure annually, China spends $116. India has devolved little real
power and accountability to its cities, but Chinas major cities enjoy the same
status as provinces and have powerful political appointees as mayors. While
Indias urban-planning system has failed to address competing demands for
space, China has a mature urban-planning regime (emphasizing the
systematic development of run-down areas) consistent with long-range plans
for land use, housing, and transportation.
The starkest contrast between the two countries is that China has embraced
and shaped urbanization, while India is still waking up to its urban reality and
the opportunities that its cities offer for economic and social transformation.
However, if India fixes its urban operating model, it has the potential to reap
a demographic dividend from the increaseof around 250 million expected
in the next decadein the working-age population. This dividend is even
larger than that in China, which is aging rapidly. By 2025, nearly 28 percent
of its inhabitants will be aged 55 or older, compared with only 16 percent in
India, whose demographic profile is much more youthful. If India optimizes
the productivity of its cities and maximizes their GDP, the economy could
add more than 170 million urban workers to its labor force from 2005 to
2025, compared with 50 million in China over the same period. The stakes
are high.6

CONCLUSION

6
http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/urbanization/comparing_urbanization_in_china_an
d_india
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We are the best evident how time and world is changing rapidly, taking over
and changing life we are living. The whole architecture shapes our life,
mostly throuht the buildings, and all others. In order to have a better and
healty life, the new urbanization is what we need, because of the future
generation. But, it should be the change which will be friendly to the
enviroment and also healthy to the all live beings. If we talk about
urbanization, we should rather think here in Bosnia and Herzegovina how to
provide a good urbanization which will have a clear connection with law, We
are thinking and writing lot about new life we are dreaming, and new
pedestrians, but we have the old problems, first we should provide a
predestrians in some cities like Novi Pazar (Serbia), it is the city which have
the problem with public parking, so if there are some pedestrian you cannot
see some human who is using it, you can only see some car which is parking
there. This is very bad thing esspecialy if we care a lot about future of our
children and their safety.
So, the new urbanization cannot here brings so much changes if the old
problems are not yet solved, maybe it is more because awerness, and that
should be the second problem in which we are dealing with, its a problem
where every individual is thinking why should I take care, its not disturbing
me. My conclusion will be that we should firstly change the awareness of
the people, we can change a lot of things in the some urban area but we still
have the same people who live there with same way of living and thinking,
so in the end if it will not change we will have the same problems. And later
on, the process of a new urbanization and all the principles mentioned above
can take over its place where it belongs. Reaching the point from walkablity
and workablity to the quality of life.

REFERENCES

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Urbanism

http://www.newtimes.co.rw/news/views/article_print.php?i=15595&a=73483

http://www.newurbanism.org/newurbanism/principles.html

http://urbachina.hypotheses.org/1415

http://blogs.rcuk.ac.uk/2013/07/01/sustainable-cities-and-the-challenges-ofurbanisation-in-india/

http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/urbanization/comparing_urbanization_in_ch
ina_and_india

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