You are on page 1of 14

2

Governing Equations
This chapter develops the governing equations of motion for a homogeneous
isotropic elastic solid, using the linear three-dimensional theory of elasticity in cylindrical coordinates. At first, classical relationships between stress,
strain, and displacement are reviewed and implemented into the dynamic
equilibrium equations. The mathematical representations of the linear theory of elasticity derived in this chapter will set the stage for the development
of the required governing equations for the possible modes of vibrations in
cylindrical structures with any thickness.

rr
zz

zz
rr

z
FIGURE 2.1. Direct Stresses in Cylindrical Coordinates.

A detailed mathematical review of elasto-dynamic problems can be found


in most classical text books on advanced mechanics of materials and the
theory of elasticity. In particular, references such as (Ford and Alexander
1963) and (Mal and Singh 1991) can provide the best extensive reviews
H.R. Hamidzadeh, R.N. Jazar, Vibrations of Thick Cylindrical Structures
DOI 10.1007/978-0-387-75591-5_2, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

16

2. Governing Equations

r +

r +

zr +

rr

zr
z
z

r
r
r
rr +

rr
r
r

r
r

FIGURE 2.2. Stresses in the r and Directions.

of stress, strain, and displacement in cylindrical coordinates. The following sections provide a succinct review of essential topics needed for the
establishment of the governing elasto-dynamic equations.

2.1 State of Stresses at a Point


A three dimensional state of stress in an infinitesimal cylindrical element
is shown in the following three figures. Figure 2.1 depicts such an element
with direct stresses, dimensions, and directions of the cylindrical coordinate. Figure 2.2 represents the direct and shear stresses in the radial and
transverse directions (r and ), and the variation of direct and shear stresses
in these two directions. Figure 2.3 shows direct and shear stresses associated with the planes perpendicular to the r and z directions, as well as
their variations along these directions.
In the above graphical representations the changes in direct and shear
stresses are given by considering the first order infinitesimal term used in
Taylor series approximation. The series approximation has been truncated
after the second term. Further terms within the series representation contain terms of an infinitesimal length squared. Assuming that the second

2. Governing Equations

zz +
rr

17

zz
z
z
z

zr + zr r
r
Fr

z +
z

r r
z

rr +

rr
r
r

r
FIGURE 2.3. Stresses in the plane perpendicular to r and z direction.

order terms are very small, they can be neglected. Therefore, the change
in stress across the element is considered very small.

2.2 Equilibrium Equations in Terms of Stress


Utilizing Newtons second law and the graphical representation of the state
of stress, the equilibrium equations for an infinitesimal element in a cylindrical coordinates will be developed. By examining the state of stress on
the element shown in section 2.1, the following equilibrium equation in the
r direction is given.

rr
r

rr +
r (r + r) z + r +
rz cos
r

rz
r
+ rz +
z
r+
r + Fr rz
z
2

r
= rr rz + r rz cos
+ rz r +
r +
2
2

+ +
rz sin
+ rz sin
(2.1)

2
2

18

2. Governing Equations

Canceling appropriate terms from both sides of the equation and after
simplifying, it yields:
rr
1 r
rz
rr
+
+
+
+ Fr = 0
r
r
z
r

(2.2)

Similarly, the equilibrium equation for the direction yields:


1
z
2
r
+
+
+ r + F = 0
r
r
z
r

(2.3)

and finally, for the z direction one may write:


rz
1 z
zz
1
+
+
+ rz + Fz = 0
r
r
z
r

(2.4)

In the above simplifications, due to very small angle of , the following


approximations were used:
cos

1
2

sin

2
2

(2.5)

In addition to the stresses, body forces acting throughout the element have
been considered for each direction. These are denoted by Fr , F , and Fz
which are introduced as forces in the r, , and z direction per unit of
volume. Due to the cancellation of the moments about each of the three
perpendicular axes, the relations among the six shear stress components
are presented by the following three equations:
r = r

z = z

zr = rz

(2.6)

Therefore, the stress at any point in the cylinder may be accurately described by three direct stresses and three shear stresses.

2.3 Stress-Strains Relationships


The constitutive relation between stresses and strains for a homogeneous
and isotropic material can be expressed by Hookes law. By definition, a
homogeneous and isotropic material has the same properties in all directions. From this, the following three equations for direct strain in terms of
stress are presented:
err E
e E
ezz E

= rr ( + zz )
= (zz + )
= zz ( rr + )

(2.7)
(2.8)
(2.9)

2. Governing Equations

19

where err , e , and ezz are the direct strain in the r, , and z directions
respectively; E is the Youngs modulus or the modulus of elasticity; and
is a proportionality factor called Poissons ratio.
The other three Hookes law relations result from the following proportionality between shear stresses and shear strains:
r
rz
z

= Ger
= Gerz
= Gez

(2.10)
(2.11)
(2.12)

where, er is the shear strain along and perpendicular to r; erz is the


shear strain along z and perpendicular to r; ez is the shear strain along
z and perpendicular to ; and G is the shear modulus or the modulus of
rigidity.
Through the general definition of shear stress and strain, the relationship
between shear modulus, Youngs modulus, and Poissons ratio is given as:
G=

