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Yascarli Luengo

Ghadah Tursun
Yu-Wen Hung
Luisa Castillo Mantilla
Khalid Alkathiri
Manuela Rangel

Barry University

Apple Inc. timeline
Apple Company background
Problems Apple is facing now
1. Apple's China problem
2. Competitors

3.Replace IPod
4.Target market
What Apple should do next
What Apple should not do
1. High price
2.Closed system
Investors /Owners
Environmental analysis
SWOT Analysis
Disruptive innovation
Sustaining Innovation
Brand name
Company image
Customers loyalty
High profit
Safe information
High Price
Short Storage
Distribution network

New product line
High competitive market
Fast technology change
Formulation: Product Market Positioning,
strategies. Product Segments.




Implementation: Recommendations
lessons that other organization can learn from Apple.

Apple Inc. timeline

1976 April 1: Apple Computer Company is founded by Steve Wozniak, Steve Jobs,
and Ron Wayne.
1977 January 3: Apple Computer, Inc. is officially created after the company is
incorporated. Mike Markkula invests $92,000 in Apple, with intent to invest
1985 Steve Jobs leaves Apple after being forced out by the board
1989 Macintosh portable released
1994 First power Macintosh introduced
1997 Steve Jobs returns to Apple as an adviser and eventually takes the CEO once
2001 First IPod introduced
2003 ITunes Store goes live heralding online services
2006 MacBook Pro and new IMac becomes first Apple computers to use Intel chips
2007 First IPhone launch
2010 The IPad touch screen tablet media device launch
2010 - Following years of speculation, Steve Jobs introduces the iPad on January
27, 2010. The device resembles a larger-sized iPhone with a 9.7-inch multi-touch
screen, aluminum anybody, and thin bezels. Apple's iOS device lineup hereafter
consists of the iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch.

2011 - Apple become the world's most valuable publicly traded company, with a
market cap exceeding $337 billion. Apple remains the world's most valuable
company today, nearly five years later, despite briefly trading places with Google
parent company Alphabet in early February.
2011 - Steve Jobs passes away on October 5, 2011, one day after Apple introduced
the iPhone 4S and Siri..
2012 - Apple Maps launches on iOS 6 too much criticism, leading to a public
apology from Tim Cook.
2014 - Tim Cook introduces the Apple Watch on September 9, 2014, as the
company's first wearable device.
2014 - Apple Pay launches in the United States on October 20, 2014.
2015 - Apple Music, the company's first subscription-based streaming music service.
Apple Music is compatible with iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, Mac, PC, Apple TV, and
Android. The service competes directly with Spotify, Google Play Music, Tidal, and
other streaming music platforms.
2016 Sep Apple announced IPhone 7

Apple Company background

Apple started in 1976 as a computer company. In the last ten years, Apple has
expanded into a big organization. In 2001, Apple launched the iPod, becoming the
dominant market leader in music players. As well, Apple joined the phone industry
in 2007 with the iPhone, which has also been widely successful in all over the world.
Apple is a consumer friendly company, the company's core value in to understand
customers. The company is giving the best personal computing and music
experience to consumers through its innovative hardware, software, and services.
The company's business strategy used its unique ability, through the design and
development of its own operating system, hardware, and many software
applications and technologies, in order to build loyal customers.
Apple also provides consumers an ease-of-use seamless integration and innovative
experience by using their products

Problems Apple is facing now

1. Apple's China problem
China government has announced that they are building their own Linux-based
processor to reduce reliance on Apple's computers. The Chinese markets are going
to shrink.

2. Competitors

Other companies in the same industries. For example, Samsung is the only
companies are able to crack the code of beating Apple's products and design.

3.Replace IPod
Apple is letting the iPhone cannibalize iPod sales. People are using IPhone to listen
and download music now, Apple has to come out with other products to replace
IPod, and otherwise, the IPod sales will not generate enough revenue.

4.Target market

Apple has been focus on updated IPad, IPhone and MacBook Pro, they left out the
Pro user, if there is no update for Pro, it might drive away the loyal Pro users

What Apple should do next

1. Help the environment
Apple's recycling system allowed the company to reuse the components from
discarded phones.
2. Apple should go into search
Apple should build their own search engine, although it is going to take a long time
to catch up with Google, however, the Apple search engine can help with the map
and Siri will have more data to help the consumers.
3. Alliance
One of Apple's philosophy is to acquire small companies in order to integrate their
products, Apple also should get an ally to compete with the competitors in the
industry so that Apple can still making a good profit in such intensive industry.

