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1. Group I metals extract difficulty because the group I metals are very reactive.

Its easy to
react with water because they are on the top of electrochemical lines. Their compound are
stable on warming. So, its hard to separate on thermal condition because the melting point is
too high. The group I metals are the stronger reduction agent so its hard to reduce itself.
2. Using of group I metals
a. Lithium
- Li2CO3 used to toughen glass
- Lithium is also used to make electrochemical cell
- LiH used to generate hydrogen and LiOH absorb CO2
b. Sodium
- Na produced is used to make Na-Pb alloy which is used to make PbEt4 and
PbMe4 which are used as anti-knock- additives and to petrol, but this will
decrease with increasing use lead-free petrol.
- NaHCO3 is used in baking powder.
c. Potassium
- KOH is used to make potassium phosphate and soft soap
- Potassium compound are used as fertilizers for plants KCL 90%, K 2SO4 9% and
KNO3 1 %.
d. Rubidium and Cesium digunakan sebagai permukaan peka cahaya dalam sel
fotolistrik yang dapat mengubah cahaya menjadi listrik.
3. Group I element are
a. Univalent: electron valence of an atom is single. It means that all of group I element have
single electron valence
b. Largely ionic : they have 1 electron in valence shell. After losing these electron they form
monovalent cation which has noble gas configuration. So energetically not favored hence
exist as monovalent cation only .
c. Strong reducing agent: group I metals very stable on warming. So, alkali metals cant
produced from its oxidizing through the heating process. And its easy to release the
electron in the outer.
d. Poor complexion agent: the size of group I are too large, the electropositive and less lean
look like acid base lewis
e. Lowest first ionization:
4. The boiling point and the melting point of group I metals are low because the effect of
cohesive energy. If cohesive energy is low, so the boiling and melting point it so. Cohesive
energy is the energy that holding atoms or ions to gather with padatan. Opposite with
enthalpy atomization (energy that needed to break padatan become gas atoms). Cohesive
energy of group I A its about cohesive energy of group II A 1/3 cohesive energy of group
III A. cohesive energy is determine the hardness of each group. Cohesive energy depend on
sum of electron that give participation in bond and depend on bond strength that formed and
atom size also the characteristic of electron distribution on outer bonding. Size of lithium to
cesium are larges. So cohesive energy is down and it makes the metal become soft.
5. Ion terhidrasi in the solution. Ion Li + berukuran paling kecil maka terhidrasi paling kuat,
akibatnya jari-jari ion terhidrasinya semakin besar, dan ini menyebabkan pergerakannya
menjadi lambat. Sebaliknya ion Cs + yang berukuran paling besar, terhidrasi paling sedikit,
jari-jari ion terhidrasinya lebih kecil, maka pergerakannya menjadi lebih cepat dan daya
hantar arus listriknya menjadi lebih besar.