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Original Title: Vibrations of Thick Cylindrical Structures

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Governing Equations

This chapter develops the governing equations of motion for a homogeneous

isotropic elastic solid, using the linear three-dimensional theory of elasticity in cylindrical coordinates. At first, classical relationships between stress,

strain, and displacement are reviewed and implemented into the dynamic

equilibrium equations. The mathematical representations of the linear theory of elasticity derived in this chapter will set the stage for the development

of the required governing equations for the possible modes of vibrations in

cylindrical structures with any thickness.

rr

zz

zz

rr

z

FIGURE 2.1. Direct Stresses in Cylindrical Coordinates.

in most classical text books on advanced mechanics of materials and the

theory of elasticity. In particular, references such as (Ford and Alexander

1963) and (Mal and Singh 1991) can provide the best extensive reviews

H.R. Hamidzadeh, R.N. Jazar, Vibrations of Thick Cylindrical Structures

DOI 10.1007/978-0-387-75591-5_2, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

16

2. Governing Equations

r +

r +

zr +

rr

zr

z

z

r

r

r

rr +

rr

r

r

r

r

of stress, strain, and displacement in cylindrical coordinates. The following sections provide a succinct review of essential topics needed for the

establishment of the governing elasto-dynamic equations.

A three dimensional state of stress in an infinitesimal cylindrical element

is shown in the following three figures. Figure 2.1 depicts such an element

with direct stresses, dimensions, and directions of the cylindrical coordinate. Figure 2.2 represents the direct and shear stresses in the radial and

transverse directions (r and ), and the variation of direct and shear stresses

in these two directions. Figure 2.3 shows direct and shear stresses associated with the planes perpendicular to the r and z directions, as well as

their variations along these directions.

In the above graphical representations the changes in direct and shear

stresses are given by considering the first order infinitesimal term used in

Taylor series approximation. The series approximation has been truncated

after the second term. Further terms within the series representation contain terms of an infinitesimal length squared. Assuming that the second

2. Governing Equations

zz +

rr

17

zz

z

z

z

zr + zr r

r

Fr

z +

z

r r

z

rr +

rr

r

r

r

FIGURE 2.3. Stresses in the plane perpendicular to r and z direction.

order terms are very small, they can be neglected. Therefore, the change

in stress across the element is considered very small.

Utilizing Newtons second law and the graphical representation of the state

of stress, the equilibrium equations for an infinitesimal element in a cylindrical coordinates will be developed. By examining the state of stress on

the element shown in section 2.1, the following equilibrium equation in the

r direction is given.

rr

r

rr +

r (r + r) z + r +

rz cos

r

rz

r

+ rz +

z

r+

r + Fr rz

z

2

r

= rr rz + r rz cos

+ rz r +

r +

2

2

+ +

rz sin

+ rz sin

(2.1)

2

2

18

2. Governing Equations

Canceling appropriate terms from both sides of the equation and after

simplifying, it yields:

rr

1 r

rz

rr

+

+

+

+ Fr = 0

r

r

z

r

(2.2)

1

z

2

r

+

+

+ r + F = 0

r

r

z

r

(2.3)

rz

1 z

zz

1

+

+

+ rz + Fz = 0

r

r

z

r

(2.4)

approximations were used:

cos

1

2

sin

2

2

(2.5)

In addition to the stresses, body forces acting throughout the element have

been considered for each direction. These are denoted by Fr , F , and Fz

which are introduced as forces in the r, , and z direction per unit of

volume. Due to the cancellation of the moments about each of the three

perpendicular axes, the relations among the six shear stress components

are presented by the following three equations:

r = r

z = z

zr = rz

(2.6)

Therefore, the stress at any point in the cylinder may be accurately described by three direct stresses and three shear stresses.

The constitutive relation between stresses and strains for a homogeneous

and isotropic material can be expressed by Hookes law. By definition, a

homogeneous and isotropic material has the same properties in all directions. From this, the following three equations for direct strain in terms of

stress are presented:

err E

e E

ezz E

= rr ( + zz )

= (zz + )

= zz ( rr + )

(2.7)

(2.8)

(2.9)

2. Governing Equations

19

where err , e , and ezz are the direct strain in the r, , and z directions

respectively; E is the Youngs modulus or the modulus of elasticity; and

is a proportionality factor called Poissons ratio.

The other three Hookes law relations result from the following proportionality between shear stresses and shear strains:

r

rz

z

= Ger

= Gerz

= Gez

(2.10)

(2.11)

(2.12)

shear strain along z and perpendicular to r; ez is the shear strain along

z and perpendicular to ; and G is the shear modulus or the modulus of

rigidity.