What Apple should not do

1. High price
Apple's products are setting the high price, not anyone can afford it.
If they can reduce the price, more and more people are able to buy products from
them, it will burst the sales as well.

2.Closed system

Apple is using IOS system, which is not compatible with other systems. For example,
Android. In order to maximize the user for Apple and build a more convenient
platform for all the users, they should develop the system, which is compatible with
other systems.


Apple considers customers a high-value stakeholder reflecting on apple corporate
social responsibility. Customers can be individual or organizational using apple
products. Customers higher priority is the quality which Apple always provide. Apple
has a high price comparing to its competitors. However, customers accepting the
high price giving the quality Apple provide.


Apple considers employees sound on the list of stakeholders after the customers.
The main objective to the employee is career development. Employees at Apple are
very important stakeholder because of the company strategy and focus on
innovation and product development. AS of December 2015 Apple employee more
than 76.000 people in the US alone. Also, Apple created and supported around 1.9
million jobs worldwide.

Investors /Owners
Apple successfully satisfied the investors as a stakeholder by maximizing the return
on the investment and keep a strong financial stand as we all know Apple is the
most profitable companies in the world with a Total revenue of $182.8 billion dollars.
Also, Apple avoided debt and have a large amount of liquidity on hand. All of these
factors will satisfy the investors as a stakeholder.


Apple relays highly on suppliers and demand from their high standard for all goods
and services. Additionally, suppliers mostly obey all Apple standards and regulations
to ensure a high-quality product and a safe investment to suppliers workers. Apple

suppliers understand the business environment and the fast-paced competitive


Apple compete in a highly competitive market with many players and any action
from any of the players can affect the whole industry. For example, the oil spill by
BP affected the entire industry not only BP and that could happen to any industry.


Apple has a good relationship with the local community and always trying to get the
locals support and approval. After all the community is a very important stakeholder
to Apple since they are Apple employees and customers and without them, Apple
cant operate in that area.

Environmental analysis
Apple is one of the world's most noticeable and recognizable consumer electronic
brands. Apple's achievement is connected to the company's adequacy intending to
external factors in its macro-environment. The company's success is a consequence
of different strategies made to invest in the opportunities and preserves business
from threats. These factors show opportunities or threats that impact the business.
The efficacy in presenting these external factors guarantees that Apple stays strong
despite different competitors in the global market. Apple for a long time has been
an investor most favorite due to its high revenue and return on the venture. Despite
the fact that it began as a traditional computer company, Apple now manufactures
and designs a wide diversity of electronic devices, such as tablets, watches,
television sets and music players.
Political factor gives a strong impact on Apple making decisions and process as they
have built up numerous companies everywhere throughout the world. Nonetheless,
Apple couldnt hold the political factors. Since 2007 until 2009 it is accounted for
that more than a half of sales of their products originates from nations other than
America. To minimize their operating cost Apple likewise spread their products
manufacturing to various companies outside of America countries like Ireland,
Czech Republic, Cork China, Korea and other states where Apple locate their
company. if any of these countries struggle with political issues or any other
problems which affect the manufacturing in delaying with operations, will impact
the company's reputation. Moreover, instable international relation like wars,
terrorism and health issues will also impact the company image and business
process. For instance, when there are political issues between the US to states
where Apple operates their business, a business deferral could happen and thus the
reputation of Apple could turn out to be awful to its clients and retailers.
The global economic condition is additionally getting to be one of the factors that
impact Apple business process as this company is perceived internationally. The
three integral economic factors that Apple noticed which are currency, inflation and
recession. For instance, in an inflation period in the U.S., the power of purchasing
products of the customers will decrease and sales of Apple's products in U.S. will
likewise diminish. As U.S. dollar has lost in quality, to minimize the impact of