E
2 (1 + )

(2.13)

Lames elastic constant, , and volumetric strain, are introduced by the


following equations:
E
(1 2) (1 + )
= err + e + ezz

(2.14)
(2.15)

Then, a dierent form of Hookes law relating direct stresses and direct
strains can be achieved by adding the direct strain equations (2.7)-(2.9).
E
= rr + + zz
1 2

(2.16)

Rearranging equation (2.7), one may write:


+ zz =

rr Eerr

(2.17)

Now, by substituting equation (2.17) into (2.16) it yields:


E
rr
Eerr
= rr +

1 2

(2.18)

and the result can be arranged as:


E
= (1 + ) rr Eerr
1 2

(2.19)

20

2. Governing Equations

from which the direct stress in the radial direction is determined to be:
rr =

E
E
+
err
(1 2) (1 + )
1+

(2.20)

Now using the definitions of the shear modulus and Lames elastic constant,
the direct radial stress is presented as:
rr = + 2Gerr

(2.21)

In a similar procedure, the direct circumferential stress and the direct axial
stress are represented in terms of the volumetric strain, Lames elastic constant, the shear modulus, and the appropriate direct strains are presented
in the following equations.

zz

= + 2Ge
= + 2Gezz

(2.22)
(2.23)

2.4 Strain-Displacement Relationships


In Figure 2.4, a small element of an elastic homogenous and isotropic
medium is represented in cylindrical coordinates. The element contains the
point A, which represents a given point having the coordinates of (r, , z)
and the point F , an infinitesimal distance away, having the coordinates
(r + r, + , z + z). In this figure, the angle may be measured from
any arbitrary coordinate direction such as x.
A typical small linear deformation of this element is depicted in Figure
2.5 where displacement and the distorted shape of the enlarged element
is outlined. As can be seen, the displacement of point A to A0 is defined
by the three components of ur , u , and uz . Where ur , u , and uz are
the displacements in the radial direction, transverse direction, and axial
direction, respectively.
It should be noted that u is the actual linear displacement along a
circumferential arc. The displacements of the point F to F 0 are (ur + ur ),
(u + u ), and (uz + uz ). Considering a horizontal plane, in Figure 2.6,
the face ACDB of the element previously shown in Figure 2.5 moves to
A0 C 0 D0 B 0 where there is a change in the length of the sides and the angles
are sheared. Angle shearing is resulted by the change of the angle to
( + 4).

2. Governing Equations

z
y
H

F ( r + r , + , z + z )

r
r

FIGURE 2.4. An Element in Cylindrical Coordinates.

z
F1

H
F

uz

A
ur

F'

A'

D'
D1
C1

C'

C
FIGURE 2.5. Element Subjected to Small Deformation.

21

22

2. Governing Equations

D'
B1 B '

u
r

C'
C3
C1

A'

A A
2
D

C2

FIGURE 2.6. Horizontal Plane of Strained Element.

Upon examining the radial strain at point A and ignoring the eects of
strains in the z direction, the strain in the side AC can be found. If the
distance A0 C 0 is transferred to the line AC by drawing arcs, with center
O, through A0 and C 0 to intersect the line OAC at points A2 and C2 then
the radial strain can be defined as:
err =

A2 C2 AC
AC

(2.24)

Considering the geometry of the Figure 2.6, the above equation can be
written in the following form:

ur
r +
r r
ur
r
=
(2.25)
err =
r
r
In a similar manner, the direct circumferential strain may be defined as:
e =

A0 B 0 AB
AB

(2.26)

where,
AB = r
and

u
.
A B = (r + ur ) +
r
0

(2.27)

In the definition of A0 B 0 , the increase in the angle of the arc of A0 B 0


is given by u / (r + ur ) which can be approximated by (u / (r)) .

2. Governing Equations

23

Therefore, by neglecting the second order terms, the circumferential direct


strain is given by:
u
ur
e =
+
(2.28)
r
r
The shear strain, er , is represented by the change of the angle BAC.
By drawing A0 C1 parallel to AC, A0 B1 parallel to AB, and continuing line
OA0 to yield point C3 , the following procedures will yield er which is a
rate of change of the line A0 C1 . Notice that A0 C1 is parallel to line AC.

where,

er = C3 A0 C 0 + B1 A0 B 0

(2.29)

C3 A0 C 0 = C1 A0 C 0 C1 A0 C3

(2.30)

and
C1 A0 C3 = AOA0 =

A2 A0
u
=
.
r + ur
r

(2.31)

The definition of the length C1 C 0 is:


C1 C 0 =

u
r
r

(2.32)

then,

C1 C 0
u
=
.
AC
r
Therefore, the shear angle C3 A0 C1 can be defined as:
C1 A0 C 0 =

u
r u
u
u

C3 A0 C 0 = r

r
r
r
r

(2.33)

(2.34)

The shear angle B1 A0 B 0 can be defined as:


B1 A0 B 0 =

B1 B 0
r

(2.35)

which is the radial displacement of B due to the angle over the initial
length. In partial derivative form this simplifies to:
B1 A0 B 0 =

1 ur
ur
=
r
r

(2.36)

Therefore, the shear strain er , is given as:


er =

u
u
ur

+
r
r
r

(2.37)

24

2. Governing Equations

H'

G' G

G
z

B'
B1

A'

FIGURE 2.7. The (z, ) Plane of Strained Element.