Through the general definition of shear stress and strain, the relationship

between shear modulus, Youngs modulus, and Poissons ratio is given as:

G=

E

2 (1 + )

(2.13)

following equations:

E

(1 2) (1 + )

= err + e + ezz

(2.14)

(2.15)

Then, a dierent form of Hookes law relating direct stresses and direct

strains can be achieved by adding the direct strain equations (2.7)-(2.9).

E

= rr + + zz

1 2

(2.16)

+ zz =

rr Eerr

(2.17)

E

rr

Eerr

= rr +

1 2

(2.18)

E

= (1 + ) rr Eerr

1 2

(2.19)

20

2. Governing Equations

from which the direct stress in the radial direction is determined to be:

rr =

E

E

+

err

(1 2) (1 + )

1+

(2.20)

Now using the definitions of the shear modulus and Lames elastic constant,

the direct radial stress is presented as:

rr = + 2Gerr

(2.21)

In a similar procedure, the direct circumferential stress and the direct axial

stress are represented in terms of the volumetric strain, Lames elastic constant, the shear modulus, and the appropriate direct strains are presented

in the following equations.

zz

= + 2Ge

= + 2Gezz

(2.22)

(2.23)

In Figure 2.4, a small element of an elastic homogenous and isotropic

medium is represented in cylindrical coordinates. The element contains the

point A, which represents a given point having the coordinates of (r, , z)

and the point F , an infinitesimal distance away, having the coordinates

(r + r, + , z + z). In this figure, the angle may be measured from

any arbitrary coordinate direction such as x.

A typical small linear deformation of this element is depicted in Figure

2.5 where displacement and the distorted shape of the enlarged element

is outlined. As can be seen, the displacement of point A to A0 is defined

by the three components of ur , u , and uz . Where ur , u , and uz are

the displacements in the radial direction, transverse direction, and axial

direction, respectively.

It should be noted that u is the actual linear displacement along a

circumferential arc. The displacements of the point F to F 0 are (ur + ur ),

(u + u ), and (uz + uz ). Considering a horizontal plane, in Figure 2.6,

the face ACDB of the element previously shown in Figure 2.5 moves to

A0 C 0 D0 B 0 where there is a change in the length of the sides and the angles

are sheared. Angle shearing is resulted by the change of the angle to

( + 4).

2. Governing Equations

z

y

H

F ( r + r , + , z + z )

r

r

z

F1

H

F

uz

A

ur

F'

A'

D'

D1

C1

C'

C

FIGURE 2.5. Element Subjected to Small Deformation.

21

22

2. Governing Equations

D'

B1 B '

u

r

C'

C3

C1

A'

A A

2

D

C2

Upon examining the radial strain at point A and ignoring the eects of

strains in the z direction, the strain in the side AC can be found. If the

distance A0 C 0 is transferred to the line AC by drawing arcs, with center

O, through A0 and C 0 to intersect the line OAC at points A2 and C2 then

the radial strain can be defined as:

err =

A2 C2 AC

AC

(2.24)

Considering the geometry of the Figure 2.6, the above equation can be

written in the following form:

ur

r +

r r

ur

r

=

(2.25)

err =

r

r

In a similar manner, the direct circumferential strain may be defined as:

e =

A0 B 0 AB

AB

(2.26)

where,

AB = r

and

u

.

A B = (r + ur ) +

r

0

(2.27)

is given by u / (r + ur ) which can be approximated by (u / (r)) .

2. Governing Equations

23

strain is given by:

u

ur

e =

+

(2.28)

r

r

The shear strain, er , is represented by the change of the angle BAC.

By drawing A0 C1 parallel to AC, A0 B1 parallel to AB, and continuing line

OA0 to yield point C3 , the following procedures will yield er which is a

rate of change of the line A0 C1 . Notice that A0 C1 is parallel to line AC.

where,

er = C3 A0 C 0 + B1 A0 B 0

(2.29)

C3 A0 C 0 = C1 A0 C 0 C1 A0 C3

(2.30)

and

C1 A0 C3 = AOA0 =

A2 A0

u

=

.

r + ur

r

(2.31)

C1 C 0 =

u

r

r

(2.32)

then,

C1 C 0

u

=

.