inflation Apple Corporation has obtained itself a foreign currency. By doing as such
the income of their products in the worldwide business sector will increment. Apple
as already goes global the U.S. bad economy condition, which takes an extended
time to recover contrast with another country won't be an issue any longer.
These days technology's business sector gets to be more extensive, along these
lines meaning the contenders of Apple will likewise rise. The competition
additionally gets harder as the innovation of the technology developed and changed
much quicker. Subsequently, all of the technology has a short lifetime. That is the
reason Apple needs to overhaul their products all the more regularly so they will
exceed their competitors effectively. For this situation, Apple will contribute a
considerable measure of their money to the Research and Product Development.
One of the cases is that Apple introduces its own brand operating framework, which
expands its production cost, and otherwise Dell as its competitor uses Microsoft's
operating framework in all of its products. That is the reason outside technological
factor will likewise help Apple to arrange their new objectives to compete their
competitors. The greatest development in customer spending in coming decades
will be in places of the world, for example, Africa where individuals are new to Apple
products. Customers in those business sectors and more youthful individuals in
Apple's built up business sectors, for example, the United States, do not have the
compelling enthusiastic connection to Apple products that drive sales. There is a
reaction against costly and stylish items among a few clients in the United States
and Europe. Moral worries about Apple's manufacturing in China could confine its
products' allure among socially-cognizant consumers. Apple's nearby relationship
with China could affront some potential customers in different districts, for example,
North America, and Europe, especially if strains with China rise. Apple's music
promoting system has made hatred and prompted open feedback from real
recording stars that could discolor the brand's reputation.
One of the main factors is the environmental, which has a potential Impact on
Apple. The greatest environmental issue confronting Apple is the disposal of utilized
or non-working electronic gadgets. The cost of disposing devices, especially those
containing lithium batteries, could be high. Apple could be compelled to expect that
cost on account of worries about such devices in landfills. Contamination and other
environmental reactions from assembling offices and manufacturing in China are a
developing concern. This could prompt have expanded regulation and higher
manufacturing costs sooner or later. China's endeavors to cut greenhouse gasses
and limit fossil fuel use could build electricity rates and manufacturing costs for
Apple in that nation. Environmental change made by global warming temperature
could disturb transoceanic delivery and Apple's store network. Worry about vitality
use and opposite impacts from data centers could prompt expanded regulation and
expenses. Apple is profoundly helpless against increments in electricity costs in
view of its reliance on data centers and another Internet infrastructure.
Legal factor also has an integral Impact on Apple. Apple has as of late entered the
profoundly directed financial services division by means of Apple Pay. This could
expand the level of regulation and government oversight it faces. By offering
financial services, Apple could confront expanded levels of litigation. News reports
show that Apple is planning to enter another exceptionally regulated division: car

manufacturing. Entering the auto business could expand regulatory, protection and
litigation costs at Apple. Apple relies on upon a diversity of products secured by
protected intellectual laws, for example, music and software, for quite a bit of its
income. This leaves the organization exceedingly powerless against both robbery
and litigation. Apple's political issues are not simply restricted to abroad infect.
Apple is confronting legitimate stress locally too. Earlier year, it reestablished
imports of some of its parts utilized as a part of iPhone whichever prior banned by
US government. America's toughing work and environmental laws are additionally
making it hard to contend in profoundly aggressive environment.
The five elements in this model are: Supplier Power: it suits all the supply of inputs
that are required to give products or services. it shows how many, and who is the
supplier of the organization and what is the quality of supplier and changing to the
various supplier will cost more, as Apple's fundamental supplier of chips are Intel.
Purchase Power: It is the effect the buyers have on an organization when purchaser
force is solid the relationship of the organization is called monopsony in the financial
specialist term. At the point when there are numerous suppliers and one purchaser
then the purchaser set the cost. Apple has numerous contenders they offer their
items less in cost than apple, the purchaser danger for Apple is high.
The threat of new Entrant: Competition is high and each association needs too
various it business so it is less demanding for organizations to enter a new market.
Apple is electronic association it as of now has numerous contenders around so the
risk of the new contestant is high for Apple.
The threat of Substitute: It concentrates on the option items accessible in the
business sector with low cost and better execution. Apple produces music players,
PCs, cell phone and iPad there are numerous different organizations which are
creating same items with lower cost.
Competitive Rivalry: Tt depicts the opposition between the current organizations in
same industry high rivalry result in the margin, weight on offering cost. Apple's
items are higher in cost than its rivals so danger level is high for Apple.
Apple most critical resources and capabilities are Steve Jobs, the CEO, and the
coordinated system of software and hardware that the firm has created and
effectively marketed to determine value. Steve Jobs took Apple back to many
achievement taking after a decrease in pertinence and heads the proceeded with
making of billions of dollars of significant value. While Apple's designer, developers,
and specialists each represent to key assets the capacity of the firm to exploit their
capacities to make their whole hardware and software environment is the
company's key capacity. Taken each separately, the resources just represent
competitive parties. The combination is their key ability that has set up a
manageable and progressing upper hand or more normal execution inside the
Internal analysis of the firm (VRIO)