Considering the z direction, the direct axial strain can be defined similarly to the procedure used in Cartesian coordinates. Recall that the axial
strain is defined as the ratio of the change in length to the original length
of the element in the z direction. Examining the strain in line AF in the z
direction, the direct axial strain is given as:
ezz =

A0z Fz0 Az Fz
Az Fz

(2.38)

which simplifies to:


z +
ezz =

uz
z z
z
z

(2.39)

and finally to:


ezz =

uz
z

(2.40)

In Figure 2.7 the z plane is shown as viewed from the origin. On the face
ABHG the shear strain ez causes the right angle BAG to be displaced
to B 0 A0 G0 . Note that A0 B1 is parallel to AB and A0 G0 is parallel to AG.
Therefore, the shear strain, ez , is given as:
ez = G1 A0 G0 + B1 A0 B 0

(2.41)

1 u
1 uz
z +

z z
r

(2.42)

u
uz
+
z
r

(2.43)

which is equivalent to:


ez =
and simplifies to:
ez =

2. Governing Equations

25

Finally by examining the (r, z) plane, the shear strain, erz , is defined as:
erz = G1 A0 G0 + C1 A0 C 0

(2.44)

which yields:
erz

ur
uz
z
r
z
=
+ r
z
r

(2.45)

and simplifies to:


erz =

ur
uz
+
z
r

(2.46)

There are now six strain components given in terms of the cylinder displacements. This completes the development of the required strain-displacement
relationships.

2.5 Stress-Displacement Relationships


In this section, the stress-displacement relationships are developed by building upon Hookes law and strain displacement relationships. Beginning with
the direct radial stress in terms of strain and substituting the equations for
direct strains, the radial stress in terms of displacement can be presented
as:

ur
u
ur
uz
ur
rr =
+
+
+
+ 2G
(2.47)
r
r
r
z
r
The substituted direct strains are in terms of displacements and the volumetric strain. Similarly, the direct circumferential stress and direct axial
stress, in terms of displacement, may be given as:

zz

ur
u
u
ur
uz
ur
=
+
+
+
+ 2G
+
r
r
r
z
r
r

ur
u
ur
uz
uz
=
+
+
+
+ 2G
r
r
r
z
z

(2.48)
(2.49)

Similarly, the three shear stresses in terms of shear strains are given by
equations (2.10)-(2.12) and the shear strains, in terms of displacement components, are provided by equations (2.37), (2.43), and (2.46). Therefore,

26

2. Governing Equations

these shear stresses are:


r
z
rz

u
u
ur
= G

+
r
r
r

u
uz
= G
+
z
r

ur
uz
= G
+
z
r

(2.50)
(2.51)
(2.52)

2.6 Equations of Motion


In this section, the governing equations of motion in terms of a displacement
vector are generated. The displacement vector is given as:
u = urr + u + uzz

(2.53)

where r , , and z denote unit vectors directed along the (r, , and z) axes,
respectively. Substituting Hookes law equations into the dynamic equilibrium equations and introducing strain-displacement relationships yield the
governing equations of motion:

2 ur
(2.54)
= 2
r
t

2 u
(2.55)
2 u + ( + )
= 2
r
t

2 uz
(2.56)
2 uz + ( + )
= 2
z
t
where is the same as shear modulus G, is the volumetric strain, and the
2 is the three dimensional Laplacian operator in cylindrical coordinates
defined by:
2

2
2
2 = 2 +
(2.57)
+ 2 2+ 2
r
rr r
z
Multiplying equation (2.54) by r , equation (2.55) by , equation (2.56)
by z , and adding these three equations, the vector form of the governing
equation of motion is given by:
2 ur + ( + )

2u
t2

(2.58)

where is the cylindrical gradient:

1
=
+
r +
+ z
r r
r
z

(2.59)

2 u + ( + ) ( u) =

2. Governing Equations

2.7 Key Symbols


A, B, A0 , B 0
e
err , e , ezz
er
erz
ez
E
Fr , F , Fz
G,
r , , z
r
ur , u , uz
u
z

point label
strain
direct strain in r, , z directions
shear strain along and perpendicular to r
shear strain along z and perpendicular to r
shear strain along z and perpendicular to
Youngs modulus
forces in the r, , z directions per unit of volume
shear modulus, modulus of rigidity
unit vectors along the axes r, , z
radial direction
displacements in r, , z directions
displacement vector
axial direction

, G

rr , , zz

r
rz
z

variation
volumetric strain
transverse direction
Lames elastic constant
shear modulus, modulus of rigidity
Poissons ratio
normal stress
direct stress in the r, , z directions
shear stress
shear stress along and perpendicular to r
shear stress along z and perpendicular to r
shear stress along z and perpendicular to

angle
Laplacian operator
gradient

27

http://www.springer.com/978-0-387-75590-8