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8.

1Transmission line, is a metallic conductor system that is used to transfer


electrical energy from one point to another.
8.2Transverse electromagnetic wave, Propagation of electrical along a
transmission line occurs in the form of transverse electromagnetic (TEM)
waves. A wave is an oscillatory motion. The vibration of a particle excites a
similar vibrations in nearby particles. A TEM wave propagates primarily in
the non-conductor (dielectric) that separates the two conductors of a
transmission line. Therefore, a wave travel or propagates itself through a
medium. For a transverse wave, the direction of displacement is
perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
8.3Wave velocity, waves travel at various speeds, depending on the type of
wave and the characteristics of the propagation medium.
8.4Frequency and wavelength, The oscillations of the electromagnetic wave
are periodic and repetitive. Therefore, they are characterized by a
frequency. The rate at which the periodic wave repeats is its frequency.
The distance of one cycle occuring in space is called the wavelength and is
determined from the following fundamental equation:
Distance = velocity X time
(1)
If the time for one cycle is substituted into Equation (1), we get the length
of one cycle, which is called the wavelength and whose symbol is the
Greek lowercase letter lambda ()
= velocity X period
=vXT
And, because
=

v
f

T=

1
f

(2)

8.5Balanced transmission lines, with two-wire balanced lines, both conductors


carry current; one conductor carries signal and the other is the return. The
signal propagating down the wire is measured as the potential difference
between the two wires. A balanced wire pair has the advantage that most
noise interference (sometimes called common-mode voltage) is induced
equally in both wires, producing longitudinal currents that cancel in the
load. The cancelation of common-mode signals is called common-mode
rejection (CMR). Common-mode rejection ratios (CMRR) of 40 dB to 70 dB
are common.
Unbalanced transmission lines. With an unbalanced transmission lines,
one wire is at ground potential, whereas the other wire is at signal
potential. The ground wire may also be the reference for other signalcarrying wires.
8.6Open-wire transmission line, is a two-wire parallel conductor. It consists
simply of two parallel wires, closely spaced and separated by air.
8.7Twin lead transmission line, is another form of two-wire parallel-conductor
transmission line. Twin lead is essentially the same as an open-wire

transmission line exceppt that the spacers between the two conductors
are replaced with a continuous solid dielectric.
8.8Twisted-pair transmission line, is formed by twisting together two insulated
conductors. Pairs are often stranded in units, and the units are then cabled
into cores. The cores are covered with various types of sheaths, depending
on their intended use.
8.9Shielded-cable transmission line, to reduce radiation losses and
interference, parallel two-wire transmission lines are often enclosed in a
conductive metal braid. The braid is connected to ground and acts as a
shield. The braid also prevents signals from radiating beyond its
boundaries and keeps electromagnetic interference from reaching the
signals conductors.

8.10
Shielded cable transmission line is to reduce radiation losses
and interference, parallel two wire transmission lines are often
enclosed in a condutive metal braid.
8.11
Electrical an physical properties of a transmission line.
a. Balance-to-ground, is a measure of the electrical symmetry of a
transmission line with respect to ground potential. A transmission line
maybe unbalanced or balanced. An unbalanced line has one of its two
conductors at ground potential. A balanced transmission line has
neither conductor at ground potential.
b. Characteristic impendance, the two conductors comprising a
transmission line have capacitance between them as well as
inductance due to their length. This combination of series inductance
and shunt capacitance gives a transmission line a property known as
characteristic impendance.
c. Attenuation per unit length, measures how much of the RF signal is lost
per unit length os transmission line. Typically, the attenuation per unit
length has units of dB/100ft. Losses in transmission lines arise from 3
sources: radiation (leakage), dielectric losses, skin effect losses.
d. Velocity factor, is defined simply as the ratio of the actual velocity of
propagation through a given medium to the velocity of prepagation
through free space.
e. Electrical length, is its length measured in wavelengths () and is
related to the frequency of the wave and the velocity with which it
propagates along the transmission line.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

8.12

Physical properties of a transmission line:


Two parallel wires
Coaxial cable
Microstrip line
Optical fiber
Waveguide

Four Primary constants:

a. Resistance, every wire has some specific resistance


according to the type of material used. The transmission line
will also have the loop resistance. Its measured in ohm/km
b. Inductance, provides us the opposition to the flow of
alternating current. Its measured in H/km
c. Capacitance, as the transmission line is made of two
conducting wires and in between these wires the dielectric will
be present in the transmission lines. Its measured in f/km.
d. Conductance, the two wires of the transmission line are
separated from each other with the help of insulating material.
As each insulating material has more or less conductive effect.
Its measured in mho/km
8.13 Characteristic impedance is defined as the impedance seen
looking into an infinitely long line or the impedance seen looking into a
finite length of line that is terminated in a purely resistive load equal to
the characteristic impedance of the line