Value: The value of Apple electronics is numerous. Like the fast and flexibility in the
usages with the high technology, which the customer can carry all in one product.
Rivalry among competing sellers: Apple had an all-around broadened portfolio of
tech-based products; it offers equipment and software which makes an intense
circumstance for Apple to contend universally. The effect of an exceptionally
competitive business sector can be seen in lesser deals development half to 9% in
America, 31% to 4% in Europe, 94% to 27% in Japan. Macintosh is likewise losing it
advanced mobile phone market share,14% decrease in late organization's quarterly
report, Apple iPad development additionally eased back to only 13% when
contrasted with contenders 79%. Positive purpose of Apple is, its product offering is
less, straightforward and easy to understand, so they figure out how to make sales
out of it when contrasted with the contender's one where enough decision is
authorized. Present to confound customers. Apple products had high separation
with contender's products. Additionally, Apple dispersion channel by means of
Amazon and direct outlets is exceptionally solid, helps Apple to deliberately position
their products. Investigating the exceptional competitive environment, it ought to
build its investment more in PC, mobile, and software. Moreover, Imitability: Apple
devices hardly to be imitable, However, there are some products available in the
market which provides similar features. Furthermore, Organization: Apple has
attempted its best to keep up its image name and reputation and furthermore, has
been fruitful in doing so and in this way is it the greatest competitive advantage.
However, its faultless designs and quality are still replicable in the future and along
these Apple ought to exploit applications markets. in any case, as with ITunes which
were the best and simplest music application, some methodology would not work
with iPhone. Thus, Apple holds a large and stable market and it continually needs to
redesign on its strategies and technologies to develop later on. Apple works with
many suppliers around the world and keeps up a profoundly refined supply-chain
management. Apple's purchase responsibilities normally cover its necessities for
periods up to 150 days.

Financial performance
According to the exhibit MC6.1 of the Case, Apple never shows signals of loss, apart
for 1996 when they were close to bankrupt since they had many years of working
without making any kind of profit.
After this, Steve Jobs, one of the funders of the Company, returned to operations
and Apple gets Microsoft archival what represented an investment of 150$ million.
They strived to keep Apple into the Market and finally started to see some profits
after the creation of the iPod in 2001. Since then the Net Income of Apple has shown
considerately improve, especially right after they released iTunes which in
combination with the iPod were a Business-model-innovation since there was
nothing like this in the market what has finally give Apple competitive advantage
over other companies of electronics consumers.
Until these day Apple has shown to be a profitable Company that has an effective
financial performance. They have kept a notable Competitive Advantage over
similar Companies by applying a good strategy based on innovations that cover

most of the consumer needs. In fact, Apple with 55% of the market share in the
smartphones industry makes over 90% the profits of this industry. This means that
the competency such as Microsoft, Samsung, Nokia, among others just produces the
remaining 10% of the profits for this industry.

SWOT Analysis
Disruptive innovation
Because they improve products performance based on the feedback from the
customer, for instance: They have frequent updates into the iOS software and apps
in order to reduce defects faster and satisfy current customers needs.

Sustaining Innovation
Because they evaluate the market niche in order to identify what is being neglected
by the current market offerings.
They plan and create strategies to satisfy future needs such as iwatch, apple pay,
and upper leveled versions of iphones, ipads, and ipods.

Brand name
They created a brand and became on one of the most recognizable companies
around the world in the technology industry.

Up to these days, everybody will recognize the brand by just watch the logo that
represents them.

Company image

Apple has created an image of being one of the most prestigious technology
companies by offering high-quality products that not just look nice but work almost
flawless, which states that their products are very well designed.

Customers loyalty

The fact of being one of the most recognizable companies in the technology
industry, which offers very well elaborated products and good customer service,
makes the clients wanting to come back and always having the expectations of
what new product is Apple going launch.

