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# Title :

Rectification

Abstract:

PERFORMED.

## The process of CLIPPING a SIGNAL or WAVEFORM such that either

the positive or negative portion of it is completely eliminated..

## Types of rectification are shown below:

• half-wave, in which only the positive or negative portions of the signal
remain;
• full-wave, in which either positive or negative portions are inverted so
that the entire signal has the same polarity
The experiment was performed successfully and calculated result
was up to standard.

Abstract:........................................................................................i
1. Introduction..............................................................................1
1.1. Background...........................................................................1
1.2. Objectives..............................................................................1
1.3. Theory.................................................................................1
2. Apparatus...............................................................................2
3. Procedure
4. Results.....................................................................................3
5. Conclusions..............................................................................3
6. References...............................................................................3

Introduction :

Background:
The process of CLIPPING a SIGNAL or WAVEFORM such that either the
positive or negative portion of it is completely eliminated..

## Types of rectification are shown below:

• half-wave, in which only the positive or negative portions of the signal
remain;
• full-wave, in which either positive or negative portions are inverted so
that the entire signal has the same polarity.
Rectification can also be done with the help of rectifiers. A
rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current
(AC) to direct current (DC),
Objective :
➢ To study half wave rectifier ckt and find voltage and
frequency by using oscilloscop.
➢ To study full wave rectifier ckt and find voltage and
frequency by using oscilloscop.

Theory :
Half-wave rectification

## In the first half-cycle, the diode is in forward biased and a pulse of

current flows round the circuit.

## In the next half-cycle, the diode is in reverse biased and no

current flows round the circuit..

Full-wave rectification
(i) Centre-tap full-wave rectifier
In the first half-cycle, diode D1 is forward biased, giving a current pulse in
the circuit through the resistor. During this cycle, diode D2 does not conduct
electric current.
In the next half-cycle, diode D2 is forward biased, giving a current pulse in
the circuit through the resistor. During this cycle, diode D1 does not conduct
electric current.
The current through the resistor is in the same direction during both half-
cycles.
(i) Bridge full-wave rectifier

In the first half cycle, diodes D1 and D2 are forward biased, giving a current
pulse in the circuit through R. During this cycle, diodes D3 and D4 do not
conduct electric current.
In the next half-cycle, diodes D3 and D4 are forward biased, giving a current
pulse in the circuit through R. During this cycle, diodes D1 and D2 do not
conduct electric current.
The current through the resistor is in the same direction during both half-
cycles
Apparatus :
1. Oscilloscope
2. Diodes
3. Desistors
4. Voltmeter
Procedure :
First we made circuit diagram of half and full wave rectifier
crcuits on apaper . Then gathered the instruments.
Oscilloscope ,Diodes, Resistors, Voltmeter , Bread
board. Then we connected the diods and resistors
according to the circuit diagrams. Circuit diagram
made on paper are given below.when the circuit is
completed and a.c supply is provided the circuit
convet a.c signals into d.c signals.

## In the first half-cycle, the diode is in forward biased and a pulse of

current flows round the circuit.
In the next half-cycle, the diode is in reverse biased and no
current flows round the circuit..
(i) Bridge full-wave rectifier:

In the first half cycle, diodes D1 and D2 are forward biased, giving a current
pulse in the circuit through R. During this cycle, diodes D3 and D4 do not
conduct electric current.
In the next half-cycle, diodes D3 and D4 are forward biased, giving a current
pulse in the circuit through R. During this cycle, diodes D1 and D2 do not
conduct electric current.
The current through the resistor is in the same direction during both half-
cycles

Result :

## ➢ For half wave:

➢ Vp=2.6*5=13
➢ Vav=Vp/3.14=13/3.14=4.14v
➢ Digtal multimeter value=4.07
➢ Time period=4*5=20msec
➢ Frequency=1/T=1/20*10^3=50Hz
➢ For full wave:
➢ Vp=2.5*5=12.5
➢ Vav=2Vp/3.14=12.5*2/3.14=7.96v
➢ Digtal multimeter value=7.61
➢ Time period=2*5=10msec
➢ Frequency=1/T=1/10*10^3=100Hz

Conclusion:
In Rectification we convert AC signal into DC signal either in half
wave or in full wave form.

## In half wave we only use one diod.

In full wave we either use two diod in simple circuit and four diod
in Bridge circuit.

Reference:
➢ Class lectures
➢ Lab instructions
➢ Electronic devices by floyed.