AC

r

Therefore, the shear angle C3 A0 C1 can be defined as:

C1 A0 C 0 =

u

r u

u

u

C3 A0 C 0 = r

r

r

r

r

(2.33)

(2.34)

B1 A0 B 0 =

B1 B 0

r

(2.35)

which is the radial displacement of B due to the angle over the initial

length. In partial derivative form this simplifies to:

B1 A0 B 0 =

1 ur

ur

=

r

r

(2.36)

er =

u

u

ur

+

r

r

r

(2.37)

24

2. Governing Equations

H'

G' G

G

z

B'

B1

A'

Considering the z direction, the direct axial strain can be defined similarly to the procedure used in Cartesian coordinates. Recall that the axial

strain is defined as the ratio of the change in length to the original length

of the element in the z direction. Examining the strain in line AF in the z

direction, the direct axial strain is given as:

ezz =

A0z Fz0 Az Fz

Az Fz

(2.38)

z +

ezz =

uz

z z

z

z

(2.39)

ezz =

uz

z

(2.40)

In Figure 2.7 the z plane is shown as viewed from the origin. On the face

ABHG the shear strain ez causes the right angle BAG to be displaced

to B 0 A0 G0 . Note that A0 B1 is parallel to AB and A0 G0 is parallel to AG.

Therefore, the shear strain, ez , is given as:

ez = G1 A0 G0 + B1 A0 B 0

(2.41)

1 u

1 uz

z +

z z

r

(2.42)

u

uz

+

z

r

(2.43)

ez =

and simplifies to:

ez =

2. Governing Equations

25

Finally by examining the (r, z) plane, the shear strain, erz , is defined as:

erz = G1 A0 G0 + C1 A0 C 0

(2.44)

which yields:

erz

ur

uz

z

r

z

=

+ r

z

r

(2.45)

erz =

ur

uz

+

z

r

(2.46)

There are now six strain components given in terms of the cylinder displacements. This completes the development of the required strain-displacement

relationships.

In this section, the stress-displacement relationships are developed by building upon Hookes law and strain displacement relationships. Beginning with

the direct radial stress in terms of strain and substituting the equations for

direct strains, the radial stress in terms of displacement can be presented

as:

ur

u

ur

uz

ur

rr =

+

+

+

+ 2G

(2.47)

r

r

r

z

r

The substituted direct strains are in terms of displacements and the volumetric strain. Similarly, the direct circumferential stress and direct axial

stress, in terms of displacement, may be given as:

zz

ur

u

u

ur

uz

ur

=

+

+

+

+ 2G

+

r

r

r

z

r

r

ur

u

ur

uz

uz

=

+

+

+

+ 2G

r

r

r

z

z

(2.48)

(2.49)

Similarly, the three shear stresses in terms of shear strains are given by

equations (2.10)-(2.12) and the shear strains, in terms of displacement components, are provided by equations (2.37), (2.43), and (2.46). Therefore,

26

2. Governing Equations

r

z

rz

u

u

ur

= G

+

r

r

r

u

uz

= G

+

z

r

ur

uz

= G

+

z

r

(2.50)

(2.51)

(2.52)

In this section, the governing equations of motion in terms of a displacement

vector are generated. The displacement vector is given as:

u = urr + u + uzz

(2.53)

where r , , and z denote unit vectors directed along the (r, , and z) axes,

respectively. Substituting Hookes law equations into the dynamic equilibrium equations and introducing strain-displacement relationships yield the

governing equations of motion:

2 ur

(2.54)

= 2

r

t

2 u

(2.55)

2 u + ( + )

= 2

r

t

2 uz

(2.56)

2 uz + ( + )

= 2

z

t

where is the same as shear modulus G, is the volumetric strain, and the

2 is the three dimensional Laplacian operator in cylindrical coordinates

defined by:

2

2

2

2 = 2 +

(2.57)

+ 2 2+ 2

r

rr r

z

Multiplying equation (2.54) by r , equation (2.55) by , equation (2.56)

by z , and adding these three equations, the vector form of the governing

equation of motion is given by:

2 ur + ( + )

2u

t2

(2.58)

1

=

+

r +

+ z

r r

r

z

(2.59)

2 u + ( + ) ( u) =

2. Governing Equations

A, B, A0 , B 0

e

err , e , ezz

er

erz

ez

E

Fr , F , Fz

G,

r , , z

r

ur , u , uz

u

z

point label

strain

direct strain in r, , z directions

shear strain along and perpendicular to r

shear strain along z and perpendicular to r

shear strain along z and perpendicular to

Youngs modulus

forces in the r, , z directions per unit of volume

shear modulus, modulus of rigidity

unit vectors along the axes r, , z

radial direction

displacements in r, , z directions

displacement vector

axial direction

, G

rr , , zz

r

rz

z

variation

volumetric strain

transverse direction

Lames elastic constant

shear modulus, modulus of rigidity

Poissons ratio

normal stress

direct stress in the r, , z directions

shear stress

shear stress along and perpendicular to r

shear stress along z and perpendicular to r

shear stress along z and perpendicular to

angle

Laplacian operator

gradient

27

http://www.springer.com/978-0-387-75590-8

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