High profit

By manufacturing such unique and high-class products Apple has keeping going the
cash flow what gives them the opportunity to create new projects to deliver in order
to satisfy future customers needs.

Safe information

Apple has very secure software that will maintain your information safe, the
information will be backed up into iCloud and in case of a robbery or loss of your
iphone, ipad or laptop you are able to remotely delete the information contented
into one of your devices or even track them (in case of iphone) with the Find my
Iphone app.

High Price

Not everyone can afford it

Putting $200 in Perspective: A History of iPod Prices article states, that apple has
drastic price changes in short period of times which were not against the law but
that did not mean that it is ok for them to do it.
So, they recommend to give a special mention or give a special application for those
who bought the product prior the price drop.

Short Storage

Many customers complain about a low storage for iphone or ipod and how they
have to get rid of information, data, pictures, videos, etc. in order to keep saving
new data into their product.
Besides that, the noticed variability in the prices when you will acquire a product
with a high storage capability.
Because of these, people might like to change to a product that you can expand the
memory if it is necessary, even when the information will not be as safe.


Distribution network

A short number of stores and authorized customer service.

In the State of Florida, US there are only 8 apple stores which minimize the access
to customers. Besides that, even though you may purchase Apple products in some
other stores, the customer service regarding technical difficulties or failures that
those products could present have to be handled by the Genius Bar located only in
the Apple Stores in order to have validated warranty for the service.

New product line

By applying disruptive innovation, Apple has developed a very changeable and

evolving line of production.
Also, has been known that they might design and release a new electric car and
according to with some interviews they mention that it was possible for them to
create an electric car because an electrical car was a computer with wheels but
right now that was not under the scope of Apples production.
These will be an opportunity for them to develop a new product, directed to an
exclusive target market.
Besides that, it is probably that Apple will release now an iRing which will be a
wearable computer with camera, touch screen, gesture sensor, voice recognition
software among other characteristics which might bring them an opportunity to be
the first company that manufactures this kind of product and therefore maintain
their competitive advantage in the market.
Market share growth
These last days, the news have delivered several reports regarding battery issues
with the new Samsung Note 7 which have blown up and cause several damages to
owners properties. For instance: A Florida father has been left devastated after his
brand new Samsung Galaxy Note 7 burst into flames and torched his family car.
Samsung has invited Samsung Note 7s owners to turn off their cellphones and
change them in any Samsung store.
This event opens a big opportunity to Apple since the consumers that have
Samsung will lose confidence in the product and is very likely that they will switch
to a more trusted company like Apple.


Part of the philosophy of Apple is acquiring small companies to integrate them into
new projects. Apple has acquired up to 70 companies either to develop new projects
or enhance already existing products. These acquisitions helped to developed
software and apps such as iOS, Siri, App Store, Touch ID, among others.


These represent a big opportunity because by acquiring these companies Apple will
get the exclusivity of the services, ideas and products that those companies were
previously offering to all the market.

High competitive market

As the market has growth all the technology companies are always looking forward
to enhancing all the products that will meet the consumer needs and wants. Even
Though Apple is identified as being a manufacturer of high quality and exclusive
products the competitors are always looking for a way to go past them, for instance:
In 2015 Microsoft built a tablet with unique characteristics such as a magnetic pen
with an eraser and detachable and very light keyboard, and they also made a laptop
with a detachable screen that can flip and you will be able to use it as a tablet.
Characteristics that are not found in any apple products what might lead consumer
towards Microsoft products.

Fast technology change

Technology evolves daily what makes the Companies developers and designers to
always keep analyzing what is going to be the next step that they have to take in
order to maintain the brand in the market.
Increasing alternative on the market

Business-level (product market positioning)
The target market of Apple is directed to College and University Students, Business
People, Adults, teenagers and even young children and kids. Whom use their
products because of light wait, business quality, communication skills and
documents sharing.
So, Apple have to lead its product market positioning towards all of those
characteristics that make apples products unique and efficient.
Steve Jobs wanted to put a ding in the universe making a difference by
delivering products and services people love. In order to this continues happening
the designers and developers have to keep applying sustaining and disruptive
innovations so they will keep not only fulfilling actual needs of the consumers, but
gives them new products that will satisfy future needs.
Apple will require tradeoffs; so, managers have focus their attention on adding
value to the product through its unique features that respond to customer
preferences, customer service during and after the sale, or effective marketing that
communicates the value of the products features. In this case, we think that
managers have to add value to the product through its unique features since is
what makes apples products superior to others.

Corporate-level Diversification and International strategies

Apple applies product-market diversification corporate strategy since they are
active in several different product markets and several different countries. They
have shops in 120 countries around the world and sell products such as:
smartphones, iPods, tablets and desktops.
Also they work under related-constrained diversification since they derived less than
70 percent of its revenues from a single business activity, which is the iPhone and
obtains revenues from other lines of business related to the primary business
activity. Executives engage in such a new business opportunity only when they can
leverage their existing competencies and resources.
We consider that the diversification in Apple has been effectively applied because
by this they are motivated to grow and reduces risk because if the sales of one of
the products that the company manufactures drops it might be compensated by
higher performance in another product.
International Strategies
We think that Apple implemented effective international strategies, that have allow
the company leverages its home-based core competency by moving into foreign
They have increase their business by opening several shops around the world what
have allows Apple to extend their product and services and permitting to more
consumer to live an Apple experience.

Products Segments
Apple has several products that make part of the product line such as: iPod, iPhone,
iPad, MacBook, I Watch, Apple TV, and several softwares. Being the iPhone the
most valuable companys stock with a 53% market share.


Apple now has $147 billion in cash and they should invest and make more
wisely usage of the cash.
Franchising stores to serve customers more efficiently and reduce the cost.
Apple should inject new products to be ahead of the competitors.
Targeting new demographic market by introducing low cost devices.

Lessons that other

learn from Apple.



Apple is clearly the most valuable company of all time and has been successful
because its powerful competitive strategy with the constant innovation in their
products, services, and business models.
With the pass of the years, Apple has been adopting a differentiation strategy in
which marketing and innovation are the principal steps the company has to follow.
Releasing new products and making changing to the old ones, always thinking on
what customers want to find on their products, is the core of their business, as well
as making processes easier. Differentiation strategy has help Apple to distinguish
their products from those of their competitors; the company has always successfully

used product differentiation to separate its products from those of other electronics
As it says in the Apple case, a good strategy is more than a good logo or slogan of a
company, its not just being recognized as a big brand; a good strategy defines the
competitive challenges and how to deal with them and furthermore implementing
them through the actions. Thats why organizations can learn a lot about Apples
case because this company is an example of a really successful development due to
its good strategy that needs to have three principal elements:
A diagnosis of the competitive challenge: This element of a good strategy consists
of making a diagnosis (as the name says), in which the company has to find and
identify the competitive challenge being streamlining. The company has to look and
analyze what is the core and competitive advantage of the business and focus on
that. Its better not to focus on many things and have good results in all of them,
then focusing on fewer things and having excellent results, thats why the diagnosis
is really important, because, through it, the companies find out what is their
strategic focus.
A guiding policy to address the competitive challenge: This element is necessary for
the company in order to know what it has to do to gain the competitive challenge.
When a company sees what is happening in the market and what the other
companies are offering and came out with something totally innovative, its going to
disrupt the market and thats what all the companies should seek. All the
companies when having an excellent competitive advantage could disrupt other
business industries just by being innovative and using differentiation.
A set of coherent actions to implement the firms guiding policy: This is the third
element that has to be developed by all the companies when they already have
their competitive challenge and now how to apply it. A good strategy doesnt work
when its just on the paper, it has to be implemented. Being innovative in products
its a competitive advantage most of the companies should take, but this has to be
set out in addition to the business model innovations, that way the result would be
better helping to create a string of competitive advantages.
This coherent actions have to be well performed day by day, but something that
companies have to have constantly in their mind is that Past performance its no
guarantee of future performance this means that if a company today has an
innovative product and is really successful, this doesnt mean that in the future this
product is going to have the same results. Thats why it has to be a constant
There are many aspects and lessons that other organizations can learn from Apple
and from the case specifically, but a good strategy its always going to be one of the
keys to a successful business, thats why if companies follow the three elements of
a good strategy they would have excellent results. Even though the elements state
on the case are indubitably useful, organizations have to have in mind that a
strategy doesn't work and last forever, thats why they have to be in constant
development and innovation in order to be valuable thru the years.